Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

   Search:  
validated results only / all results

and or

Filtering options: (leave empty for all results)
By author:     
By work:        
By subject:
By additional keyword:       



Results for
Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.


graph

graph

All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
archdeacon/author, theodosius Klein and Wienand (2022) 127, 133, 147, 148
author Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 210, 214, 222
Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 10, 47, 56, 60, 73, 85, 94, 97, 121, 126, 136, 152, 155, 225, 242, 245, 258, 274, 279, 281, 282, 284, 290, 308, 311, 319, 326, 330, 336, 338, 339, 342, 349, 350, 356, 370, 374, 375, 378, 380, 385, 387, 389, 391
Maier and Waldner (2022) 4, 10, 30, 44, 55, 75, 86, 92, 106, 108, 109, 125, 139, 140, 145, 147, 149, 151, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 185
Verhelst and Scheijnens (2022) 70, 71, 81, 82, 125
author's, approach, history-of-religion method in Peppard (2011) 28
author's, methods and presuppositions, modern scholarship on divine sonship Peppard (2011) 28
author, acts of thomas Bremmer (2017) 169
author, aeneas, as Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 71
author, alexandrian, aristeas Honigman (2003) 2, 69
author, alientation of augustus Johnson and Parker (2009) 174, 179, 183
author, allegorical, intention, of Niehoff (2011) 145
author, and audience Pinheiro et al (2015) 119
author, and builder, augustus/octavian, as Pandey (2018) 19, 25, 35, 36, 68, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 91, 93, 108, 109, 110, 119, 121, 122, 125, 160, 163, 165, 167, 173, 183, 199, 201, 203, 205, 214, 223, 241, 245, 248, 249, 251
author, and his audience Verhelst and Scheijnens (2022) 175
author, and vitruvius architect Mueller (2002) 14
author, and, authority, Verhelst and Scheijnens (2022) 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 48
author, argentarius Radicke (2022) 511
author, aristides, christian Motta and Petrucci (2022) 125
author, as a source for roman religion, valerius maximus, our Mueller (2002) 3, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 175, 179, 180
author, as, didascalos, the Jouanna (2018) 189
author, book of judith Gera (2014) 6, 33, 53, 54, 56, 77, 83, 90, 91, 93, 95, 96, 105, 106, 107, 120, 152, 170, 187, 237, 250, 256, 292, 297, 306, 307, 318, 339, 344, 351, 365, 372, 387, 397, 407, 410, 415, 420, 422, 427, 434, 436, 442, 449, 450, 451, 462, 464, 476
author, c. valerius gemellus, soldier, valerius maximus Phang (2001) 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285
author, cato the censor, deeply hellenized roman Feldman (2006) 25
author, death of the Pandey (2018) 18, 19, 20, 25, 244
author, distinction from narrator Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 383
author, epitomator, see also Schwartz (2008) 17, 25, 37
author, from, book, alienation of Johnson and Parker (2009) 174, 179, 181, 183
author, genre, valerius maximus, our Mueller (2002) 6, 8, 9
author, hippolytus Miller and Clay (2019) 274, 277, 282
author, his name, aristeas Honigman (2003) 1, 2
author, homeric Toloni (2022) 19
author, intention, of Niehoff (2011) 45, 139, 142, 143, 144, 151
author, irenaeus of lyons, as Moss (2012) 104, 105, 116, 191
author, irenaeus, as Graham (2022) 12, 14, 16, 107, 120, 121, 170, 182
author, iulius frontinus, sex., senator Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 60, 207, 282, 283, 285, 286, 488
author, jewish, aristeas Honigman (2003) 2, 69
author, job, book of Toloni (2022) 68, 69, 77, 78, 79, 81, 82, 83, 84, 86, 87, 88, 89, 93, 94, 103, 116
author, liturgical Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 446, 447, 449, 450
author, luke, as Graham (2022) 12, 74, 90, 97, 98, 104, 105, 170, 171, 175, 176
author, lysimachus Salvesen et al (2020) 287
author, mary, as Moss (2012) 53
author, matthew, gospel Frey and Levison (2014) 28
author, moses, as Dawson (2001) 236
author, narrator, distinction from Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 383
author, of 1 clement clement Lampe (2003) 21, 78, 79, 89, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 398, 402, 406
author, of 2 maccabees Schwartz (2008) 17, 24, 34, 35, 37, 199
author, of 2 maccabees, confusion of Schwartz (2008) 32, 33, 396, 397, 406, 447, 457, 459
author, of 2 maccabees, educational purpose Schwartz (2008) 287, 288, 291, 301, 501
author, of 2 maccabees, jewish identity Schwartz (2008) 283, 486
author, of 2 maccabees, lack of interest in details of temple cult Schwartz (2008) 46, 47, 48, 189, 204, 235, 260, 264, 484
author, of 2 maccabees, lack of interest in military details Schwartz (2008) 73, 324, 329, 343, 419, 454, 456
author, of 2 maccabees, lack of interest in numbers Schwartz (2008) 231
author, of 2 maccabees, objective of Schwartz (2008) 3, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 72
author, of 2 maccabees, preface Schwartz (2008) 16, 24, 519
author, of 2 maccabees, ptolemaic influence Schwartz (2008) 278, 279, 541, 542, 543
author, of 2 maccabees, reflections of Schwartz (2008) 24
author, of 2 maccabees, sitz im leben Schwartz (2008) 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 66
author, of 2 maccabees, versus epitomator Schwartz (2008) 171
author, of a lost latin treatise on albinus harmonics Motta and Petrucci (2022) 208
author, of a telipinu, hittite king and “constitution, ” Marek (2019) 72, 78, 82
author, of a work against christians, celsus Marek (2019) 497
author, of a work against christians, hierokles Marek (2019) 497, 523, 541
author, of acts of andrew Bremmer (2017) 116
author, of alcinous, middle platonist didasklikos, art of love Sorabji (2000) 279
author, of alcinous, middle platonist didasklikos, disowned emotions show emotion is not judgement Sorabji (2000) 122
author, of alcinous, middle platonist didasklikos, metriopatheia Sorabji (2000) 196
author, of alcinous, middle platonist didasklikos, three kinds of erotic love and three objectives Sorabji (2000) 279
author, of alcinous, middle platonist didasklikos, utility of emotions Sorabji (2000) 191
author, of an εἰσαγωγὴ heraclides µουσική Motta and Petrucci (2022) 189, 190
author, of antivegetarian clodius, orator, teacher of mark antony, tract Sorabji (2000) 327
author, of aristobulus, ps.-aristotle, de mundo Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 139
author, of biography of cicero, tiro, as Keeline (2018) 39, 132, 142, 251
author, of collection of curative sarapis demetrios of phaleron, dreams, ? Renberg (2017) 340, 342
author, of de re aedificatoria, alberti, leon battista Oksanish (2019) 2, 3
author, of dialogues, epictetus, as Howley (2018) 211, 212, 213, 214
author, of didasklikos, alcinous, middle platonist Sorabji (2000) 41, 46
author, of didasklikos, choice of lives, alcinous, middle platonist freedom, responsibility Sorabji (2000) 324
author, of didasklikos, two generic alcinous, middle platonist emotions, pleasure and distress Sorabji (2000) 134
author, of empedoclea, sallustius Wynne (2019) 16
author, of genesis, moses, implied Sider (2001) 125
author, of gospel, john Frey and Levison (2014) 29, 119, 123, 145, 146, 169, 331
author, of history in greek of the jewish war against the romans, attacked by his rival justus of tiberias, historian, josephus Feldman (2006) 209, 210, 332, 472
author, of history in greek of the jewish war against the romans, justus of tiberias Feldman (2006) 24, 316
author, of john apocalypse Huttner (2013) 113, 149, 150, 151, 152, 163, 185, 227
author, of john, seer revelation Rasimus (2009) 272
author, of jordanes romana Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 377
author, of letter of aristeas, identification of Feldman (2006) 139, 140, 141
author, of letters Schwartz (2008) 144
author, of letters, livy, as Keeline (2018) 286
author, of longer recension ps.-orpheus, aristobulus Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 139
author, of marcus aurelius, stoic, roman emperor, meditations, present only of concern Sorabji (2000) 239, 240
author, of marcus aurelius, stoic, roman emperor, meditations, prolongation of life of no value Sorabji (2000) 241
author, of monograph on numantine polybius, war, illustrates tragic treatment Feldman (2006) 347, 348
author, of monograph on numantine polybius, war, influence of on josephus Feldman (2006) 358, 359
author, of monograph on numantine polybius, war, not immune to influence of tragedy Feldman (2006) 416
author, of nature, mercy and judgment of Sider (2001) 63, 73
author, of nature, perfect teacher Sider (2001) 65
author, of on crowns, saturninus, claudius Sider (2001) 125, 130
author, of on demetrius style Amendola (2022) 73
author, of on the psalms Tabbernee (2007) 77, 78
author, of phocian callisthenes, historian, war, illustrates tragic approach in a monograph Feldman (2006) 347
author, of processional song, poet, skilled Griffiths (1975) 9, 188
author, of revelation, john Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149
Maier and Waldner (2022) 7, 41, 43, 44, 45, 46, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59
author, of revelation, john, presbyter and evangelist Marek (2019) 497, 530, 531, 532, 538, 542
author, of sicelica, philistus of syracuse Oksanish (2019) 115, 116
author, of the dialogue between a montanist and an orthodox Tabbernee (2007) 294, 340, 341, 376, 377, 378, 379, 381, 383, 390, 392, 393
author, of the first cyclical epic, kyprias Marek (2019) 476
author, of the hymn, cleanthes, as Wilson (2022) 25, 62, 66, 192
author, of the introduction to divine adrian scriptures Motta and Petrucci (2022) 125
author, of the little labyrinth Tabbernee (2007) 13
author, of the martyrs of lyon Tabbernee (2007) 80, 220, 221
author, of the nile and egypt, logos, logoi, influential Manolaraki (2012) 4, 13, 117, 129, 131, 216, 218, 237, 242, 249, 267, 269, 270, 279, 296, 306, 307, 309
author, of the refutation of all heresies Tabbernee (2007) 73, 74, 78, 109, 110, 111, 119, 274, 358
author, of the song of songs, solomon, in aggadic tradition Lieber (2014) 25, 28
author, of the torah, moses Geljon and Runia (2013) 22, 92, 116, 187
Geljon and Runia (2019) 17, 23, 94, 236
author, of wars of timaeus, pyrrhus, highly rhetorical style of Feldman (2006) 347
author, of work on subjects of tragedy, asclepiades of tragilus, historian Feldman (2006) 414, 415
author, ofo, alexandra, female Liapis and Petrides (2019) 120
author, origen, patristic Joosse (2021) 41, 231, 232
author, orpheus, literary de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 1, 4, 13, 14, 15, 16, 27, 44, 45, 46, 49, 50, 51, 55, 56, 57, 65, 78, 82, 99, 123, 128, 133, 139, 142, 144, 147, 150, 153, 157, 172, 237, 241, 251, 256, 257, 258, 289, 293, 297, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 334, 340, 361, 363, 365, 393, 397
author, pausanias Kowalzig (2007) 104, 109, 123, 135, 136, 139, 140, 142, 143, 144, 149, 152, 157, 161, 164, 165, 166, 171, 174, 179, 180, 182, 183, 199, 209, 219, 220, 221, 276, 307, 363, 373, 377
Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 214, 283
author, perpetua, as Moss (2012) 130, 132, 197
author, personal voice, valerius maximus, our Mueller (2002) 138, 139
author, pherecydes, prose Sider (2001) 125
author, plato, socratic Wardy and Warren (2018) 42, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 79, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93
author, plautus, as notional Richlin (2018) 53
author, previous scholarship on, valerius maximus, our Mueller (2002) 6
author, professed purpose, valerius maximus, our Mueller (2002) 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20
author, pseudo-aristeas Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 109, 112
author, spirit, as Dawson (2001) 236
author, theophilus, jewish Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 156
author, tullius cicero, m., consul Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 60, 227, 278
author, x, tobit Toloni (2022) 4, 5, 8, 9, 10, 17, 27, 28, 31, 43, 45, 46, 48, 50, 51, 56, 59, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 74, 75, 76, 78, 86, 87, 90, 92, 94, 95, 96, 98, 99, 105, 108, 116, 118, 128, 130, 132, 133, 134, 135, 138, 141, 142, 143, 150, 151, 155, 156, 157, 161, 164, 167, 173, 174, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181
author/addressee, natural questions, physical location of Williams (2012) 115, 116
author/compiler, as a woman, luke-acts Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 176
author/playwright, medea, as Bexley (2022) 304, 305, 306, 307
authored, by, dissident christians, burning of books Kraemer (2020) 23
authorities, and fiscal reforms of nehemiah, persian imperial Gordon (2020) 25, 66, 108, 109, 110, 114, 115, 116, 227
authorities, and judean land, roman Gordon (2020) 129, 130
authorities, and religious benefaction, persian imperial Gordon (2020) 99, 115
authorities, and religious benefaction, roman Gordon (2020) 143, 144, 146, 175, 228
authorities, and temple administration, persian imperial Gordon (2020) 22, 23, 95, 96, 98, 109, 110, 111, 114, 115, 116, 129
authorities, angel/s Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 162, 163, 164, 165
authorities, archons, rulers Rasimus (2009) 71, 115, 120, 121, 122, 125, 126, 238, 285
authorities, basil of caesarea, pressures from ecclesiastical Dilley (2019) 49
authorities, bishops, relation to local roman Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 44
authorities, comparison between a king and a monk, a, pressures from ecclesiastical Dilley (2019) 49
authorities, imperial representation, in local Ruiz and Puertas (2021) 146
authorities, in church Huttner (2013) 97, 328
authorities, in mareotis, lake, three legal Taylor (2012) 122, 123
authorities, luke, competence of jewish Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 756, 757, 763
authorities, martyrdom, and role of roman Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 23, 24
authorities, mithras, cult of and rebirth, and favour of Griffiths (1975) 267
authorities, of proxeny decrees, decrees of proxenia, issuing Wilding (2022) 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143
authorities, performances of myth and ritual, also song, imperceptibly imposing new Kowalzig (2007) 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94
authorities, priestly conflicts with other Williamson (2021) 49, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 147, 148, 152, 153, 154, 157, 173, 177
authorities, romans, roman Maier and Waldner (2022) 109
authorities, synagogues, synagogue Goodman (2006) 152
authority Balberg (2017) 12, 214
Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 126, 149, 184, 185, 196, 197, 212, 314, 474
Binder (2012) 83
Blidstein (2017) 151, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173
Bricault and Bonnet (2013) 60, 74, 82, 95, 104, 105, 106, 109, 122
Burton (2009) 54, 176, 177
Czajkowski et al (2020) 3, 80, 85, 90, 167, 169, 196, 198, 199, 202, 203, 230, 236, 244, 280, 335, 488
Edmonds (2004) 12, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 234
Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 73, 97, 100, 137, 145, 244
Gagné (2020) 23, 26, 102, 264, 293, 299, 301, 308, 312, 316, 317, 323, 333, 387, 405, 406, 407
Harrison (2006) 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 122, 132
Hayes (2022) 21
Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 11, 192, 210, 258, 311, 320, 355, 372, 385, 388, 391
Libson (2018) 2, 7, 67, 74, 78, 132, 147, 151
Lynskey (2021) 46, 81, 101, 107, 195, 201, 221, 224, 227, 228, 237, 281
Marincola et al (2021) 132, 134, 135, 140
O, Daly (2020) 233, 234
Penniman (2017) 172, 173, 174, 175, 181, 191, 269, 276
Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 3, 5, 13, 43, 48, 51, 55, 112, 121, 127, 129, 164
Santangelo (2013) 30, 46, 50, 206, 278
Simon-Shushan (2012) 11, 244
Stuckenbruck (2007) 292, 372, 553, 593
Tuori (2016) 4, 11, 23, 27, 29, 42, 53, 61, 70, 91, 99, 108, 113, 120, 128, 137, 144, 145, 173, 181, 182, 190, 217, 230, 238, 250, 255, 262, 279, 281, 295
Vinzent (2013) 2, 6, 15, 16, 29, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 58, 62, 67, 69, 73, 74, 75, 81, 90, 97, 99, 100, 109, 114, 118, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 163, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190
Wilson (2012) 73, 80, 90, 97, 100, 198, 206, 270, 282, 310, 332, 366, 377
Wynne (2019) 268
van , t Westeinde (2021) 68, 90, 115, 117, 138, 144, 145, 152, 153, 163, 185, 186, 187, 205, 237
authority, adoption of new deities, religious Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 310
authority, against competing claims Hayes (2022) 511
authority, ancestral customs, ta religious patria Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 340
authority, and duties, bishops Gray (2021) 8, 121
authority, and roman law, religious Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 44, 45
authority, and, emotional discursive power Mermelstein (2021) 164, 165, 171, 175
authority, and, law, jewish, halakhah Rubenstein (2018) 198, 199
authority, apostolic Lynskey (2021) 81, 107, 201, 221, 224, 227, 228
Černušková (2016) 262
authority, argument from Tsouni (2019) 33
authority, argument from, of antiochus Tsouni (2019) 170
authority, argument from, of plato Tsouni (2019) 8, 34, 43, 46, 48
authority, argument from, of the peripatos Tsouni (2019) 8
authority, argument from, of the ‘ancients’ Tsouni (2019) 33
authority, argument from, of theophrastus Tsouni (2019) 57
authority, aristoxenus Huffman (2019) 145
authority, aristoxenus xxv, on Wolfsdorf (2020) 477, 478
authority, as human legislation Hayes (2022) 80
authority, as unbroken chain from moses, heresy, rabbinic judaism Cohen (2010) 538, 539
authority, associations officials’ Gabrielsen and Paganini (2021) 56, 82, 114, 128, 153, 154, 155, 182, 183, 185, 211, 227, 241, 244
authority, at asclepieion in pergamum, structures of Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 63, 64, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70
authority, auctoritas Edmondson (2008) 28, 29, 37, 66, 103, 142, 186, 219, 224, 226, 228, 245, 246, 272, 273
authority, augustan Pandey (2018) 2, 97, 122, 127, 162, 199, 224, 244
authority, augustine Castagnoli and Ceccarelli (2019) 103, 109, 141, 152, 154, 185, 203, 204, 298, 299
authority, augustus, as legal Xinyue (2022) 68, 69, 86, 87, 104, 105, 106, 107
authority, authority, rabbis, tannaitic literature cases presenting rabbis as figures, range of Cohen (2010) 285, 286, 287, 288, 289
authority, behavior, religious Ando and Ruepke (2006) 103, 104, 105, 109, 112
authority, body Oksanish (2019) 140
authority, calendrical Levine (2005) 287, 392, 457
authority, charismatic and supernatural Simon-Shushan (2012) 133, 135
authority, christ, and Moss (2012) 91, 92, 93, 97
authority, churches, apostolic Černušková (2016) 275
authority, cicero, as source and Howley (2018) 132, 151, 196, 225, 245, 248
authority, communities, religious Ando and Ruepke (2006) 11, 73, 103, 107
authority, conferring strategies xviii Najman (2010) 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 76, 81, 85, 90, 135, 139
authority, conflicts, religious Ando and Ruepke (2006) 34, 103, 104, 109
authority, construction of ritual Stavrianopoulou (2006) 154
authority, conversion, mini-tractate on, bt yevamot, rhetoric of Lavee (2017) 44
authority, day of atonement narrative, and court Cohn (2013) 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 47, 48, 68, 69, 70, 71
authority, decemuiri sacris faciundis Davies (2004) 70
authority, deities, ritual Stavrianopoulou (2006) 133
authority, derived from traditions of roman law, papal Humfress (2007) 211
authority, didactic Motta and Petrucci (2022) 181, 182
authority, disputes with christians over, exegesis as basis for Hayes (2022) 383, 388, 390
authority, divination, and Johnston and Struck (2005) 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226
authority, divine Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 181
Najman (2010) 18, 45, 55, 64, 76, 85, 142
Simon-Shushan (2012) 149
authority, divine agency, religious Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 349, 350
authority, divinely granted, textual Jassen (2014) 22, 28, 29, 31, 57
authority, education, religious Ando and Ruepke (2006) 71
authority, elites, and performance of Fertik (2019) 58
authority, ennius, as Čulík-Baird (2022) 34, 220, 221, 222, 223, 225
authority, epistemology, and humility and epistemological Champion (2022) 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 115, 116
authority, epistolary practices, and abbot’s Champion (2022) 108, 113
authority, establishment of Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 257, 315
authority, exegesis as basis for Hayes (2022) 70, 73, 74
authority, exegetical Erler et al (2021) 132, 147
authority, experts religious, exegetes Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 14, 268, 293, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305
authority, family Huebner (2013) 3, 125, 127, 133, 148, 155, 172
authority, fathers Brule (2003) 115, 122, 135, 136
authority, figures Najman (2010) 63, 66, 74, 85, 139, 140
authority, figures, rabbis, tannaitic literature cases presenting rabbis as Cohen (2010) 283
authority, flouting of Rosen-Zvi (2012) 195, 203
authority, for platonists, plato Wardy and Warren (2018) 184, 186, 187, 189, 190, 192, 193, 195, 196, 197, 198, 200, 201, 276
authority, freedom, religious Ando and Ruepke (2006) 115
authority, hillel’s affinity to stoicism, and midrash as Hayes (2022) 108, 109, 118
authority, historiographical Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 371
authority, holy spirit, and episcopal Yates and Dupont (2020) 193, 194, 209
authority, horsesius, on pastoral Dilley (2019) 5, 6
authority, human vs. divine/scriptural Hayes (2022) 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 80
authority, identity, religious Ando and Ruepke (2006) 97, 127, 132
authority, in 'house', oikos, man's Brule (2003) 79, 172
authority, in antiquity, kraemer, ross, on female Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 223
authority, in dead sea scrolls, textual Jassen (2014) 27, 28, 29, 47, 48, 49, 50, 54, 57, 97, 217
authority, in new testament, pharisees and legal Taylor (2012) 110, 111, 114, 185
authority, in philomela and procne, challenge to male/state/familial Panoussi(2019) 141, 145, 222
authority, in rabbinic texts, textual Jassen (2014) 10, 29, 31, 32, 33, 37, 38, 47, 57, 58, 59
authority, in song, argos, claiming Kowalzig (2007) 130, 131, 158, 159, 160
authority, in the academy, plato Wardy and Warren (2018) 3, 13, 79, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 101
authority, in the de rerum natura, epicurus Bryan (2018) 8, 9, 10, 13, 198, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241
Wardy and Warren (2018) 8, 9, 10, 13, 198, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241
authority, in the hebrew bible, textual Jassen (2014) 24, 250
authority, in the peripatos, aristotle Bryan (2018) 101
Wardy and Warren (2018) 101
authority, inscriptions, power and Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 101, 102
authority, institutional Humfress (2007) 138, 139
authority, interpretive strategies Najman (2010) 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 66, 78, 124, 125, 126, 127, 129, 130, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142
authority, israel antiquities Taylor (2012) 337
Toloni (2022) 116
authority, jesus of nazareth, challenge to pharisee Taylor (2012) 113, 114
authority, lack of Stuckenbruck (2007) 206, 208, 372, 537, 545, 554, 556, 559
authority, lat. auctoritas Tsouni (2019) 32, 33, 34, 35, 46, 58, 59
authority, law codes, sources of Kanarek (2014) 17, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 48
authority, magisterial Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 437, 441, 446, 448, 450
authority, male Brule (2003) 115, 122, 127, 128, 135, 136, 159, 172
authority, mediated through text, ritual Stavrianopoulou (2006) 173, 174, 175, 267, 277, 278
authority, milk Penniman (2017) 174
authority, minorities, religious Ando and Ruepke (2006) 107, 126, 131
authority, misuse judicial of Schiffman (1983) 189
authority, misuse of judicial service, age limits for Schiffman (1983) 30, 31, 32, 33, 34, 35, 36, 37, 40, 56, 59
authority, monuments and inscriptions, religious Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 101, 102
authority, moral claim to Tite (2009) 94, 188, 189
authority, moses, as legal Jassen (2014) 22, 23, 24, 28, 29, 31, 32, 33, 34, 65, 155, 243
authority, mutual constitution of Pandey (2018) 2, 4, 5, 128, 133, 158, 169, 188, 199, 215, 218, 221, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 238, 239, 240, 242, 243, 244, 251
authority, narrators Morrison (2020) 43, 44, 45, 46, 47, 48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 58, 59, 63, 71, 75, 80, 100, 106, 182, 187, 189, 214
authority, new movements, religious Ando and Ruepke (2006) 103, 105
authority, nourishment/nurturance Penniman (2017) 173
authority, observance, religious Ando and Ruepke (2006) 10, 69, 75
authority, of ammianus Davies (2004) 234, 257, 260, 264
authority, of ammianus, and oratio obliqua Davies (2004) 30
authority, of ammianus, deferred Davies (2004) 22, 32
authority, of ammianus, of livy Davies (2004) 48, 49, 51, 53, 55, 60, 129, 275
authority, of ammianus, of tacitus Davies (2004) 145, 153, 179, 190
authority, of ammianus, priestly Davies (2004) 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 136, 138, 190, 255, 256
authority, of ammianus, religious Davies (2004) 141, 189, 193, 234
authority, of apollo Fabian Meinel (2015) 154, 155
authority, of apostles Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 54
authority, of apostles to the Ernst (2009) 250, 251, 254, 257, 273
authority, of athena Fabian Meinel (2015) 154, 155, 156
authority, of augustus Brodd and Reed (2011) 231
authority, of bishops Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 185, 197, 269
authority, of bishops see also church Yates and Dupont (2020) 193, 194, 208, 209
authority, of church Yates and Dupont (2020) 276
authority, of constraints women, on, in dead sea scrolls Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 56
authority, of council Ando and Ruepke (2006) 124
authority, of cult regulations Stavrianopoulou (2006) 153
authority, of culture Sider (2001) 120, 121
authority, of decrees Liddel (2020) 32, 132
authority, of documents Arthur-Montagne DiGiulio and Kuin (2022) 11, 12, 13, 19, 20, 21, 22, 43, 44, 47, 84, 89, 91, 97, 99, 101, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 127, 148, 188, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 197, 199, 200, 201, 203, 204
authority, of epic narrative Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 86
authority, of epicurus, epicureans Bryan (2018) 184, 195, 242, 243, 244
Wardy and Warren (2018) 184, 195, 242, 243, 244
authority, of fathers, family ideology supreme Peppard (2011) 51, 59
authority, of gamliel, r. Simon-Shushan (2012) 69
authority, of god Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 25, 39
authority, of gospels, legal Humfress (2007) 127, 199, 202
authority, of jesus Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 203
Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 12, 61, 69, 78, 80
authority, of mariamne Ernst (2009) 7, 8, 56, 76, 82, 83, 273, 290
authority, of martha Ernst (2009) 8, 49, 55, 56, 64, 93, 94, 112, 257, 258, 270, 271, 273, 274, 283, 284, 288, 289, 290, 300
authority, of men over, marriage Brule (2003) 102, 114, 122, 126, 127, 128, 153
authority, of moses Beyerle and Goff (2022) 29, 30, 31
authority, of mythic tradition Edmonds (2004) 170, 207, 237
authority, of oral law Hayes (2022) 16, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 114, 118
authority, of over woman, man Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 92, 93, 97, 98, 99
authority, of patriarchs, jewish, extent of Kraemer (2020) 162, 178, 179, 181, 359, 360, 361, 362
authority, of paul Ernst (2009) 93, 257
Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 37, 39, 40, 41, 44, 48
authority, of plato, platonists Wardy and Warren (2018) 184, 186, 187, 189, 190, 192, 193, 195, 196, 197, 198, 200, 201, 276
authority, of priests Dignas (2002) 93, 245, 251, 260, 266, 267, 268
authority, of rabbis Balberg (2017) 12, 214
authority, of rabbis as interpreters of halakha, aggada in mishna, establishes Hayes (2022) 486, 509, 516, 517
authority, of religious tradition in performances of myth and ritual, also song Kowalzig (2007) 153, 154, 160, 399
authority, of schesis Černušková (2016) 2, 3, 7, 9, 10, 11, 129, 261, 262, 268
authority, of scripture Hayes (2022) 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 80, 118
Osborne (2001) 165
authority, of scripture, xii Sider (2001) 40, 120
authority, of scripture, γραφή James (2021) 259, 269, 273, 292, 293
authority, of senatus consulta Ando (2013) 155, 158, 160, 161
authority, of the emperor Ando and Ruepke (2006) 111, 131
authority, of the law Ando and Ruepke (2006) 144, 145
authority, of the magistrates Ando and Ruepke (2006) 25, 88, 98, 134, 135
authority, of the old testament Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 146
authority, of the patriarch Binder (2012) 13
authority, of the rabbis Binder (2012) 13
authority, of the romans Binder (2012) 147, 184
authority, of the sage upon conversion, babylonian agenda Lavee (2017) 127, 128
authority, of the sinners Stuckenbruck (2007) 593
authority, of the son of man Stuckenbruck (2007) 735
authority, of the teacher of righteousness Stuckenbruck (2007) 161, 712
authority, of women, in damascus document Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 52, 53, 54, 56
authority, of/for the righteous Stuckenbruck (2007) 199, 223, 224, 230, 286, 315
authority, on architecture, vitruvius Oksanish (2019) 31, 32, 33
authority, oral tora, human vs. divine source of Hayes (2022) 66, 67, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 80
authority, over disposal of plunder, pontifices Rutledge (2012) 45
authority, over eve of adam Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 92, 93, 105
authority, over jewish clerics of patriarchs, jewish Kraemer (2020) 89, 179, 181
authority, over statuary, pontifices Rutledge (2012) 293, 294
authority, over the procedure shifts, conversion court Lavee (2017) 53, 54, 198
authority, over, manumission patrons Perry (2014) 89, 90, 91, 92
authority, over, woman/women Avery Peck et al. (2014) 203
authority, over/suspension of other magistrates, dictator Konrad (2022) 16, 17, 30, 33, 78, 79, 81, 82, 84, 95, 96, 98, 99, 201, 203
authority, parrhesia, παρρησία, and James (2021) 195, 230, 231, 234, 242
authority, paul, as source on Moss (2012) 57, 128
authority, pharisees Hayes (2022) 21, 66, 67, 68, 70, 71, 105
authority, pindar, conception of Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 200, 202, 205
authority, pindar, divine model of Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 181
authority, plato, also platonic, academy, galens attitude to as Singer and van Eijk (2018) 35, 36, 49
authority, plato, his Tsouni (2019) 46
authority, poetic Kirichenko (2022) 59, 60, 61, 70, 71, 72, 73, 88, 89, 90, 91
Pandey (2018) 4, 14, 19, 26, 145, 174, 183, 187, 189, 214, 224, 227, 228, 229, 232, 236, 237, 238, 239
authority, policy, religious Ando and Ruepke (2006) 106, 109, 116, 117, 119
authority, political Joosse (2021) 62, 146, 207
authority, practices, religious Ando and Ruepke (2006) 11, 35, 70, 103, 105, 107
authority, prerogative of god Stuckenbruck (2007) 227
authority, prophetic Jaffee (2001) 23, 24, 25, 26, 32, 61
authority, public Ando and Ruepke (2006) 107
authority, questions, yohanan ben zakkai, r. Simon-Shushan (2012) 115
authority, rabbinic Jaffee (2001) 67, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 93, 94, 95, 96, 98
Simon-Shushan (2012) 114, 244, 251, 253
authority, rabbinic constructions authority, of vs. priestly Hayes (2022) 80
authority, rabbinic constructions authority, of vs. prophetic Hayes (2022) 78, 79, 80
authority, rabbinic constructions authority, of vs. royal Hayes (2022) 572
authority, rabbinic constructions of beyond halakhic Hayes (2022) 512
authority, rabbinic constructions of in mishnaic aggada Hayes (2022) 482, 485, 486, 509
authority, rabbinic constructions of limits of Hayes (2022) 514
authority, rabbinic constructions of transmission from moses at sinai Hayes (2022) 481, 482, 509, 516, 517, 533
authority, rabbinic, and learning Simon-Shushan (2012) 192
authority, rabbinic, and power Simon-Shushan (2012) 192
authority, rabbinic, and stories, etiological Simon-Shushan (2012) 195
authority, rabbinic, calendar court, yavne Simon-Shushan (2012) 185, 186, 259
authority, rabbinic, constructions of classification of laws as biblical or rabbinic Hayes (2022) 488, 489
authority, rabbinic, constructions of in avot Hayes (2022) 516, 517
authority, rabbinic, in practice, and patriarch Hayes (2022) 40, 42
authority, rabbinic, in practice, impact beyond immediate circles Hayes (2022) 47
authority, rabbinic, in practice, material evidence for rabbinic practices Hayes (2022) 24
authority, rabbinic, rational Simon-Shushan (2012) 150
authority, rabbinic, sources of Simon-Shushan (2012) 191
authority, rabbis Simon-Shushan (2012) 135, 251
authority, rabbis, tannaitic literature cases presenting rabbis as figures, geographical scope Cohen (2010) 284, 285
authority, rabbis, tannaitic literature cases presenting rabbis as figures, periodization Cohen (2010) 284
authority, regulation of behaviour, religious Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 102, 327
authority, regulations, religious Ando and Ruepke (2006) 20, 21, 35, 36, 71, 73, 116, 122, 135
authority, religious Ando and Ruepke (2006) 14, 20, 44, 83, 88
authority, revelation, sinaitic, as the source of legal Kanarek (2014) 62, 63, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 166
authority, rewritten scripture, as a marker of Jassen (2014) 27, 28, 29, 49, 50, 62
authority, ritual Stavrianopoulou (2006) 137, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 211, 212, 213, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 298, 302, 303, 304, 305, 307
authority, roman state, challenging male/state/familial Panoussi(2019) 141, 145
authority, sacred law/prescriptions, religious Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 30, 35, 101, 102, 329, 330, 331, 340, 342, 344, 345, 346, 347, 349, 350, 467, 469, 471, 472
authority, scipio africanus, and excessive religious Davies (2004) 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 141
authority, scribal Jaffee (2001) 20, 23, 24, 25, 26, 61, 66, 93, 94, 95, 96
authority, scriptural Jaffee (2001) 24, 25, 26, 51
authority, scripture Najman (2010) 52, 58, 64, 74, 76, 78, 85, 87, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 125, 127, 140, 141, 142
Widdicombe (2000) 54, 55, 155, 169, 177, 178
authority, scripture as source of Hayes (2022) 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 80, 118
authority, scripture, as contested Boulluec (2022) 179, 183, 184, 191, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 255, 538
authority, sects/sectarianism, transition to legal dispute, emergence of individual Cohen (2010) 63, 64
authority, seers/diviners religious, manteis Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 293, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 310, 613
authority, senate, failure of Davies (2004) 192, 204, 205, 206
authority, signs, and divine Gwynne (2004) 25, 66, 113
authority, sinai as basis for Hayes (2022) 16, 118, 488, 489, 509
authority, slaving strategies, trust and Vlassopoulos (2021) 67, 69
authority, songs and music, construction of Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 87, 92, 93
authority, sorcerers/begging priests, religious Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 299, 300, 301
authority, spiritual Humfress (2007) 135
Stuckenbruck (2007) 603
authority, submission to Mueller (2002) 35, 63, 97, 121, 140, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 161
authority, submission to, resistance to Mueller (2002) 149, 164, 165, 166
authority, symbolic Kirichenko (2022) 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32
authority, teaching Najman (2010) 46, 47, 48
authority, testament, horsiesius, on pastoral Dilley (2019) 5, 6
authority, textual Jassen (2014) 20, 21, 22, 27, 28, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252
Joosse (2021) 2, 41, 42, 62, 169, 170, 207, 222
authority, thecla, resisting of male figures of Kraemer (2010) 138
authority, tolerance, religious Ando and Ruepke (2006) 10
authority, traditional Jaffee (2001) 44, 51, 52, 53, 60, 61, 83, 94, 98
authority, traditions, apostolic Černušková (2016) 7
authority, virtue of Tite (2009) 148, 265
authority, vs. prophecy as rabbinic, and written vs. oral texts Hayes (2022) 277, 278
authority, vs. rabbinic, priests, prophecy as Hayes (2022) 78, 79
authority, widows, sons' Brule (2003) 69, 70, 71, 115, 139
authority, writings/teaching, apostolic Černušková (2016) 7, 87
authority, ἐξουσία James (2021) 67, 106, 107, 228, 264, 269
authority, ἐξουσία, as linguistic criterion James (2021) 163, 165
authority, ἐξουσία, charismatic James (2021) 266
authority, ἐξουσία, pedagogical James (2021) 257, 258
authority/authoritative, auctoritas Motta and Petrucci (2022) 1, 7, 14, 91, 181, 182, 191, 192
authorization, by debtor, power of sale Verhagen (2022) 168, 169
authorization, general pledge, dispositions by debtor, implied Verhagen (2022) 299, 300
authorization, of scripture Ward (2022) 66, 67, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 91
authorization, to name magister equitum, dictio, includes Konrad (2022) 102, 103, 104, 134, 135, 205
authorized, by, theodosios i, laws pertaining to jews Kraemer (2020) 56, 129, 130, 131, 139, 143, 144, 145, 146, 284, 313, 345
authorized, by, theodosios ii, laws pertaining to jews Kraemer (2020) 57, 188, 190, 198, 199, 205, 206, 225, 236, 241, 242, 243, 244, 246, 248, 252, 257, 268, 270, 271, 294, 318, 336, 357, 365
authorized/modified, by comitial legislation, iulius caesar, c., dictatorships Konrad (2022) 104, 134, 135, 136, 141, 142, 145, 146
authorizing, entry to shrine, dreams, general Renberg (2017) 386
authorizing, interrex to name dictator, comitia, legislation Konrad (2022) 136, 140, 171, 172
authorizing, praetor to name dictator, comitia, legislation Konrad (2022) 134, 139, 140, 141, 142, 171, 172
authorizing, ver sacrum, comitia, legislation Konrad (2022) 257
authors Beck (2006) 129, 130, 134, 135, 136, 246, 247, 248
Jouanna (2018) 185, 189, 762
authors, abraham, references to in pagan Feldman (2006) 265, 266
authors, apocryphal acts Bremmer (2017) 230
authors, athenaeus, deipnosophists, blurring of voices between speakers and quoted König (2012) 103, 105, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118
authors, authorship, Nasrallah (2019) 249, 254
authors, book, and anxieties by Johnson and Parker (2009) 165, 166
authors, christian/s Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 104, 108
authors, come to truth via faith, and non-christian Hoenig (2018) 165
authors, greek Papadodima (2022) 14, 15, 19, 20, 21, 23, 25
authors, idumea, confused with judea in ancient Udoh (2006) 139, 140
authors, in booklist Johnson and Parker (2009) 235, 236, 239, 241
authors, in the grammar school, grammatical handbooks, prose Bua (2019) 131, 132
authors, jew/jewish, literature/ Levison (2009) 32, 33, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 177, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 219, 220, 221, 226, 229, 230, 231, 232, 233, 234, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 281, 282, 283, 284, 285, 286, 287, 288, 289, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 314, 315, 316, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 327, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 336, 337, 338, 339, 340, 341, 342, 343, 344, 345, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 362, 363, 364, 366, 367, 368, 369, 370, 371, 372, 373, 374, 375, 376, 377, 378, 379, 381, 382, 383, 384, 385, 387, 388, 389, 390, 391, 392, 393, 394, 395, 396, 397, 399, 400, 401, 402, 403, 404, 405, 406, 407, 408, 409, 410, 411, 412, 413, 414, 415, 416, 417, 418, 419, 420, 421, 423, 424, 425
authors, jewish Černušková (2016) 20, 23, 30, 101, 104, 105, 117, 268
authors, jews, history of and greco-roman Udoh (2006) 21, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143
authors, judea, district/region, confused with idumea in ancient Udoh (2006) 139, 140
authors, julio-claudian period dress Radicke (2022) 221, 329, 342, 343, 344, 362, 399, 553
authors, luke’s hermeneutic, familiarity with classical Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 202
authors, luke’s use of classical Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 202
authors, money, and Jouanna (2018) 695
authors, of comedy, booklist, of Johnson and Parker (2009) 241, 242
authors, of curse tablets Stavrianopoulou (2006) 318
authors, of own works, recitation, for living Johnson and Parker (2009) 210, 225
authors, of the past, plutarch, community with the König (2012) 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 331
authors, on gauls and germans, posidonius, on the cimbri, as a source for other Isaac (2004) 413, 414, 417, 422
authors, on gauls and germans, primitive” peoples , human sacrifice offered by, as a source for other Isaac (2004) 413, 414, 417, 422
authors, on marriage ban, christian Phang (2001) 20, 21
authors, on, aeschylus, jewish Gruen (2011) 332, 333
authors, on, physiognomics, christian Isaac (2004) 159
authors, on, sophocles, jewish Gruen (2011) 332, 333
authors, pagan allegory Černušková (2016) 22, 23
authors, power, of artists and Pandey (2018) 4, 5, 20, 80, 187, 216, 221, 222, 223, 227, 228
authors, prison escape topos in ancient Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 113, 201
authors, quoted in inscriptions, latin Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 375, 747, 757
authors, see also writers Papadodima (2022) 14, 21
authors, selling works, plato, on Jouanna (2018) 185
authors, slavonic josephus, dependence on byzantine Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 858, 859
authors, stoicism, stoics, influence on hellenistic jewish Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 140
authors, stoics/stoicism, condemned by greek Yona (2018) 33
authors, theriomorphism, trademark institution of egypt, criticized by Manolaraki (2012) 3, 30, 31, 34, 35, 40, 130, 198, 200, 205
authors, use of ζῷον λογικόν, christian Dürr (2022) 55, 56
authorship, authors, coinage, roman Nasrallah (2019) 120, 151, 159, 201
author’s, relationship with audience deSilva (2022) 13, 14, 15, 37, 86, 87, 159
author’s, relationship with audience, portrayal of paul and apostles deSilva (2022) 15, 16, 150, 151, 161, 165, 166
author’s, relationship with audience, relationship to colossians deSilva (2022) 27, 28, 29, 30
author’s, relationship with audience, style and vocabulary deSilva (2022) 16, 17, 18, 19, 22, 47, 48, 53, 54, 57, 94
author’s, relationship with audience, theological questions deSilva (2022) 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 289, 290, 295, 296, 309, 310
author’s, style, criteria in textual criticism Doble and Kloha (2014) 18, 19, 23, 85, 86, 88, 138, 260, 265, 273
director/author, avenger, similarity to Bexley (2022) 304, 305, 306, 307, 320, 321
god, authority, of Levison (2009) 267
literature/authors, christian Levison (2009) 229, 230, 237, 238, 240, 246, 247, 256, 268, 323, 373, 408, 413, 417, 423

List of validated texts:
232 validated results for "author"
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.1, 1.6-1.8, 4.19, 11.14, 12.12, 12.15, 14.4-14.5 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Author, of 2 maccabees, Educational Purpose • Authority, of the Teacher of Righteousness • Authority, of/For the Righteous • Book of Judith, author • Christian/s, Authors • Homeric, author • Job, Book of, author • Persian imperial authorities, and fiscal reforms of Nehemiah • Persian imperial authorities, and temple administration • Tobit, author x

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 256, 407, 451; Gordon (2020) 109; Schwartz (2008) 291; Stuckenbruck (2007) 315, 712; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 104; Toloni (2022) 4, 5, 8, 10, 19, 27, 50, 56, 69, 70, 71, 72, 75, 76, 86, 87, 92, 94, 95, 99, 105, 132, 133, 150, 180


1.1. The book of the acts of Tobit the son of Tobiel, son of Aiel, son of Aduel, son of Gabael, of the descendants of Asiel and the tribe of Naphtali,
1.6. But I alone went often to Jerusalem for the feasts, as it is ordained for all Israel by an everlasting decree. Taking the first fruits and the tithes of my produce and the first shearings, I would give these to the priests, the sons of Aaron, at the altar. 1.7. of all my produce I would give a tenth to the sons of Levi who ministered at Jerusalem; a second tenth I would sell, and I would go and spend the proceeds each year at Jerusalem; 1.8. the third tenth I would give to those to whom it was my duty, as Deborah my fathers mother had commanded me, for I was left an orphan by my father.
4.19. Bless the Lord God on every occasion; ask him that your ways may be made straight and that all your paths and plans may prosper. For none of the nations has understanding; but the Lord himself gives all good things, and according to his will he humbles whomever he wishes. "So, my son, remember my commands, and do not let them be blotted out of your mind. 1
1.14. Then he saw his son and embraced him, and he wept and said, "Blessed art thou, O God, and blessed is thy name for ever, and blessed are all thy holy angels.
12.12. And so, when you and your daughter-in-law Sarah prayed, I brought a reminder of your prayer before the Holy One; and when you buried the dead, I was likewise present with you.
12.15. I am Raphael, one of the seven holy angels who present the prayers of the saints and enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy One."
14.4. Go to Media, my son, for I fully believe what Jonah the prophet said about Nineveh, that it will be overthrown. But in Media there will be peace for a time. Our brethren will be scattered over the earth from the good land, and Jerusalem will be desolate. The house of God in it will be burned down and will be in ruins for a time. 14.5. But God will again have mercy on them, and bring them back into their land; and they will rebuild the house of God, though it will not be like the former one until the times of the age are completed. After this they will return from the places of their captivity, and will rebuild Jerusalem in splendor. And the house of God will be rebuilt there with a glorious building for all generations for ever, just as the prophets said of it.' '. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.4-6.7, 31.6, 31.9, 31.22, 32.3, 33.2, 33.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Author, of 2 maccabees, Sitz im Leben • Authority • Authority, Interpretive Strategies • Book of Judith, author • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • Oniad authorship • Oniad authorship, background/origin/milieu • Oniad authorship, genealogy (high priestly succession) • Tobit, author x • Writing, Authoritative • authority • authority, prophetic • authority, scribal • authority, scriptural • author’s relationship with audience, theological questions

 Found in books: Brooke et al (2008) 6; Gera (2014) 250; Jaffee (2001) 24; Levison (2009) 421; Libson (2018) 147; Najman (2010) 10, 16, 23, 134; Piotrkowski (2019) 63, 231, 399; Schwartz (2008) 66; Stuckenbruck (2007) 292; Toloni (2022) 4, 71; deSilva (2022) 296


6.4. שְׁמַע יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ יְהוָה אֶחָד׃ 6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃ 6.6. וְהָיוּ הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם עַל־לְבָבֶךָ׃ 6.7. וְשִׁנַּנְתָּם לְבָנֶיךָ וְדִבַּרְתָּ בָּם בְּשִׁבְתְּךָ בְּבֵיתֶךָ וּבְלֶכְתְּךָ בַדֶּרֶךְ וּבְשָׁכְבְּךָ וּבְקוּמֶךָ׃
31.6. חִזְקוּ וְאִמְצוּ אַל־תִּירְאוּ וְאַל־תַּעַרְצוּ מִפְּנֵיהֶם כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא הַהֹלֵךְ עִמָּךְ לֹא יַרְפְּךָ וְלֹא יַעַזְבֶךָּ׃
31.9. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וַיִּתְּנָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי לֵוִי הַנֹּשְׂאִים אֶת־אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהוָה וְאֶל־כָּל־זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
31.22. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיְלַמְּדָהּ אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
32.3. אֵיכָה יִרְדֹּף אֶחָד אֶלֶף וּשְׁנַיִם יָנִיסוּ רְבָבָה אִם־לֹא כִּי־צוּרָם מְכָרָם וַיהוָה הִסְגִּירָם׃
32.3. כִּי שֵׁם יְהוָה אֶקְרָא הָבוּ גֹדֶל לֵאלֹהֵינוּ׃
33.2. וַיֹּאמַר יְהוָה מִסִּינַי בָּא וְזָרַח מִשֵּׂעִיר לָמוֹ הוֹפִיעַ מֵהַר פָּארָן וְאָתָה מֵרִבְבֹת קֹדֶשׁ מִימִינוֹ אשדת אֵשׁ דָּת לָמוֹ׃
33.2. וּלְגָד אָמַר בָּרוּךְ מַרְחִיב גָּד כְּלָבִיא שָׁכֵן וְטָרַף זְרוֹעַ אַף־קָדְקֹד׃
33.8. וּלְלֵוִי אָמַר תֻּמֶּיךָ וְאוּרֶיךָ לְאִישׁ חֲסִידֶךָ אֲשֶׁר נִסִּיתוֹ בְּמַסָּה תְּרִיבֵהוּ עַל־מֵי מְרִיבָה׃' '. None
6.4. HEAR, O ISRAEL: THE LORD OUR GOD, THE LORD IS ONE. 6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might. 6.6. And these words, which I command thee this day, shall be upon thy heart; 6.7. and thou shalt teach them diligently unto thy children, and shalt talk of them when thou sittest in thy house, and when thou walkest by the way, and when thou liest down, and when thou risest up.
31.6. Be strong and of good courage, fear not, nor be affrighted at them; for the LORD thy God, He it is that doth go with thee; He will not fail thee, nor forsake thee.’
31.9. And Moses wrote this law, and delivered it unto the priests the sons of Levi, that bore the ark of the covet of the LORD, and unto all the elders of Israel.
31.22. So Moses wrote this song the same day, and taught it the children of Israel.
32.3. For I will proclaim the name of the LORD; Ascribe ye greatness unto our God.
33.2. And he said: The LORD came from Sinai, And rose from Seir unto them; He shined forth from mount Paran, And He came from the myriads holy, At His right hand was a fiery law unto them.
33.8. And of Levi he said: Thy Thummim and Thy Urim be with Thy holy one, Whom Thou didst prove at Massah, With whom Thou didst strive at the waters of Meribah;' '. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.8, 4.31, 15.13, 15.17-15.18, 16.7-16.10, 19.3-19.6, 19.18, 21.1, 23.30, 24.4-24.5, 32.25, 32.27, 33.2, 33.18, 34.11, 34.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority(ies) • Authority, Conferring strategies xviii • Authority, Divine • Authority, Interpretive Strategies • Book of Judith, author • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • Jewish, authors • Jews and Judaism, decline of non-intellectual authority in • Jews and Judaism, on oral-traditional authority • Job, Book of, author • John, author of Revelation • Moses, as legal authority • Moses, author of the Torah • Oniad authorship, background/origin/milieu • Tannaim, decline of non-intellectual authority and • Writing, Authoritative • authoritative works • authority • authority, prophetic • authority, scribal • authority, scriptural • authority,, Jewish/Rabbinic sources, decline of non-intellectual authority in • authority,, oral-traditional • liturgical, author • oral-traditional authority,, decline of, in Jewish/Rabbinic sources • prophecy as authority, vs. rabbinic, and written vs. oral texts • rewritten scripture, as a marker of authority • textual authority • textual authority, divinely granted • textual authority, in Dead Sea Scrolls • textual authority, in rabbinic texts

 Found in books: Ayres and Ward (2021) 185; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 128, 129, 132, 133, 136, 449; Brooke et al (2008) 6, 31, 170, 171, 223, 276, 278, 284, 288; Geljon and Runia (2019) 17; Gera (2014) 107, 187, 297, 407, 449, 450, 451, 476; Hayes (2022) 278; Jaffee (2001) 24; Jassen (2014) 22, 29, 34; Levison (2009) 325; Najman (2010) 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 37, 81, 138; Piotrkowski (2019) 299; Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 64; Toloni (2022) 103; Vinzent (2013) 6; Černušková (2016) 101


3.8. וָאֵרֵד לְהַצִּילוֹ מִיַּד מִצְרַיִם וּלְהַעֲלֹתוֹ מִן־הָאָרֶץ הַהִוא אֶל־אֶרֶץ טוֹבָה וּרְחָבָה אֶל־אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ אֶל־מְקוֹם הַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהָאֱמֹרִי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי׃
4.31. וַיַּאֲמֵן הָעָם וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ כִּי־פָקַד יְהוָה אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכִי רָאָה אֶת־עָנְיָם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוּוּ׃
15.13. נָחִיתָ בְחַסְדְּךָ עַם־זוּ גָּאָלְתָּ נֵהַלְתָּ בְעָזְּךָ אֶל־נְוֵה קָדְשֶׁךָ׃
15.17. תְּבִאֵמוֹ וְתִטָּעֵמוֹ בְּהַר נַחֲלָתְךָ מָכוֹן לְשִׁבְתְּךָ פָּעַלְתָּ יְהוָה מִקְּדָשׁ אֲדֹנָי כּוֹנְנוּ יָדֶיךָ׃ 15.18. יְהוָה יִמְלֹךְ לְעֹלָם וָעֶד׃
16.7. וּבֹקֶר וּרְאִיתֶם אֶת־כְּבוֹד יְהוָה בְּשָׁמְעוֹ אֶת־תְּלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם עַל־יְהוָה וְנַחְנוּ מָה כִּי תלונו תַלִּינוּ עָלֵינוּ׃ 16.8. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה בְּתֵת יְהוָה לָכֶם בָּעֶרֶב בָּשָׂר לֶאֱכֹל וְלֶחֶם בַּבֹּקֶר לִשְׂבֹּעַ בִּשְׁמֹעַ יְהוָה אֶת־תְּלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם מַלִּינִם עָלָיו וְנַחְנוּ מָה לֹא־עָלֵינוּ תְלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם כִּי עַל־יְהוָה׃ 16.9. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן אֱמֹר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל קִרְבוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה כִּי שָׁמַע אֵת תְּלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם׃' '
19.3. וּמֹשֶׁה עָלָה אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים וַיִּקְרָא אֵלָיו יְהוָה מִן־הָהָר לֵאמֹר כֹּה תֹאמַר לְבֵית יַעֲקֹב וְתַגֵּיד לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 19.4. אַתֶּם רְאִיתֶם אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתִי לְמִצְרָיִם וָאֶשָּׂא אֶתְכֶם עַל־כַּנְפֵי נְשָׁרִים וָאָבִא אֶתְכֶם אֵלָי׃ 19.5. וְעַתָּה אִם־שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמְעוּ בְּקֹלִי וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וִהְיִיתֶם לִי סְגֻלָּה מִכָּל־הָעַמִּים כִּי־לִי כָּל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 19.6. וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי מַמְלֶכֶת כֹּהֲנִים וְגוֹי קָדוֹשׁ אֵלֶּה הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר תְּדַבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
19.18. וְהַר סִינַי עָשַׁן כֻּלּוֹ מִפְּנֵי אֲשֶׁר יָרַד עָלָיו יְהוָה בָּאֵשׁ וַיַּעַל עֲשָׁנוֹ כְּעֶשֶׁן הַכִּבְשָׁן וַיֶּחֱרַד כָּל־הָהָר מְאֹד׃
21.1. אִם־אַחֶרֶת יִקַּח־לוֹ שְׁאֵרָהּ כְּסוּתָהּ וְעֹנָתָהּ לֹא יִגְרָע׃
21.1. וְאֵלֶּה הַמִּשְׁפָּטִים אֲשֶׁר תָּשִׂים לִפְנֵיהֶם׃
24.4. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֵת כָּל־דִּבְרֵי יְהוָה וַיַּשְׁכֵּם בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּבֶן מִזְבֵּחַ תַּחַת הָהָר וּשְׁתֵּים עֶשְׂרֵה מַצֵּבָה לִשְׁנֵים עָשָׂר שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 24.5. וַיִּשְׁלַח אֶת־נַעֲרֵי בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיַּעֲלוּ עֹלֹת וַיִּזְבְּחוּ זְבָחִים שְׁלָמִים לַיהוָה פָּרִים׃
32.25. וַיַּרְא מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הָעָם כִּי פָרֻעַ הוּא כִּי־פְרָעֹה אַהֲרֹן לְשִׁמְצָה בְּקָמֵיהֶם׃
32.27. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל שִׂימוּ אִישׁ־חַרְבּוֹ עַל־יְרֵכוֹ עִבְרוּ וָשׁוּבוּ מִשַּׁעַר לָשַׁעַר בַּמַּחֲנֶה וְהִרְגוּ אִישׁ־אֶת־אָחִיו וְאִישׁ אֶת־רֵעֵהוּ וְאִישׁ אֶת־קְרֹבוֹ׃
33.2. וְשָׁלַחְתִּי לְפָנֶיךָ מַלְאָךְ וְגֵרַשְׁתִּי אֶת־הַכְּנַעֲנִי הָאֱמֹרִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהַפְּרִזִּי הַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי׃
33.2. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא תוּכַל לִרְאֹת אֶת־פָּנָי כִּי לֹא־יִרְאַנִי הָאָדָם וָחָי׃
33.18. וַיֹּאמַר הַרְאֵנִי נָא אֶת־כְּבֹדֶךָ׃
34.11. שְׁמָר־לְךָ אֵת אֲשֶׁר אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ הַיּוֹם הִנְנִי גֹרֵשׁ מִפָּנֶיךָ אֶת־הָאֱמֹרִי וְהַכְּנַעֲנִי וְהַחִתִּי וְהַפְּרִזִּי וְהַחִוִּי וְהַיְבוּסִי׃
34.27. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כְּתָב־לְךָ אֶת־הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה כִּי עַל־פִּי הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה כָּרַתִּי אִתְּךָ בְּרִית וְאֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃''. None
3.8. and I am come down to deliver them out of the hand of the Egyptians, and to bring them up out of that land unto a good land and a large, unto a land flowing with milk and honey; unto the place of the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Amorite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite.
4.31. And the people believed; and when they heard that the LORD had remembered the children of Israel, and that He had seen their affliction, then they bowed their heads and worshipped.
15.13. Thou in Thy love hast led the people that Thou hast redeemed; Thou hast guided them in Thy strength to Thy holy habitation.
15.17. Thou bringest them in, and plantest them in the mountain of Thine inheritance, The place, O LORD, which Thou hast made for Thee to dwell in, The sanctuary, O Lord, which Thy hands have established. 15.18. The LORD shall reign for ever and ever.
16.7. and in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of the LORD; for that He hath heard your murmurings against the LORD; and what are we, that ye murmur against us?’ 16.8. And Moses said: ‘This shall be, when the LORD shall give you in the evening flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to the full; for that the LORD heareth your murmurings which ye murmur against Him; and what are we? your murmurings are not against us, but against the LORD.’ 16.9. And Moses said unto Aaron: ‘Say unto all the congregation of the children of Israel: Come near before the LORD; for He hath heard your murmurings.’ 16.10. And it came to pass, as Aaron spoke unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and, behold, the glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud.
19.3. And Moses went up unto God, and the LORD called unto him out of the mountain, saying: ‘Thus shalt thou say to the house of Jacob, and tell the children of Israel: 19.4. Ye have seen what I did unto the Egyptians, and how I bore you on eagles’wings, and brought you unto Myself. 19.5. Now therefore, if ye will hearken unto My voice indeed, and keep My covet, then ye shall be Mine own treasure from among all peoples; for all the earth is Mine; 19.6. and ye shall be unto Me a kingdom of priests, and a holy nation. These are the words which thou shalt speak unto the children of Israel.’
19.18. Now mount Sinai was altogether on smoke, because the LORD descended upon it in fire; and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly.
21.1. Now these are the ordices which thou shalt set before them.
23.30. By little and little I will drive them out from before thee, until thou be increased, and inherit the land.
24.4. And Moses wrote all the words of the LORD, and rose up early in the morning, and builded an altar under the mount, and twelve pillars, according to the twelve tribes of Israel. 24.5. And he sent the young men of the children of Israel, who offered burnt-offerings, and sacrificed peace-offerings of oxen unto the LORD.
32.25. And when Moses saw that the people were broken loose—for Aaron had let them loose for a derision among their enemies—
32.27. And he said unto them: ‘Thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel: Put ye every man his sword upon his thigh, and go to and fro from gate to gate throughout the camp, and slay every man his brother, and every man his companion, and every man his neighbour.’
33.2. and I will send an angel before thee; and I will drive out the Canaanite, the Amorite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, the Hivite, and the Jebusite—
33.18. And he said: ‘Show me, I pray Thee, Thy glory.’
34.11. Observe thou that which I am commanding thee this day; behold, I am driving out before thee the Amorite, and the Canaanite, and the Hittite, and the Perizzite, and the Hivite, and the Jebusite.
34.27. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Write thou these words, for after the tenor of these words I have made a covet with thee and with Israel.’' '. None
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.14, 1.16-1.18, 1.26-1.28, 2.7, 5.21-5.27, 9.20, 12.1, 12.10-12.20, 15.1, 18.25, 18.27, 22.1, 26.5, 28.11-28.17, 39.10, 41.45, 46.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authorities, Archons, Rulers • Authority • Authority, Conferring strategies xviii • Authority, Figures • Authority, Interpretive Strategies • Authority, Lack of • Authority, Scripture • Authority, Teaching • Book of Judith, author • Christian, literature/authors • Irenaeus, As author • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • Jewish, authors • Job, Book of, author • John, author of Revelation • John,, author of Gospel • Moses, as legal authority • Moses, author of the Torah • Oniad authorship • Oniad authorship, background/origin/milieu • Phoenicians, Samaritan authorship • Revelation, Sinaitic, as the source of legal authority • Woman/women, authority over • Writing, Authoritative • authority • authority (ἐξουσία) • authority of Jesus • authority of the Old Testament • authority, prophetic • authority, rabbinic • authority, scribal • epistemology, and humility and epistemological authority • intention, of author • law codes, sources of authority • textual authority, divinely granted • textual authority, in Dead Sea Scrolls • textual authority, in rabbinic texts

 Found in books: Avery Peck et al. (2014) 203; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 136, 314; Champion (2022) 115, 116; Frey and Levison (2014) 145, 146; Geljon and Runia (2013) 22, 92, 116, 187; Geljon and Runia (2019) 17, 94, 236; Gera (2014) 297, 306, 307, 344, 351, 387, 420, 427, 436; Graham (2022) 182; Jaffee (2001) 23, 95, 96; James (2021) 67; Jassen (2014) 31, 32, 57; Kanarek (2014) 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 48, 63, 117; Levison (2009) 122, 147, 148, 149, 150, 163, 195, 204, 211, 251, 256, 257, 258, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 353, 369, 387, 424; Libson (2018) 2; Najman (2010) 44, 47, 63, 125; Niehoff (2011) 142; Piotrkowski (2019) 297, 302, 322; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 124, 128; Rasimus (2009) 71, 122; Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 5, 13, 146, 203; Stuckenbruck (2007) 292, 554; Toloni (2022) 79, 82, 93; Vinzent (2013) 184; Černušková (2016) 20


1.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַיּוֹם וּבֵין הַלָּיְלָה וְהָיוּ לְאֹתֹת וּלְמוֹעֲדִים וּלְיָמִים וְשָׁנִים׃
1.16. וַיַּעַשׂ אֱלֹהִים אֶת־שְׁנֵי הַמְּאֹרֹת הַגְּדֹלִים אֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַגָּדֹל לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַיּוֹם וְאֶת־הַמָּאוֹר הַקָּטֹן לְמֶמְשֶׁלֶת הַלַּיְלָה וְאֵת הַכּוֹכָבִים׃ 1.17. וַיִּתֵּן אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמָיִם לְהָאִיר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.18. וְלִמְשֹׁל בַּיּוֹם וּבַלַּיְלָה וּלֲהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃
1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃ 1.28. וַיְבָרֶךְ אֹתָם אֱלֹהִים וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם אֱלֹהִים פְּרוּ וּרְבוּ וּמִלְאוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְכִבְשֻׁהָ וּרְדוּ בִּדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבְכָל־חַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃
2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃
5.21. וַיְחִי חֲנוֹךְ חָמֵשׁ וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־מְתוּשָׁלַח׃ 5.22. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־מְתוּשֶׁלַח שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.23. וַיְהִי כָּל־יְמֵי חֲנוֹךְ חָמֵשׁ וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה׃ 5.24. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי־לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים׃ 5.25. וַיְחִי מְתוּשֶׁלַח שֶׁבַע וּשְׁמֹנִים שָׁנָה וּמְאַת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־לָמֶךְ׃ 5.26. וַיְחִי מְתוּשֶׁלַח אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־לֶמֶךְ שְׁתַּיִם וּשְׁמוֹנִים שָׁנָה וּשְׁבַע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.27. וַיִּהְיוּ כָּל־יְמֵי מְתוּשֶׁלַח תֵּשַׁע וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּתְשַׁע מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיָּמֹת׃' '
12.1. וַיְהִי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ וַיֵּרֶד אַבְרָם מִצְרַיְמָה לָגוּר שָׁם כִּי־כָבֵד הָרָעָב בָּאָרֶץ׃
12.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם לֶךְ־לְךָ מֵאַרְצְךָ וּמִמּוֹלַדְתְּךָ וּמִבֵּית אָבִיךָ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַרְאֶךָּ׃
12.11. וַיְהִי כַּאֲשֶׁר הִקְרִיב לָבוֹא מִצְרָיְמָה וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־שָׂרַי אִשְׁתּוֹ הִנֵּה־נָא יָדַעְתִּי כִּי אִשָּׁה יְפַת־מַרְאֶה אָתְּ׃
12.12. וְהָיָה כִּי־יִרְאוּ אֹתָךְ הַמִּצְרִים וְאָמְרוּ אִשְׁתּוֹ זֹאת וְהָרְגוּ אֹתִי וְאֹתָךְ יְחַיּוּ׃
12.13. אִמְרִי־נָא אֲחֹתִי אָתְּ לְמַעַן יִיטַב־לִי בַעֲבוּרֵךְ וְחָיְתָה נַפְשִׁי בִּגְלָלֵךְ׃
12.14. וַיְהִי כְּבוֹא אַבְרָם מִצְרָיְמָה וַיִּרְאוּ הַמִּצְרִים אֶת־הָאִשָּׁה כִּי־יָפָה הִוא מְאֹד׃
12.15. וַיִּרְאוּ אֹתָהּ שָׂרֵי פַרְעֹה וַיְהַלְלוּ אֹתָהּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה וַתֻּקַּח הָאִשָּׁה בֵּית פַּרְעֹה׃
12.16. וּלְאַבְרָם הֵיטִיב בַּעֲבוּרָהּ וַיְהִי־לוֹ צֹאן־וּבָקָר וַחֲמֹרִים וַעֲבָדִים וּשְׁפָחֹת וַאֲתֹנֹת וּגְמַלִּים׃
12.17. וַיְנַגַּע יְהוָה אֶת־פַּרְעֹה נְגָעִים גְּדֹלִים וְאֶת־בֵּיתוֹ עַל־דְּבַר שָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם׃
12.18. וַיִּקְרָא פַרְעֹה לְאַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר מַה־זֹּאת עָשִׂיתָ לִּי לָמָּה לֹא־הִגַּדְתָּ לִּי כִּי אִשְׁתְּךָ הִוא׃
12.19. לָמָה אָמַרְתָּ אֲחֹתִי הִוא וָאֶקַּח אֹתָהּ לִי לְאִשָּׁה וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה אִשְׁתְּךָ קַח וָלֵךְ׃
15.1. אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה הָיָה דְבַר־יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם בַּמַּחֲזֶה לֵאמֹר אַל־תִּירָא אַבְרָם אָנֹכִי מָגֵן לָךְ שְׂכָרְךָ הַרְבֵּה מְאֹד׃
15.1. וַיִּקַּח־לוֹ אֶת־כָּל־אֵלֶּה וַיְבַתֵּר אֹתָם בַּתָּוֶךְ וַיִּתֵּן אִישׁ־בִּתְרוֹ לִקְרַאת רֵעֵהוּ וְאֶת־הַצִפֹּר לֹא בָתָר׃
18.25. חָלִלָה לְּךָ מֵעֲשֹׂת כַּדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְהָמִית צַדִּיק עִם־רָשָׁע וְהָיָה כַצַּדִּיק כָּרָשָׁע חָלִלָה לָּךְ הֲשֹׁפֵט כָּל־הָאָרֶץ לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה מִשְׁפָּט׃
18.27. וַיַּעַן אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמַר הִנֵּה־נָא הוֹאַלְתִּי לְדַבֵּר אֶל־אֲדֹנָי וְאָנֹכִי עָפָר וָאֵפֶר׃
22.1. וַיְהִי אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וְהָאֱלֹהִים נִסָּה אֶת־אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אַבְרָהָם וַיֹּאמֶר הִנֵּנִי׃
22.1. וַיִּשְׁלַח אַבְרָהָם אֶת־יָדוֹ וַיִּקַּח אֶת־הַמַּאֲכֶלֶת לִשְׁחֹט אֶת־בְּנוֹ׃
26.5. עֵקֶב אֲשֶׁר־שָׁמַע אַבְרָהָם בְּקֹלִי וַיִּשְׁמֹר מִשְׁמַרְתִּי מִצְוֺתַי חֻקּוֹתַי וְתוֹרֹתָי׃
28.11. וַיִּפְגַּע בַּמָּקוֹם וַיָּלֶן שָׁם כִּי־בָא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וַיִּקַּח מֵאַבְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם וַיָּשֶׂם מְרַאֲשֹׁתָיו וַיִּשְׁכַּב בַּמָּקוֹם הַהוּא׃ 28.12. וַיַּחֲלֹם וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם מֻצָּב אַרְצָה וְרֹאשׁוֹ מַגִּיעַ הַשָּׁמָיְמָה וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בּוֹ׃ 28.13. וְהִנֵּה יְהוָה נִצָּב עָלָיו וַיֹּאמַר אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אָבִיךָ וֵאלֹהֵי יִצְחָק הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה שֹׁכֵב עָלֶיהָ לְךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה וּלְזַרְעֶךָ׃ 28.14. וְהָיָה זַרְעֲךָ כַּעֲפַר הָאָרֶץ וּפָרַצְתָּ יָמָּה וָקֵדְמָה וְצָפֹנָה וָנֶגְבָּה וְנִבְרֲכוּ בְךָ כָּל־מִשְׁפְּחֹת הָאֲדָמָה וּבְזַרְעֶךָ׃ 28.15. וְהִנֵּה אָנֹכִי עִמָּךְ וּשְׁמַרְתִּיךָ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־תֵּלֵךְ וַהֲשִׁבֹתִיךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה הַזֹּאת כִּי לֹא אֶעֱזָבְךָ עַד אֲשֶׁר אִם־עָשִׂיתִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־דִּבַּרְתִּי לָךְ׃ 28.16. וַיִּיקַץ יַעֲקֹב מִשְּׁנָתוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר אָכֵן יֵשׁ יְהוָה בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וְאָנֹכִי לֹא יָדָעְתִּי׃ 28.17. וַיִּירָא וַיֹּאמַר מַה־נּוֹרָא הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה אֵין זֶה כִּי אִם־בֵּית אֱלֹהִים וְזֶה שַׁעַר הַשָּׁמָיִם׃
41.45. וַיִּקְרָא פַרְעֹה שֵׁם־יוֹסֵף צָפְנַת פַּעְנֵחַ וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ אֶת־אָסְנַת בַּת־פּוֹטִי פֶרַע כֹּהֵן אֹן לְאִשָּׁה וַיֵּצֵא יוֹסֵף עַל־אֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃
46.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי הָאֵל אֱלֹהֵי אָבִיךָ אַל־תִּירָא מֵרְדָה מִצְרַיְמָה כִּי־לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל אֲשִׂימְךָ שָׁם׃
46.3. וַיֹּאמֶר יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־יוֹסֵף אָמוּתָה הַפָּעַם אַחֲרֵי רְאוֹתִי אֶת־פָּנֶיךָ כִּי עוֹדְךָ חָי׃''. None
1.14. And God said: ‘Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years;
1.16. And God made the two great lights: the greater light to rule the day, and the lesser light to rule the night; and the stars. 1.17. And God set them in the firmament of the heaven to give light upon the earth, 1.18. and to rule over the day and over the night, and to divide the light from the darkness; and God saw that it was good.
1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’ 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them. 1.28. And God blessed them; and God said unto them: ‘Be fruitful, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it; and have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over every living thing that creepeth upon the earth.’
2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
5.21. And Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begot Methuselah. 5.22. And Enoch walked with God after he begot Methuselah three hundred years, and begot sons and daughters. 5.23. And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years. 5.24. And Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him. 5.25. And Methuselah lived a hundred eighty and seven years, and begot Lamech. 5.26. And Methuselah lived after he begot Lamech seven hundred eighty and two years, and begot sons and daughters. 5.27. And all the days of Methuselah were nine hundred sixty and nine years; and he died.
9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard.
12.1. Now the LORD said unto Abram: ‘Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father’s house, unto the land that I will show thee.

12.10. And there was a famine in the land; and Abram went down into Egypt to sojourn there; for the famine was sore in the land.
12.11. And it came to pass, when he was come near to enter into Egypt, that he said unto Sarai his wife: ‘Behold now, I know that thou art a fair woman to look upon.
12.12. And it will come to pass, when the Egyptians shall see thee, that they will say: This is his wife; and they will kill me, but thee they will keep alive.
12.13. Say, I pray thee, thou art my sister; that it may be well with me for thy sake, and that my soul may live because of thee.’
12.14. And it came to pass, that, when Abram was come into Egypt, the Egyptians beheld the woman that she was very fair.
12.15. And the princes of Pharaoh saw her, and praised her to Pharaoh; and the woman was taken into Pharaoh’s house.
12.16. And he dealt well with Abram for her sake; and he had sheep, and oxen, and he-asses, and men-servants, and maid-servants, and she-asses, and camels.
12.17. And the LORD plagued Pharaoh and his house with great plagues because of Sarai Abram’s wife.
12.18. And Pharaoh called Abram, and said: ‘What is this that thou hast done unto me? why didst thou not tell me that she was thy wife?
12.19. Why saidst thou: She is my sister? so that I took her to be my wife; now therefore behold thy wife, take her, and go thy way.’ 12.20. And Pharaoh gave men charge concerning him; and they brought him on the way, and his wife, and all that he had.
15.1. After these things the word of the LORD came unto Abram in a vision, saying: ‘Fear not, Abram, I am thy shield, thy reward shall be exceeding great.’
18.25. That be far from Thee to do after this manner, to slay the righteous with the wicked, that so the righteous should be as the wicked; that be far from Thee; shall not the judge of all the earth do justly?’
18.27. And Abraham answered and said: ‘Behold now, I have taken upon me to speak unto the Lord, who am but dust and ashes.
22.1. And it came to pass after these things, that God did prove Abraham, and said unto him: ‘Abraham’; and he said: ‘Here am I.’
26.5. because that Abraham hearkened to My voice, and kept My charge, My commandments, My statutes, and My laws.’
28.11. And he lighted upon the place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set; and he took one of the stones of the place, and put it under his head, and lay down in that place to sleep. 28.12. And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it. 28.13. And, behold, the LORD stood beside him, and said: ‘I am the LORD, the God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac. The land whereon thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed. 28.14. And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth, and thou shalt spread abroad to the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the south. And in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed. 28.15. And, behold, I am with thee, and will keep thee whithersoever thou goest, and will bring thee back into this land; for I will not leave thee, until I have done that which I have spoken to thee of.’ 28.16. And Jacob awaked out of his sleep, and he said: ‘Surely the LORD is in this place; and I knew it not.’ 28.17. And he was afraid, and said: ‘How full of awe is this place! this is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven.’
39.10. And it came to pass, as she spoke to Joseph day by day, that he hearkened not unto her, to lie by her, or to be with her.
41.45. And Pharaoh called Joseph’s name Zaphenath-paneah; and he gave him to wife Asenath the daughter of Poti-phera priest of On. And Joseph went out over the land of Egypt.—
46.3. And He said: ‘I am God, the God of thy father; fear not to go down into Egypt; for I will there make of thee a great nation.' '. None
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 1.6, 27.9-27.10, 42.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • Job, Book of, author • Tobit, author x • authority (ἐξουσία)

 Found in books: James (2021) 228; Levison (2009) 204, 353; Toloni (2022) 68, 77, 79, 81, 83, 94


1.6. וַיְהִי הַיּוֹם וַיָּבֹאוּ בְּנֵי הָאֱלֹהִים לְהִתְיַצֵּב עַל־יְהוָה וַיָּבוֹא גַם־הַשָּׂטָן בְּתוֹכָם׃
27.9. הַצַעֲקָתוֹ יִשְׁמַע אֵל כִּי־תָבוֹא עָלָיו צָרָה׃' '
42.6. עַל־כֵּן אֶמְאַס וְנִחַמְתִּי עַל־עָפָר וָאֵפֶר׃''. None
1.6. Now it fell upon a day, that the sons of God came to present themselves before the LORD, and Satan came also among them.
27.9. Will God hear his cry, When trouble cometh upon him? 27.10. Will he have his delight in the Almighty, And call upon God at all times?
42.6. Wherefore I abhor my words, and repent, Seeing I am dust and ashes.''. None
6. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 2.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Book of Judith, author • Oniad authorship • Oniad authorship, background/origin/milieu

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 187; Piotrkowski (2019) 302


2.17. בֵּין הָאוּלָם וְלַמִּזְבֵּחַ יִבְכּוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים מְשָׁרְתֵי יְהוָה וְיֹאמְרוּ חוּסָה יְהוָה עַל־עַמֶּךָ וְאַל־תִּתֵּן נַחֲלָתְךָ לְחֶרְפָּה לִמְשָׁל־בָּם גּוֹיִם לָמָּה יֹאמְרוּ בָעַמִּים אַיֵּה אֱלֹהֵיהֶם׃''. None
2.17. Let the priests, the ministers of the LORD, Weep between the porch and the altar, And let them say: ‘Spare thy people, O LORD, And give not Thy heritage to reproach, That the nations should make them a byword: Wherefore should they say among the peoples: Where is their God?’''. None
7. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1.1, 1.5, 4.5, 4.13-4.22, 19.23, 22.16, 26.46 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority(ies) • Authority, Interpretive Strategies • Jews and Judaism, decline of non-intellectual authority in • Jews and Judaism, on oral-traditional authority • Judicial authority (misuse of), service, age limits for • Moses, as legal authority • Moses, author of the Torah • Pseudo-Hecataeus, On the Jews, author • Rabbi Ismael, royalty and judicial authority in • Tannaim, decline of non-intellectual authority and • author • authority • authority, Pharisees • authority, human vs. divine/scriptural • authority, of Scripture • authority, of oral Law • authority,, Jewish/Rabbinic sources, decline of non-intellectual authority in • authority,, oral-traditional • author’s relationship with audience, style and vocabulary • exegesis as basis for authority • hearers, authority of • intention, of author • law codes, sources of authority • oral Tora, human vs. divine source of authority • oral-traditional authority,, decline of, in Jewish/Rabbinic sources • rabbis, authority of • scripture as source of authority • textual authority, in Dead Sea Scrolls • textual authority, in the Hebrew Bible

 Found in books: Ayres and Ward (2021) 181; Balberg (2017) 214; Bar Kochba (1997) 145; Flatto (2021) 123, 124; Geljon and Runia (2019) 17, 23; Hayes (2022) 70; Jassen (2014) 24, 48, 243; Kanarek (2014) 48; Maier and Waldner (2022) 30; Najman (2010) 136; Niehoff (2011) 139; Schiffman (1983) 37; Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 71; deSilva (2022) 48


1.1. וְאִם־מִן־הַצֹּאן קָרְבָּנוֹ מִן־הַכְּשָׂבִים אוֹ מִן־הָעִזִּים לְעֹלָה זָכָר תָּמִים יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ׃
1.1. וַיִּקְרָא אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֵלָיו מֵאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לֵאמֹר׃
1.5. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־בֶּן הַבָּקָר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְהִקְרִיבוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־הַדָּם וְזָרְקוּ אֶת־הַדָּם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃
4.5. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ מִדַּם הַפָּר וְהֵבִיא אֹתוֹ אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃
4.13. וְאִם כָּל־עֲדַת יִשְׂרָאֵל יִשְׁגּוּ וְנֶעְלַם דָּבָר מֵעֵינֵי הַקָּהָל וְעָשׂוּ אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְאָשֵׁמוּ׃ 4.14. וְנוֹדְעָה הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר חָטְאוּ עָלֶיהָ וְהִקְרִיבוּ הַקָּהָל פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר לְחַטָּאת וְהֵבִיאוּ אֹתוֹ לִפְנֵי אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.15. וְסָמְכוּ זִקְנֵי הָעֵדָה אֶת־יְדֵיהֶם עַל־רֹאשׁ הַפָּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַפָּר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 4.16. וְהֵבִיא הַכֹּהֵן הַמָּשִׁיחַ מִדַּם הַפָּר אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.17. וְטָבַל הַכֹּהֵן אֶצְבָּעוֹ מִן־הַדָּם וְהִזָּה שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֵת פְּנֵי הַפָּרֹכֶת׃ 4.18. וּמִן־הַדָּם יִתֵּן עַל־קַרְנֹת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֵת כָּל־הַדָּם יִשְׁפֹּךְ אֶל־יְסוֹד מִזְבַּח הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃ 4.19. וְאֵת כָּל־חֶלְבּוֹ יָרִים מִמֶּנּוּ וְהִקְטִיר הַמִּזְבֵּחָה׃' '4.21. וְהוֹצִיא אֶת־הַפָּר אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְשָׂרַף אֹתוֹ כַּאֲשֶׁר שָׂרַף אֵת הַפָּר הָרִאשׁוֹן חַטַּאת הַקָּהָל הוּא׃ 4.22. אֲשֶׁר נָשִׂיא יֶחֱטָא וְעָשָׂה אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תֵעָשֶׂינָה בִּשְׁגָגָה וְאָשֵׁם׃
19.23. וְכִי־תָבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ וּנְטַעְתֶּם כָּל־עֵץ מַאֲכָל וַעֲרַלְתֶּם עָרְלָתוֹ אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים יִהְיֶה לָכֶם עֲרֵלִים לֹא יֵאָכֵל׃
22.16. וְהִשִּׂיאוּ אוֹתָם עֲוֺן אַשְׁמָה בְּאָכְלָם אֶת־קָדְשֵׁיהֶם כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדְּשָׁם׃
26.46. אֵלֶּה הַחֻקִּים וְהַמִּשְׁפָּטִים וְהַתּוֹרֹת אֲשֶׁר נָתַן יְהוָה בֵּינוֹ וּבֵין בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהַר סִינַי בְּיַד־מֹשֶׁה׃''. None
1.1. And the LORD called unto Moses, and spoke unto him out of the tent of meeting, saying:
1.5. And he shall kill the bullock before the LORD; and Aaron’s sons, the priests, shall present the blood, and dash the blood round about against the altar that is at the door of the tent of meeting.
4.5. And the anointed priest shall take of the blood of the bullock, and bring it to the tent of meeting.
4.13. And if the whole congregation of Israel shall err, the thing being hid from the eyes of the assembly, and do any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, and are guilty: 4.14. when the sin wherein they have sinned is known, then the assembly shall offer a young bullock for a sin-offering, and bring it before the tent of meeting. 4.15. And the elders of the congregation shall lay their hands upon the head of the bullock before the LORD; and the bullock shall be killed before the LORD. 4.16. And the anointed priest shall bring of the blood of the bullock to the tent of meeting. 4.17. And the priest shall dip his finger in the blood, and sprinkle it seven times before the LORD, in front of the veil. 4.18. And he shall put of the blood upon the horns of the altar which is before the LORD, that is in the tent of meeting, and all the remaining blood shall he pour out at the base of the altar of burnt-offering, which is at the door of the tent of meeting. 4.19. And all the fat thereof shall he take off from it, and make it smoke upon the altar. 4.20. Thus shall he do with the bullock; as he did with the bullock of the sin-offering, so shall he do with this; and the priest shall make atonement for them, and they shall be forgiven. 4.21. And he shall carry forth the bullock without the camp, and burn it as he burned the first bullock; it is the sin-offering for the assembly. 4.22. When a ruler sinneth, and doeth through error any one of all the things which the LORD his God hath commanded not to be done, and is guilty:
19.23. And when ye shall come into the land, and shall have planted all manner of trees for food, then ye shall count the fruit thereof as forbidden; three years shall it be as forbidden unto you; it shall not be eaten.
22.16. and so cause them to bear the iniquity that bringeth guilt, when they eat their holy things; for I am the LORD who sanctify them.
26.46. These are the statutes and ordices and laws, which the LORD made between Him and the children of Israel in mount Sinai by the hand of Moses.' '. None
8. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 2.4-2.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Oniad authorship • Oniad authorship, background/origin/milieu • Writing, Authoritative

 Found in books: Najman (2010) 23; Piotrkowski (2019) 302


2.4. וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי שִׁלַּחְתִּי אֲלֵיכֶם אֵת הַמִּצְוָה הַזֹּאת לִהְיוֹת בְּרִיתִי אֶת־לֵוִי אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 2.5. בְּרִיתִי הָיְתָה אִתּוֹ הַחַיִּים וְהַשָּׁלוֹם וָאֶתְּנֵם־לוֹ מוֹרָא וַיִּירָאֵנִי וּמִפְּנֵי שְׁמִי נִחַת הוּא׃ 2.6. תּוֹרַת אֱמֶת הָיְתָה בְּפִיהוּ וְעַוְלָה לֹא־נִמְצָא בִשְׂפָתָיו בְּשָׁלוֹם וּבְמִישׁוֹר הָלַךְ אִתִּי וְרַבִּים הֵשִׁיב מֵעָוֺן׃ 2.7. כִּי־שִׂפְתֵי כֹהֵן יִשְׁמְרוּ־דַעַת וְתוֹרָה יְבַקְשׁוּ מִפִּיהוּ כִּי מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה־צְבָאוֹת הוּא׃ 2.8. וְאַתֶּם סַרְתֶּם מִן־הַדֶּרֶךְ הִכְשַׁלְתֶּם רַבִּים בַּתּוֹרָה שִׁחַתֶּם בְּרִית הַלֵּוִי אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 2.9. וְגַם־אֲנִי נָתַתִּי אֶתְכֶם נִבְזִים וּשְׁפָלִים לְכָל־הָעָם כְּפִי אֲשֶׁר אֵינְכֶם שֹׁמְרִים אֶת־דְּרָכַי וְנֹשְׂאִים פָּנִים בַּתּוֹרָה׃''. None
2.4. Know then that I have sent This commandment unto you, That My covet might be with Levi, Saith the LORD of hosts. 2.5. My covet was with him of life and peace, and I gave them to him, And of fear, and he feared Me, And was afraid of My name. 2.6. The law of truth was in his mouth, And unrighteousness was not found in his lips; He walked with Me in peace and uprightness, And did turn many away from iniquity. 2.7. For the priest’s lips should keep knowledge, And they should seek the law at his mouth; For he is the messenger of the LORD of hosts. 2.8. But ye are turned aside out of the way; Ye have caused many to stumble in the law; Ye have corrupted the covet of Levi, Saith the LORD of hosts. 2.9. Therefore have I also made you Contemptible and base before all the people, According as ye have not kept My ways, But have had respect of persons in the law.''. None
9. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 4.3, 5.13-5.14, 5.20, 5.22, 8.24, 11.16, 20.16, 25.11, 27.21 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Author, of 2 maccabees, Objective of • Authority, Interpretive Strategies • Book of Judith, author • Christian, literature/authors • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • John, author of Revelation • Judicial authority (misuse of), service, age limits for • Magisterial authority • Moses, as legal authority • Oniad authorship • Oniad authorship, genealogy (high priestly succession) • Roman authorities, and religious benefaction • authority • authority flouting of

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 128; Brooke et al (2008) 277; Gera (2014) 54, 187, 306, 410; Gordon (2020) 175; Jassen (2014) 65; Levison (2009) 230, 414; Najman (2010) 137; Piotrkowski (2019) 93, 231; Poorthuis and Schwartz (2014) 448; Rosen-Zvi (2012) 195; Schiffman (1983) 31, 32; Schwartz (2008) 13


4.3. מִבֶּן שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה וְעַד בֶּן־חֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה כָּל־בָּא לַצָּבָא לַעֲשׂוֹת מְלָאכָה בְּאֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃
4.3. מִבֶּן שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה וְעַד בֶּן־חֲמִשִּׁים שָׁנָה תִּפְקְדֵם כָּל־הַבָּא לַצָּבָא לַעֲבֹד אֶת־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃
5.13. וְשָׁכַב אִישׁ אֹתָהּ שִׁכְבַת־זֶרַע וְנֶעְלַם מֵעֵינֵי אִישָׁהּ וְנִסְתְּרָה וְהִיא נִטְמָאָה וְעֵד אֵין בָּהּ וְהִוא לֹא נִתְפָּשָׂה׃ 5.14. וְעָבַר עָלָיו רוּחַ־קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהִוא נִטְמָאָה אוֹ־עָבַר עָלָיו רוּחַ־קִנְאָה וְקִנֵּא אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְהִיא לֹא נִטְמָאָה׃' '
5.22. וּבָאוּ הַמַּיִם הַמְאָרְרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּמֵעַיִךְ לַצְבּוֹת בֶּטֶן וְלַנְפִּל יָרֵךְ וְאָמְרָה הָאִשָּׁה אָמֵן אָמֵן׃
8.24. זֹאת אֲשֶׁר לַלְוִיִּם מִבֶּן חָמֵשׁ וְעֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה יָבוֹא לִצְבֹא צָבָא בַּעֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃
11.16. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶסְפָה־לִּי שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָדַעְתָּ כִּי־הֵם זִקְנֵי הָעָם וְשֹׁטְרָיו וְלָקַחְתָּ אֹתָם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהִתְיַצְּבוּ שָׁם עִמָּךְ׃
20.16. וַנִּצְעַק אֶל־יְהוָה וַיִּשְׁמַע קֹלֵנוּ וַיִּשְׁלַח מַלְאָךְ וַיֹּצִאֵנוּ מִמִּצְרָיִם וְהִנֵּה אֲנַחְנוּ בְקָדֵשׁ עִיר קְצֵה גְבוּלֶךָ׃
25.11. פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן הֵשִׁיב אֶת־חֲמָתִי מֵעַל בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּקַנְאוֹ אֶת־קִנְאָתִי בְּתוֹכָם וְלֹא־כִלִּיתִי אֶת־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּקִנְאָתִי׃
27.21. וְלִפְנֵי אֶלְעָזָר הַכֹּהֵן יַעֲמֹד וְשָׁאַל לוֹ בְּמִשְׁפַּט הָאוּרִים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה עַל־פִּיו יֵצְאוּ וְעַל־פִּיו יָבֹאוּ הוּא וְכָל־בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אִתּוֹ וְכָל־הָעֵדָה׃''. None
4.3. from thirty years old and upward even until fifty years old, all that enter upon the service, to do work in the tent of meeting.
5.13. and a man lie with her carnally, and it be hid from the eyes of her husband, she being defiled secretly, and there be no witness against her, neither she be taken in the act; 5.14. and the spirit of jealousy come upon him, and he warned his wife, and she be defiled; or if the spirit of jealousy come upon him, and he warned his wife, and she be not defiled;
5.20. but if thou hast gone aside, being under thy husband, and if thou be defiled, and some man have lain with thee besides thy husband—
5.22. and this water that causeth the curse shall go into thy bowels, and make thy belly to swell, and thy thigh to fall away’; and the woman shall say: ‘Amen, Amen.’
8.24. ’This is that which pertaineth unto the Levites: from twenty and five years old and upward they shall go in to perform the service in the work of the tent of meeting;
11.16. And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Gather unto Me seventy men of the elders of Israel, whom thou knowest to be the elders of the people, and officers over them; and bring them unto the tent of meeting, that they may stand there with thee.
20.16. and when we cried unto the LORD, He heard our voice, and sent an angel, and brought us forth out of Egypt; and, behold, we are in Kadesh, a city in the uttermost of thy border.
25.11. ’Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, hath turned My wrath away from the children of Israel, in that he was very jealous for My sake among them, so that I consumed not the children of Israel in My jealousy.
27.21. And he shall stand before Eleazar the priest, who shall inquire for him by the judgment of the Urim before the LORD; at his word shall they go out, and at his word they shall come in, both he, and all the children of Israel with him, even all the congregation.’' '. None
10. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.7, 8.22-8.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cato the Censor, deeply Hellenized Roman author • Cleanthes, as author of the Hymn • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • Kraemer, Ross, on female authority in antiquity • authority • scripture (γραφή), authority of

 Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 223; Feldman (2006) 25; James (2021) 273; Levison (2009) 399, 406; Vinzent (2013) 179; Wilson (2022) 192


1.7. יִרְאַת יְהוָה רֵאשִׁית דָּעַת חָכְמָה וּמוּסָר אֱוִילִים בָּזוּ׃
8.22. יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃ 8.23. מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃' '. None
1.7. The fear of the LORD is the beginning of knowledge; But the foolish despise wisdom and discipline.
8.22. The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old. 8.23. I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was.' '. None
11. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.1, 25.14, 77.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • Scripture, authorization of • authority, rabbinic • authority, rabbinic constructions of,vs. prophetic authority • author’s relationship with audience, style and vocabulary • priests, prophecy as authority, vs. rabbinic

 Found in books: Hayes (2022) 79; Jaffee (2001) 80; Levison (2009) 350, 354, 355; Ward (2022) 67; deSilva (2022) 48


2.1. וְעַתָּה מְלָכִים הַשְׂכִּילוּ הִוָּסְרוּ שֹׁפְטֵי אָרֶץ׃
2.1. לָמָּה רָגְשׁוּ גוֹיִם וּלְאֻמִּים יֶהְגּוּ־רִיק׃
25.14. סוֹד יְהוָה לִירֵאָיו וּבְרִיתוֹ לְהוֹדִיעָם׃
77.2. בַּיָּם דַּרְכֶּךָ ושביליך וּשְׁבִילְךָ בְּמַיִם רַבִּים וְעִקְּבוֹתֶיךָ לֹא נֹדָעוּ׃
77.2. קוֹלִי אֶל־אֱלֹהִים וְאֶצְעָקָה קוֹלִי אֶל־אֱלֹהִים וְהַאֲזִין אֵלָי׃''. None
2.1. Why are the nations in an uproar? And why do the peoples mutter in vain?
25.14. The counsel of the LORD is with them that fear Him; And His covet, to make them know it.
77.2. I will lift up my voice unto God, an cry; I will lift up my voice unto God, that He may give ear unto me.''. None
12. None, None, nan (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Moses, as legal authority • Solomon, in aggadic tradition, author of the Song of Songs • authority flouting of

 Found in books: Jassen (2014) 34; Lieber (2014) 28; Rosen-Zvi (2012) 195


13. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 1.11, 2.1, 25.28 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority(ies) • Book of Judith, author • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • Oniad authorship

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 250, 351, 451; Levison (2009) 170; Piotrkowski (2019) 231; Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 68


1.11. וַתִּדֹּר נֶדֶר וַתֹּאמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אִם־רָאֹה תִרְאֶה בָּעֳנִי אֲמָתֶךָ וּזְכַרְתַּנִי וְלֹא־תִשְׁכַּח אֶת־אֲמָתֶךָ וְנָתַתָּה לַאֲמָתְךָ זֶרַע אֲנָשִׁים וּנְתַתִּיו לַיהוָה כָּל־יְמֵי חַיָּיו וּמוֹרָה לֹא־יַעֲלֶה עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ׃
2.1. וַתִּתְפַּלֵּל חַנָּה וַתֹּאמַר עָלַץ לִבִּי בַּיהוָה רָמָה קַרְנִי בַּיהוָה רָחַב פִּי עַל־אוֹיְבַי כִּי שָׂמַחְתִּי בִּישׁוּעָתֶךָ׃
2.1. יְהוָה יֵחַתּוּ מריבו מְרִיבָיו עלו עָלָיו בַּשָּׁמַיִם יַרְעֵם יְהוָה יָדִין אַפְסֵי־אָרֶץ וְיִתֶּן־עֹז לְמַלְכּוֹ וְיָרֵם קֶרֶן מְשִׁיחוֹ׃
25.28. שָׂא נָא לְפֶשַׁע אֲמָתֶךָ כִּי עָשֹׂה־יַעֲשֶׂה יְהוָה לַאדֹנִי בַּיִת נֶאֱמָן כִּי־מִלְחֲמוֹת יְהוָה אֲדֹנִי נִלְחָם וְרָעָה לֹא־תִמָּצֵא בְךָ מִיָּמֶיךָ׃''. None
1.11. And she vowed a vow, and said, O Lord of hosts, if Thou wilt indeed look on the affliction of Thy handmaid, and remember me, and not forget Thy handmaid, but wilt give to Thy handmaid a man child, then I will give him to the Lord all the days of his life, and no razor shall come upon his head.
2.1. And Ĥanna prayed, and said, My heart rejoices in the Lord, my horn is exalted in the Lord: my mouth is enlarged over my enemies; because I rejoice in Thy salvation.
25.28. I pray thee, forgive the trespass of thy handmaid: for the Lord will certainly make my lord a sure house; because my lord fights the battles of the Lord, and evil has not been found in thee all thy days.''. None
14. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 2.1-2.4, 2.9-2.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority, Conferring strategies xviii • Authority, Figures • Authority, Scripture • Divine, Authority • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • Mariamne, authority of • Moses, as legal authority • Writing, Authoritative • textual authority • textual authority, divinely granted

 Found in books: Ernst (2009) 7; Jassen (2014) 22; Levison (2009) 124; Najman (2010) 22, 23, 24, 28, 74, 76


2.1. וַיְהִי בְּהַעֲלוֹת יְהוָה אֶת־אֵלִיָּהוּ בַּסְעָרָה הַשָּׁמָיִם וַיֵּלֶךְ אֵלִיָּהוּ וֶאֱלִישָׁע מִן־הַגִּלְגָּל׃
2.1. וַיֹּאמֶר הִקְשִׁיתָ לִשְׁאוֹל אִם־תִּרְאֶה אֹתִי לֻקָּח מֵאִתָּךְ יְהִי־לְךָ כֵן וְאִם־אַיִן לֹא יִהְיֶה׃ 2.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלִיָּהוּ אֶל־אֱלִישָׁע שֵׁב־נָא פֹה כִּי יְהוָה שְׁלָחַנִי עַד־בֵּית־אֵל וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלִישָׁע חַי־יְהוָה וְחֵי־נַפְשְׁךָ אִם־אֶעֶזְבֶךָּ וַיֵּרְדוּ בֵּית־אֵל׃ 2.2. וַיֹּאמֶר קְחוּ־לִי צְלֹחִית חֲדָשָׁה וְשִׂימוּ שָׁם מֶלַח וַיִּקְחוּ אֵלָיו׃ 2.3. וַיֵּצְאוּ בְנֵי־הַנְּבִיאִים אֲשֶׁר־בֵּית־אֵל אֶל־אֱלִישָׁע וַיֹּאמְרוּ אֵלָיו הֲיָדַעְתָּ כִּי הַיּוֹם יְהוָה לֹקֵחַ אֶת־אֲדֹנֶיךָ מֵעַל רֹאשֶׁךָ וַיֹּאמֶר גַּם־אֲנִי יָדַעְתִּי הֶחֱשׁוּ׃ 2.4. וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ אֵלִיָּהוּ אֱלִישָׁע שֵׁב־נָא פֹה כִּי יְהוָה שְׁלָחַנִי יְרִיחוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר חַי־יְהוָה וְחֵי־נַפְשְׁךָ אִם־אֶעֶזְבֶךָּ וַיָּבֹאוּ יְרִיחוֹ׃
2.9. וַיְהִי כְעָבְרָם וְאֵלִיָּהוּ אָמַר אֶל־אֱלִישָׁע שְׁאַל מָה אֶעֱשֶׂה־לָּךְ בְּטֶרֶם אֶלָּקַח מֵעִמָּךְ וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלִישָׁע וִיהִי־נָא פִּי־שְׁנַיִם בְּרוּחֲךָ אֵלָי׃' '
2.11. וַיְהִי הֵמָּה הֹלְכִים הָלוֹךְ וְדַבֵּר וְהִנֵּה רֶכֶב־אֵשׁ וְסוּסֵי אֵשׁ וַיַּפְרִדוּ בֵּין שְׁנֵיהֶם וַיַּעַל אֵלִיָּהוּ בַּסְעָרָה הַשָּׁמָיִם׃
2.12. וֶאֱלִישָׁע רֹאֶה וְהוּא מְצַעֵק אָבִי אָבִי רֶכֶב יִשְׂרָאֵל וּפָרָשָׁיו וְלֹא רָאָהוּ עוֹד וַיַּחֲזֵק בִּבְגָדָיו וַיִּקְרָעֵם לִשְׁנַיִם קְרָעִים׃''. None
2.1. And it came to pass, when the LORD would take up Elijah by a whirlwind into heaven, that Elijah went with Elisha from Gilgal. 2.2. And Elijah said unto Elisha: ‘Tarry here, I pray thee; for the LORD hath sent me as far as Beth-el.’ And Elisha said: ‘As the LORD liveth, and as thy soul liveth, I will not leave thee.’ So they went down to Beth-el.— 2.3. And the sons of the prophets that were at Beth-el came forth to Elisha, and said unto him: ‘Knowest thou that the LORD will take away thy master from thy head to-day?’ And he said: ‘Yea, I know it; hold ye your peace.’— 2.4. And Elijah said unto him: ‘Elisha, tarry here, I pray thee; for the LORD hath sent me to Jericho.’ And he said: ‘As the LORD liveth, and as thy soul liveth, I will not leave thee.’ So they came to Jericho.—
2.9. And it came to pass, when they were gone over, that Elijah said unto Elisha: ‘Ask what I shall do for thee, before I am taken from thee.’ And Elisha said: ‘I pray thee, let a double portion of thy spirit be upon me.’
2.10. And he said: ‘Thou hast asked a hard thing; nevertheless, if thou see me when I am taken from thee, it shall be so unto thee; but if not, it shall not be so.’
2.11. And it came to pass, as they still went on, and talked, that, behold, there appeared a chariot of fire, and horses of fire, which parted them both assunder; and Elijah went up by a whirlwind into heaven.
2.12. And Elisha saw it, and he cried: ‘My father, my father, the chariots of Israel and the horsemen thereof! ’ And he saw him no more; and he took hold of his own clothes, and rent them in two pieces.' '. None
15. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 13.28 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority • Book of Judith, author

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 387; Stuckenbruck (2007) 292


13.28. וַיְצַו אַבְשָׁלוֹם אֶת־נְעָרָיו לֵאמֹר רְאוּ נָא כְּטוֹב לֵב־אַמְנוֹן בַּיַּיִן וְאָמַרְתִּי אֲלֵיכֶם הַכּוּ אֶת־אַמְנוֹן וַהֲמִתֶּם אֹתוֹ אַל־תִּירָאוּ הֲלוֹא כִּי אָנֹכִי צִוִּיתִי אֶתְכֶם חִזְקוּ וִהְיוּ לִבְנֵי־חָיִל׃''. None
13.28. Now Avshalom had commanded his lads, saying, Mark now when Amnon’s heart is merry with wine, and I say to you, Smite Amnon; then kill him, fear not: have not I commanded you? be courageous, and be valiant.''. None
16. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.9-6.10, 7.4, 8.4, 8.16, 8.19, 24.21-24.22, 30.10, 40.3, 51.3, 54.9, 54.11-54.12, 54.14, 56.6, 61.2, 63.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority • Authority(ies) • Authority, Divine • Authority, Interpretive Strategies • Authority, of the son of man • Authority, of/For the Righteous • Christian, literature/authors • Jesus, authority of • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • John, author of Revelation • Luke, as author • Qumran literature, legal authority in • Scripture, as contested authority • Writing, Authoritative • author, liturgical • authority • authority, traditional • liturgical, author

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 133, 140, 446, 450; Boulluec (2022) 244, 245; Flatto (2021) 73; Graham (2022) 97, 104, 105; Jaffee (2001) 44; Levison (2009) 213, 229, 232, 242, 291, 319, 353, 372, 406; Najman (2010) 10, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 22, 25, 38, 136; Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 112, 121, 127, 129; Stuckenbruck (2007) 199, 292, 735; Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 78, 98; Vinzent (2013) 2, 6, 48, 90; Wilson (2012) 377


6.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ לָעָם הַזֶּה שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ וְאַל־תָּבִינוּ וּרְאוּ רָאוֹ וְאַל־תֵּדָעוּ׃' '
7.4. וְאָמַרְתָּ אֵלָיו הִשָּׁמֵר וְהַשְׁקֵט אַל־תִּירָא וּלְבָבְךָ אַל־יֵרַךְ מִשְּׁנֵי זַנְבוֹת הָאוּדִים הָעֲשֵׁנִים הָאֵלֶּה בָּחֳרִי־אַף רְצִין וַאֲרָם וּבֶן־רְמַלְיָהוּ׃
8.4. כִּי בְּטֶרֶם יֵדַע הַנַּעַר קְרֹא אָבִי וְאִמִּי יִשָּׂא אֶת־חֵיל דַּמֶּשֶׂק וְאֵת שְׁלַל שֹׁמְרוֹן לִפְנֵי מֶלֶךְ אַשּׁוּר׃
8.16. צוֹר תְּעוּדָה חֲתוֹם תּוֹרָה בְּלִמֻּדָי׃
8.19. וְכִי־יֹאמְרוּ אֲלֵיכֶם דִּרְשׁוּ אֶל־הָאֹבוֹת וְאֶל־הַיִּדְּעֹנִים הַמְצַפְצְפִים וְהַמַּהְגִּים הֲלוֹא־עַם אֶל־אֱלֹהָיו יִדְרֹשׁ בְּעַד הַחַיִּים אֶל־הַמֵּתִים׃
24.21. וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִפְקֹד יְהוָה עַל־צְבָא הַמָּרוֹם בַּמָּרוֹם וְעַל־מַלְכֵי הָאֲדָמָה עַל־הָאֲדָמָה׃ 24.22. וְאֻסְּפוּ אֲסֵפָה אַסִּיר עַל־בּוֹר וְסֻגְּרוּ עַל־מַסְגֵּר וּמֵרֹב יָמִים יִפָּקֵדוּ׃
40.3. וְיִעֲפוּ נְעָרִים וְיִגָעוּ וּבַחוּרִים כָּשׁוֹל יִכָּשֵׁלוּ׃
40.3. קוֹל קוֹרֵא בַּמִּדְבָּר פַּנּוּ דֶּרֶךְ יְהוָה יַשְּׁרוּ בָּעֲרָבָה מְסִלָּה לֵאלֹהֵינוּ׃
51.3. כִּי־נִחַם יְהוָה צִיּוֹן נִחַם כָּל־חָרְבֹתֶיהָ וַיָּשֶׂם מִדְבָּרָהּ כְּעֵדֶן וְעַרְבָתָהּ כְּגַן־יְהוָה שָׂשׂוֹן וְשִׂמְחָה יִמָּצֵא בָהּ תּוֹדָה וְקוֹל זִמְרָה׃
54.9. כִּי־מֵי נֹחַ זֹאת לִי אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי מֵעֲבֹר מֵי־נֹחַ עוֹד עַל־הָאָרֶץ כֵּן נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי מִקְּצֹף עָלַיִךְ וּמִגְּעָר־בָּךְ׃
54.11. עֲנִיָּה סֹעֲרָה לֹא נֻחָמָה הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי מַרְבִּיץ בַּפּוּךְ אֲבָנַיִךְ וִיסַדְתִּיךְ בַּסַּפִּירִים׃ 54.12. וְשַׂמְתִּי כַּדְכֹד שִׁמְשֹׁתַיִךְ וּשְׁעָרַיִךְ לְאַבְנֵי אֶקְדָּח וְכָל־גְּבוּלֵךְ לְאַבְנֵי־חֵפֶץ׃
54.14. בִּצְדָקָה תִּכּוֹנָנִי רַחֲקִי מֵעֹשֶׁק כִּי־לֹא תִירָאִי וּמִמְּחִתָּה כִּי לֹא־תִקְרַב אֵלָיִךְ׃
56.6. וּבְנֵי הַנֵּכָר הַנִּלְוִים עַל־יְהוָה לְשָׁרְתוֹ וּלְאַהֲבָה אֶת־שֵׁם יְהוָה לִהְיוֹת לוֹ לַעֲבָדִים כָּל־שֹׁמֵר שַׁבָּת מֵחַלְּלוֹ וּמַחֲזִיקִים בִּבְרִיתִי׃
61.2. לִקְרֹא שְׁנַת־רָצוֹן לַיהוָה וְיוֹם נָקָם לֵאלֹהֵינוּ לְנַחֵם כָּל־אֲבֵלִים׃
63.9. בְּכָל־צָרָתָם לא לוֹ צָר וּמַלְאַךְ פָּנָיו הוֹשִׁיעָם בְּאַהֲבָתוֹ וּבְחֶמְלָתוֹ הוּא גְאָלָם וַיְנַטְּלֵם וַיְנַשְּׂאֵם כָּל־יְמֵי עוֹלָם׃''. None
6.9. And He said: ‘Go, and tell this people: Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not. 6.10. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’
7.4. and say unto him: Keep calm, and be quiet; fear not, neither let thy heart be faint, because of these two tails of smoking firebrands, for the fierce anger of Rezin and Aram, and of the son of Remaliah.
8.4. For before the child shall have knowledge to cry: My father, and: My mother, the riches of Damascus and the spoil of Samaria shall be carried away before the king of Assyria.’
8.16. ’Bind up the testimony, seal the instruction among My disciples.’
8.19. And when they shall say unto you: ‘Seek unto the ghosts and the familiar spirits, that chirp and that mutter; should not a people seek unto their God? on behalf of the living unto the dead
24.21. And it shall come to pass in that day, That the LORD will punish the host of the high heaven on high, And the kings of the earth upon the earth. 24.22. And they shall be gathered together, as prisoners are gathered in the dungeon, And shall be shut up in the prison, And after many days shall they be punished.
30.10. That say to the seers: ‘See not’, and to the prophets: ‘Prophesy not unto us right things, speak unto us smooth things, prophesy delusions;
40.3. Hark! one calleth: ‘Clear ye in the wilderness the way of the LORD, make plain in the desert a highway for our God.
51.3. For the LORD hath comforted Zion; He hath comforted all her waste places, And hath made her wilderness like Eden, And her desert like the garden of the LORD; Joy and gladness shall be found therein, Thanksgiving, and the voice of melody.
54.9. For this is as the waters of Noah unto Me; for as I have sworn that the waters of Noah should no more go over the earth, so have I sworn that I would not be wroth with thee, nor rebuke thee.
54.11. O thou afflicted, tossed with tempest, and not comforted, behold, I will set thy stones in fair colours, And lay thy foundations with sapphires. 54.12. And I will make thy pinnacles of rubies, and thy gates of carbuncles, and all thy border of precious stones.
54.14. In righteousness shalt thou be established; be thou far from oppression, for thou shalt not fear, And from ruin, for it shall not come near thee.
56.6. Also the aliens, that join themselves to the LORD, to minister unto Him, And to love the name of the LORD, To be His servants, Every one that keepeth the sabbath from profaning it, And holdeth fast by My covet:
61.2. To proclaim the year of the LORD’S good pleasure, And the day of vengeance of our God; To comfort all that mourn;
63.9. In all their affliction He was afflicted, and the angel of His presence saved them; in His love and in His pity He redeemed them; And He bore them, and carried them all the days of old. .' '. None
17. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 31.31-31.32 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • Moses, as legal authority • Solomon, in aggadic tradition, author of the Song of Songs • Writing, Authoritative • authority • authority flouting of • textual authority • textual authority, divinely granted • textual authority, in rabbinic texts • textual authority, in the Hebrew Bible

 Found in books: Jassen (2014) 31, 32, 249, 250, 251, 252; Levison (2009) 418; Lieber (2014) 28; Najman (2010) 37; Rosen-Zvi (2012) 195; Vinzent (2013) 149, 150


31.31. הִנֵּה יָמִים בָּאִים נְאֻם־יְהוָה וְכָרַתִּי אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־בֵּית יְהוּדָה בְּרִית חֲדָשָׁה׃ 31.32. לֹא כַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר כָּרַתִּי אֶת־אֲבוֹתָם בְּיוֹם הֶחֱזִיקִי בְיָדָם לְהוֹצִיאָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲשֶׁר־הֵמָּה הֵפֵרוּ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי וְאָנֹכִי בָּעַלְתִּי בָם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃' '. None
31.31. Behold, the days come, saith the LORD, that I will make a new covet with the house of Israel, and with the house of Judah; 31.32. not according to the covet that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to bring them out of the land of Egypt; forasmuch as they broke My covet, although I was a lord over them, saith the LORD.' '. None
18. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 3.9, 5.4-5.5, 5.13, 5.30, 6.9, 13.2-13.20 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority(ies) • Book of Judith, author • Christian/s, Authors • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • Job, Book of, author • Tobit, author x • authority • authority of women, in Damascus Document

 Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 53; Brooke et al (2008) 6; Gera (2014) 306, 318, 415, 449; Levison (2009) 162, 177, 372; Tefera and Stuckenbruck (2021) 104, 108; Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 64; Toloni (2022) 75, 103


3.9. וַיִּזְעֲקוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־יְהוָה וַיָּקֶם יְהוָה מוֹשִׁיעַ לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיּוֹשִׁיעֵם אֵת עָתְנִיאֵל בֶּן־קְנַז אֲחִי כָלֵב הַקָּטֹן מִמֶּנּוּ׃
5.4. יְהוָה בְּצֵאתְךָ מִשֵּׂעִיר בְּצַעְדְּךָ מִשְּׂדֵה אֱדוֹם אֶרֶץ רָעָשָׁה גַּם־שָׁמַיִם נָטָפוּ גַּם־עָבִים נָטְפוּ מָיִם׃ 5.5. הָרִים נָזְלוּ מִפְּנֵי יְהוָה זֶה סִינַי מִפְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
5.13. אָז יְרַד שָׂרִיד לְאַדִּירִים עָם יְהוָה יְרַד־לִי בַּגִּבּוֹרִים׃' '
6.9. וָאַצִּל אֶתְכֶם מִיַּד מִצְרַיִם וּמִיַּד כָּל־לֹחֲצֵיכֶם וָאֲגָרֵשׁ אוֹתָם מִפְּנֵיכֶם וָאֶתְּנָה לָכֶם אֶת־אַרְצָם׃
13.2. וַיְהִי אִישׁ אֶחָד מִצָּרְעָה מִמִּשְׁפַּחַת הַדָּנִי וּשְׁמוֹ מָנוֹחַ וְאִשְׁתּוֹ עֲקָרָה וְלֹא יָלָדָה׃
13.2. וַיְהִי בַעֲלוֹת הַלַּהַב מֵעַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וַיַּעַל מַלְאַךְ־יְהוָה בְּלַהַב הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּמָנוֹחַ וְאִשְׁתּוֹ רֹאִים וַיִּפְּלוּ עַל־פְּנֵיהֶם אָרְצָה׃ 13.3. וַיֵּרָא מַלְאַךְ־יְהוָה אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלֶיהָ הִנֵּה־נָא אַתְּ־עֲקָרָה וְלֹא יָלַדְתְּ וְהָרִית וְיָלַדְתְּ בֵּן׃ 13.4. וְעַתָּה הִשָּׁמְרִי נָא וְאַל־תִּשְׁתִּי יַיִן וְשֵׁכָר וְאַל־תֹּאכְלִי כָּל־טָמֵא׃ 13.5. כִּי הִנָּךְ הָרָה וְיֹלַדְתְּ בֵּן וּמוֹרָה לֹא־יַעֲלֶה עַל־רֹאשׁוֹ כִּי־נְזִיר אֱלֹהִים יִהְיֶה הַנַּעַר מִן־הַבָּטֶן וְהוּא יָחֵל לְהוֹשִׁיעַ אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִיַּד פְּלִשְׁתִּים׃ 13.6. וַתָּבֹא הָאִשָּׁה וַתֹּאמֶר לְאִישָׁהּ לֵאמֹר אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים בָּא אֵלַי וּמַרְאֵהוּ כְּמַרְאֵה מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים נוֹרָא מְאֹד וְלֹא שְׁאִלְתִּיהוּ אֵי־מִזֶּה הוּא וְאֶת־שְׁמוֹ לֹא־הִגִּיד לִי׃ 13.7. וַיֹּאמֶר לִי הִנָּךְ הָרָה וְיֹלַדְתְּ בֵּן וְעַתָּה אַל־תִּשְׁתִּי יַיִן וְשֵׁכָר וְאַל־תֹּאכְלִי כָּל־טֻמְאָה כִּי־נְזִיר אֱלֹהִים יִהְיֶה הַנַּעַר מִן־הַבֶּטֶן עַד־יוֹם מוֹתוֹ׃ 13.8. וַיֶּעְתַּר מָנוֹחַ אֶל־יְהוָה וַיֹּאמַר בִּי אֲדוֹנָי אִישׁ הָאֱלֹהִים אֲשֶׁר שָׁלַחְתָּ יָבוֹא־נָא עוֹד אֵלֵינוּ וְיוֹרֵנוּ מַה־נַּעֲשֶׂה לַנַּעַר הַיּוּלָּד׃ 1
3.9. וַיִּשְׁמַע הָאֱלֹהִים בְּקוֹל מָנוֹחַ וַיָּבֹא מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים עוֹד אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה וְהִיא יוֹשֶׁבֶת בַּשָּׂדֶה וּמָנוֹחַ אִישָׁהּ אֵין עִמָּהּ׃ 13.11. וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ מָנוֹחַ אַחֲרֵי אִשְׁתּוֹ וַיָּבֹא אֶל־הָאִישׁ וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ הַאַתָּה הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר־דִּבַּרְתָּ אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה וַיֹּאמֶר אָנִי׃ 13.12. וַיֹּאמֶר מָנוֹחַ עַתָּה יָבֹא דְבָרֶיךָ מַה־יִּהְיֶה מִשְׁפַּט־הַנַּעַר וּמַעֲשֵׂהוּ׃ 13.13. וַיֹּאמֶר מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה אֶל־מָנוֹחַ מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־אָמַרְתִּי אֶל־הָאִשָּׁה תִּשָּׁמֵר׃ 13.14. מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יֵצֵא מִגֶּפֶן הַיַּיִן לֹא תֹאכַל וְיַיִן וְשֵׁכָר אַל־תֵּשְׁתְּ וְכָל־טֻמְאָה אַל־תֹּאכַל כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־צִוִּיתִיהָ תִּשְׁמֹר׃ 13.15. וַיֹּאמֶר מָנוֹחַ אֶל־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה נַעְצְרָה־נָּא אוֹתָךְ וְנַעֲשֶׂה לְפָנֶיךָ גְּדִי עִזִּים׃ 13.16. וַיֹּאמֶר מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה אֶל־מָנוֹחַ אִם־תַּעְצְרֵנִי לֹא־אֹכַל בְּלַחְמֶךָ וְאִם־תַּעֲשֶׂה עֹלָה לַיהוָה תַּעֲלֶנָּה כִּי לֹא־יָדַע מָנוֹחַ כִּי־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה הוּא׃ 13.17. וַיֹּאמֶר מָנוֹחַ אֶל־מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה מִי שְׁמֶךָ כִּי־יָבֹא דבריך דְבָרְךָ וְכִבַּדְנוּךָ׃ 13.18. וַיֹּאמֶר לּוֹ מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה לָמָּה זֶּה תִּשְׁאַל לִשְׁמִי וְהוּא־פֶלִאי׃ 13.19. וַיִּקַּח מָנוֹחַ אֶת־גְּדִי הָעִזִּים וְאֶת־הַמִּנְחָה וַיַּעַל עַל־הַצּוּר לַיהוָה וּמַפְלִא לַעֲשׂוֹת וּמָנוֹחַ וְאִשְׁתּוֹ רֹאִים׃''. None
3.9. And when the children of Yisra᾽el cried to the Lord, the Lord raised up a deliverer to the children of Yisra᾽el, who delivered them, namely, ῾Otni᾽el the son of Qenaz, Kalev’s younger brother.
5.4. Lord, when Thou didst go out of Se῾ir, when Thou didst march out of the field of Edom, the earth trembled, and the heavens dropped, the clouds also dropped water. 5.5. The mountains melted from before the Lord, that Sinay before the Lord God of Yisra᾽el.
5.13. Then he made a remt have dominion over the nobles of the people: the Lord made me have dominion over the mighty ones.
5.30. Have they not found booty? have they not divided the prey; to every man a damsel or two; to Sisera a booty of divers colours, a plunder of many coloured needlework, dyed double worked garments for the necks of the spoilers.
6.9. and I delivered you out of the hand of Miżrayim, and out of the hand of all those that oppressed you, and drove them out before you, and gave you their land;
13.2. And there was a certain man of Żor῾a, of the family of the Dani, whose name was Manoaĥ; and his wife was barren, and bore not. 13.3. And the angel of the Lord appeared to the woman, and said to her, Behold now, thou art barren, and bearest not: but thou shalt conceive, and bear a son. 13.4. Now therefore beware, I pray thee, and drink neither wine nor strong drink, and eat no unclean thing: 13.5. for, lo, thou shalt conceive, and bear a son; and no razor shall come on his head: for the child shall be a Nazir to God from the womb: and he shall begin to deliver Yisra᾽el out of the hand of the Pelishtim. 13.6. Then the woman came and told her husband, saying, A man of God came to me, and his appearance was like the appearance of an angel of God, very terrible: but I asked him not from where he was, neither did he tell me his name: 13.7. but he said to me, Behold, thou shalt conceive, and bear a son; and now drink no wine nor strong drink, neither eat any unclean thing: for the child shall be a Nazir to God from the womb to the day of his death. 13.8. Then Manoaĥ entreated the Lord, and said, O my Lord, let the man of God whom Thou didst send come again to us, and teach us what we shall do to the child that shall be born. 1
3.9. And God hearkened to the voice of Manoaĥ; and the angel of God came again to the woman as she sat in the field: but Manoaĥ her husband was not with her. 13.10. And the woman made haste, and ran, and told her husband, and said to him, Behold, the man has appeared to me, that came to me the other day. 13.11. And Manoaĥ arose, and went after his wife, and came to the man, and said to him, Art thou the man that didst speak to the woman? And he said, I am. 13.12. And Manoaĥ said, Now let thy words come to pass. What shall be the rule for the child, and what shall be done with him? 13.13. And the angel of the Lord said to Manoaĥ, of all that I said to the woman let her take heed. 13.14. She may not eat of anything that comes of the vine, neither let her drink wine or strong drink, nor eat any unclean thing: all that I commanded her let her observe. 13.15. And Manoaĥ said to the angel of the Lord, I pray thee, let us detain thee, until we shall have made ready a kid for thee. 13.16. And the angel of the Lord said to Manoaĥ, Though thou detain me, I will not eat of thy bread: and if thou wilt offer a burnt offering, thou must offer it to the Lord. For Manoaĥ knew not that he was an angel of the Lord. 13.17. And Manoaĥ said to the angel of the Lord, What is thy name, that when thy sayings come to pass we may do thee honour? 13.18. And the angel of the Lord said to him, Why askest thou thus after my name, seeing it is hidden? 13.19. So Manoaĥ took the kid with the meal offering, and offered it upon the rock to the Lord: and the angel did wondrously, and Manoaĥ and his wife looked on.
13.20. For it came to pass, when the flame went up toward heaven from off the altar, that the angel of the Lord ascended in the flame of the altar. And Manoaĥ and his wife looked on it, and fell on their faces to the ground.''. None
19. Hesiod, Works And Days, 1-7, 10, 26, 60-103, 755-756 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Book of Judith, author • Derveni author • Hippocratic authors • Moses; implied author of Genesis • Pherecydes; prose author • Saturninus, Claudius; author of On Crowns • authority, competition for authority • authority, of the DA • authority, of the experts • authority, of the priests • authority, poetic • songs and music, construction of authority

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 87; Gera (2014) 339; Kirichenko (2022) 73, 89, 90, 91; Sider (2001) 125; Álvarez (2019) 80, 119, 135


1. μοῦσαι Πιερίηθεν ἀοιδῇσιν κλείουσαι'2. δεῦτε, Δίʼ ἐννέπετε, σφέτερον πατέρʼ ὑμνείουσαι· 3. ὅντε διὰ βροτοὶ ἄνδρες ὁμῶς ἄφατοί τε φατοί τε, 4. ῥητοί τʼ ἄρρητοί τε Διὸς μεγάλοιο ἕκητι. 5. ῥέα μὲν γὰρ βριάει, ῥέα δὲ βριάοντα χαλέπτει, 6. ῥεῖα δʼ ἀρίζηλον μινύθει καὶ ἄδηλον ἀέξει, 7. ῥεῖα δέ τʼ ἰθύνει σκολιὸν καὶ ἀγήνορα κάρφει

10. τύνη· ἐγὼ δέ κε, Πέρση, ἐτήτυμα μυθησαίμην.
26. καὶ πτωχὸς πτωχῷ φθονέει καὶ ἀοιδὸς ἀοιδῷ.
60. Ἥφαιστον δʼ ἐκέλευσε περικλυτὸν ὅττι τάχιστα 6
1. γαῖαν ὕδει φύρειν, ἐν δʼ ἀνθρώπου θέμεν αὐδὴν 62. καὶ σθένος, ἀθανάτῃς δὲ θεῇς εἰς ὦπα ἐίσκειν 63. παρθενικῆς καλὸν εἶδος ἐπήρατον· αὐτὰρ Ἀθήνην 64. ἔργα διδασκῆσαι, πολυδαίδαλον ἱστὸν ὑφαίνειν· 65. καὶ χάριν ἀμφιχέαι κεφαλῇ χρυσέην Ἀφροδίτην 66. καὶ πόθον ἀργαλέον καὶ γυιοβόρους μελεδώνας· 67. ἐν δὲ θέμεν κύνεόν τε νόον καὶ ἐπίκλοπον ἦθος 68. Ἑρμείην ἤνωγε, διάκτορον Ἀργεϊφόντην. 69. ὣς ἔφαθʼ· οἳ δʼ ἐπίθοντο Διὶ Κρονίωνι ἄνακτι. 70. αὐτίκα δʼ ἐκ γαίης πλάσσεν κλυτὸς Ἀμφιγυήεις 7
1. παρθένῳ αἰδοίῃ ἴκελον Κρονίδεω διὰ βουλάς· 72. ζῶσε δὲ καὶ κόσμησε θεὰ γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη· 73. ἀμφὶ δέ οἱ Χάριτές τε θεαὶ καὶ πότνια Πειθὼ 74. ὅρμους χρυσείους ἔθεσαν χροΐ· ἀμφὶ δὲ τήν γε 75. Ὧραι καλλίκομοι στέφον ἄνθεσιν εἰαρινοῖσιν· 76. πάντα δέ οἱ χροῒ κόσμον ἐφήρμοσε Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη. 77. ἐν δʼ ἄρα οἱ στήθεσσι διάκτορος Ἀργεϊφόντης 78. ψεύδεά θʼ αἱμυλίους τε λόγους καὶ ἐπίκλοπον ἦθος 79. τεῦξε Διὸς βουλῇσι βαρυκτύπου· ἐν δʼ ἄρα φωνὴν 80. θῆκε θεῶν κῆρυξ, ὀνόμηνε δὲ τήνδε γυναῖκα 8
1. Πανδώρην, ὅτι πάντες Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχοντες 82. δῶρον ἐδώρησαν, πῆμʼ ἀνδράσιν ἀλφηστῇσιν. 83. αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ δόλον αἰπὺν ἀμήχανον ἐξετέλεσσεν, 84. εἰς Ἐπιμηθέα πέμπε πατὴρ κλυτὸν Ἀργεϊφόντην 85. δῶρον ἄγοντα, θεῶν ταχὺν ἄγγελον· οὐδʼ Ἐπιμηθεὺς 86. ἐφράσαθʼ, ὥς οἱ ἔειπε Προμηθεὺς μή ποτε δῶρον 87. δέξασθαι πὰρ Ζηνὸς Ὀλυμπίου, ἀλλʼ ἀποπέμπειν 88. ἐξοπίσω, μή πού τι κακὸν θνητοῖσι γένηται. 89. αὐτὰρ ὃ δεξάμενος, ὅτε δὴ κακὸν εἶχʼ, ἐνόησεν. 90. Πρὶν μὲν γὰρ ζώεσκον ἐπὶ χθονὶ φῦλʼ ἀνθρώπων 9
1. νόσφιν ἄτερ τε κακῶν καὶ ἄτερ χαλεποῖο πόνοιο 92. νούσων τʼ ἀργαλέων, αἵ τʼ ἀνδράσι Κῆρας ἔδωκαν. 93. αἶψα γὰρ ἐν κακότητι βροτοὶ καταγηράσκουσιν. 94. ἀλλὰ γυνὴ χείρεσσι πίθου μέγα πῶμʼ ἀφελοῦσα 95. ἐσκέδασʼ· ἀνθρώποισι δʼ ἐμήσατο κήδεα λυγρά. 96. μούνη δʼ αὐτόθι Ἐλπὶς ἐν ἀρρήκτοισι δόμοισιν 97. ἔνδον ἔμιμνε πίθου ὑπὸ χείλεσιν, οὐδὲ θύραζε 98. ἐξέπτη· πρόσθεν γὰρ ἐπέλλαβε πῶμα πίθοιο 99. αἰγιόχου βουλῇσι Διὸς νεφεληγερέταο.

100. ἄλλα δὲ μυρία λυγρὰ κατʼ ἀνθρώπους ἀλάληται·

10
1. πλείη μὲν γὰρ γαῖα κακῶν, πλείη δὲ θάλασσα·

102. νοῦσοι δʼ ἀνθρώποισιν ἐφʼ ἡμέρῃ, αἳ δʼ ἐπὶ νυκτὶ

103. αὐτόματοι φοιτῶσι κακὰ θνητοῖσι φέρουσαι
755. ποινή. μηδʼ ἱεροῖσιν ἐπʼ αἰθομένοισι κυρήσας 756. μωμεύειν ἀίδηλα· θεός νύ τι καὶ τὰ νεμεσσᾷ. '. None
1. Pierian Muses, with your songs of praise,'2. Come hither and of Zeus, your father, tell, 3. Through whom all mortal men throughout their day 4. Acclaimed or not, talked of or nameless dwell, 5. So great is he. He strengthens easily 6. The weak, makes weak the strong and the well-known 7. Obscure, makes great the low; the crooked he

10. For, Perses, I would tell the truth to you.
26. A beggar bears his fellow-beggar spite,
60. And duped me. So great anguish shall befall 6
1. Both you and future mortal men. A thing 62. of ill in lieu of fire I’ll afford 63. Them all to take delight in, cherishing 64. The evil”. Thus he spoke and then the lord 65. of men and gods laughed. Famed Hephaistus he 66. Enjoined to mingle water with some clay 67. And put a human voice and energy 68. Within it and a goddess’ features lay 69. On it and, like a maiden, sweet and pure, 70. The body, though Athene was to show 7
1. Her how to weave; upon her head allure 72. The golden Aphrodite would let flow, 73. With painful passions and bone-shattering stress. 74. Then Argus-slayer Hermes had to add 75. A wily nature and shamefacedness. 76. Those were his orders and what Lord Zeus bade 77. They did. The famed lame god immediately 78. Formed out of clay, at Cronus’ son’s behest, 79. The likeness of a maid of modesty. 80. By grey-eyed Queen Athene was she dressed 8
1. And cinctured, while the Graces and Seduction 82. Placed necklaces about her; then the Hours, 83. With lovely tresses, heightened this production 84. By garlanding this maid with springtime flowers. 85. Athene trimmed her up, while in her breast 86. Hermes put lies and wiles and qualitie 87. of trickery at thundering Zeus’ behest: 88. Since all Olympian divinitie 89. Bestowed this gift, Pandora was her name, 90. A bane to all mankind. When they had hatched 9
1. This perfect trap, Hermes, that man of fame, 92. The gods’ swift messenger, was then dispatched 93. To Epimetheus. Epimetheus, though, 94. Ignored Prometheus’ words not to receive 95. A gift from Zeus but, since it would cause woe 96. To me, so send it back; he would perceive 97. This truth when he already held the thing. 98. Before this time men lived quite separately, 99. Grief-free, disease-free, free of suffering,

100. Which brought the Death-Gods. Now in misery

10
1. Men age. Pandora took out of the jar

102. Grievous calamity, bringing to men

103. Dreadful distress by scattering it afar.
755. Your bride should go four years: in the fifth year 756. Wed her. That you may teach her modesty '. None
20. Hesiod, Theogony, 1, 20, 22, 24, 26-28, 31-32, 34, 44, 55, 66-67, 71-74, 76, 78, 80-103, 105-107, 109, 111, 114, 116, 180-181, 188, 191-193, 195-197, 200-201, 901-903, 915-917 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Derveni author • Euripides, possible authorship of Sisyphus • Orpheus, literary author • Orphics (authors of Orphic poems) • authority • authority, poetic • authority, poetic authority • documents\n, authority of • epic narrative, authority of • songs and music, construction of authority

 Found in books: Arthur-Montagne DiGiulio and Kuin (2022) 43, 44; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 86, 87, 93; Gagné (2020) 26; Hesk (2000) 183; Kirichenko (2022) 70, 71, 72, 73; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 241; Álvarez (2019) 48, 49, 55, 92, 120, 121, 144, 145, 146


1. Μουσάων Ἑλικωνιάδων ἀρχώμεθʼ ἀείδειν,'
20. Γαῖάν τʼ Ὠκεανόν τε μέγαν καὶ Νύκτα μέλαιναν
22. αἵ νύ ποθʼ Ἡσίοδον καλὴν ἐδίδαξαν ἀοιδήν,
24. τόνδε δέ με πρώτιστα θεαὶ πρὸς μῦθον ἔειπον,
26. ποιμένες ἄγραυλοι, κάκʼ ἐλέγχεα, γαστέρες οἶον, 27. ἴδμεν ψεύδεα πολλὰ λέγειν ἐτύμοισιν ὁμοῖα, 28. ἴδμεν δʼ, εὖτʼ ἐθέλωμεν, ἀληθέα γηρύσασθαι. 3
1. δρέψασαι, θηητόν· ἐνέπνευσαν δέ μοι αὐδὴν 32. θέσπιν, ἵνα κλείοιμι τά τʼ ἐσσόμενα πρό τʼ ἐόντα.
34. σφᾶς δʼ αὐτὰς πρῶτόν τε καὶ ὕστατον αἰὲν ἀείδειν.
44. θεῶν γένος αἰδοῖον πρῶτον κλείουσιν ἀοιδῇ
55. λησμοσύνην τε κακῶν ἄμπαυμά τε μερμηράων.
66. μέλπονται πάντων τε νόμους καὶ ἤθεα κεδνὰ 67. ἀθανάτων κλείουσιν, ἐπήρατον ὄσσαν ἱεῖσαι. 7
1. νισσομένων πατέρʼ εἰς ὅν· ὃ δʼ οὐρανῷ ἐμβασιλεύει, 72. αὐτὸς ἔχων βροντὴν ἠδʼ αἰθαλόεντα κεραυνόν, 73. κάρτει νικήσας πατέρα Κρόνον· εὖ δὲ ἕκαστα 74. ἀθανάτοις διέταξεν ὁμῶς καὶ ἐπέφραδε τιμάς.
76. ἐννέα θυγατέρες μεγάλου Διὸς ἐκγεγαυῖαι,
78. Τερψιχόρη τʼ Ἐρατώ τε Πολύμνιά τʼ Οὐρανίη τε
80. ἣ γὰρ καὶ βασιλεῦσιν ἅμʼ αἰδοίοισιν ὀπηδεῖ. 8
1. ὅν τινα τιμήσωσι Διὸς κοῦραι μεγάλοιο 82. γεινόμενόν τε ἴδωσι διοτρεφέων βασιλήων, 83. τῷ μὲν ἐπὶ γλώσσῃ γλυκερὴν χείουσιν ἐέρσην, 84. τοῦ δʼ ἔπεʼ ἐκ στόματος ῥεῖ μείλιχα· οἱ δέ τε λαοὶ 85. πάντες ἐς αὐτὸν ὁρῶσι διακρίνοντα θέμιστας 86. ἰθείῃσι δίκῃσιν· ὃ δʼ ἀσφαλέως ἀγορεύων 87. αἶψά κε καὶ μέγα νεῖκος ἐπισταμένως κατέπαυσεν· 88. τοὔνεκα γὰρ βασιλῆες ἐχέφρονες, οὕνεκα λαοῖς 89. βλαπτομένοις ἀγορῆφι μετάτροπα ἔργα τελεῦσι 90. ῥηιδίως, μαλακοῖσι παραιφάμενοι ἐπέεσσιν. 9
1. ἐρχόμενον δʼ ἀνʼ ἀγῶνα θεὸν ὣς ἱλάσκονται 92. αἰδοῖ μειλιχίῃ, μετὰ δὲ πρέπει ἀγρομένοισιν· 93. τοίη Μουσάων ἱερὴ δόσις ἀνθρώποισιν. 94. ἐκ γάρ τοι Μουσέων καὶ ἑκηβόλου Ἀπόλλωνος 95. ἄνδρες ἀοιδοὶ ἔασιν ἐπὶ χθόνα καὶ κιθαρισταί, 96. ἐκ δὲ Διὸς βασιλῆες· ὃ δʼ ὄλβιος, ὅν τινα Μοῦσαι 97. φίλωνται· γλυκερή οἱ ἀπὸ στόματος ῥέει αὐδή. 98. εἰ γάρ τις καὶ πένθος ἔχων νεοκηδέι θυμῷ 99. ἄζηται κραδίην ἀκαχήμενος, αὐτὰρ ἀοιδὸς
100. Μουσάων θεράπων κλέεα προτέρων ἀνθρώπων
10
1. ὑμνήσῃ μάκαράς τε θεούς, οἳ Ὄλυμπον ἔχουσιν,
102. αἶψʼ ὅ γε δυσφροσυνέων ἐπιλήθεται οὐδέ τι κηδέων
103. μέμνηται· ταχέως δὲ παρέτραπε δῶρα θεάων.

105. κλείετε δʼ ἀθανάτων ἱερὸν γένος αἰὲν ἐόντων,
106. οἳ Γῆς τʼ ἐξεγένοντο καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος,
107. Νυκτός τε δνοφερῆς, οὕς θʼ ἁλμυρὸς ἔτρεφε Πόντος.

109. καὶ ποταμοὶ καὶ πόντος ἀπείριτος, οἴδματι θυίων,
1
1
1. οἵ τʼ ἐκ τῶν ἐγένοντο θεοί, δωτῆρες ἐάων
1
14. ταῦτά μοι ἔσπετε Μοῦσαι, Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχουσαι
1
16. ἦ τοι μὲν πρώτιστα Χάος γένετʼ, αὐτὰρ ἔπειτα
1
80. μακρὴν καρχαρόδοντα, φίλου δʼ ἀπὸ μήδεα πατρὸς
18
1. ἐσσυμένως ἤμησε, πάλιν δʼ ἔρριψε φέρεσθαι

188. μήδεα δʼ ὡς τὸ πρῶτον ἀποτμήξας ἀδάμαντι
19
1. ἀφρὸς ἀπʼ ἀθανάτου χροὸς ὤρνυτο· τῷ δʼ ἔνι κούρη
192. ἐθρέφθη· πρῶτον δὲ Κυθήροισιν ζαθέοισιν
193. ἔπλητʼ, ἔνθεν ἔπειτα περίρρυτον ἵκετο Κύπρον.

195. ποσσὶν ὕπο ῥαδινοῖσιν ἀέξετο· τὴν δʼ Ἀφροδίτην
196. ἀφρογενέα τε θεὰν καὶ ἐυστέφανον Κυθέρειαν
197. κικλῄσκουσι θεοί τε καὶ ἀνέρες, οὕνεκʼ ἐν ἀφρῷ

200. ἠδὲ φιλομμηδέα, ὅτι μηδέων ἐξεφαάνθη.
20
1. τῇ δʼ Ἔρος ὡμάρτησε καὶ Ἵμερος ἕσπετο καλὸς 90
1. δεύτερον ἠγάγετο λιπαρὴν Θέμιν, ἣ τέκεν Ὥρας, 902. Εὐνουμίην τε Δίκην τε καὶ Εἰρήνην τεθαλυῖαν, 903. αἳ ἔργʼ ὠρεύουσι καταθνητοῖσι βροτοῖσι, 9
15. μνημοσύνης δʼ ἐξαῦτις ἐράσσατο καλλικόμοιο, 9
16. ἐξ ἧς οἱ Μοῦσαι χρυσάμπυκες ἐξεγένοντο 9
17. ἐννέα, τῇσιν ἅδον θαλίαι καὶ τέρψις ἀοιδῆς. '. None
1. From the Heliconian Muses let me sing:'
20. And crafty Cronos, Eos, Helio
22. Black Night and each sacred divinity
24. By them to sing adeptly as he brought
26. of Helicon, and in those early day 27. Those daughters of Lord Zeus proclaimed to me: 28. “You who tend sheep, full of iniquity, 3
1. How to speak truth at will.” Thus fluidly 32. Spoke Zeus’s daughters. Then they gave to me
34. A wondrous thing, and breathed a sacred sound
44. The house their lips emit the sweetest sound,
55. How excellent he is, reigning supreme
66. The seasons rolling by, she bore at last 67. Nine daughters, all of one accord, and they 7
1. The Graces and Desire dwelt quite free 72. of care while singing songs delightfully 73. of the gods’ laws and all the goodly way 74. of the immortals. offering up their praise
76. In their mellifluous tones and uttering
78. And underneath their feet a lovely sound
80. With lightning and with thunder holding sway 8
1. In heaven, once Cronus he’d subjugated 82. As to the immortals he disseminated 83. Their rights. Lord Zeus begat this company 84. of Muses, Thalia, Melpomene, 85. Clio, Euterpe and Terpsichory, 86. And Polyhymnia, Calliope, 87. Urania, Erato: but the best 88. of all of them, deferred to by the rest 89. of all the Muses is Calliope 90. Because the kings blest by divinity 9
1. She serves. Each god-nursed king whom they adore, 92. Beholding him at birth, for him they pour 93. Sweet dew upon his tongue that there may flow 94. Kind words from hm; thus all the people go 95. To see him arbitrate successfully 96. Their undertakings and unswervingly 97. End weighty arguments: thus are there found 98. Wise kings who in crisis turn around 99. The problem in assembly easily,
100. Employing gentle words persuasively,
10
1. And he stood out among them. Thus were they
102. A holy gift to me, for to this day
103. Through them and archer Phoebus here on earth

105. of kings comes from Lord Zeus. Happy are those
106. Loved by the Muses, for sweet speaking flow
107. Out of their mouths. One in a sudden plight

109. And sick at heart, but singers, ministering
1
1
1. And all the deeds that they’ve performed so well,
1
14. Such is the precious gift of each goddess.
1
16. A pleasing song and laud the company
1
80. And so devised a piece of cleverness,
18
1. An evil ruse: a mass of flint she made

188. But wily Cronus put aside his dread
19
1. At what he said vast Earth was glad at heart
192. And in an ambush set her child apart
193. And told him everything she had in mind.

195. To couple, lay with Earth. Cronus revealed
196. Himself from where he had been well concealed,
197. Stretched out one hand and with the other gripped

200. And cast them down, nor did they fruitlessly
20
1. Descend behind him, because Earth conceived 90
1. A bull, unruly, proud and furious, 902. Would sound, sometimes a lion, mercile 903. At heart, sometimes – most wonderful to hear – 9
15. And lightning flashed, and to the dark-blue sea, 9
16. From them and from the fiery prodigy, 9
17. The scorching winds and blazing thunderbolt, '. None
21. Homer, Iliad, 1.1, 1.233-1.239, 2.6, 2.112, 2.124, 2.484-2.492, 2.577-2.578, 3.221-3.224, 5.370, 19.259-19.260, 24.527-24.528 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authorship, Greek vs. oriental • Authorship, in Greece • Authorship, of Hellenized orientals • Derveni author • Hippocratic authors • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • Orpheus, literary author • Pausanias (author) • Ritual authority • Scipio Africanus, as authoritative interpreter • authority • authority, narrative • authority, narrators • authority, of the experts • authority, symbolic • divination, and authority • epic narrative, authority of • experts, expertise, Derveni author as expert • songs and music, construction of authority

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 873; Davies (2004) 128; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 86, 87; Farrell (2021) 117; Gagné (2020) 26; Johnston and Struck (2005) 211; Kirichenko (2022) 27, 28, 29, 30, 32; Kowalzig (2007) 307; Levison (2009) 184; Morrison (2020) 43, 47, 48, 63, 71; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 183, 184, 186, 190, 191, 192; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 397; Álvarez (2019) 26, 33, 83, 144


1.1. μῆνιν ἄειδε θεὰ Πηληϊάδεω Ἀχιλῆος
1.233. ἀλλʼ ἔκ τοι ἐρέω καὶ ἐπὶ μέγαν ὅρκον ὀμοῦμαι· 1.234. ναὶ μὰ τόδε σκῆπτρον, τὸ μὲν οὔ ποτε φύλλα καὶ ὄζους 1.235. φύσει, ἐπεὶ δὴ πρῶτα τομὴν ἐν ὄρεσσι λέλοιπεν, 1.236. οὐδʼ ἀναθηλήσει· περὶ γάρ ῥά ἑ χαλκὸς ἔλεψε 1.237. φύλλά τε καὶ φλοιόν· νῦν αὖτέ μιν υἷες Ἀχαιῶν 1.238. ἐν παλάμῃς φορέουσι δικασπόλοι, οἵ τε θέμιστας 1.239. πρὸς Διὸς εἰρύαται· ὃ δέ τοι μέγας ἔσσεται ὅρκος·
2.6. πέμψαι ἐπʼ Ἀτρεΐδῃ Ἀγαμέμνονι οὖλον ὄνειρον·
2.112. σχέτλιος, ὃς πρὶν μέν μοι ὑπέσχετο καὶ κατένευσεν
2.124. ὅρκια πιστὰ ταμόντες ἀριθμηθήμεναι ἄμφω,
2.484. ἔσπετε νῦν μοι Μοῦσαι Ὀλύμπια δώματʼ ἔχουσαι· 2.485. ὑμεῖς γὰρ θεαί ἐστε πάρεστέ τε ἴστέ τε πάντα, 2.486. ἡμεῖς δὲ κλέος οἶον ἀκούομεν οὐδέ τι ἴδμεν· 2.487. οἵ τινες ἡγεμόνες Δαναῶν καὶ κοίρανοι ἦσαν· 2.488. πληθὺν δʼ οὐκ ἂν ἐγὼ μυθήσομαι οὐδʼ ὀνομήνω, 2.489. οὐδʼ εἴ μοι δέκα μὲν γλῶσσαι, δέκα δὲ στόματʼ εἶεν, 2.490. φωνὴ δʼ ἄρρηκτος, χάλκεον δέ μοι ἦτορ ἐνείη, 2.491. εἰ μὴ Ὀλυμπιάδες Μοῦσαι Διὸς αἰγιόχοιο 2.492. θυγατέρες μνησαίαθʼ ὅσοι ὑπὸ Ἴλιον ἦλθον·
2.577. Ἀτρεΐδης· ἅμα τῷ γε πολὺ πλεῖστοι καὶ ἄριστοι 2.578. λαοὶ ἕποντʼ· ἐν δʼ αὐτὸς ἐδύσετο νώροπα χαλκὸν
3.221. ἀλλʼ ὅτε δὴ ὄπα τε μεγάλην ἐκ στήθεος εἵη 3.222. καὶ ἔπεα νιφάδεσσιν ἐοικότα χειμερίῃσιν, 3.223. οὐκ ἂν ἔπειτʼ Ὀδυσῆΐ γʼ ἐρίσσειε βροτὸς ἄλλος· 3.224. οὐ τότε γʼ ὧδʼ Ὀδυσῆος ἀγασσάμεθʼ εἶδος ἰδόντες.
5.370. ἣ δʼ ἐν γούνασι πῖπτε Διώνης δῖʼ Ἀφροδίτη
19.259. Γῆ τε καὶ Ἠέλιος καὶ Ἐρινύες, αἵ θʼ ὑπὸ γαῖαν 19.260. ἀνθρώπους τίνυνται, ὅτις κʼ ἐπίορκον ὀμόσσῃ,
24.527. δοιοὶ γάρ τε πίθοι κατακείαται ἐν Διὸς οὔδει 24.528. δώρων οἷα δίδωσι κακῶν, ἕτερος δὲ ἑάων·' '. None
1.1. The wrath sing, goddess, of Peleus' son, Achilles, that destructive wrath which brought countless woes upon the Achaeans, and sent forth to Hades many valiant souls of heroes, and made them themselves spoil for dogs and every bird; thus the plan of Zeus came to fulfillment, " '
1.233. People-devouring king, since you rule over nobodies; else, son of Atreus, this would be your last piece of insolence. But I will speak out to you, and will swear thereto a mighty oath: by this staff, that shall never more put forth leaves or shoots since first it left its stump among the mountains, 1.235. nor shall it again grow green, for the bronze has stripped it on all sides of leaves and bark, and now the sons of the Achaeans carry it in their hands when they act as judges, those who guard the ordices that come from Zeus; and this shall be for you a mighty oath. Surely some day a longing for Achilles will come upon the sons of the Achaeans
2.6. to send to Agamemnon, son of Atreus, a baneful dream. So he spake, and addressed him with winged words:Up, go, thou baneful Dream, unto the swift ships of the Achaeans, and when thou art come to the hut of Agamemnon, son of Atreus,
2.112. My friends, Danaan warriors, squires of Ares, great Zeus, son of Cronos, hath ensnared me in grievous blindness of heart, cruel god! seeing that of old he promised me, and bowed his head thereto, that not until I had sacked well-walled Ilios should I get me home; but now hath he planned cruel deceit, and bids me return inglorious to Argos,
2.124. how that thus vainly so goodly and so great a host of the Achaeans warred a bootless war, and fought with men fewer than they, and no end thereof hath as yet been seen. For should we be minded, both Achaeans and Trojans, to swear a solemn oath with sacrifice, and to number ourselves,
2.484. Even as a bull among the herd stands forth far the chiefest over all, for that he is pre-eminent among the gathering kine, even such did Zeus make Agamemnon on that day, pre-eminent among many, and chiefest amid warriors.Tell me now, ye Muses that have dwellings on Olympus— 2.485. for ye are goddesses and are at hand and know all things, whereas we hear but a rumour and know not anything—who were the captains of the Danaans and their lords. But the common folk I could not tell nor name, nay, not though ten tongues were mine and ten mouths 2.490. and a voice unwearying, and though the heart within me were of bronze, did not the Muses of Olympus, daughters of Zeus that beareth the aegis, call to my mind all them that came beneath Ilios. Now will I tell the captains of the ships and the ships in their order.of the Boeotians Peneleos and Leïtus were captains,
2.577. and that dwelt about Aegium and throughout all Aegialus, and about broad Helice,—of these was the son of Atreus, lord Agamemnon, captain, with an hundred ships. With him followed most people by far and goodliest; and among them he himself did on his gleaming bronze, a king all-glorious, and was pre-eminent among all the warriors, 2.578. and that dwelt about Aegium and throughout all Aegialus, and about broad Helice,—of these was the son of Atreus, lord Agamemnon, captain, with an hundred ships. With him followed most people by far and goodliest; and among them he himself did on his gleaming bronze, a king all-glorious, and was pre-eminent among all the warriors, ' "
3.221. thou wouldest have deemed him a churlish man and naught but a fool. But whenso he uttered his great voice from his chest, and words like snowflakes on a winter's day, then could no mortal man beside vie with Odysseus; then did we not so marvel to behold Odysseus' aspect. " "3.224. thou wouldest have deemed him a churlish man and naught but a fool. But whenso he uttered his great voice from his chest, and words like snowflakes on a winter's day, then could no mortal man beside vie with Odysseus; then did we not so marvel to behold Odysseus' aspect. " '
5.370. but fair Aphrodite flung herself upon the knees of her mother Dione. She clasped her daughter in her arms, and stroked her with her hand and spake to her, saying:Who now of the sons of heaven, dear child, hath entreated thee thus wantonly, as though thou wert working some evil before the face of all?
19.259. made prayer to Zeus; and all the Argives sat thereby in silence, hearkening as was meet unto the king. And he spake in prayer, with a look up to the wide heaven:Be Zeus my witness first, highest and best of gods, and Earth and Sun, and the Erinyes, that under earth ' "19.260. take vengeance on men, whosoever hath sworn a false oath, that never laid I hand upon the girl Briseis either by way of a lover's embrace or anywise else, but she ever abode untouched in my huts. And if aught of this oath be false, may the gods give me woes " '
24.527. For on this wise have the gods spun the thread for wretched mortals, that they should live in pain; and themselves are sorrowless. For two urns are set upon the floor of Zeus of gifts that he giveth, the one of ills, the other of blessings. To whomsoever Zeus, that hurleth the thunderbolt, giveth a mingled lot, 24.528. For on this wise have the gods spun the thread for wretched mortals, that they should live in pain; and themselves are sorrowless. For two urns are set upon the floor of Zeus of gifts that he giveth, the one of ills, the other of blessings. To whomsoever Zeus, that hurleth the thunderbolt, giveth a mingled lot, ' ". None
22. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Book of Judith, author • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 120; Levison (2009) 293


23. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Moses, as legal authority • Writing, Authoritative

 Found in books: Jassen (2014) 65; Najman (2010) 37


24. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Derveni author • Hippocratic authors • Orpheus, literary author • Orphics (authors of Orphic poems) • authority • authority, narrative • authority, narrators • authority, of the experts • authority, poetic • divination, and authority • experts, expertise, Derveni author as expert • religious authority, sacred law/prescriptions

 Found in books: Bartels (2017) 46; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 472; Farrell (2021) 117; Johnston and Struck (2005) 177; Kirichenko (2022) 59; Morrison (2020) 43, 52; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 397; Álvarez (2019) 55, 83, 135


25. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 2.8-3.3, 16, 37, 37.5, 37.6, 37.8, 37.10, 37.13, 37.14, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 44.15, 44.16, 44.29, 45, 46, 46.2, 46.3, 46.4, 46.5, 46.6, 46.7, 46.8, 46.9, 46.10, 47, 47.10, 48, 48.12 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority, Interpretive Strategies • Authority, Scripture • Book of Judith, author • Christian, literature/authors • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • John, author of Revelation • Oniad authorship • Oniad authorship, Jews • Oniad authorship, Zadokites • Oniad authorship, dynasty • Persian imperial authorities, and fiscal reforms of Nehemiah • Persian imperial authorities, and religious benefaction • Persian imperial authorities, and temple administration • Solomon, in aggadic tradition, author of the Song of Songs • Writing, Authoritative • authoritative works • authority flouting of

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 131, 146; Brooke et al (2008) 66; Gera (2014) 120, 436; Gordon (2020) 25, 96, 98, 99, 109, 115, 116; Levison (2009) 165, 188, 197, 205, 206, 207, 211, 212, 213, 216, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 291, 304, 305, 307, 381, 423, 424; Lieber (2014) 28; Najman (2010) 10, 30, 31, 32, 34, 35, 36, 37, 78; Piotrkowski (2019) 219, 382, 384, 385, 396; Rosen-Zvi (2012) 195


37.5. כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה לָעֲצָמוֹת הָאֵלֶּה הִנֵּה אֲנִי מֵבִיא בָכֶם רוּחַ וִחְיִיתֶם׃

37.6. וְנָתַתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם גִּדִים וְהַעֲלֵתִי עֲלֵיכֶם בָּשָׂר וְקָרַמְתִּי עֲלֵיכֶם עוֹר וְנָתַתִּי בָכֶם רוּחַ וִחְיִיתֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה׃

37.8. וְרָאִיתִי וְהִנֵּה־עֲלֵיהֶם גִּדִים וּבָשָׂר עָלָה וַיִּקְרַם עֲלֵיהֶם עוֹר מִלְמָעְלָה וְרוּחַ אֵין בָּהֶם׃

37.13. וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה בְּפִתְחִי אֶת־קִבְרוֹתֵיכֶם וּבְהַעֲלוֹתִי אֶתְכֶם מִקִּבְרוֹתֵיכֶם עַמִּי׃

37.14. וְנָתַתִּי רוּחִי בָכֶם וִחְיִיתֶם וְהִנַּחְתִּי אֶתְכֶם עַל־אַדְמַתְכֶם וִידַעְתֶּם כִּי־אֲנִי יְהוָה דִּבַּרְתִּי וְעָשִׂיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃

44.15. וְהַכֹּהֲנִים הַלְוִיִּם בְּנֵי צָדוֹק אֲשֶׁר שָׁמְרוּ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת מִקְדָּשִׁי בִּתְעוֹת בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל מֵעָלַי הֵמָּה יִקְרְבוּ אֵלַי לְשָׁרְתֵנִי וְעָמְדוּ לְפָנַי לְהַקְרִיב לִי חֵלֶב וָדָם נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה׃
44.
16. הֵמָּה יָבֹאוּ אֶל־מִקְדָּשִׁי וְהֵמָּה יִקְרְבוּ אֶל־שֻׁלְחָנִי לְשָׁרְתֵנִי וְשָׁמְרוּ אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּי׃

44.29. הַמִּנְחָה וְהַחַטָּאת וְהָאָשָׁם הֵמָּה יֹאכְלוּם וְכָל־חֵרֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לָהֶם יִהְיֶה׃

46.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי זֶה הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יְבַשְּׁלוּ־שָׁם הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־הָאָשָׁם וְאֶת־הַחַטָּאת אֲשֶׁר יֹאפוּ אֶת־הַמִּנְחָה לְבִלְתִּי הוֹצִיא אֶל־הֶחָצֵר הַחִיצוֹנָה לְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת־הָעָם׃

46.2. וּבָא הַנָּשִׂיא דֶּרֶךְ אוּלָם הַשַּׁעַר מִחוּץ וְעָמַד עַל־מְזוּזַת הַשַּׁעַר וְעָשׂוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־עוֹלָתוֹ וְאֶת־שְׁלָמָיו וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוָה עַל־מִפְתַּן הַשַּׁעַר וְיָצָא וְהַשַּׁעַר לֹא־יִסָּגֵר עַד־הָעָרֶב׃

46.3. וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ עַם־הָאָרֶץ פֶּתַח הַשַּׁעַר הַהוּא בַּשַּׁבָּתוֹת וּבֶחֳדָשִׁים לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃

46.4. וְהָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר־יַקְרִב הַנָּשִׂיא לַיהוָה בְּיוֹם הַשַּׁבָּת שִׁשָּׁה כְבָשִׂים תְּמִימִם וְאַיִל תָּמִים׃

46.5. וּמִנְחָה אֵיפָה לָאַיִל וְלַכְּבָשִׂים מִנְחָה מַתַּת יָדוֹ וְשֶׁמֶן הִין לָאֵיפָה׃

46.6. וּבְיוֹם הַחֹדֶשׁ פַּר בֶּן־בָּקָר תְּמִימִם וְשֵׁשֶׁת כְּבָשִׂם וָאַיִל תְּמִימִם יִהְיוּ׃

46.7. וְאֵיפָה לַפָּר וְאֵיפָה לָאַיִל יַעֲשֶׂה מִנְחָה וְלַכְּבָשִׂים כַּאֲשֶׁר תַּשִּׂיג יָדוֹ וְשֶׁמֶן הִין לָאֵיפָה׃

46.8. וּבְבוֹא הַנָּשִׂיא דֶּרֶךְ אוּלָם הַשַּׁעַר יָבוֹא וּבְדַרְכּוֹ יֵצֵא׃

46.9. וּבְבוֹא עַם־הָאָרֶץ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה בַּמּוֹעֲדִים הַבָּא דֶּרֶךְ־שַׁעַר צָפוֹן לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת יֵצֵא דֶּרֶךְ־שַׁעַר נֶגֶב וְהַבָּא דֶּרֶךְ־שַׁעַר נֶגֶב יֵצֵא דֶּרֶךְ־שַׁעַר צָפוֹנָה לֹא יָשׁוּב דֶּרֶךְ הַשַּׁעַר אֲשֶׁר־בָּא בוֹ כִּי נִכְחוֹ יצאו יֵצֵא׃

48.12. וְהָיְתָה לָהֶם תְּרוּמִיָּה מִתְּרוּמַת הָאָרֶץ קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים אֶל־גְּבוּל הַלְוִיִּם׃' '. None
37.5. Thus saith the Lord GOD unto these bones: Behold, I will cause breath to enter into you, and ye shall live.

37.6. And I will lay sinews upon you, and will bring up flesh upon you, and cover you with skin, and put breath in you, and ye shall live; and ye shall know that I am the LORD.’

37.8. And I beheld, and, lo, there were sinews upon them, and flesh came up, and skin covered them above; but there was no breath in them.

37.10. So I prophesied as He commanded me, and the breath came into them, and they lived, and stood up upon their feet, an exceeding great host.

37.13. And ye shall know that I am the LORD, when I have opened your graves, and caused you to come up out of your graves, O My people.

37.14. And I will put My spirit in you, and ye shall live, and I will place you in your own land; and ye shall know that I the LORD have spoken, and performed it, saith the LORD.’

44.15. But the priests the Levites, the sons of Zadok, that kept the charge of My sanctuary when the children of Israel went astray from Me, they shall come near to Me to minister unto Me; and they shall stand before Me to offer unto Me the fat and the blood, saith the Lord GOD;
44.
16. they shall enter into My sanctuary, and they shall come near to My table, to minister unto Me, and they shall keep My charge.

44.29. The meal-offering, and the sin-offering, and the guilt-offering, they, even they, shall eat; and every devoted thing in Israel shall be theirs.

46.2. And the prince shall enter by the way of the porch of the gate without, and shall stand by the post of the gate, and the priests shall prepare his burnt-offering and his peace-offerings, and he shall worship at the threshold of the gate; then he shall go forth; but the gate shall not be shut until the evening.

46.3. Likewise the people of the land shall worship at the door of that gate before the LORD in the sabbaths and in the new moons.

46.4. And the burnt-offering that the prince shall offer unto the LORD shall be in the sabbath day six lambs without blemish and a ram without blemish;

46.5. and the meal-offering shall be an ephah for the ram, and the meal-offering for the lambs as he is able to give, and a hin of oil to an ephah.

46.6. And in the day of the new moon it shall be a young bullock without blemish; and six lambs, and a ram; they shall be without blemish;

46.7. and he shall prepare a meal-offering, an ephah for the bullock, and an ephah for the ram, and for the lambs according as his means suffice, and a hin of oil to an ephah.

46.8. And when the prince shall enter, he shall go in by the way of the porch of the gate, and he shall go forth by the way thereof.

46.9. But when the people of the land shall come before the LORD in the appointed seasons, he that entereth by the way of the north gate to worship shall go forth by the way of the south gate; and he that entereth by the way of the south gate shall go forth by the way of the north gate; he shall not return by the way of the gate whereby he came in, but shall go forth straight before him.

46.10. And the prince, when they go in, shall go in in the midst of them; and when they go forth, they shall go forth together.

47.10. And it shall come to pass, that fishers shall stand by it from En-gedi even unto En-eglaim; there shall be a place for the spreading of nets; their fish shall be after their kinds, as the fish of the Great Sea, exceeding many.

48.12. And it shall be unto them a portion set apart from the offering of the land, a thing most holy, by the border of the Levites.' '. None
26. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Derveni author • authority, poetic authority • divination, and authority

 Found in books: Johnston and Struck (2005) 185; Álvarez (2019) 101


27. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustine, authority • authority,

 Found in books: Castagnoli and Ceccarelli (2019) 109; Marincola et al (2021) 140


28. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Derveni author • Orpheus, literary author • Pausanias (author) • authority • authority, narrators • authority, poetic authority • songs and music, construction of authority

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 93; Gagné (2020) 23; Kowalzig (2007) 136; Morrison (2020) 100; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 1; Álvarez (2019) 101


29. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Pausanias (author) • divination, and authority • performances of myth and ritual (also song), imperceptibly imposing new authorities

 Found in books: Johnston and Struck (2005) 176, 185; Kowalzig (2007) 94, 182


30. Euripides, Bacchae, 272-297 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Derveni author • Hippocratic authors • Orpheus, literary author • authority, competition for authority • authority, of the DA • experts, expertise, Derveni author as expert • religious authority, sacred law/prescriptions

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 30; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 128; Álvarez (2019) 85, 86, 134


272. '273. οὐκ ἂν δυναίμην μέγεθος ἐξειπεῖν ὅσος 274. καθʼ Ἑλλάδʼ ἔσται. δύο γάρ, ὦ νεανία, 275. τὰ πρῶτʼ ἐν ἀνθρώποισι· Δημήτηρ θεά— 276. γῆ δʼ ἐστίν, ὄνομα δʼ ὁπότερον βούλῃ κάλει· 277. αὕτη μὲν ἐν ξηροῖσιν ἐκτρέφει βροτούς· 278. ὃς δʼ ἦλθʼ ἔπειτʼ, ἀντίπαλον ὁ Σεμέλης γόνος 279. βότρυος ὑγρὸν πῶμʼ ηὗρε κεἰσηνέγκατο 280. θνητοῖς, ὃ παύει τοὺς ταλαιπώρους βροτοὺς 281. λύπης, ὅταν πλησθῶσιν ἀμπέλου ῥοῆς, 282. ὕπνον τε λήθην τῶν καθʼ ἡμέραν κακῶν 283. δίδωσιν, οὐδʼ ἔστʼ ἄλλο φάρμακον πόνων. 284. οὗτος θεοῖσι σπένδεται θεὸς γεγώς, 285. ὥστε διὰ τοῦτον τἀγάθʼ ἀνθρώπους ἔχειν. 286. 287. μηρῷ; διδάξω σʼ ὡς καλῶς ἔχει τόδε. 288. ἐπεί νιν ἥρπασʼ ἐκ πυρὸς κεραυνίου 289. Ζεύς, ἐς δʼ Ὄλυμπον βρέφος ἀνήγαγεν θεόν, 290. Ἥρα νιν ἤθελʼ ἐκβαλεῖν ἀπʼ οὐρανοῦ· 291. Ζεὺς δʼ ἀντεμηχανήσαθʼ οἷα δὴ θεός. 292. ῥήξας μέρος τι τοῦ χθόνʼ ἐγκυκλουμένου 293. αἰθέρος, ἔθηκε τόνδʼ ὅμηρον ἐκδιδούς, 294. Διόνυσον Ἥρας νεικέων· χρόνῳ δέ νιν 295. βροτοὶ ῥαφῆναί φασιν ἐν μηρῷ Διός, 296. ὄνομα μεταστήσαντες, ὅτι θεᾷ θεὸς 297. Ἥρᾳ ποθʼ ὡμήρευσε, συνθέντες λόγον. '. None
272. A man powerful in his boldness, one capable of speaking well, becomes a bad citizen in his lack of sense. This new god, whom you ridicule, I am unable to express how great he will be throughout Hellas . For two things, young man,'273. A man powerful in his boldness, one capable of speaking well, becomes a bad citizen in his lack of sense. This new god, whom you ridicule, I am unable to express how great he will be throughout Hellas . For two things, young man, 275. are first among men: the goddess Demeter—she is the earth, but call her whatever name you wish; she nourishes mortals with dry food; but he who came afterwards, the offspring of Semele, discovered a match to it, the liquid drink of the grape, and introduced it 280. to mortals. It releases wretched mortals from grief, whenever they are filled with the stream of the vine, and gives them sleep, a means of forgetting their daily troubles, nor is there another cure for hardships. He who is a god is poured out in offerings to the gods, 285. o that by his means men may have good things. And do you laugh at him, because he was sewn up in Zeus’ thigh? I will teach you that this is well: when Zeus snatched him out of the lighting-flame, and led the child as a god to Olympus , 290. Hera wished to banish him from the sky, but Zeus, as a god, had a counter-contrivance. Having broken a part of the air which surrounds the earth, he gave this to Hera as a pledge protecting the real A line of text has apparently been lost here. Dionysus from her hostility. But in time, 295. mortals say that he was nourished in the thigh of Zeus, changing the word, because a god he had served as a hostage for the goddess Hera, and composing the story. The account given in lines 292f. of the development of this legend is based on the similarity between the Greek words for hostage ( ὅμηρος ) and thigh ( μηρός ). But this god is a prophet—for Bacchic revelry and madness have in them much prophetic skill. '. None
31. Euripides, Children of Heracles, 1038-1040 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustine, authority • authority,

 Found in books: Castagnoli and Ceccarelli (2019) 109; Marincola et al (2021) 134


1038. δεῦρ' ἦλθον, ἀλλ' οὐ χρησμὸν ἡζόμην θεοῦ;"1039. ̔́Ηραν νομίζων θεσφάτων κρείσσω πολὺ' "1040. κοὐκ ἂν προδοῦναί μ'. ἀλλὰ μήτε μοι χοὰς" "'. None
1038. whensoe’er Referring to invasions by the Peloponnesians, descendants of the Heracleidae. with gathered host they come against this land, traitors to your kindness now; such are the strangers ye have championed. Why then came I hither, if I knew all this, instead of regarding the god’s oracle? Because I thought, that Hera was mightier far than any oracle,'1039. rend= Bury my body after death in its destined grave in front of the shrine of the virgin goddess Pallas. at Pallene. And I will be thy friend and guardian of thy city for ever, where I lie buried in a foreign soil, but a bitter foe to these children’s descendants, whensoe’er Referring to invasions by the Peloponnesians, descendants of the Heracleidae. with gathered host they come against this land, traitors to your kindness now; such are the strangers ye have championed. Why then came I hither, if I knew all this, instead of regarding the god’s oracle? Because I thought, that Hera was mightier far than any oracle, and would not betray me. Waste no drink-offering on my tomb, nor spill the victim’s blood; for I will requite them for my treatment here with a journey they shall rue; and ye shall have double gain from me, for I will help you and harm them by my death. Alcmena 1039. whensoe’er Referring to invasions by the Peloponnesians, descendants of the Heracleidae. with gathered host they come against this land, traitors to your kindness now; such are the strangers ye have championed. Why then came I hither, if I knew all this, instead of regarding the god’s oracle? Because I thought, that Hera was mightier far than any oracle, 1040. and would not betray me. Waste no drink-offering on my tomb, nor spill the victim’s blood; for I will requite them for my treatment here with a journey they shall rue; and ye shall have double gain from me, for I will help you and harm them by my death. Alcmena '. None
32. Euripides, Hippolytus, 952-954 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Derveni author • authority, of the priests • divination, and authority

 Found in books: Johnston and Struck (2005) 222; Álvarez (2019) 133


952. ἤδη νυν αὔχει καὶ δι' ἀψύχου βορᾶς"953. σίτοις καπήλευ' ̓Ορφέα τ' ἄνακτ' ἔχων" '954. βάκχευε πολλῶν γραμμάτων τιμῶν καπνούς:' "". None
952. Thy boasts will never persuade me to be guilty of attributing ignorance to gods. Go then, vaunt thyself, and drive1 Hippolytus is here taunted with being an exponent of the Orphic mysteries. Apparently Orpheus, like Pythagoras, taught the necessity of total abstinence from animal food. thy petty trade in viands formed of lifeless food; take Orpheus for thy chief and go a-revelling, with all honour for the vapourings of many a written scroll,'953. Thy boasts will never persuade me to be guilty of attributing ignorance to gods. Go then, vaunt thyself, and drive1 Hippolytus is here taunted with being an exponent of the Orphic mysteries. Apparently Orpheus, like Pythagoras, taught the necessity of total abstinence from animal food. thy petty trade in viands formed of lifeless food; take Orpheus for thy chief and go a-revelling, with all honour for the vapourings of many a written scroll, '. None
33. Euripides, Suppliant Women, 1189-1202 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustine, authority • Ritual authority

 Found in books: Castagnoli and Ceccarelli (2019) 109; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 196


1189. ̓́Αδραστον: οὗτος κύριος, τύραννος ὤν,'1190. πάσης ὑπὲρ γῆς Δαναϊδῶν ὁρκωμοτεῖν.' "1191. ὁ δ' ὅρκος ἔσται, μήποτ' ̓Αργείους χθόνα" "1192. ἐς τήνδ' ἐποίσειν πολέμιον παντευχίαν," "1193. ἄλλων τ' ἰόντων ἐμποδὼν θήσειν δόρυ." "1194. ἢν δ' ὅρκον ἐκλιπόντες ἔλθωσιν, πάλιν" "1195. κακῶς ὀλέσθαι πρόστρεπ' ̓Αργείων χθόνα." "1196. ἐν ᾧ δὲ τέμνειν σφάγια χρή ς', ἄκουέ μου." '1197. ἔστιν τρίπους σοι χαλκόπους ἔσω δόμων,' "1198. ὃν ̓Ιλίου ποτ' ἐξαναστήσας βάθρα" "1199. σπουδὴν ἐπ' ἄλλην ̔Ηρακλῆς ὁρμώμενος" "1200. στῆσαί ς' ἐφεῖτο Πυθικὴν πρὸς ἐσχάραν." '1201. ἐν τῷδε λαιμοὺς τρεῖς τριῶν μήλων τεμὼν 1202. ἔγγραψον ὅρκους τρίποδος ἐν κοίλῳ κύτει, '. None
1189. Give not these bones to the children to carry to the land of Argos, letting them go so lightly; nay, take first an oath of them that they will requite thee and thy city for your efforts. This oath must Adrastus swear, for as their king it is his right'1190. to take the oath for the whole realm of Argos. And this shall be the form thereof: We Argives swear we never will against this land lead on our mail-clad troops to war, and, if others come, we will repel them. But if they violate their oath and come against the city, pray 1195. that the land of Argos may be miserably destroyed. 1196. Now hearken while I tell thee where thou must slay the victims. Thou hast within thy halls a tripod with brazen feet, which Heracles, in days gone by, after he had o’erthrown the foundations of Ilium and was starting on another enterprise, 1200. enjoined thee to set up at the Pythian shrine. O’er it cut the throats of three sheep; then grave within the tripod’s hollow belly the oath; this done, deliver it to the god who watches over Delphi to keep, a witness and memorial unto Hellas of the oath. '. None
34. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 26.27, 29.2 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Book of Judith, author • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • Persian imperial authorities, and fiscal reforms of Nehemiah • authority of women, in Damascus Document

 Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 53; Gera (2014) 436; Gordon (2020) 108; Levison (2009) 287


26.27. מִן־הַמִּלְחָמוֹת וּמִן־הַשָּׁלָל הִקְדִּישׁוּ לְחַזֵּק לְבֵית יְהוָה׃
29.2. וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד לְכָל־הַקָּהָל בָּרְכוּ־נָא אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וַיְבָרֲכוּ כָל־הַקָּהָל לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵיהֶם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַיהוָה וְלַמֶּלֶךְ׃'
29.2. וּכְכָל־כֹּחִי הֲכִינוֹתִי לְבֵית־אֱלֹהַי הַזָּהָב לַזָּהָב וְהַכֶּסֶף לַכֶּסֶף וְהַנְּחֹשֶׁת לַנְּחֹשֶׁת הַבַּרְזֶל לַבַּרְזֶל וְהָעֵצִים לָעֵצִים אַבְנֵי־שֹׁהַם וּמִלּוּאִים אַבְנֵי־פוּךְ וְרִקְמָה וְכֹל אֶבֶן יְקָרָה וְאַבְנֵי־שַׁיִשׁ לָרֹב׃ '. None
26.27. Out of the spoil won in battles did they dedicate to repair the house of the LORD.
29.2. Now I have prepared with all my might for the house of my God the gold for the things of gold, and the silver for the things of silver, and the brass for the things of brass, the iron for the things of iron, and wood for the things of wood; onyx stones, and stones to be set, glistering stones, and of divers colours, and all manner of precious stones, and marble stones in abundance.''. None
35. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 20.15, 31.17 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority • Book of Judith, author • Judicial authority (misuse of), service, age limits for • Persian imperial authorities, and temple administration

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 464; Gordon (2020) 111; Schiffman (1983) 59; Stuckenbruck (2007) 292


20.15. וַיֹּאמֶר הַקְשִׁיבוּ כָל־יְהוּדָה וְיֹשְׁבֵי יְרוּשָׁלִַם וְהַמֶּלֶךְ יְהוֹשָׁפָט כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה לָכֶם אַתֶּם אַל־תִּירְאוּ וְאַל־תֵּחַתּוּ מִפְּנֵי הֶהָמוֹן הָרָב הַזֶּה כִּי לֹא לָכֶם הַמִּלְחָמָה כִּי לֵאלֹהִים׃
31.17. וְאֵת הִתְיַחֵשׂ הַכֹּהֲנִים לְבֵית אֲבוֹתֵיהֶם וְהַלְוִיִּם מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וּלְמָעְלָה בְּמִשְׁמְרוֹתֵיהֶם בְּמַחְלְקוֹתֵיהֶם׃''. None
20.15. and he said: ‘Hearken ye, all Judah, and ye inhabitants of Jerusalem, and thou king Jehoshaphat: thus saith the LORD unto you: Fear not ye, neither be dismayed by reason of this great multitude; for the battle is not yours, but God’s.
31.17. and them that were reckoned by genealogy of the priests by their fathers’houses, and the Levites from twenty years old and upward, in their charges by their courses;''. None
36. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 7.1, 7.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Author, of 2 maccabees, Objective of • Moses, as legal authority • Oniad authorship, genealogy (high priestly succession)

 Found in books: Jassen (2014) 23; Piotrkowski (2019) 374; Schwartz (2008) 3


7.1. וְאַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה בְּמַלְכוּת אַרְתַּחְשַׁסְתְּא מֶלֶךְ־פָּרָס עֶזְרָא בֶּן־שְׂרָיָה בֶּן־עֲזַרְיָה בֶּן־חִלְקִיָּה׃
7.1. כִּי עֶזְרָא הֵכִין לְבָבוֹ לִדְרוֹשׁ אֶת־תּוֹרַת יְהוָה וְלַעֲשֹׂת וּלְלַמֵּד בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל חֹק וּמִשְׁפָּט׃
7.6. הוּא עֶזְרָא עָלָה מִבָּבֶל וְהוּא־סֹפֵר מָהִיר בְּתוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־נָתַן יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיִּתֶּן־לוֹ הַמֶּלֶךְ כְּיַד־יְהוָה אֱלֹהָיו עָלָיו כֹּל בַּקָּשָׁתוֹ׃''. None
7.1. Now after these things, in the reign of Artaxerxes king of Persia, Ezra the son of Seraiah, the son of Azariah, the son of Hilkiah,
7.6. this Ezra went up from Babylon; and he was a ready scribe in the Law of Moses, which the LORD, the God of Israel, had given; and the king granted him all his request, according to the hand of the LORD his God upon him.''. None
37. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.1-8.8, 8.13 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Book of Judith, author • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • Moses, as legal authority • Persian imperial authorities, and fiscal reforms of Nehemiah • Persian imperial authorities, and temple administration • Writing, Authoritative • authority, Pharisees • authority, human vs. divine/scriptural • authority, of Scripture • authority, of oral Law • authority, prophetic • authority, scribal • authority, scriptural • exegesis as basis for authority • oral Tora, human vs. divine source of authority • scripture as source of authority • textual authority, in the Hebrew Bible

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 407, 410; Gordon (2020) 116; Hayes (2022) 70; Jaffee (2001) 24; Jassen (2014) 23, 24; Levison (2009) 188; Najman (2010) 11


8.1. וַיֵּאָסְפוּ כָל־הָעָם כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד אֶל־הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמָּיִם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לְעֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר לְהָבִיא אֶת־סֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
8.1. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לְכוּ אִכְלוּ מַשְׁמַנִּים וּשְׁתוּ מַמְתַקִּים וְשִׁלְחוּ מָנוֹת לְאֵין נָכוֹן לוֹ כִּי־קָדוֹשׁ הַיּוֹם לַאֲדֹנֵינוּ וְאַל־תֵּעָצֵבוּ כִּי־חֶדְוַת יְהוָה הִיא מָעֻזְּכֶם׃ 8.2. וַיָּבִיא עֶזְרָא הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה לִפְנֵי הַקָּהָל מֵאִישׁ וְעַד־אִשָּׁה וְכֹל מֵבִין לִשְׁמֹעַ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד לַחֹדֶשׁ הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃ 8.3. וַיִּקְרָא־בוֹ לִפְנֵי הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמַּיִם מִן־הָאוֹר עַד־מַחֲצִית הַיּוֹם נֶגֶד הָאֲנָשִׁים וְהַנָּשִׁים וְהַמְּבִינִים וְאָזְנֵי כָל־הָעָם אֶל־סֵפֶר הַתּוֹרָה׃ 8.4. וַיַּעֲמֹד עֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר עַל־מִגְדַּל־עֵץ אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ לַדָּבָר וַיַּעֲמֹד אֶצְלוֹ מַתִּתְיָה וְשֶׁמַע וַעֲנָיָה וְאוּרִיָּה וְחִלְקִיָּה וּמַעֲשֵׂיָה עַל־יְמִינוֹ וּמִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ פְּדָיָה וּמִישָׁאֵל וּמַלְכִּיָּה וְחָשֻׁם וְחַשְׁבַּדָּנָה זְכַרְיָה מְשֻׁלָּם׃ 8.5. וַיִּפְתַּח עֶזְרָא הַסֵּפֶר לְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם כִּי־מֵעַל כָּל־הָעָם הָיָה וּכְפִתְחוֹ עָמְדוּ כָל־הָעָם׃ 8.6. וַיְבָרֶךְ עֶזְרָא אֶת־יְהוָה הָאֱלֹהִים הַגָּדוֹל וַיַּעֲנוּ כָל־הָעָם אָמֵן אָמֵן בְּמֹעַל יְדֵיהֶם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲוֻּ לַיהוָה אַפַּיִם אָרְצָה׃ 8.7. וְיֵשׁוּעַ וּבָנִי וְשֵׁרֵבְיָה יָמִין עַקּוּב שַׁבְּתַי הוֹדִיָּה מַעֲשֵׂיָה קְלִיטָא עֲזַרְיָה יוֹזָבָד חָנָן פְּלָאיָה וְהַלְוִיִּם מְבִינִים אֶת־הָעָם לַתּוֹרָה וְהָעָם עַל־עָמְדָם׃ 8.8. וַיִּקְרְאוּ בַסֵּפֶר בְּתוֹרַת הָאֱלֹהִים מְפֹרָשׁ וְשׂוֹם שֶׂכֶל וַיָּבִינוּ בַּמִּקְרָא׃

8.13. וּבַיּוֹם הַשֵּׁנִי נֶאֶסְפוּ רָאשֵׁי הָאָבוֹת לְכָל־הָעָם הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם אֶל־עֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר וּלְהַשְׂכִּיל אֶל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה׃' '. None
8.1. all the people gathered themselves together as one man into the broad place that was before the water gate; and they spoke unto Ezra the scribe to bring the book of the Law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded to Israel. 8.2. And Ezra the priest brought the Law before the congregation, both men and women, and all that could hear with understanding, upon the first day of the seventh month. 8.3. And he read therein before the broad place that was before the water gate from early morning until midday, in the presence of the men and the women, and of those that could understand; and the ears of all the people were attentive unto the book of the Law. 8.4. And Ezra the scribe stood upon a pulpit of wood, which they had made for the purpose; and beside him stood Mattithiah, and Shema, and Anaiah, and Uriah, and Hilkiah, and Maaseiah, on his right hand; and on his left hand, Pedaiah, and Mishael, and Malchijah, and Hashum, and Hashbaddanah, Zechariah, and Meshullam. 8.5. And Ezra opened the book in the sight of all the people—for he was above all the people—and when he opened it, all the people stood up. 8.6. And Ezra blessed the LORD, the great God. And all the people answered: ‘Amen, Amen’, with the lifting up of their hands; and they bowed their heads, and fell down before the LORD with their faces to the ground. 8.7. Also Jeshua, and Bani, and Sherebiah, Jamin, Akkub, Shabbethai, Hodiah, Maaseiah, Kelita, Azariah, Jozabad, Ha, Pelaiah, even the Levites, caused the people to understand the Law; and the people stood in their place. 8.8. And they read in the book, in the Law of God, distinctly; and they gave the sense, and caused them to understand the reading.

8.13. And on the second day were gathered together the heads of fathers’houses of all the people, the priests, and the Levites, unto Ezra the scribe, even to give attention to the words of the Law.' '. None
38. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 5.1-5.4, 10.2 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority(ies) • Jesus, authority of • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • Writing, Authoritative • authority

 Found in books: Levison (2009) 357; Najman (2010) 36, 37, 38; Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 3; Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 12


5.1. וָאָשׁוּב וָאֶשָּׂא עֵינַי וָאֶרְאֶה וְהִנֵּה מְגִלָּה עָפָה׃
5.1. וָאֹמַר אֶל־הַמַּלְאָךְ הַדֹּבֵר בִּי אָנָה הֵמָּה מוֹלִכוֹת אֶת־הָאֵיפָה׃ 5.2. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי מָה אַתָּה רֹאֶה וָאֹמַר אֲנִי רֹאֶה מְגִלָּה עָפָה אָרְכָּהּ עֶשְׂרִים בָּאַמָּה וְרָחְבָּהּ עֶשֶׂר בָּאַמָּה׃ 5.3. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי זֹאת הָאָלָה הַיּוֹצֵאת עַל־פְּנֵי כָל־הָאָרֶץ כִּי כָל־הַגֹּנֵב מִזֶּה כָּמוֹהָ נִקָּה וְכָל־הַנִּשְׁבָּע מִזֶּה כָּמוֹהָ נִקָּה׃ 5.4. הוֹצֵאתִיהָ נְאֻם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת וּבָאָה אֶל־בֵּית הַגַּנָּב וְאֶל־בֵּית הַנִּשְׁבָּע בִּשְׁמִי לַשָּׁקֶר וְלָנֶה בְּתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ וְכִלַּתּוּ וְאֶת־עֵצָיו וְאֶת־אֲבָנָיו׃
10.2. כִּי הַתְּרָפִים דִּבְּרוּ־אָוֶן וְהַקּוֹסְמִים חָזוּ שֶׁקֶר וַחֲלֹמוֹת הַשָּׁוא יְדַבֵּרוּ הֶבֶל יְנַחֵמוּן עַל־כֵּן נָסְעוּ כְמוֹ־צֹאן יַעֲנוּ כִּי־אֵין רֹעֶה׃''. None
5.1. Then again I lifted up mine eyes, and saw, and behold a flying scroll. 5.2. And he said unto me: ‘What seest thou?’ And I answered: ‘I see a flying scroll; the length thereof is twenty cubits, and the breadth thereof ten cubits.’ 5.3. Then said he unto me: ‘This is the curse that goeth forth over the face of the whole land; for every one that stealeth shall be swept away on the one side like it; and every one that sweareth shall be swept away on the other side like it. 5.4. I cause it to go forth, saith the LORD of hosts, and it shall enter into the house of the thief, and into the house of him that sweareth falsely by My name; and it shall abide in the midst of his house, and shall consume it with the timber thereof and the stones thereof.’
10.2. For the teraphim have spoken vanity, And the diviners have seen a lie, And the dreams speak falsely, They comfort in vain; Therefore they go their way like sheep, They are afflicted, because there is no shepherd.''. None
39. Herodotus, Histories, 1.44.2, 2.143, 3.40-3.43, 3.80-3.82, 4.16, 4.32-4.36, 6.81, 6.83, 6.128-6.131, 7.6.3, 7.141-7.144, 9.34, 9.78-9.79, 9.93-9.95 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Anonymus Iamblichi, authorship • Augustine, authority • Book of Judith, author • Derveni author • Epicurus, authority in the De Rerum Natura • Greek, authors • Hippocratic authors • Pausanias (author) • Titus Albucius, contrasted with author-figure • author • authority • authority, narrators • authority, of the experts • authors see also writers • divination, and authority • experts, expertise, Derveni author as expert • religious authority, experts (exegetes) • religious authority, seers/diviners (manteis) • religious authority, sorcerers/begging priests

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 237; Castagnoli and Ceccarelli (2019) 185; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 298, 299, 302; Gagné (2020) 308, 312, 316; Gera (2014) 397; Johnston and Struck (2005) 175, 179, 189, 200, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219; Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 136, 378; Kowalzig (2007) 123, 165, 166, 221; Morrison (2020) 44; Papadodima (2022) 14, 19, 23, 25; Wardy and Warren (2018) 237; Wolfsdorf (2020) 269; Yona (2018) 193; Álvarez (2019) 83, 135


2.143. πρότερον δὲ Ἑκαταίῳ τῷ λογοποιῷ ἐν Θήβῃσι γενεηλογήσαντί τε ἑωυτὸν καὶ ἀναδήσαντι τὴν πατριὴν ἐς ἑκκαιδέκατον θεὸν ἐποίησαν οἱ ἱρέες τοῦ Διὸς οἷόν τι καὶ ἐμοὶ οὐ γενεηλογήσαντι ἐμεωυτόν· ἐσαγαγόντες ἐς τὸ μέγαρον ἔσω ἐὸν μέγα ἐξηρίθμεον δεικνύντες κολοσσοὺς ξυλίνους τοσούτους ὅσους περ εἶπον· ἀρχιερεὺς γὰρ ἕκαστος αὐτόθι ἱστᾷ ἐπὶ τῆς ἑωυτοῦ ζόης εἰκόνα ἑωυτοῦ· ἀριθμέοντες ὦν καὶ δεικνύντες οἱ ἱρέες ἐμοὶ ἀπεδείκνυσαν παῖδα πατρὸς ἑωυτῶν ἕκαστον ἐόντα, ἐκ τοῦ ἄγχιστα ἀποθανόντος τῆς εἰκόνος διεξιόντες διὰ πασέων, ἕως οὗ ἀπέδεξαν ἁπάσας αὐτάς. Ἑκαταίῳ δὲ γενεηλογήσαντι ἑωυτὸν καὶ ἀναδήσαντι ἐς ἑκκαιδέκατον θεὸν ἀντεγενεηλόγησαν ἐπὶ τῇ ἀριθμήσι, οὐ δεκόμενοι παρʼ αὐτοῦ ἀπὸ θεοῦ γενέσθαι ἄνθρωπον· ἀντεγενεηλόγησαν δὲ ὧδε, φάμενοι ἕκαστον τῶν κολοσσῶν πίρωμιν ἐκ πιρώμιος γεγονέναι, ἐς ὃ τοὺς πέντε καὶ τεσσεράκοντα καὶ τριηκοσίους ἀπέδεξαν κολοσσούς πίρωμιν ἐπονομαζόμενον 1,καὶ οὔτε ἐς θεὸν οὔτε ἐς ἥρωα ἀνέδησαν αὐτούς. πίρωμις δὲ ἐστὶ κατὰ Ἑλλάδα γλῶσσαν καλὸς κἀγαθός.
3.40. καί κως τὸν Ἄμασιν εὐτυχέων μεγάλως ὁ Πολυκράτης οὐκ ἐλάνθανε, ἀλλά οἱ τοῦτʼ ἦν ἐπιμελές. πολλῷ δὲ ἔτι πλεῦνός οἱ εὐτυχίης γινομένης γράψας ἐς βυβλίον τάδε ἐπέστειλε ἐς Σάμον. “Ἄμασις Πολυκράτεϊ ὧδε λέγει. ἡδὺ μὲν πυνθάνεσθαι ἄνδρα φίλον καὶ ξεῖνον εὖ πρήσσοντα· ἐμοὶ δὲ αἱ σαὶ μεγάλαι εὐτυχίαι οὐκ ἀρέσκουσι, τὸ θεῖον ἐπισταμένῳ ὡς ἔστι φθονερόν· καί κως βούλομαι καὶ αὐτὸς καὶ τῶν ἂν κήδωμαι τὸ μέν τι εὐτυχέειν τῶν πρηγμάτων τὸ δὲ προσπταίειν, καὶ οὕτω διαφέρειν τὸν αἰῶνα ἐναλλὰξ πρήσσων ἢ εὐτυχέειν τὰ πάντα. οὐδένα γάρ κω λόγῳ οἶδα ἀκούσας ὅστις ἐς τέλος οὐ κακῶς ἐτελεύτησε πρόρριζος, εὐτυχέων τὰ πάντα. σύ νυν ἐμοὶ πειθόμενος ποίησον πρὸς τὰς εὐτυχίας τοιάδε· φροντίσας τὸ ἂν εὕρῃς ἐόν τοι πλείστου ἄξιον καὶ ἐπʼ ᾧ σὺ ἀπολομένῳ μάλιστα τὴν ψυχὴν ἀλγήσεις, τοῦτο ἀπόβαλε οὕτω ὅκως μηκέτι ἥξει ἐς ἀνθρώπους· ἤν τε μὴ ἐναλλὰξ ἤδη τὠπὸ τούτου αἱ εὐτυχίαι τοι τῇσι πάθῃσι προσπίπτωσι, τρόπῳ τῷ ἐξ ἐμεῦ ὑποκειμένῳ ἀκέο.” 3.41. ταῦτα ἐπιλεξάμενος ὁ Πολυκράτης καὶ νόῳ λαβὼν ὥς οἱ εὖ ὑπετίθετο Ἄμασις, ἐδίζητο ἐπʼ ᾧ ἂν μάλιστα τὴν ψυχὴν ἀσηθείη ἀπολομένῳ τῶν κειμηλίων, διζήμενος δὲ εὕρισκε τόδε. ἦν οἱ σφρηγὶς τὴν ἐφόρεε χρυσόδετος, σμαράγδου μὲν λίθου ἐοῦσα, ἔργον δὲ ἦν Θεοδώρου τοῦ Τηλεκλέος Σαμίου. ἐπεὶ ὦν ταύτην οἱ ἐδόκεε ἀποβαλεῖν, ἐποίεε τοιάδε· πεντηκόντερον πληρώσας ἀνδρῶν ἐσέβη ἐς αὐτήν, μετὰ δὲ ἀναγαγεῖν ἐκέλευε ἐς τὸ πέλαγος· ὡς δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς νήσου ἑκὰς ἐγένετο, περιελόμενος τὴν σφρηγῖδα πάντων ὁρώντων τῶν συμπλόων ῥίπτει ἐς τὸ πέλαγος. τοῦτο δὲ ποιήσας ἀπέπλεε, ἀπικόμενος δὲ ἐς τὰ οἰκία συμφορῇ ἐχρᾶτο. 3.42. πέμπτῃ δὲ ἢ ἕκτῃ ἡμέρῃ ἀπὸ τούτων τάδε οἱ συνήνεικε γενέσθαι. ἀνὴρ ἁλιεὺς λαβὼν ἰχθὺν μέγαν τε καὶ καλὸν ἠξίου μιν Πολυκράτεϊ δῶρον δοθῆναι· φέρων δὴ ἐπὶ τὰς θύρας Πολυκράτεϊ ἔφη ἐθέλειν ἐλθεῖν ἐς ὄψιν, χωρήσαντος δέ οἱ τούτου ἔλεγε διδοὺς τὸν ἰχθύν “ὦ βασιλεῦ, ἐγὼ τόνδε ἑλὼν οὐκ ἐδικαίωσα φέρειν ἐς ἀγορήν, καίπερ ἐὼν ἀποχειροβίοτος, ἀλλά μοι ἐδόκεε σεῦ τε εἶναι ἄξιος καὶ τῆς σῆς ἀρχῆς· σοὶ δή μιν φέρων δίδωμι.” ὁ δὲ ἡσθεὶς τοῖσι ἔπεσι ἀμείβεται τοῖσιδε. “κάρτα τε εὖ ἐποίησας καὶ χάρις διπλῆ τῶν τε λόγων καὶ τοῦ δώρου, καί σε ἐπὶ δεῖπνον καλέομεν.” ὃ μὲν δὴ ἁλιεὺς μέγα ποιεύμενος ταῦτα ἤιε ἐς τὰ οἰκία, τὸν δὲ ἰχθὺν τάμνοντες οἱ θεράποντες εὑρίσκουσι ἐν τῇ νηδύι αὐτοῦ ἐνεοῦσαν τὴν Πολυκράτεος σφρηγῖδα. ὡς δὲ εἶδόν τε καὶ ἔλαβον τάχιστα, ἔφερον κεχαρηκότες παρὰ τὸν Πολυκράτεα, διδόντες δέ οἱ τὴν σφρηγῖδα ἔλεγον ὅτεῳ τρόπῳ εὑρέθη. τὸν δὲ ὡς ἐσῆλθε θεῖον εἶναι τὸ πρῆγμα, γράφει ἐς βυβλίον πάντα τὰ ποιήσαντά μιν οἷα καταλελάβηκε, γράψας δὲ ἐς Αἴγυπτον ἐπέθηκε. 3.43. ἐπιλεξάμενος δὲ ὁ Ἄμασις τὸ βυβλίον τὸ παρὰ τοῦ Πολυκράτεος ἧκον, ἔμαθε ὅτι ἐκκομίσαι τε ἀδύνατον εἴη ἀνθρώπῳ ἄνθρωπον ἐκ τοῦ μέλλοντος γίνεσθαι πρήγματος, καὶ ὅτι οὐκ εὖ τελευτήσειν μέλλοι Πολυκράτης εὐτυχέων τὰ πάντα, ὃς καὶ τὰ ἀποβάλλει εὑρίσκει. πέμψας δέ οἱ κήρυκα ἐς Σάμον διαλύεσθαι ἔφη τὴν ξεινίην. τοῦδε δὲ εἵνεκεν ταῦτα ἐποίεε, ἵνα μὴ συντυχίης δεινῆς τε καὶ μεγάλης Πολυκράτεα καταλαβούσης αὐτὸς ἀλγήσειε τὴν ψυχὴν ὡς περὶ ξείνου ἀνδρός.
3.80. ἐπείτε δὲ κατέστη ὁ θόρυβος καὶ ἐκτὸς πέντε ἡμερέων ἐγένετο, ἐβουλεύοντο οἱ ἐπαναστάντες τοῖσι Μάγοισι περὶ τῶν πάντων πρηγμάτων καὶ ἐλέχθησαν λόγοι ἄπιστοι μὲν ἐνίοισι Ἑλλήνων, ἐλέχθησαν δʼ ὦν. Ὀτάνης μὲν ἐκέλευε ἐς μέσον Πέρσῃσι καταθεῖναι τὰ πρήγματα, λέγων τάδε. “ἐμοὶ δοκέει ἕνα μὲν ἡμέων μούναρχον μηκέτι γενέσθαι. οὔτε γὰρ ἡδὺ οὔτε ἀγαθόν. εἴδετε μὲν γὰρ τὴν Καμβύσεω ὕβριν ἐπʼ ὅσον ἐπεξῆλθε, μετεσχήκατε δὲ καὶ τῆς τοῦ Μάγου ὕβριος. κῶς δʼ ἂν εἴη χρῆμα κατηρτημένον μουναρχίη, τῇ ἔξεστι ἀνευθύνῳ ποιέειν τὰ βούλεται; καὶ γὰρ ἂν τὸν ἄριστον ἀνδρῶν πάντων στάντα ἐς ταύτην ἐκτὸς τῶν ἐωθότων νοημάτων στήσειε. ἐγγίνεται μὲν γάρ οἱ ὕβρις ὑπὸ τῶν παρεόντων ἀγαθῶν, φθόνος δὲ ἀρχῆθεν ἐμφύεται ἀνθρώπῳ. δύο δʼ ἔχων ταῦτα ἔχει πᾶσαν κακότητα· τὰ μὲν γὰρ ὕβρι κεκορημένος ἔρδει πολλὰ καὶ ἀτάσθαλα, τὰ δὲ φθόνῳ. καίτοι ἄνδρα γε τύραννον ἄφθονον ἔδει εἶναι, ἔχοντά γε πάντα τὰ ἀγαθά. τὸ δὲ ὑπεναντίον τούτου ἐς τοὺς πολιήτας πέφυκε· φθονέει γὰρ τοῖσι ἀρίστοισι περιεοῦσί τε καὶ ζώουσι, χαίρει δὲ τοῖσι κακίστοισι τῶν ἀστῶν, διαβολὰς δὲ ἄριστος ἐνδέκεσθαι. ἀναρμοστότατον δὲ πάντων· ἤν τε γὰρ αὐτὸν μετρίως θωμάζῃς, ἄχθεται ὅτι οὐ κάρτα θεραπεύεται, ἤν τε θεραπεύῃ τις κάρτα, ἄχθεται ἅτε θωπί. τὰ δὲ δὴ μέγιστα ἔρχομαι ἐρέων· νόμαιά τε κινέει πάτρια καὶ βιᾶται γυναῖκας κτείνει τε ἀκρίτους. πλῆθος δὲ ἄρχον πρῶτα μὲν οὔνομα πάντων κάλλιστον ἔχει, ἰσονομίην, δεύτερα δὲ τούτων τῶν ὁ μούναρχος ποιέει οὐδέν· πάλῳ μὲν ἀρχὰς ἄρχει, ὑπεύθυνον δὲ ἀρχὴν ἔχει, βουλεύματα δὲ πάντα ἐς τὸ κοινὸν ἀναφέρει. τίθεμαι ὦν γνώμην μετέντας ἡμέας μουναρχίην τὸ πλῆθος ἀέξειν· ἐν γὰρ τῷ πολλῷ ἔνι τὰ πάντα.” 3.81. Ὀτάνης μὲν δὴ ταύτην γνώμην ἐσέφερε· Μεγάβυζος δὲ ὀλιγαρχίῃ ἐκέλευε ἐπιτρέπειν, λέγων τάδε. “τὰ μὲν Ὀτάνης εἶπε τυραννίδα παύων, λελέχθω κἀμοὶ ταῦτα, τὰ δʼ ἐς τὸ πλῆθος ἄνωγε φέρειν τὸ κράτος, γνώμης τῆς ἀρίστης ἡμάρτηκε· ὁμίλου γὰρ ἀχρηίου οὐδέν ἐστι ἀξυνετώτερον οὐδὲ ὑβριστότερον. καίτοι τυράννου ὕβριν φεύγοντας ἄνδρας ἐς δήμου ἀκολάστου ὕβριν πεσεῖν ἐστὶ οὐδαμῶς ἀνασχετόν. ὃ μὲν γὰρ εἴ τι ποιέει, γινώσκων ποιέει, τῷ δὲ οὐδὲ γινώσκειν ἔνι· κῶς γὰρ ἂν γινώσκοι ὃς οὔτʼ ἐδιδάχθη οὔτε εἶδε καλὸν οὐδὲν οἰκήιον, 1 ὠθέει τε ἐμπεσὼν τὰ πρήγματα ἄνευ νόου, χειμάρρῳ ποταμῷ εἴκελος; δήμῳ μέν νυν, οἳ Πέρσῃσι κακὸν νοέουσι, οὗτοι χράσθων, ἡμεῖς δὲ ἀνδρῶν τῶν ἀρίστων ἐπιλέξαντες ὁμιλίην τούτοισι περιθέωμεν τὸ κράτος· ἐν γὰρ δὴ τούτοισι καὶ αὐτοὶ ἐνεσόμεθα· ἀρίστων δὲ ἀνδρῶν οἰκὸς ἄριστα βουλεύματα γίνεσθαι.” 3.82. Μεγάβυζος μὲν δὴ ταύτην γνώμην ἐσέφερε· τρίτος δὲ Δαρεῖος ἀπεδείκνυτο γνώμην, λέγων “ἐμοὶ δὲ τὰ μὲν εἶπε Μεγάβυζος ἐς τὸ πλῆθος ἔχοντα δοκέει ὀρθῶς λέξαι, τὰ δὲ ἐς ὀλιγαρχίην οὐκ ὀρθῶς. τριῶν γὰρ προκειμένων καὶ πάντων τῷ λόγῳ ἀρίστων ἐόντων, δήμου τε ἀρίστου καὶ ὀλιγαρχίης καὶ μουνάρχου, πολλῷ τοῦτο προέχειν λέγω. ἀνδρὸς γὰρ ἑνὸς τοῦ ἀρίστου οὐδὲν ἄμεινον ἂν φανείη· γνώμῃ γὰρ τοιαύτῃ χρεώμενος ἐπιτροπεύοι ἂν ἀμωμήτως τοῦ πλήθεος, σιγῷτό τε ἂν βουλεύματα ἐπὶ δυσμενέας ἄνδρας οὕτω μάλιστα. ἐν δὲ ὀλιγαρχίῃ πολλοῖσι ἀρετὴν ἐπασκέουσι ἐς τὸ κοινὸν ἔχθεα ἴδια ἰσχυρὰ φιλέει ἐγγίνεσθαι· αὐτὸς γὰρ ἕκαστος βουλόμενος κορυφαῖος εἶναι γνώμῃσί τε νικᾶν ἐς ἔχθεα μεγάλα ἀλλήλοισι ἀπικνέονται, ἐξ ὧν στάσιες ἐγγίνονται, ἐκ δὲ τῶν στασίων φόνος· ἐκ δὲ τοῦ φόνου ἀπέβη ἐς μουναρχίην, καὶ ἐν τούτῳ διέδεξε ὅσῳ ἐστὶ τοῦτο ἄριστον. δήμου τε αὖ ἄρχοντος ἀδύνατα μὴ οὐ κακότητα ἐγγίνεσθαι· κακότητος τοίνυν ἐγγινομένης ἐς τὰ κοινὰ ἔχθεα μὲν οὐκ ἐγγίνεται τοῖσι κακοῖσι, φιλίαι δὲ ἰσχυραί· οἱ γὰρ κακοῦντες τὰ κοινὰ συγκύψαντες ποιεῦσι. τοῦτο δὲ τοιοῦτο γίνεται ἐς ὃ ἂν προστάς τις τοῦ δήμου τοὺς τοιούτους παύσῃ. ἐκ δὲ αὐτῶν θωμάζεται οὗτος δὴ ὑπὸ τοῦ δήμου, θωμαζόμενος δὲ ἀνʼ ὦν ἐφάνη μούναρχος ἐών, καὶ ἐν τούτῳ δηλοῖ καὶ οὗτος ὡς ἡ μουναρχίη κράτιστον. ἑνὶ δὲ ἔπεϊ πάντα συλλαβόντα εἰπεῖν, κόθεν ἡμῖν ἡ ἐλευθερίη ἐγένετο καὶ τεῦ δόντος; κότερα παρὰ τοῦ δήμου ἢ ὀλιγαρχίης ἢ μουνάρχου; ἔχω τοίνυν γνώμην ἡμέας ἐλευθερωθέντας διὰ ἕνα ἄνδρα τὸ τοιοῦτο περιστέλλειν, χωρίς τε τούτου πατρίους νόμους μὴ λύειν ἔχοντας εὖ· οὐ γὰρ ἄμεινον.”
4.16. τῆς δὲ γῆς, τῆς πέρι ὅδε ὁ λόγος ὅρμηται λέγεσθαι, οὐδεὶς οἶδε ἀτρεκέως ὃ τι τὸ κατύπερθε ἐστί· οὐδενὸς γὰρ δὴ αὐτόπτεω εἰδέναι φαμένου δύναμαι πυθέσθαι· οὐδὲ γὰρ οὐδὲ Ἀριστέης, τοῦ περ ὀλίγῳ πρότερον τούτων μνήμην ἐποιεύμην, οὐδὲ οὗτος προσωτέρω Ἰσσηδόνων ἐν αὐτοῖσι τοῖσι ἔπεσι ποιέων ἔφησε ἀπικέσθαι, ἀλλὰ τὰ κατύπερθε ἔλεγε ἀκοῇ, φασʼ Ἰσσηδόνας εἶναι τοὺς ταῦτα λέγοντας. ἀλλʼ ὅσον μὲν ἡμεῖς ἀτρεκέως ἐπὶ μακρότατον οἷοι τε ἐγενόμεθα ἀκοῇ ἐξικέσθαι, πᾶν εἰρήσεται.
4.32. Ὑπερβορέων δὲ πέρι ἀνθρώπων οὔτε τι Σκύθαι λέγουσι οὐδὲν οὔτε τινὲς ἄλλοι τῶν ταύτῃ οἰκημένων, εἰ μὴ ἄρα Ἰσσηδόνες. ὡς δὲ ἐγὼ δοκέω, οὐδʼ οὗτοι λέγουσι οὐδέν· ἔλεγον γὰρ ἂν καὶ Σκύθαι, ὡς περὶ τῶν μουνοφθάλμων λέγουσι. ἀλλʼ Ἡσιόδῳ μὲν ἐστὶ περὶ Ὑπερβορέων εἰρημένα, ἔστι δὲ καὶ Ὁμήρῳ ἐν Ἐπιγόνοισι, εἰ δὴ τῷ ἐόντι γε Ὅμηρος ταῦτα τὰ ἔπεα ἐποίησε. 4.33. πολλῷ δέ τι πλεῖστα περὶ αὐτῶν Δήλιοι λέγουσι, φάμενοι ἱρὰ ἐνδεδεμένα ἐν καλάμῃ πυρῶν ἐξ Ὑπερβορέων φερόμενα ἀπικνέεσθαι ἐς Σκύθας, ἀπὸ δὲ Σκυθέων ἤδη δεκομένους αἰεὶ τοὺς πλησιοχώρους ἑκάστους κομίζειν αὐτὰ τὸ πρὸς ἑσπέρης ἑκαστάτω ἐπὶ τὸν Ἀδρίην, ἐνθεῦτεν δὲ πρὸς μεσαμβρίην προπεμπόμενα πρώτους Δωδωναίους Ἑλλήνων δέκεσθαι, ἀπὸ δὲ τούτων καταβαίνειν ἐπὶ τὸν Μηλιέα κόλπον καὶ διαπορεύεσθαι ἐς Εὔβοιαν, πόλιν τε ἐς πόλιν πέμπειν μέχρι Καρύστου, τὸ δʼ ἀπὸ ταύτης ἐκλιπεῖν Ἄνδρον· Καρυστίους γὰρ εἶναι τοὺς κομίζοντας ἐς Τῆνον, Τηνίους δὲ ἐς Δῆλον. ἀπικνέεσθαι μέν νυν οὕτω ταῦτα τὰ ἱρὰ λέγουσι ἐς Δῆλον· πρῶτον δὲ τοὺς Ὑπερβορέους πέμψαι φερούσας τὰ ἱρὰ δὺο κόρας, τὰς ὀνομάζουσι Δήλιοι εἶναι Ὑπερόχην τε καὶ Λαοδίκην· ἅμα δὲ αὐτῇσι ἀσφαλείης εἵνεκεν πέμψαι τοὺς Ὑπερβορέους τῶν ἀστῶν ἄνδρας πέντε πομπούς, τούτους οἳ νῦν Περφερέες καλέονται τιμὰς μεγάλας ἐν Δήλῳ ἔχοντες. ἐπεὶ δὲ τοῖσι Ὑπερβορέοισι τοὺς ἀποπεμφθέντας ὀπίσω οὐκ ἀπονοστέειν, δεινὰ ποιευμένους εἰ σφέας αἰεὶ καταλάμψεται ἀποστέλλοντας μὴ ἀποδέκεσθαι, οὕτω δὴ φέροντας ἐς τοὺς οὔρους τὰ ἱρὰ ἐνδεδεμένα ἐν πυρῶν καλάμῃ τοὺς πλησιοχώρους ἐπισκήπτειν κελεύοντας προπέμπειν σφέα ἀπὸ ἑωυτῶν ἐς ἄλλο ἔθνος. καὶ ταῦτα μὲν οὕτω προπεμπόμενα ἀπικνέεσθαι λέγουσι ἐς Δῆλον. οἶδα δὲ αὐτὸς τούτοισι τοῖσι ἱροῖσι τόδε ποιεύμενον προσφερές, τὰς Θρηικίας καὶ τὰς Παιονίδας γυναῖκας, ἐπεὰν θύωσι τῇ Ἀρτέμιδι τῇ βασιλείῃ, οὐκ ἄνευ πυρῶν καλάμης ἐχούσας τὰ ἱρά. 4.34. καὶ ταῦτα μὲν δὴ ταύτας οἶδα ποιεύσας· τῇσι δὲ παρθένοισι ταύτῃσι τῇσι ἐξ Ὑπερβορέων τελευτησάσῃσι ἐν Δήλῳ κείρονται καὶ αἱ κόραι καὶ οἱ παῖδες οἱ Δηλίων· αἱ μὲν πρὸ γάμου πλόκαμον ἀποταμνόμεναι καὶ περὶ ἄτρακτον εἱλίξασαι ἐπὶ τὸ σῆμα τιθεῖσι ʽτὸ δὲ σῆμα ἐστὶ ἔσω ἐς τὸ Ἀρτεμίσιον ἐσιόντι ἀριστερῆς χειρός, ἐπιπέφυκε δέ οἱ ἐλαίἠ, ὅσοι δὲ παῖδες τῶν Δηλίων, περὶ χλόην τινὰ εἱλίξαντες τῶν τριχῶν τιθεῖσι καὶ οὗτοι ἐπὶ τὸ σῆμα. 4.35. αὗται μὲν δὴ ταύτην τιμὴν ἔχουσι πρὸς τῶν Δήλου οἰκητόρων. φασὶ δὲ οἱ αὐτοὶ οὗτοι καὶ τὴν Ἄργην τε καὶ τὴν Ὦπιν ἐούσας παρθένους ἐξ Ὑπερβορέων κατὰ τοὺς αὐτοὺς τούτους ἀνθρώπους πορευομένας ἀπικέσθαι ἐς Δῆλον ἔτι πρότερον Ὑπερόχης τε καὶ Λαοδίκης. ταύτας μέν νυν τῇ Εἰλειθυίῃ ἀποφερούσας ἀντὶ τοῦ ὠκυτόκου τὸν ἐτάξαντο φόρον ἀπικέσθαι, τὴν δὲ Ἄργην τε καὶ τὴν Ὦπιν ἅμα αὐτοῖσι θεοῖσι ἀπικέσθαι λέγουσι καὶ σφι τιμὰς ἄλλας δεδόσθαι πρὸς σφέων· καὶ γὰρ ἀγείρειν σφι τὰς γυναῖκας ἐπονομαζούσας τὰ οὐνόματα ἐν τῷ ὕμνῳ τόν σφι Ὠλὴν ἀνὴρ Λύκιος ἐποίησε, παρὰ δὲ σφέων μαθόντας νησιώτας τε καὶ Ἴωνας ὑμνέειν Ὦπίν τε καὶ Ἄργην ὀνομάζοντάς τε καὶ ἀγείροντας ʽοὗτος δὲ ὁ Ὠλὴν καὶ τοὺς ἄλλους τοὺς παλαιοὺς ὕμνους ἐποίησε ἐκ Λυκίης ἐλθὼν τοὺς ἀειδομένους ἐν Δήλᾠ, καὶ τῶν μηρίων καταγιζομένων ἐπὶ τῷ βωμῷ τὴν σποδὸν ταύτην ἐπὶ τὴν θήκην τῆς Ὤπιός τε καὶ Ἄργης ἀναισιμοῦσθαι ἐπιβαλλομένην. ἡ δὲ θήκη αὐτέων ἐστὶ ὄπισθε τοῦ Ἀρτεμισίου, πρὸς ἠῶ τετραμμένη, ἀγχοτάτω τοῦ Κηίων ἱστιητορίου. 4.36. καὶ ταῦτα μὲν Ὑπερβορέων πέρι εἰρήσθω· τὸν γὰρ περὶ Ἀβάριος λόγον τοῦ λεγομένου εἶναι Ὑπερβορέου οὐ λέγω, ὡς 1 τὸν ὀιστὸν περιέφερε κατὰ πᾶσαν γῆν οὐδὲν σιτεόμενος. εἰ δὲ εἰσὶ ὑπερβόρεοι τινὲς ἄνθρωποι, εἰσὶ καὶ ὑπερνότιοι ἄλλοι. γελῶ δὲ ὁρέων γῆς περιόδους γράψαντας πολλοὺς ἤδη καὶ οὐδένα νοονεχόντως ἐξηγησάμενον· οἳ Ὠκεανόν τε ῥέοντα γράφουσι πέριξ τὴν γῆν ἐοῦσαν κυκλοτερέα ὡς ἀπὸ τόρνου, καὶ τὴν Ἀσίην τῇ Εὐρώπῃ ποιεύντων ἴσην. ἐν ὀλίγοισι γὰρ ἐγὼ δηλώσω μέγαθός τε ἑκάστης αὐτέων καὶ οἵη τις ἐστὶ ἐς γραφὴν ἑκάστη.
6.81. μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ὁ Κλεομένης τὴν μὲν πλέω στρατιὴν ἀπῆκε ἀπιέναι ἐς Σπάρτην, χιλίους δὲ αὐτὸς λαβὼν τοὺς ἀριστέας ἤιε ἐς τὸ Ἥραιον θύσων· βουλόμενον δὲ αὐτὸν θύειν ἐπὶ τοῦ βωμοῦ ὁ ἱρεὺς ἀπηγόρευε, φὰς οὐκ ὅσιον εἶναι ξείνῳ αὐτόθι θύειν. ὁ δὲ Κλεομένης τὸν ἱρέα ἐκέλευε τοὺς εἵλωτας ἀπὸ τοῦ βωμοῦ ἀπάγοντας μαστιγῶσαι, καὶ αὐτὸς ἔθυσε· ποιήσας δὲ ταῦτα ἀπήιε ἐς τὴν Σπάρτην.
6.83. Ἄργος δὲ ἀνδρῶν ἐχηρώθη οὕτω ὥστε οἱ δοῦλοι αὐτῶν ἔσχον πάντα τὰ πρήγματα ἄρχοντές τε καὶ διέποντες, ἐς ὃ ἐπήβησαν οἱ τῶν ἀπολομένων παῖδες· ἔπειτα σφέας οὗτοι ἀνακτώμενοι ὀπίσω ἐς ἑωυτοὺς τὸ Ἄργος ἐξέβαλον· ἐξωθεύμενοι δὲ οἱ δοῦλοι μάχῃ ἔσχον Τίρυνθα. τέως μὲν δή σφι ἦν ἄρθμια ἐς ἀλλήλους, ἔπειτα δὲ ἐς τοὺς δούλους ἦλθε ἀνὴρ μάντις Κλέανδρος, γένος ἐὼν Φιγαλεὺς ἀπʼ Ἀρκαδίης· οὗτος τοὺς δούλους ἀνέγνωσε ἐπιθέσθαι τοῖσι δεσπότῃσι. ἐκ τούτου δὴ πόλεμός σφι ἦν ἐπὶ χρόνον συχνόν, ἐς ὃ δὴ μόγις οἱ Ἀργεῖοι ἐπεκράτησαν.
6.128. τοσοῦτοι μὲν ἐγένοντο οἱ μνηστῆρες. ἀπικομένων δὲ τούτων ἐς τὴν προειρημένην ἡμέρην, ὁ Κλεισθένης πρῶτα μὲν τὰς πάτρας τε αὐτῶν ἀνεπύθετο καὶ γένος ἑκάστου, μετὰ δὲ κατέχων ἐνιαυτὸν διεπειρᾶτο αὐτῶν τῆς τε ἀνδραγαθίης καὶ τῆς ὀργῆς καὶ παιδεύσιός τε καὶ τρόπου, καὶ ἑνὶ ἑκάστῳ ἰὼν ἐς συνουσίην καὶ συνάπασι, καὶ ἐς γυμνάσιά τε ἐξαγινέων ὅσοι ἦσαν αὐτῶν νεώτεροι, καὶ τό γε μέγιστον, ἐν τῇ συνεστίῃ διεπειρᾶτο· ὅσον γὰρ κατεῖχε χρόνον αὐτούς, τοῦτον πάντα ἐποίεε καὶ ἅμα ἐξείνιζε μεγαλοπρεπέως. καὶ δή κου μάλιστα τῶν μνηστήρων ἠρέσκοντο οἱ ἀπʼ Ἀθηνέων ἀπιγμένοι, καὶ τούτων μᾶλλον Ἱπποκλείδης ὁ Τισάνδρου καὶ κατʼ ἀνδραγαθίην ἐκρίνετο καὶ ὅτι τὸ ἀνέκαθεν τοῖσι ἐν Κορίνθῳ Κυψελίδῃσι ἦν προσήκων. 6.129. ὡς δὲ ἡ κυρίη ἐγένετο τῶν ἡμερέων τῆς τε κατακλίσιος τοῦ γάμου καὶ ἐκφάσιος αὐτοῦ Κλεισθένεος τὸν κρίνοι ἐκ πάντων, θύσας βοῦς ἑκατὸν ὁ Κλεισθένης εὐώχεε αὐτούς τε τοὺς μνηστῆρας καὶ Σικυωνίους πάντας. ὡς δὲ ἀπὸ δείπνου ἐγίνοντο, οἱ μνηστῆρες ἔριν εἶχον ἀμφί τε μουσικῇ καὶ τῷ λεγομένῳ ἐς τὸ μέσον. προϊούσης δὲ τῆς πόσιος κατέχων πολλὸν τοὺς ἄλλους ὁ Ἱπποκλείδης ἐκέλευσέ οἱ τὸν αὐλητὴν αὐλῆσαι ἐμμελείην, πειθομένου δὲ τοῦ αὐλητέω ὀρχήσατο. καί κως ἑωυτῷ μὲν ἀρεστῶς ὀρχέετο, ὁ Κλεισθένης δὲ ὁρέων ὅλον τὸ πρῆγμα ὑπώπτευε. μετὰ δὲ ἐπισχὼν ὁ Ἱπποκλείδης χρόνον ἐκέλευσε τινὰ τράπεζαν ἐσενεῖκαι, ἐσελθούσης δὲ τῆς τραπέζης πρῶτα μὲν ἐπʼ αὐτῆς ὀρχήσατο Λακωνικὰ σχημάτια, μετὰ δὲ ἄλλα Ἀττικά, τὸ τρίτον δὲ τὴν κεφαλὴν ἐρείσας ἐπὶ τὴν τράπεζαν τοῖσι σκέλεσι ἐχειρονόμησε. Κλεισθένης δὲ τὰ μὲν πρῶτα καὶ τὰ δεύτερα ὀρχεομένου, ἀποστυγέων γαμβρὸν ἄν οἱ ἔτι γενέσθαι Ἱπποκλείδεα διὰ τήν τε ὄρχησιν καὶ τὴν ἀναιδείην, κατεῖχε ἑωυτόν, οὐ βουλόμενος ἐκραγῆναι ἐς αὐτόν· ὡς δὲ εἶδε τοῖσι σκέλεσι χειρονομήσαντα, οὐκέτι κατέχειν δυνάμενος εἶπε “ὦ παῖ Τισάνδρου, ἀπορχήσαό γε μὲν τὸν γάμον.” ὁ δὲ Ἱπποκλείδης ὑπολαβὼν εἶπε “οὐ φροντὶς Ἱπποκλείδῃ.” ἀπὸ τούτου μὲν τοῦτο ὀνομάζεται. 6.130. Κλεισθένης δὲ σιγὴν ποιησάμενος ἔλεξε ἐς μέσον τάδε. “ἄνδρες παιδὸς τῆς ἐμῆς μνηστῆρες, ἐγὼ καὶ πάντας ὑμέας ἐπαινέω καὶ πᾶσι ὑμῖν, εἰ οἷόν τε εἴη, χαριζοίμην ἄν, μήτʼ ἕνα ὑμέων ἐξαίρετον ἀποκρίνων μήτε τοὺς λοιποὺς ἀποδοκιμάζων. ἀλλʼ οὐ γὰρ οἷά τε ἐστὶ μιῆς πέρι παρθένου βουλεύοντα πᾶσι κατὰ νόον ποιέειν, τοῖσι μὲν ὑμέων ἀπελαυνομένοισι τοῦδε τοῦ γάμου τάλαντον ἀργυρίου ἑκάστῳ δωρεὴν δίδωμι τῆς ἀξιώσιος εἵνεκα τῆς ἐξ ἐμεῦ γῆμαι καὶ τῆς ἐξ οἴκου ἀποδημίης, τῷ δὲ Ἀλκμέωνος Μεγακλέι ἐγγυῶ παῖδα τὴν ἐμὴν Ἀγαρίστην νόμοισι τοῖσι Ἀθηναίων.” φαμένου δὲ ἐγγυᾶσθαι Μεγακλέος ἐκεκύρωτο ὁ γάμος Κλεισθένεϊ. 6.131. ἀμφὶ μὲν κρίσιος τῶν μνηστήρων τοσαῦτα ἐγένετο καὶ οὕτω Ἀλκμεωνίδαι ἐβώσθησαν ἀνὰ τὴν Ἑλλάδα. τούτων δὲ συνοικησάντων γίνεται Κλεισθένης τε ὁ τὰς φυλὰς καὶ τὴν δημοκρατίην Ἀθηναίοισι καταστήσας, ἔχων τὸ οὔνομα ἀπὸ τοῦ μητροπάτορος τοῦ Σικυωνίου· οὗτός τε δὴ γίνεται Μεγακλέϊ καὶ Ἱπποκράτης, ἐκ δὲ Ἱπποκράτεος Μεγακλέης τε ἄλλος καὶ Ἀγαρίστη ἄλλη ἀπὸ τῆς Κλεισθένεος Ἀγαρίστης ἔχουσα τὸ οὔνομα· ἣ συνοικήσασά τε Ξανθίππῳ τῷ Ἀρίφρονος καὶ ἔγκυος ἐοῦσα εἶδε ὄψιν ἐν τῷ ὕπνῳ, ἐδόκεε δὲ λέοντα τεκεῖν, καὶ μετʼ ὀλίγας ἡμέρας τίκτει Περικλέα Ξανθίππῳ.
7.141. ταῦτα ἀκούσαντες οἱ τῶν Ἀθηναίων θεοπρόποι συμφορῇ τῇ μεγίστῃ ἐχρέωντο. προβάλλουσι δὲ σφέας αὐτοὺς ὑπὸ τοῦ κακοῦ τοῦ κεχρησμένου, Τίμων ὁ Ἀνδροβούλου, τῶν Δελφῶν ἀνὴρ δόκιμος ὅμοια τῷ μάλιστα, συνεβούλευέ σφι ἱκετηρίην λαβοῦσι δεύτερα αὖτις ἐλθόντας χρᾶσθαι τῷ χρηστηρίῳ ὡς ἱκέτας. πειθομένοισι δὲ ταῦτα τοῖσι Ἀθηναίοισι καὶ λέγουσι “ὦναξ, χρῆσον ἡμῖν ἄμεινόν τι περὶ τῆς πατρίδος, αἰδεσθεὶς τὰς ἱκετηρίας τάσδε τάς τοι ἥκομεν φέροντες, ἢ οὔ τοι ἄπιμεν ἐκ τοῦ ἀδύτου, ἀλλʼ αὐτοῦ τῇδε μενέομεν ἔστʼ ἂν καὶ τελευτήσωμεν,” ταῦτα δὲ λέγουσι ἡ πρόμαντις χρᾷ δεύτερα τάδε. οὐ δύναται Παλλὰς Δίʼ Ὀλύμπιον ἐξιλάσασθαι λισσομένη πολλοῖσι λόγοις καὶ μήτιδι πυκνῇ. σοὶ δὲ τόδʼ αὖτις ἔπος ἐρέω ἀδάμαντι πελάσσας. τῶν ἄλλων γὰρ ἁλισκομένων ὅσα Κέκροπος οὖρος ἐντὸς ἔχει κευθμών τε Κιθαιρῶνος ζαθέοιο, τεῖχος Τριτογενεῖ ξύλινον διδοῖ εὐρύοπα Ζεύς μοῦνον ἀπόρθητον τελέθειν, τὸ σὲ τέκνα τʼ ὀνήσει. μηδὲ σύ γʼ ἱπποσύνην τε μένειν καὶ πεζὸν ἰόντα πολλὸν ἀπʼ ἠπείρου στρατὸν ἥσυχος, ἀλλʼ ὑποχωρεῖν νῶτον ἐπιστρέψας· ἔτι τοι ποτε κἀντίος ἔσσῃ. ὦ θείη Σαλαμίς, ἀπολεῖς δὲ σὺ τέκνα γυναικῶν ἤ που σκιδναμένης Δημήτερος ἢ συνιούσης. 7.142. ταῦτα σφι ἠπιώτερα γὰρ τῶν προτέρων καὶ ἦν καὶ ἐδόκεε εἶναι, συγγραψάμενοι ἀπαλλάσσοντο ἐς τὰς Ἀθήνας. ὡς δὲ ἀπελθόντες οἱ θεοπρόποι ἀπήγγελλον ἐς τὸν δῆμον, γνῶμαι καὶ ἄλλαι πολλαὶ γίνονται διζημένων τὸ μαντήιον καὶ αἵδε συνεστηκυῖαι μάλιστα. τῶν πρεσβυτέρων ἔλεγον μετεξέτεροι δοκέειν σφίσι τὸν θεὸν τὴν ἀκρόπολιν χρῆσαι περιέσεσθαι. ἡ γὰρ ἀκρόπολις τὸ πάλαι τῶν Ἀθηναίων ῥηχῷ ἐπέφρακτο. οἳ μὲν δὴ κατὰ τὸν φραγμὸν συνεβάλλοντο τοῦτο τὸ ξύλινον τεῖχος εἶναι, οἳ δʼ αὖ ἔλεγον τὰς νέας σημαίνειν τὸν θεόν, καὶ ταύτας παραρτέεσθαι ἐκέλευον τὰ ἄλλα ἀπέντας. τοὺς ὦν δὴ τὰς νέας λέγοντας εἶναι τὸ ξύλινον τεῖχος ἔσφαλλε τὰ δύο τὰ τελευταῖα ῥηθέντα ὑπὸ τῆς Πυθίης, ὦ θείη Σαλαμίς, ἀπολεῖς δὲ σὺ τέκνα γυναικῶν ἤ που σκιδναμένης Δημήτερος ἢ συνιούσης. κατὰ ταῦτα τὰ ἔπεα συνεχέοντο αἱ γνῶμαι τῶν φαμένων τὰς νέας τὸ ξύλινον τεῖχος εἶναι· οἱ γὰρ χρησμολόγοι ταύτῃ ταῦτα ἐλάμβανον, ὡς ἀμφὶ Σαλαμῖνα δεῖ σφεας ἑσσωθῆναι ναυμαχίην παρασκευασαμένους. 7.143. ἦν δὲ τῶν τις Ἀθηναίων ἀνὴρ ἐς πρώτους νεωστὶ παριών, τῷ οὔνομα μὲν ἦν Θεμιστοκλέης, παῖς δὲ Νεοκλέος ἐκαλέετο. οὗτος ὡνὴρ οὐκ ἔφη πᾶν ὀρθῶς τοὺς χρησμολόγους συμβάλλεσθαι, λέγων τοιάδε· εἰ ἐς Ἀθηναίους εἶχε τὸ ἔπος εἰρημένον ἐόντως, οὐκ ἂν οὕτω μιν δοκέειν ἠπίως χρησθῆναι, ἀλλὰ ὧδε “ὦ σχετλίη Σαλαμίσ” ἀντὶ τοῦ “ὦ θείη Σαλαμίς,” εἴ πέρ γε ἔμελλον οἱ οἰκήτορες ἀμφʼ αὐτῇ τελευτήσειν· ἀλλὰ γὰρ ἐς τοὺς πολεμίους τῷ θεῷ εἰρῆσθαι τὸ χρηστήριον συλλαμβάνοντι κατὰ τὸ ὀρθόν, ἀλλʼ οὐκ ἐς Ἀθηναίους· παρασκευάζεσθαι ὦν αὐτοὺς ὡς ναυμαχήσοντας συνεβούλευε, ὡς τούτου ἐόντος τοῦ ξυλίνου τείχεος. ταύτῃ Θεμιστοκλέος ἀποφαινομένου Ἀθηναῖοι ταῦτα σφίσι ἔγνωσαν αἱρετώτερα εἶναι μᾶλλον ἢ τὰ τῶν χρησμολόγων, οἳ οὐκ ἔων ναυμαχίην ἀρτέεσθαι, τὸ δὲ σύμπαν εἰπεῖν οὐδὲ χεῖρας ἀνταείρεσθαι, ἀλλὰ ἐκλιπόντας χώρην τὴν Ἀττικὴν ἄλλην τινὰ οἰκίζειν. 7.144. ἑτέρη τε Θεμιστοκλέι γνώμη ἔμπροσθε ταύτης ἐς καιρὸν ἠρίστευσε, ὅτε Ἀθηναίοισι γενομένων χρημάτων μεγάλων ἐν τῷ κοινῷ, τὰ ἐκ τῶν μετάλλων σφι προσῆλθε τῶν ἀπὸ Λαυρείου, ἔμελλον λάξεσθαι ὀρχηδὸν ἕκαστος δέκα δραχμάς· τότε Θεμιστοκλέης ἀνέγνωσε Ἀθηναίους τῆς διαιρέσιος ταύτης παυσαμένους νέας τούτων τῶν χρημάτων ποιήσασθαι διηκοσίας ἐς τὸν πόλεμον, τὸν πρὸς Αἰγινήτας λέγων. οὗτος γὰρ ὁ πόλεμος συστὰς ἔσωσε ἐς τὸ τότε τὴν Ἑλλάδα, ἀναγκάσας θαλασσίους γενέσθαι Ἀθηναίους. αἳ δὲ ἐς τὸ μὲν ἐποιήθησαν οὐκ ἐχρήσθησαν, ἐς δέον δὲ οὕτω τῇ Ἑλλάδι ἐγένοντο. αὗταί τε δὴ αἱ νέες τοῖσι Ἀθηναίοισι προποιηθεῖσαι ὑπῆρχον, ἑτέρας τε ἔδεε προσναυπηγέεσθαι. ἔδοξέ τέ σφι μετὰ τὸ χρηστήριον βουλευομένοισι ἐπιόντα ἐπὶ τὴν Ἑλλάδα τὸν βάρβαρον δέκεσθαι τῇσι νηυσὶ πανδημεί, τῷ θεῷ πειθομένους, ἅμα Ἑλλήνων τοῖσι βουλομένοισι.
9.34. ταῦτα δὲ λέγων οὗτος ἐμιμέετο Μελάμποδα, ὡς εἰκάσαι βασιληίην τε καὶ πολιτηίην αἰτεομένους. καὶ γὰρ δὴ καὶ Μελάμπους τῶν ἐν Ἄργεϊ γυναικῶν μανεισέων, ὥς μιν οἱ Ἀργεῖοι ἐμισθοῦντο ἐκ Πύλου παῦσαι τὰς σφετέρας γυναῖκας τῆς νούσου, μισθὸν προετείνατο τῆς βασιληίης τὸ ἥμισυ. οὐκ ἀνασχομένων δὲ τῶν Ἀργείων ἀλλʼ ἀπιόντων, ὡς ἐμαίνοντο πλεῦνες τῶν γυναικῶν, οὕτω δὴ ὑποστάντες τὰ ὁ Μελάμπους προετείνατο ἤισαν δώσοντές οἱ ταῦτα. ὁ δὲ ἐνθαῦτα δὴ ἐπορέγεται ὁρέων αὐτοὺς τετραμμένους, φάς, ἢν μὴ καὶ τῷ ἀδελφεῷ Βίαντι μεταδῶσι τὸ τριτημόριον τῆς βασιληίης, οὐ ποιήσειν τὰ βούλονται. οἱ δὲ Ἀργεῖοι ἀπειληθέντες ἐς στεινὸν καταινέουσι καὶ ταῦτα.
9.78. ἐν δὲ Πλαταιῇσι ἐν τῷ στρατοπέδῳ τῶν Αἰγινητέων ἦν Λάμπων Πυθέω, Αἰγινητέων ἐὼν τὰ πρῶτα· ὃς ἀνοσιώτατον ἔχων λόγον ἵετο πρὸς Παυσανίην, ἀπικόμενος δὲ σπουδῇ ἔλεγε τάδε. “ὦ παῖ Κλεομβρότου, ἔργον ἔργασταί τοι ὑπερφυὲς μέγαθός τε καὶ κάλλος, καί τοι θεὸς παρέδωκε ῥυσάμενον τὴν Ἑλλάδα κλέος καταθέσθαι μέγιστον Ἑλλήνων τῶν ἡμεῖς ἴδμεν. σὺ δὲ καὶ τὰ λοιπὰ τὰ ἐπὶ τούτοισι ποίησον, ὅκως λόγος τε σὲ ἔχῃ ἔτι μέζων καί τις ὕστερον φυλάσσηται τῶν βαρβάρων μὴ ὑπάρχειν ἔργα ἀτάσθαλα ποιέων ἐς τοὺς Ἕλληνας. Λεωνίδεω γὰρ ἀποθανόντος ἐν Θερμοπύλῃσι Μαρδόνιός τε καὶ Ξέρξης ἀποταμόντες τὴν κεφαλὴν ἀνεσταύρωσαν· τῷ σὺ τὴν ὁμοίην ἀποδιδοὺς ἔπαινον ἕξεις πρῶτα μὲν ὑπὸ πάντων Σπαρτιητέων, αὖτις δὲ καὶ πρὸς τῶν ἄλλων Ἑλλήνων· Μαρδόνιον γὰρ ἀνασκολοπίσας τετιμωρήσεαι ἐς πάτρων τὸν σὸν Λεωνίδην.” 9.79. ὃ μὲν δοκέων χαρίζεσθαι ἔλεγε τάδε, ὃ δʼ ἀνταμείβετο τοῖσιδε. “ὦ ξεῖνε Αἰγινῆτα, τὸ μὲν εὐνοέειν τε καὶ προορᾶν ἄγαμαί σευ, γνώμης μέντοι ἡμάρτηκας χρηστῆς· ἐξαείρας γάρ με ὑψοῦ καὶ τὴν πάτρην καὶ τὸ ἔργον, ἐς τὸ μηδὲν κατέβαλες παραινέων νεκρῷ λυμαίνεσθαι, καὶ ἢν ταῦτα ποιέω, φὰς ἄμεινόν με ἀκούσεσθαι· τὰ πρέπει μᾶλλον βαρβάροισι ποιέειν ἤ περ Ἕλλησι· καὶ ἐκείνοισι δὲ ἐπιφθονέομεν. ἐγὼ δʼ ὦν τούτου εἵνεκα μήτε Αἰγινήτῃσι ἅδοιμι μήτε τοῖσι ταῦτα ἀρέσκεται, ἀποχρᾷ δέ μοι Σπαρτιήτῃσι ἀρεσκόμενον ὅσια μὲν ποιέειν, ὅσια δὲ καὶ λέγειν. Λεωνίδῃ δέ, τῷ με κελεύεις τιμωρῆσαι, φημὶ μεγάλως τετιμωρῆσθαι, ψυχῇσί τε τῇσι τῶνδε ἀναριθμήτοισι τετίμηται αὐτός τε καὶ οἱ ἄλλοι οἱ ἐν Θερμοπύλῃσι τελευτήσαντες. σὺ μέντοι ἔτι ἔχων λόγον τοιόνδε μήτε προσέλθῃς ἔμοιγε μήτε συμβουλεύσῃς, χάριν τε ἴσθι ἐὼν ἀπαθής.”
9.93. οἱ δὲ Ἕλληνες ἐπισχόντες ταύτην τὴν ἡμέρην τῇ ὑστεραίῃ ἐκαλλιερέοντο, μαντευομένου σφι Δηιφόνου τοῦ Εὐηνίου ἀνδρὸς Ἀπολλωνιήτεω, Ἀπολλωνίης δὲ τῆς ἐν τῷ Ἰονίῳ κόλπῳ. τούτου τὸν πατέρα Εὐήνιον κατέλαβε πρῆγμα τοιόνδε. ἔστι ἐν τῇ Ἀπολλωνίῃ ταύτῃ ἱρὰ ἡλίου πρόβατα, τὰ τὰς μὲν ἡμέρας βόσκεται παρὰ Χῶνα ποταμόν, ὃς ἐκ Λάκμονος ὄρεος ῥέει διὰ τῆς Ἀπολλωνίης χώρης ἐς θάλασσαν παρʼ Ὤρικον λιμένα, τὰς δὲ νύκτας ἀραιρημένοι ἄνδρες οἱ πλούτῳ τε καὶ γένεϊ δοκιμώτατοι τῶν ἀστῶν, οὗτοι φυλάσσουσι ἐνιαυτὸν ἕκαστος· περὶ πολλοῦ γὰρ δὴ ποιεῦνται Ἀπολλωνιῆται τὰ πρόβατα ταῦτα ἐκ θεοπροπίου τινός· ἐν δὲ ἄντρῳ αὐλίζονται ἀπὸ τῆς πόλιος ἑκάς. ἔνθα δὴ τότε ὁ Εὐήνιος οὗτος ἀραιρημένος ἐφύλασσε. καὶ κοτὲ αὐτοῦ κατακοιμήσαντος φυλακὴν παρελθόντες λύκοι ἐς τὸ ἄντρον διέφθειραν τῶν προβάτων ὡς ἑξήκοντα. ὁ δὲ ὡς ἐπήισε, εἶχε σιγῇ καὶ ἔφραζε οὐδενί, ἐν νόῳ ἔχων ἀντικαταστήσειν ἄλλα πριάμενος. καὶ οὐ γὰρ ἔλαθε τοὺς Ἀπολλωνιήτας ταῦτα γενόμενα, ἀλλʼ ὡς ἐπύθοντο, ὑπαγαγόντες μιν ὑπὸ δικαστήριον κατέκριναν, ὡς τὴν φυλακὴν κατακοιμήσαντα, τῆς ὄψιος στερηθῆναι. ἐπείτε δὲ τὸν Εὐήνιον ἐξετύφλωσαν, αὐτίκα μετὰ ταῦτα οὔτε πρόβατά σφι ἔτικτε οὔτε γῆ ἔφερε ὁμοίως καρπόν. πρόφαντα δέ σφι ἔν τε Δωδώνῃ καὶ ἐν Δελφοῖσι ἐγίνετο, ἐπείτε ἐπειρώτων τοὺς προφήτας τὸ αἴτιον τοῦ παρεόντος κακοῦ, οἳ δὲ αὐτοῖσι ἔφραζον ὅτι ἀδίκως τὸν φύλακον τῶν ἱρῶν προβάτων Εὐήνιον τῆς ὄψιος ἐστέρησαν· αὐτοὶ γὰρ ἐπορμῆσαι τοὺς λύκους, οὐ πρότερόν τε παύσεσθαι τιμωρέοντες ἐκείνῳ πρὶν ἢ δίκας δῶσι τῶν ἐποίησαν ταύτας τὰς ἂν αὐτὸς ἕληται καὶ δικαιοῖ· τούτων δὲ τελεομένων αὐτοὶ δώσειν Εὐηνίῳ δόσιν τοιαύτην τὴν πολλούς μιν μακαριεῖν ἀνθρώπων ἔχοντα. 9.94. τὰ μὲν χρηστήρια ταῦτά σφι ἐχρήσθη, οἱ δὲ Ἀπολλωνιῆται ἀπόρρητα ποιησάμενοι προέθεσαν τῶν ἀστῶν ἀνδράσι διαπρῆξαι. οἳ δέ σφι διέπρηξαν ὧδε· κατημένου Εὐηνίου ἐν θώκῳ ἐλθόντες οἱ παρίζοντο καὶ λόγους ἄλλους ἐποιεῦντο, ἐς ὃ κατέβαινον συλλυπεύμενοι τῷ πάθεϊ· ταύτῃ δὲ ὑπάγοντες εἰρώτων τίνα δίκην ἂν ἕλοιτο, εἰ ἐθέλοιεν Ἀπολλωνιῆται δίκας ὑποστῆναι δώσειν τῶν ἐποίησαν. ὁ δὲ οὐκ ἀκηκοὼς τὸ θεοπρόπιον εἵλετο εἴπας εἴ τις οἱ δοίη ἀγρούς, τῶν ἀστῶν ὀνομάσας τοῖσι ἠπίστατο εἶναι καλλίστους δύο κλήρους τῶν ἐν τῇ Ἀπολλωνίῃ, καὶ οἴκησιν πρὸς τούτοισι τὴν ᾔδεε καλλίστην ἐοῦσαν τῶν ἐν πόλι· τούτων δὲ ἔφη ἐπήβολος γενόμενος τοῦ λοιποῦ ἀμήνιτος εἶναι, καὶ δίκην οἱ ταύτην ἀποχρᾶν γενομένην. καὶ ὃ μὲν ταῦτα ἔλεγε, οἳ δὲ πάρεδροι εἶπαν ὑπολαβόντες “Εὐήνιε, ταύτην δίκην Ἀπολλωνιῆται τῆς ἐκτυφλώσιος ἐκτίνουσί τοι κατὰ θεοπρόπια τὰ γενόμενα.” ὃ μὲν δὴ πρὸς ταῦτα δεινὰ ἐποίεε, τὸ ἐνθεῦτεν πυθόμενος τὸν πάντα λόγον, ὡς ἐξαπατηθείς· οἳ δὲ πριάμενοι παρὰ τῶν ἐκτημένων διδοῦσί οἱ τὰ εἵλετο. καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα αὐτίκα ἔμφυτον μαντικὴν εἶχε, ὥστε καὶ ὀνομαστὸς γενέσθαι. 9.95. τούτου δὴ ὁ Δηίφονος ἐὼν παῖς τοῦ Εὐηνίου ἀγόντων Κορινθίων ἐμαντεύετο τῇ στρατιῇ. ἤδη δὲ καὶ τόδε ἤκουσα, ὡς ὁ Δηίφονος ἐπιβατεύων τοῦ Εὐηνίου οὐνόματος ἐξελάμβανε ἐπὶ τὴν Ἑλλάδα ἔργα, οὐκ ἐὼν Εὐηνίου παῖς.' '. None
1.44.2. and in his great and terrible grief at this mischance he called on Zeus by three names—Zeus the Purifier, Zeus of the Hearth, Zeus of Comrades: the first, because he wanted the god to know what evil his guest had done him; the second, because he had received the guest into his house and thus unwittingly entertained the murderer of his son; and the third, because he had found his worst enemy in the man whom he had sent as a protector.
2.143. Hecataeus the historian was once at Thebes , where he made a genealogy for himself that had him descended from a god in the sixteenth generation. But the priests of Zeus did with him as they also did with me (who had not traced my own lineage). ,They brought me into the great inner court of the temple and showed me wooden figures there which they counted to the total they had already given, for every high priest sets up a statue of himself there during his lifetime; ,pointing to these and counting, the priests showed me that each succeeded his father; they went through the whole line of figures, back to the earliest from that of the man who had most recently died. ,Thus, when Hecataeus had traced his descent and claimed that his sixteenth forefather was a god, the priests too traced a line of descent according to the method of their counting; for they would not be persuaded by him that a man could be descended from a god; they traced descent through the whole line of three hundred and forty-five figures, not connecting it with any ancestral god or hero, but declaring each figure to be a “Piromis” the son of a “Piromis”; in Greek, one who is in all respects a good man. ' "
3.40. Now Amasis was somehow aware of Polycrates' great good fortune; and as this continued to increase greatly, he wrote this letter and sent it to Samos : “Amasis addresses Polycrates as follows. ,It is pleasant to learn that a friend and ally is doing well. But I do not like these great successes of yours; for I know the gods, how jealous they are, and I desire somehow that both I and those for whom I care succeed in some affairs, fail in others, and thus pass life faring differently by turns, rather than succeed at everything. ,For from all I have heard I know of no man whom continual good fortune did not bring in the end to evil, and utter destruction. Therefore if you will be ruled by me do this regarding your successes: ,consider what you hold most precious and what you will be sorriest to lose, and cast it away so that it shall never again be seen among men; then, if after this the successes that come to you are not mixed with mischances, strive to mend the matter as I have counselled you.” " "3.41. Reading this, and perceiving that Amasis' advice was good, Polycrates considered which of his treasures it would most grieve his soul to lose, and came to this conclusion: he wore a seal set in gold, an emerald, crafted by Theodorus son of Telecles of Samos ; ,being resolved to cast this away, he embarked in a fifty-oared ship with its crew, and told them to put out to sea; and when he was far from the island, he took off the seal-ring in sight of all that were on the ship and cast it into the sea. This done, he sailed back and went to his house, where he grieved for the loss. " "3.42. But on the fifth or sixth day from this it happened that a fisherman, who had taken a fine and great fish, and desired to make a gift of it to Polycrates, brought it to the door and said that he wished to see Polycrates. This being granted, he gave the fish, saying: ,“O King, when I caught this fish, I thought best not to take it to market, although I am a man who lives by his hands, but it seemed to me worthy of you and your greatness; and so I bring and offer it to you.” Polycrates was pleased with what the fisherman said; “You have done very well,” he answered, “and I give you double thanks, for your words and for the gift; and I invite you to dine with me.” ,Proud of this honor, the fisherman went home; but the servants, cutting up the fish, found in its belly Polycrates' seal-ring. ,As soon as they saw and seized it, they brought it with joy to Polycrates, and giving the ring to him told him how it had been found. Polycrates saw the hand of heaven in this matter; he wrote a letter and sent it to Egypt, telling all that he had done, and what had happened to him. " "3.43. When Amasis had read Polycrates' letter, he perceived that no man could save another from his destiny, and that Polycrates, being so continually fortunate that he even found what he cast away, must come to an evil end. ,So he sent a herald to Samos to renounce his friendship, determined that when some great and terrible mischance overtook Polycrates he himself might not have to sadden his heart for a friend. " '
3.80. After the tumult quieted down, and five days passed, the rebels against the Magi held a council on the whole state of affairs, at which sentiments were uttered which to some Greeks seem incredible, but there is no doubt that they were spoken. ,Otanes was for turning the government over to the Persian people: “It seems to me,” he said, “that there can no longer be a single sovereign over us, for that is not pleasant or good. You saw the insolence of Cambyses, how far it went, and you had your share of the insolence of the Magus. ,How can monarchy be a fit thing, when the ruler can do what he wants with impunity? Give this power to the best man on earth, and it would stir him to unaccustomed thoughts. Insolence is created in him by the good things to hand, while from birth envy is rooted in man. ,Acquiring the two he possesses complete evil; for being satiated he does many reckless things, some from insolence, some from envy. And yet an absolute ruler ought to be free of envy, having all good things; but he becomes the opposite of this towards his citizens; he envies the best who thrive and live, and is pleased by the worst of his fellows; and he is the best confidant of slander. ,of all men he is the most inconsistent; for if you admire him modestly he is angry that you do not give him excessive attention, but if one gives him excessive attention he is angry because one is a flatter. But I have yet worse to say of him than that; he upsets the ancestral ways and rapes women and kills indiscriminately. ,But the rule of the multitude has in the first place the loveliest name of all, equality, and does in the second place none of the things that a monarch does. It determines offices by lot, and holds power accountable, and conducts all deliberating publicly. Therefore I give my opinion that we make an end of monarchy and exalt the multitude, for all things are possible for the majority.” 3.81. Such was the judgment of Otanes: but Megabyzus urged that they resort to an oligarchy. “I agree,” said he, “with all that Otanes says against the rule of one; but when he tells you to give the power to the multitude, his judgment strays from the best. Nothing is more foolish and violent than a useless mob; ,for men fleeing the insolence of a tyrant to fall victim to the insolence of the unguided populace is by no means to be tolerated. Whatever the one does, he does with knowledge, but for the other knowledge is impossible; how can they have knowledge who have not learned or seen for themselves what is best, but always rush headlong and drive blindly onward, like a river in flood? ,Let those like democracy who wish ill to Persia ; but let us choose a group of the best men and invest these with the power. For we ourselves shall be among them, and among the best men it is likely that there will be the best counsels.” ' "3.82. Such was the judgment of Megabyzus. Darius was the third to express his opinion. “It seems to me,” he said, “that Megabyzus speaks well concerning democracy but not concerning oligarchy. For if the three are proposed and all are at their best for the sake of argument, the best democracy and oligarchy and monarchy, I hold that monarchy is by far the most excellent. ,One could describe nothing better than the rule of the one best man; using the best judgment, he will govern the multitude with perfect wisdom, and best conceal plans made for the defeat of enemies. ,But in an oligarchy, the desire of many to do the state good service often produces bitter hate among them; for because each one wishes to be first and to make his opinions prevail, violent hate is the outcome, from which comes faction and from faction killing, and from killing it reverts to monarchy, and by this is shown how much better monarchy is. ,Then again, when the people rule it is impossible that wickedness will not occur; and when wickedness towards the state occurs, hatred does not result among the wicked, but strong alliances; for those that want to do the state harm conspire to do it together. This goes on until one of the people rises to stop such men. He therefore becomes the people's idol, and being their idol is made their monarch; and thus he also proves that monarchy is best. ,But (to conclude the whole matter in one word) tell me, where did freedom come from for us and who gave it, from the people or an oligarchy or a single ruler? I believe, therefore, that we who were liberated through one man should maintain such a government, and, besides this, that we should not alter our ancestral ways that are good; that would not be better.” " '
4.16. As for the land of which my history has begun to speak, no one exactly knows what lies north of it; for I can find out from no one who claims to know as an eyewitness. For even Aristeas, whom I recently mentioned—even he did not claim to have gone beyond the Issedones, even though a poet; but he spoke by hearsay of what lay north, saying that the Issedones had told him. ,But all that we have been able to learn for certain by report of the farthest lands shall be told. ' "
4.32. Concerning the Hyperborean people, neither the Scythians nor any other inhabitants of these lands tell us anything, except perhaps the Issedones. And, I think, even they say nothing; for if they did, then the Scythians, too, would have told, just as they tell of the one-eyed men. But Hesiod speaks of Hyperboreans, and Homer too in his poem 6.81. Then Cleomenes sent most of his army back to Sparta, while he himself took a thousand of the best warriors and went to the temple of Hera to sacrifice. When he wished to sacrifice at the altar the priest forbade him, saying that it was not holy for a stranger to sacrifice there. Cleomenes ordered the helots to carry the priest away from the altar and whip him, and he performed the sacrifice. After doing this, he returned to Sparta.
6.83. But Argos was so wholly deprived of men that their slaves took possession of all affairs, ruling and governing until the sons of the slain men grew up. Then they recovered Argos for themselves and cast out the slaves; when they were driven out, the slaves took possession of Tiryns by force. ,For a while they were at peace with each other; but then there came to the slaves a prophet, Cleander, a man of Phigalea in Arcadia by birth; he persuaded the slaves to attack their masters. From that time there was a long-lasting war between them, until with difficulty the Argives got the upper hand.
6.128. These were the suitors. When they arrived on the appointed day, Cleisthenes first inquired the country and lineage of each; then he kept them with him for a year, testing their manliness and temper and upbringing and manner of life; this he did by consorting with them alone and in company, putting the younger of them to contests of strength, but especially watching their demeanor at the common meal; for as long as he kept them with him, he did everything for them and entertained them with magnificence. ,The suitors that most pleased him were the ones who had come from Athens, and of these Hippocleides son of Tisandrus was judged foremost, both for his manliness and because in ancestry he was related to the Cypselids of Corinth. ' "6.129. When the appointed day came for the marriage feast and for Cleisthenes' declaration of whom he had chosen out of them all, Cleisthenes sacrificed a hundred oxen and gave a feast to the suitors and to the whole of Sicyon. ,After dinner the suitors vied with each other in music and in anecdotes for all to hear. As they sat late drinking, Hippocleides, now far outdoing the rest, ordered the flute-player to play him a dance-tune; the flute-player obeyed and he began to dance. I suppose he pleased himself with his dancing, but Cleisthenes saw the whole business with much disfavor. ,Hippocleides then stopped for a while and ordered a table to be brought in; when the table arrived, he danced Laconian figures on it first, and then Attic; last of all he rested his head on the table and made gestures with his legs in the air. ,Now Cleisthenes at the first and the second bout of dancing could no more bear to think of Hippocleides as his son-in-law, because of his dancing and his shamelessness, but he had held himself in check, not wanting to explode at Hippocleides; but when he saw him making gestures with his legs, he could no longer keep silence and said, “son of Tisandrus, you have danced away your marriage.” Hippocleides said in answer, “It does not matter to Hippocleides!” Since then this is proverbial. " "6.130. Then Cleisthenes bade them all be silent and spoke to the company at large: “Suitors for my daughter's hand, I thank you one and all; if it were possible I would grant each of you his wish, neither choosing out one to set him above another nor disparaging the rest. ,But since I have but one maiden to plan for and so cannot please all of you, to those of you whose suit is rejected I make a gift of a talent of silver to each, for his desire to take a wife from my house and for his sojourn away from his home; and to Megacles son of Alcmeon do I betroth my daughter Agariste, by the laws of the Athenians.” Megacles accepted the betrothal, and Cleisthenes brought the marriage to pass. " "6.131. Such is the tale of the choice among the suitors; and thus the fame of the Alcmeonidae resounded throughout Hellas. From this marriage was born that Cleisthenes, named after his mother's father from Sicyon, who gave the Athenians their tribes and their democracy; ,he and Hippocrates were born to Megacles; Hippocrates was father of another Megacles and another Agariste, called after Agariste who was Cleisthenes' daughter. She was married to Xanthippus son of Ariphron, and when she was pregt she saw in her sleep a vision in which she thought she gave birth to a lion. In a few days she bore Xanthippus a son, Pericles. " "
7.6.3. They had come up to Sardis with Onomacritus, an Athenian diviner who had set in order the oracles of Musaeus. They had reconciled their previous hostility with him; Onomacritus had been banished from Athens by Pisistratus' son Hipparchus, when he was caught by Lasus of Hermione in the act of interpolating into the writings of Musaeus an oracle showing that the islands off Lemnos would disappear into the sea. " '
7.141. When the Athenian messengers heard that, they were very greatly dismayed, and gave themselves up for lost by reason of the evil foretold. Then Timon son of Androbulus, as notable a man as any Delphian, advised them to take boughs of supplication and in the guise of suppliants, approach the oracle a second time. ,The Athenians did exactly this; “Lord,” they said, “regard mercifully these suppliant boughs which we bring to you, and give us some better answer concerning our country. Otherwise we will not depart from your temple, but remain here until we die.” Thereupon the priestess gave them this second oracle: ,9.34. By so saying he imitated Melampus, in so far as one may compare demands for kingship with those for citizenship. For when the women of Argos had gone mad, and the Argives wanted him to come from Pylos and heal them of that madness, Melampus demanded half of their kingship for his wages. ,This the Argives would not put up with and departed. When, however, the madness spread among their women, they promised what Melampus demanded and were ready to give it to him. Thereupon, seeing their purpose changed, he demanded yet more and said that he would not do their will except if they gave a third of their kingship to his brother Bias; now driven into dire straits, the Argives consented to that also. ' "
9.78. There was at Plataea in the army of the Aeginetans one Lampon, son of Pytheas, a leading man of Aegina. He hastened to Pausanias with really outrageous counsel and coming upon him, said to him: ,“son of Cleombrotus, you have done a deed of surpassing greatness and glory; the god has granted to you in saving Hellas to have won greater renown than any Greek whom we know. But now you must finish what remains for the rest, so that your fame may be greater still and so that no barbarian will hereafter begin doing reckless deeds against the Greeks. ,When Leonidas was killed at Thermopylae, Mardonius and Xerxes cut off his head and set it on a pole; make them a like return, and you will win praise from all Spartans and the rest of Hellas besides. For if you impale Mardonius, you will be avenged for your father's brother Leonidas.” " '9.79. This is what Lampon, thinking to please, said. Pausanias, however, answered him as follows: “Aeginetan, I thank you for your goodwill and forethought, but you have missed the mark of right judgment. First you exalt me and my fatherland and my deeds, yet next you cast me down to mere nothingness when you advise me to insult the dead, and say that I shall win more praise if I do so. That would be an act more proper for barbarians than for Greeks and one that we consider worthy of censure even in barbarians. ,No, as for myself, I would prefer to find no favor either with the people of Aegina or anyone else who is pleased by such acts. It is enough for me if I please the Spartans by righteous deeds and speech. As for Leonidas, whom you would have me avenge, I think that he has received a full measure of vengeance; the uncounted souls of these that you see have done honor to him and the rest of those who died at Thermopylae. But to you this is my warning: do not come again to me with words like these nor give me such counsel. Be thankful now that you go unpunished.”
9.93. There is at Apollonia a certain flock sacred to the Sun, which in the daytime is pastured beside the river Chon, which flows from the mountain called Lacmon through the lands of Apollonia and empties into the sea by the harbor of Oricum. By night, those townsmen who are most notable for wealth or lineage are chosen to watch it, each man serving for a year, for the people of Apollonia set great store by this flock, being so taught by a certain oracle. It is kept in a cave far distant from the town. ,Now at the time of which I speak, Evenius was the chosen watchman. But one night he fell asleep, and wolves, coming past his guard into the cave, killed about sixty of the flock. When Evenius was aware of it, he held his peace and told no man, intending to restore what was lost by buying others. ,This matter was not, however, hidden from the people of Apollonia, and when it came to their knowledge they brought him to judgment and condemned him to lose his eyesight for sleeping at his watch. So they blinded Evenius, but from the day of their so doing their flocks bore no offspring, nor did their land yield fruit as before. ,Furthermore, a declaration was given to them at Dodona and Delphi, when they inquired of the prophets what might be the cause of their present ill: the gods told them by their prophets that they had done unjustly in blinding Evenius, the guardian of the sacred flock, “for we ourselves” (they said) “sent those wolves, and we will not cease from avenging him until you make him such restitution for what you did as he himself chooses and approves; when that is fully done, we ourselves will give Evenius such a gift as will make many men consider him happy.” 9.94. This was the oracle given to the people of Apollonia. They kept it secret and charged certain of their townsmen to carry the business through; they acted as I will now show. Coming and sitting down by Evenius at the place where he sat, they spoke of other matters, till at last they fell to commiserating his misfortune. Guiding the conversation in this way, they asked him what compensation he would choose, if the people of Apollonia should promise to requite him for what they had done. ,He, knowing nothing of the oracle, said he would choose for a gift the lands of certain named townsmen whom he thought to have the two fairest estates in Apollonia, and a house besides which he knew to be the fairest in the town; let him (he said) have possession of these, and he would lay aside his anger, and be satisfied with that by way of restitution. ,So he said this, and those who were sitting beside him said in reply: “Evenius, the people of Apollonia hereby make you that restitution for the loss of your sight, obeying the oracle given to them.” At that he was very angry, for he learned through this the whole story and saw that they had cheated him. They did, however, buy from the possessors and give him what he had chosen, and from that day he had a natural gift of divination, through which he won fame. ' "9.95. Deiphonus, the son of this Evenius, had been brought by the Corinthians, and was the army's prophet. But I have heard it said before now, that Deiphonus was not the son of Evenius, but made a wrongful use of that name and worked for wages up and down Hellas. "'. None
40. Plato, Apology of Socrates, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Derveni author • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • plato, Socratic author

 Found in books: Levison (2009) 165, 181, 190; Wardy and Warren (2018) 59, 61; Álvarez (2019) 132


22c. ἃ ποιοῖεν, ἀλλὰ φύσει τινὶ καὶ ἐνθουσιάζοντες ὥσπερ οἱ θεομάντεις καὶ οἱ χρησμῳδοί· καὶ γὰρ οὗτοι λέγουσι μὲν πολλὰ καὶ καλά, ἴσασιν δὲ οὐδὲν ὧν λέγουσι. τοιοῦτόν τί μοι ἐφάνησαν πάθος καὶ οἱ ποιηταὶ πεπονθότες, καὶ ἅμα ᾐσθόμην αὐτῶν διὰ τὴν ποίησιν οἰομένων καὶ τἆλλα σοφωτάτων εἶναι ἀνθρώπων ἃ οὐκ ἦσαν. ἀπῇα οὖν καὶ ἐντεῦθεν τῷ αὐτῷ οἰόμενος περιγεγονέναι ᾧπερ καὶ τῶν πολιτικῶν.'40a. γὰρ ὡς φίλοις οὖσιν ἐπιδεῖξαι ἐθέλω τὸ νυνί μοι συμβεβηκὸς τί ποτε νοεῖ. ἐμοὶ γάρ, ὦ ἄνδρες δικασταί—ὑμᾶς γὰρ δικαστὰς καλῶν ὀρθῶς ἂν καλοίην—θαυμάσιόν τι γέγονεν. ἡ γὰρ εἰωθυῖά μοι μαντικὴ ἡ τοῦ δαιμονίου ἐν μὲν τῷ πρόσθεν χρόνῳ παντὶ πάνυ πυκνὴ ἀεὶ ἦν καὶ πάνυ ἐπὶ σμικροῖς ἐναντιουμένη, εἴ τι μέλλοιμι μὴ ὀρθῶς πράξειν. νυνὶ δὲ συμβέβηκέ μοι ἅπερ ὁρᾶτε καὶ αὐτοί, ταυτὶ ἅ γε δὴ οἰηθείη ἄν τις καὶ νομίζεται ἔσχατα κακῶν εἶναι· ἐμοὶ δὲ '. None
22c. that what they composed they composed not by wisdom, but by nature and because they were inspired, like the prophets and givers of oracles; for these also say many fine things, but know none of the things they say; it was evident to me that the poets too had experienced something of this same sort. And at the same time I perceived that they, on account of their poetry, thought that they were the wisest of men in other things as well, in which they were not. So I went away from them also thinking that I was superior to them in the same thing in which I excelled the public men.Finally then I went to the hand-workers.'40a. while there is time. I feel that you are my friends, and I wish to show you the meaning of this which has now happened to me. For, judges—and in calling you judges I give you your right name—a wonderful thing has happened to me. For hitherto the customary prophetic monitor always spoke to me very frequently and opposed me even in very small matters, if I was going to do anything I should not; but now, as you yourselves see, this thing which might be thought, and is generally considered, the greatest of evils has come upon me; but the divine sign did not oppose me '. None
41. Plato, Euthyphro, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Derveni author • Hippocratic authors • authority, of the experts • divination, and authority • experts, expertise, Derveni author as expert • religious authority, experts (exegetes) • religious authority, sacred law/prescriptions

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 14; Johnston and Struck (2005) 169, 171, 220, 221; Álvarez (2019) 81, 134


3c. ΣΩ. ὦ φίλε Εὐθύφρων, ἀλλὰ τὸ μὲν καταγελασθῆναι ἴσως οὐδὲν πρᾶγμα. Ἀθηναίοις γάρ τοι, ὡς ἐμοὶ δοκεῖ, οὐ σφόδρα μέλει ἄν τινα δεινὸν οἴωνται εἶναι, μὴ μέντοι διδασκαλικὸν τῆς αὑτοῦ σοφίας· ὃν δʼ ἂν καὶ ἄλλους οἴωνται' '. None
3c. Socrates. My dear Euthyphro, their ridicule is perhaps of no consequence. For the Athenians, I fancy, are not much concerned, if they think a man is clever, provided he does not impart his clever notions to others; but when they think he makes others to be like himself,'4c. Naxos, he was working there on our land. Now he got drunk, got angry with one of our house slaves, and butchered him. So my father bound him hand and foot, threw him into a ditch, and sent a man here to Athens to ask the religious adviser what he ought '. None
42. Plato, Ion, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • divination, and authority

 Found in books: Johnston and Struck (2005) 171; Levison (2009) 155


534c. τῶν πραγμάτων, ὥσπερ σὺ περὶ Ὁμήρου, ἀλλὰ θείᾳ μοίρᾳ, τοῦτο μόνον οἷός τε ἕκαστος ποιεῖν καλῶς ἐφʼ ὃ ἡ Μοῦσα αὐτὸν ὥρμησεν, ὁ μὲν διθυράμβους, ὁ δὲ ἐγκώμια, ὁ δὲ ὑπορχήματα, ὁ δʼ ἔπη, ὁ δʼ ἰάμβους· τὰ δʼ ἄλλα φαῦλος αὐτῶν ἕκαστός ἐστιν. οὐ γὰρ τέχνῃ ταῦτα λέγουσιν ἀλλὰ θείᾳ δυνάμει, ἐπεί, εἰ περὶ ἑνὸς τέχνῃ καλῶς ἠπίσταντο λέγειν, κἂν περὶ τῶν ἄλλων ἁπάντων· διὰ ταῦτα δὲ ὁ θεὸς ἐξαιρούμενος τούτων τὸν νοῦν τούτοις χρῆται ὑπηρέταις καὶ''. None
534c. as you do about Homer—but by a divine dispensation, each is able only to compose that to which the Muse has stirred him, this man dithyrambs, another laudatory odes, another dance-songs, another epic or else iambic verse; but each is at fault in any other kind. For not by art do they utter these things, but by divine influence; since, if they had fully learnt by art to speak on one kind of theme, they would know how to speak on all. And for this reason God takes away the mind of these men and uses them as his ministers, just as he does soothsayers and godly seers,''. None
43. Plato, Meno, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • divination, and authority

 Found in books: Johnston and Struck (2005) 171; Levison (2009) 165


99c. γίγνεται· ᾗ οἱ πολιτικοὶ ἄνδρες χρώμενοι τὰς πόλεις ὀρθοῦσιν, οὐδὲν διαφερόντως ἔχοντες πρὸς τὸ φρονεῖν ἢ οἱ χρησμῳδοί τε καὶ οἱ θεομάντεις· καὶ γὰρ οὗτοι ἐνθουσιῶντες λέγουσιν μὲν ἀληθῆ καὶ πολλά, ἴσασι δὲ οὐδὲν ὧν λέγουσιν. ΜΕΝ. κινδυνεύει οὕτως ἔχειν. ΣΩ. οὐκοῦν, ὦ Μένων, ἄξιον τούτους θείους καλεῖν τοὺς ἄνδρας, οἵτινες νοῦν μὴ ἔχοντες πολλὰ καὶ μεγάλα κατορθοῦσιν ὧν πράττουσι καὶ λέγουσι; ΜΕΝ. πάνυ γε. ΣΩ. ὀρθῶς ἄρʼ ἂν καλοῖμεν θείους τε οὓς νυνδὴ ἐλέγομεν''. None
99c. This is the means which statesmen employ for their direction of states, and they have nothing more to do with wisdom than soothsayers and diviners; for these people utter many a true thing when inspired, but have no knowledge of anything they say. Men. I daresay that is so. Soc. And may we, Meno, rightly call those men divine who, having no understanding, yet succeed in many a great deed and word? Men. Certainly. Soc. Then we shall be right in calling those divine of whom''. None
44. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Epicurus, authority in the De Rerum Natura • Plato, authority in the Academy • authoritative discourse • authority • plato, Socratic author

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 9, 13; Edmonds (2004) 162; Wardy and Warren (2018) 9, 13, 77, 99


77e. καὶ διασκεδάννυσιν, ἄλλως τε καὶ ὅταν τύχῃ τις μὴ ἐν νηνεμίᾳ ἀλλ’ ἐν μεγάλῳ τινὶ πνεύματι ἀποθνῄσκων. καὶ ὁ Κέβης ἐπιγελάσας, ὡς δεδιότων, ἔφη, ὦ Σώκρατες, πειρῶ ἀναπείθειν: μᾶλλον δὲ μὴ ὡς ἡμῶν δεδιότων, ἀλλ’ ἴσως ἔνι τις καὶ ἐν ἡμῖν παῖς ὅστις τὰ τοιαῦτα φοβεῖται. τοῦτον οὖν πειρῶ μεταπείθειν μὴ δεδιέναι τὸν θάνατον ὥσπερ τὰ μορμολύκεια. ἀλλὰ χρή, ἔφη ὁ Σωκράτης, ἐπᾴδειν αὐτῷ ἑκάστης ἡμέρας ἕως ἂν ἐξεπᾴσητε. ΦΑΙΔ. 118a. ὁ δ’ οὐκ ἔφη. ΦΑΙΔ. καὶ μετὰ τοῦτο αὖθις τὰς κνήμας: καὶ ἐπανιὼν οὕτως ἡμῖν ἐπεδείκνυτο ὅτι ψύχοιτό τε καὶ πήγνυτο. καὶ αὐτὸς ἥπτετο καὶ εἶπεν ὅτι, ἐπειδὰν πρὸς τῇ καρδίᾳ γένηται αὐτῷ, τότε οἰχήσεται. unit="para"/ἤδη οὖν σχεδόν τι αὐτοῦ ἦν τὰ περὶ τὸ ἦτρον ψυχόμενα, καὶ ἐκκαλυψάμενος — ἐνεκεκάλυπτο γάρ — εἶπεν — ὃ δὴ τελευταῖον ἐφθέγξατο — ὦ Κρίτων, ἔφη, τῷ Ἀσκληπιῷ ὀφείλομεν ἀλεκτρυόνα: ἀλλὰ ἀπόδοτε καὶ μὴ ἀμελήσητε. ἀλλὰ ταῦτα, ἔφη, ἔσται, ὁ Κρίτων : ἀλλ᾽ ὅρα εἴ τι ἄλλο λέγεις. ταῦτα ἐρομένου αὐτοῦ οὐδὲν ἔτι ἀπεκρίνατο, ἀλλ’ ὀλίγον χρόνον διαλιπὼν ἐκινήθη τε καὶ ὁ ἄνθρωπος ἐξεκάλυψεν αὐτόν, καὶ ὃς τὰ ὄμματα ἔστησεν: ἰδὼν δὲ ὁ Κρίτων συνέλαβε τὸ στόμα καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμούς. ἥδε ἡ τελευτή, ὦ Ἐχέκρατες, τοῦ ἑταίρου ἡμῖν ἐγένετο, ἀνδρός, ὡς ἡμεῖς φαῖμεν ἄν, τῶν τότε ὧν ἐπειράθημεν ἀρίστου καὶ ἄλλως φρονιμωτάτου καὶ δικαιοτάτου.' '. None
77e. if a man happens to die in a high wind and not in calm weather. And Cebes laughed and said, Assume that we have that fear, Socrates, and try to convince us; or rather, do not assume that we are afraid, but perhaps there is a child within us, who has such fears. Let us try to persuade him not to fear death as if it were a hobgoblin. Ah, said Socrates, you must sing charms to him every day until you charm away his fear. Phaedo. 118a. his thighs; and passing upwards in this way he showed us that he was growing cold and rigid. And again he touched him and said that when it reached his heart, he would be gone. The chill had now reached the region about the groin, and uncovering his face, which had been covered, he said—and these were his last words— Crito, we owe a cock to Aesculapius. Pay it and do not neglect it. That, said Crito, shall be done; but see if you have anything else to say. To this question he made no reply, but after a little while he moved; the attendant uncovered him; his eyes were fixed. And Crito when he saw it, closed his mouth and eyes.Such was the end, Echecrates, of our friend, who was, as we may say, of all those of his time whom we have known, the best and wisest and most righteous man.' '. None
45. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Derveni author • Orpheus, literary author • Orphics (authors of Orphic poems) • author • authority • authority, poetic authority • religious authority, divine agency • religious authority, education • religious authority, regulations • religious authority, sacred law/prescriptions

 Found in books: Ando and Ruepke (2006) 71; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 349; Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 319; Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 5; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 14; Álvarez (2019) 47, 101


364e. λοιβῇ τε κνίσῃ τε παρατρωπῶσʼ ἄνθρωποι λισσόμενοι, ὅτε κέν τις ὑπερβήῃ καὶ ἁμάρτῃ. Hom. Il. 9.497 βίβλων δὲ ὅμαδον παρέχονται Μουσαίου καὶ Ὀρφέως, Σελήνης τε καὶ Μουσῶν ἐκγόνων, ὥς φασι, καθʼ ἃς θυηπολοῦσιν, πείθοντες οὐ μόνον ἰδιώτας ἀλλὰ καὶ πόλεις, ὡς ἄρα λύσεις τε καὶ καθαρμοὶ ἀδικημάτων διὰ θυσιῶν καὶ'427c. οὐδενὶ ἄλλῳ πεισόμεθα, ἐὰν νοῦν ἔχωμεν, οὐδὲ χρησόμεθα ἐξηγητῇ ἀλλʼ ἢ τῷ πατρίῳ· οὗτος γὰρ δήπου ὁ θεὸς περὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα πᾶσιν ἀνθρώποις πάτριος ἐξηγητὴς ἐν μέσῳ τῆς γῆς ἐπὶ τοῦ ὀμφαλοῦ καθήμενος ἐξηγεῖται.' ''. None
364e. And incense and libation turn their wills Praying, whenever they have sinned and made transgression. Hom. Il. 9.497 And they produce a bushel of books of Musaeus and Orpheus, the offspring of the Moon and of the Muses, as they affirm, and these books they use in their ritual, and make not only ordinary men but states believe that there really are remissions of sins and purifications for deeds of injustice, by means of sacrifice and pleasant sport for the living,' 427c. we neither know anything nor in the founding of our city if we are wise shall we entrust them to any other or make use of any other interpreter than the God of our fathers. For this God surely is in such matters for all mankind the interpreter of the religion of their fathers who from his seat in the middle and at the very navel of the earth delivers his interpretation. Excellently said, he replied; and that is what we must do. 476c. They would, indeed. He, then, who believes in beautiful things, but neither believes in beauty itself nor is able to follow when someone tries to guide him to the knowledge of it—do you think that his life is a dream or a waking? Just consider. Is not the dream state, whether the man is asleep or awake, just this: the mistaking of resemblance for identity? I should certainly call that dreaming, he said. Well, then, take the opposite case: the man whose thought recognizes a beauty in itself, '. None
46. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Johannine, authorship • Plato, authority for Platonists • Platonists, authority of Plato

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 392; Wardy and Warren (2018) 189


39e. ὡς ὁμοιότατον ᾖ τῷ τελέῳ καὶ νοητῷ ζῴῳ πρὸς τὴν τῆς διαιωνίας μίμησιν φύσεως. ΤΙ. εἰσὶν δὴ τέτταρες, μία μὲν οὐράνιον θεῶν γένος, ἄλλη δὲ''. None
39e. Nature thereof. Tim. And these Forms are four,—one the heavenly kind of gods;''. None
47. Sophocles, Antigone, 450 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority, Scripture • Writing, Authoritative • schesis, authority of

 Found in books: Najman (2010) 92; Černušková (2016) 10


450. Yes, since it was not Zeus that published me that edict, and since not of that kind are the laws which Justice who dwells with the gods below established among men. Nor did I think that your decrees were of such force, that a mortal could override the unwritten''. None
48. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 6.28, 8.1.1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ritual authority • divination, and authority • religious authority, experts (exegetes) • religious authority, sacred law/prescriptions • religious authority, seers/diviners (manteis) • religious authority, sorcerers/begging priests

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 299, 331; Johnston and Struck (2005) 170, 214, 220; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 268


8.1.1. ἐς δὲ τὰς Ἀθήνας ἐπειδὴ ἠγγέλθη, ἐπὶ πολὺ μὲν ἠπίστουν καὶ τοῖς πάνυ τῶν στρατιωτῶν ἐξ αὐτοῦ τοῦ ἔργου διαπεφευγόσι καὶ σαφῶς ἀγγέλλουσι, μὴ οὕτω γε ἄγαν πανσυδὶ διεφθάρθαι: ἐπειδὴ δὲ ἔγνωσαν, χαλεποὶ μὲν ἦσαν τοῖς ξυμπροθυμηθεῖσι τῶν ῥητόρων τὸν ἔκπλουν, ὥσπερ οὐκ αὐτοὶ ψηφισάμενοι, ὠργίζοντο δὲ καὶ τοῖς χρησμολόγοις τε καὶ μάντεσι καὶ ὁπόσοι τι τότε αὐτοὺς θειάσαντες ἐπήλπισαν ὡς λήψονται Σικελίαν.' '. None
8.1.1. Such were the events in Sicily . When the news was brought to Athens, for a long while they disbelieved even the most respectable of the soldiers who had themselves escaped from the scene of action and clearly reported the matter, a destruction so complete not being thought credible. When the conviction was forced upon them, they were angry with the orators who had joined in promoting the expedition, just as if they had not themselves voted it, and were enraged also with the reciters of oracles and soothsayers, and all other omenmongers of the time who had encouraged them to hope that they should conquer Sicily . ' '. None
49. Xenophon, The Persian Expedition, 1.7.18, 5.6.16-5.6.17, 5.6.29 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • divination, and authority • religious authority, experts (exegetes) • religious authority, seers/diviners (manteis)

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 302, 303; Johnston and Struck (2005) 198


5.6.16. καὶ γενέσθαι ἂν αὐτῷ ἐδόκει μεγάλη, καταλογιζομένῳ τό τε αὑτῶν πλῆθος καὶ τοὺς περιοικοῦντας τὸν Πόντον. καὶ ἐπὶ τούτοις ἐθύετο πρίν τινι εἰπεῖν τῶν στρατιωτῶν Σιλανὸν παρακαλέσας τὸν Κύρου μάντιν γενόμενον τὸν Ἀμπρακιώτην. 5.6.17. ὁ δὲ Σιλανὸς δεδιὼς μὴ γένηται ταῦτα καὶ καταμείνῃ που ἡ στρατιά, ἐκφέρει εἰς τὸ στράτευμα λόγον ὅτι Ξενοφῶν βούλεται καταμεῖναι τὴν στρατιὰν καὶ πόλιν οἰκίσαι καὶ ἑαυτῷ ὄνομα καὶ δύναμιν περιποιήσασθαι.' '. None
1.7.18. 1. For after the death of their father, the elder of them, Aristobulus, changed the government into a kingdom, and was the first that put a diadem upon his head, four hundred seventy and one years and three months after our people came down into this country, when they were set free from the Babylonian slavery.
1.7.18. 3. It is true, these writers have the confidence to call their accounts histories; wherein yet they seem to me to fail of their own purpose, as well as to relate nothing that is sound. For they have a mind to demonstrate the greatness of the Romans, while they still diminish and lessen the actions of the Jews,
5.6.16. It would become a great city, he thought, as he reckoned up their own numbers and the peoples who dwelt around the Euxine. And with a view to this project, before speaking about it to any of the soldiers, he offered sacrifices, summoning for that purpose Silanus the Ambraciot, who had been the soothsayer of Cyrus . 5.6.17. Silanus, however, fearing that this thing might come to pass and that the army might settle down somewhere, carried forth to the troops a report that Xenophon wanted them to settle down, so that he could found a city and win for himself a name and power.
5.6.29. And hence we may principally learn, that both the success of wars, and the dangers that kings are in, are under the providence of God;'
5.6.29. So he being desirous of gaining the entire power and dominion to himself, revolted from John, and took to his assistance Judas the son of Chelcias, and Simon the son of Ezron, who were among the men of greatest power. There was also with him Hezekiah, the son of Chobar, a person of eminence. '. None
50. Xenophon, Hellenica, 6.3.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Derveni author • divination, and authority • experts, expertise, Derveni author as expert

 Found in books: Johnston and Struck (2005) 220; Álvarez (2019) 134


6.3.6. The right course, indeed, would have been for us not to take up arms against one another in the beginning, since the tradition is that the first strangers to whom Triptolemus, Triptolemus of Eleusis had, according to the legend, carried from Attica throughout Greece both the cult of Demeter and the knowledge of her art — agriculture. Heracles was the traditional ancestor of the Spartan kings (cp. III. iii.) while the Dioscuri, Castor and Pollux, were putative sons of Tyndareus of Sparta. our ancestor, revealed the mystic rites of Demeter and Core were Heracles, your state’s founder, and the Dioscuri, your citizens; and, further, that it was upon Peloponnesus that he first bestowed the seed of Demeter’s fruit. How, then, can it be right, 371 B.C. either that you should ever come to destroy the fruit of those very men from whom you received the seed, or that we should not desire those very men, to whom we gave the seed, to obtain the greatest possible abundance of food? But if it is indeed ordered of the gods that wars should come among men, then we ought to begin war as tardily as we can, and, when it has come, to bring it to an end as speedily as possible.''. None
51. Xenophon, Memoirs, 1.1.2, 1.1.4, 4.4.21 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority, Scripture • Euripides, possible authorship of Sisyphus • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • Sisyphus, the, authorship of • Writing, Authoritative • plato, Socratic author

 Found in books: Hesk (2000) 182, 185; Levison (2009) 181; Najman (2010) 98; Wardy and Warren (2018) 66


1.1.2. πρῶτον μὲν οὖν, ὡς οὐκ ἐνόμιζεν οὓς ἡ πόλις νομίζει θεούς, ποίῳ ποτʼ ἐχρήσαντο τεκμηρίῳ; θύων τε γὰρ φανερὸς ἦν πολλάκις μὲν οἴκοι, πολλάκις δὲ ἐπὶ τῶν κοινῶν τῆς πόλεως βωμῶν, καὶ μαντικῇ χρώμενος οὐκ ἀφανὴς ἦν. διετεθρύλητο γὰρ ὡς φαίη Σωκράτης τὸ δαιμόνιον ἑαυτῷ σημαίνειν· ὅθεν δὴ καὶ μάλιστά μοι δοκοῦσιν αὐτὸν αἰτιάσασθαι καινὰ δαιμόνια εἰσφέρειν.
1.1.4. ἀλλʼ οἱ μὲν πλεῖστοί φασιν ὑπό τε τῶν ὀρνίθων καὶ τῶν ἀπαντώντων ἀποτρέπεσθαί τε καὶ προτρέπεσθαι· Σωκράτης δʼ ὥσπερ ἐγίγνωσκεν, οὕτως ἔλεγε· τὸ δαιμόνιον γὰρ ἔφη σημαίνειν. καὶ πολλοῖς τῶν συνόντων προηγόρευε τὰ μὲν ποιεῖν, τὰ δὲ μὴ ποιεῖν, ὡς τοῦ δαιμονίου προσημαίνοντος· καὶ τοῖς μὲν πειθομένοις αὐτῷ συνέφερε, τοῖς δὲ μὴ πειθομένοις μετέμελε.
4.4.21. καὶ γὰρ ἄλλα πολλά, ἔφη, παρανομοῦσιν· ἀλλὰ δίκην γέ τοι διδόασιν οἱ παραβαίνοντες τοὺς ὑπὸ τῶν θεῶν κειμένους νόμους, ἣν οὐδενὶ τρόπῳ δυνατὸν ἀνθρώπῳ διαφυγεῖν, ὥσπερ τοὺς ὑπʼ ἀνθρώπων κειμένους νόμους ἔνιοι παραβαίνοντες διαφεύγουσι τὸ δίκην διδόναι, οἱ μὲν λανθάνοντες, οἱ δὲ βιαζόμενοι.''. None
1.1.2. First then, that he rejected the gods acknowledged by the state — what evidence did they produce of that? He offered sacrifices constantly, and made no secret of it, now in his home, now at the altars of the state temples, and he made use of divination with as little secrecy. Indeed it had become notorious that Socrates claimed to be guided by the deity: That immanent divine something, as Cicero terms it, which Socrates claimed as his peculiar possession. it was out of this claim, I think, that the charge of bringing in strange deities arose.
1.1.4. Only, whereas most men say that the birds or the folk they meet dissuade or encourage them, Socrates said what he meant: for he said that the deity gave him a sign. Many of his companions were counselled by him to do this or not to do that in accordance with the warnings of the deity: and those who followed his advice prospered, and those who rejected it had cause for regret.
4.4.21. Yes, and they do many other things contrary to the laws. But surely the transgressors of the laws ordained by the gods pay a penalty that a man can in no wise escape, as some, when they transgress the laws ordained by man, escape punishment, either by concealment or by violence. ''. None
52. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • authority • divination, and authority

 Found in books: Bartels (2017) 201; Johnston and Struck (2005) 222


53. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Derveni author • Hippocratic authors • authority, of the experts • divination, and authority

 Found in books: Johnston and Struck (2005) 170, 194; Álvarez (2019) 81


54. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority, textual • authoritative discourse • authority

 Found in books: Edmonds (2004) 162, 166; Joosse (2021) 169


55. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Greek, authors • authority • authors see also writers

 Found in books: Lloyd (1989) 54; Papadodima (2022) 21


56. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, authority in the Peripatos • Plato, authority in the Academy

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 101; Wardy and Warren (2018) 101


57. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, authority in the Peripatos • Marcus Aurelius, Stoic, Roman emperor, author of Meditations, Prolongation of life of no value • Plato, authority in the Academy

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 101; Sorabji (2000) 241; Wardy and Warren (2018) 84, 101


58. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • author • authors, authorship

 Found in books: Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 319; Nasrallah (2019) 254


59. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Plato, authority in the Academy • authority • plato, Socratic author

 Found in books: Bartels (2017) 197; Wardy and Warren (2018) 89


60. Anon., 1 Enoch, 14.1, 33.2-33.4, 82.1-82.3 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority, Conferring strategies xviii • Authority, Interpretive Strategies • Authority, of the Teacher of Righteousness • Authority, Prerogative of God • Authority, Spiritual • Writing, Authoritative • authority • authority, prophetic • authority, scribal

 Found in books: Brooke et al (2008) 195; Jaffee (2001) 23; Najman (2010) 42, 51; Stuckenbruck (2007) 161, 227, 603


14.1. The book of the words of righteousness, and of the reprimand of the eternal Watchers in accordance
14.1. me. And I went into the tongues of fire and drew nigh to a large house which was built of crystals: and the walls of the house were like a tesselated floor (made) of crystals, and its groundwork wa
33.2. rests, and the portals of the heaven open. And I saw how the stars of heaven come forth, and 33.3. I counted the portals out of which they proceed, and wrote down all their outlets, of each individual star by itself, according to their number and their names, their courses and their positions, and their 33.4. times and their months, as Uriel the holy angel who was with me showed me. He showed all things to me and wrote them down for me: also their names he wrote for me, and their laws and their companies.' "
82.1. And now, my son Methuselah, all these things I am recounting to thee and writing down for thee! and I have revealed to thee everything, and given thee books concerning all these: so preserve, my son Methuselah, the books from thy father's hand, and (see) that thou deliver them to the generations of the world." '
82.1. And these are the names of those who lead them, who watch that they enter at their times, in their orders, in their seasons, in their months, in their periods of dominion, and in their positions. Their four leaders who divide the four parts of the year enter first; and after them the twelve leaders of the orders who divide the months; and for the three hundred and sixty (days) there are heads over thousands who divide the days; and for the four intercalary days there are the leaders which sunder 82.2. I have given Wisdom to thee and to thy children, And thy children that shall be to thee, That they may give it to their children for generations, This wisdom (namely) that passeth their thought.' "82.2. in the fields, and the winepress: these things take place in the days of his dominion. These are the names, and the orders, and the leaders of those heads of thousands: Gida'ljal, Ke'el, and He'el, and the name of the head of a thousand which is added to them, Asfa'el: and the days of his dominion are at an end.Section IV. Chapters LXXXIII-XC. The Dream-Visions." '82.3. And those who understand it shall not sleep, But shall listen with the ear that they may learn this wisdom, And it shall please those that eat thereof better than good food. 108. Another book which Enoch wrote for his son Methuselah and for those who will come after him,,and keep the law in the last days. Ye who have done good shall wait for those days till an end is made of those who work evil; and an end of the might of the transgressors. And wait ye indeed till sin has passed away, for their names shall be blotted out of the book of life and out of the holy books, and their seed shall be destroyed for ever, and their spirits shall be slain, and they shall cry and make lamentation in a place that is a chaotic wilderness, and in the fire shall they burn; for there is no earth there. And I saw there something like an invisible cloud; for by reason of its depth I could not look over, and I saw a flame of fire blazing brightly, and things like shining,mountains circling and sweeping to and fro. And I asked one of the holy angels who was with me and said unto him: \' What is this shining thing for it is not a heaven but only the flame of a blazing",fire, and the voice of weeping and crying and lamentation and strong pain.\' And he said unto me: \' This place which thou seest-here are cast the spirits of sinners and blasphemers, and of those who work wickedness, and of those who pervert everything that the Lord hath spoken through the mouth,of the prophets-(even) the things that shall be. For some of them are written and inscribed above in the heaven, in order that the angels may read them and know that which shall befall the sinners, and the spirits of the humble, and of those who have afflicted their bodies, and been recompensed,by God; and of those who have been put to shame by wicked men: Who love God and loved neither gold nor silver nor any of the good things which are in the world, but gave over their bodies to torture. Who, since they came into being, longed not after earthly food, but regarded everything as a passing breath, and lived accordingly, and the Lord tried them much, and their spirits were,found pure so that they should bless His name. And all the blessings destined for them I have recounted in the books. And he hath assigned them their recompense, because they have been found to be such as loved heaven more than their life in the world, and though they were trodden under foot of wicked men, and experienced abuse and reviling from them and were put to shame,,yet they blessed Me. And now I will summon the spirits of the good who belong to the generation of light, and I will transform those who were born in darkness, who in the flesh were not recompensed,with such honour as their faithfulness deserved. And I will bring forth in shining light those who",have loved My holy name, and I will seat each on the throne of his honour. And they shall be resplendent for times without number; for righteousness is the judgement of God; for to the faithful,He will give faithfulness in the habitation of upright paths. And they shall see those who were,,born in darkness led into darkness, while the righteous shall be resplendent. And the sinners shall cry aloud and see them resplendent, and they indeed will go where days and seasons are prescribed for them.\'''. None
61. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Orpheus, literary author • authority, narrators

 Found in books: Morrison (2020) 48, 49, 50, 51, 63; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 320


62. Anon., Jubilees, 1.5-1.7, 1.16, 2.1, 3.8-3.14, 4.16, 5.6, 5.13-5.14, 6.17, 24.33, 47.9, 48.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority, Conferring strategies xviii • Authority, Divine • Authority, Figures • Authority, Interpretive Strategies • Authority, Scripture • Authority, Teaching • Book of Judith, author • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • John, author of Revelation • Prison escape topos in ancient authors • Writing, Authoritative • authority • authority, prophetic • authority, rabbinic constructions of,vs. prophetic authority • authority, scribal • authority, scriptural • priests, prophecy as authority, vs. rabbinic

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 145; Brooke et al (2008) 42, 84, 110; Gera (2014) 256; Hayes (2022) 78; Jaffee (2001) 24; Levison (2009) 209, 304; Najman (2010) 44, 47, 51, 57, 59, 62, 63, 64, 125; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 201


1.5. And Moses was on the Mount forty days and forty nights, and God taught him the earlier and the later history 1.6. of the division of all the days of the law and of the testimony. 1.7. And He said: "Incline thine heart to every word which I shall speak to thee on this Mount, and write them in a book in order that their generations may see how I have not forsaken them for all the evil which they have wrought in transgressing the covet which I establish between Me and thee for their generations this day on Mount Sinai.
1.16. And I will send witnesses unto them, that I may witness against them, but they will not hear, and will slay the witnesses also,
2.1. And the angel of the presence spake to Moses according to the word of the Lord, saying:
3.8. And He awaked Adam out of his sleep and on awaking he rose on the sixth day, and He brought her to him, and he knew her, and said unto her: 3.9. "This is now bone of my bones and flesh of my flesh; she will be called my wife; because she was taken from her husband." 3.10. Therefore shall man and wife be one, and therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and cleave unto his wife, and they shall be one flesh. 3.11. In the first week was Adam created, and the rib--his wife: in the second week He showed her unto him: 3.12. and for this reason the commandment was given to keep in their defilement, for a male seven days, and for a female twice seven days. 3.13. And after Adam had completed forty days in the land where he had been created, we brought him into the Garden of Eden to till and keep it, but his wife they brought in on the eightieth day, and after this she entered into the Garden of Eden. 3.14. And for this reason the commandment is written on the heavenly tables in regard to her that giveth birth:
4.16. And at the close of the eighth jubilee Ke took Mûalêlêth his sister to be his wife, and she bare him a son in the ninth jubilee, in the first week in the third year of this week, and he called his name Mahalalel.
5.6. And God looked upon the earth, and behold it was corrupt, and all flesh had corrupted its orders, and all that were upon the earth had wrought all manner of evil before His eyes.
5.13. And He sent His sword into their midst that each should slay his neighbour, and they began to slay each other till they all fell by the sword and were destroyed from the earth. 5.14. And their fathers were witnesses (of their destruction), and after this they were bound in the depths of the earth for ever, until the day of the great condemnation when judgment is executed on all those who have corrupted their ways and their works before the Lord.
6.17. And this testimony is written concerning you that you should observe it continually, so that you should not eat on any day any blood of beasts or birds or cattle during all the days of the earth,
24.33. And they digged a well and they found living water.
47.9. And she said (unto her): "Go." And she went and called thy mother Jochebed, and she gave her wages, and she nursed thee.
48.13. And the prince of the Mastêmâ stood up against thee, and sought to cast thee into the hands of Pharaoh, and he helped the Egyptian sorcerers, and they stood up and wrought before thee.''. None
63. Cicero, On Divination, 1.95, 2.40, 2.74, 2.81, 2.137, 2.148-2.150 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Academic philosophy, attitude towards auctoritas • Epicurus, authority in the De Rerum Natura • auctoritas • auctoritas, contrasted with ratio • authority • authority,, pagan sources, decline of non-intellectual authority in • authority,, prophetic or revelatory • prophetic or revelatory authority,, decline of, in pagan sources

 Found in books: Ayres and Ward (2021) 187; Bartels (2017) 201; Bryan (2018) 230, 233; Rosa and Santangelo (2020) 38; Wardy and Warren (2018) 230, 233, 280, 284, 285, 286; Wynne (2019) 268


1.95. Quis vero non videt in optuma quaque re publica plurimum auspicia et reliqua dividi genera valuisse? Quis rex umquam fuit, quis populus, qui non uteretur praedictione divina? neque solum in pace, sed in bello multo etiam magis, quo maius erat certamen et discrimen salutis. Omitto nostros, qui nihil in bello sine extis agunt, nihil sine auspiciis domi habent auspicia ; externa videamus: Namque et Athenienses omnibus semper publicis consiliis divinos quosdam sacerdotes, quos ma/nteis vocant, adhibuerunt, et Lacedaemonii regibus suis augurem adsessorem dederunt, itemque senibus (sic enim consilium publicum appellant) augurem interesse voluerunt, iidemque de rebus maioribus semper aut Delphis oraclum aut ab Hammone aut a Dodona petebant.
2.74. Iam de caelo servare non ipsos censes solitos, qui auspicabantur? Nunc imperant pullario; ille renuntiat. Fulmen sinistrum auspicium optumum habemus ad omnis res praeterquam ad comitia; quod quidem institutum rei publicae causa est, ut comitiorum vel in iudiciis populi vel in iure legum vel in creandis magistratibus principes civitatis essent interpretes. At Ti. Gracchi litteris Scipio et Figulus consules, cum augures iudicassent eos vitio creatos esse, magistratu se abdicaverunt. Quis negat augurum disciplinam esse? divinationem nego. At haruspices divini; quos cum Ti. Gracchus propter mortem repentinam eius, qui in praerogativa referenda subito concidisset, in senatum introduxisset, non iustum rogatorem fuisse dixerunt.
2.81. At omnes reges, populi, nationes utuntur auspiciis. Quasi vero quicquam sit tam valde quam nihil sapere vulgare, aut quasi tibi ipsi in iudicando placeat multitudo! Quotus quisque est, qui voluptatem neget esse bonum? plerique etiam summum bonum dicunt. Num igitur eorum frequentia Stoici de sententia deterrentur? aut num plerisque in rebus sequitur eorum auctoritatem multitudo? Quid mirum igitur, si in auspiciis et in omni divinatione inbecilli animi superstitiosa ista concipiant, verum dispicere non possint?
2.137. Quem enim tu Marium visum a me putas? Speciem, credo, eius et imaginem, ut Democrito videtur. Unde profectam imaginem? a corporibus enim solidis et a certis figuris vult fluere imagines; quod igitur Marii corpus erat? Ex eo, inquit, quod fuerat. Ista igitur me imago Marii in campum Atinatem persequebatur?—Plena sunt imaginum omnia; nulla enim species cogitari potest nisi pulsu imaginum.
2.148. Explodatur igitur haec quoque somniorum divinatio pariter cum ceteris. Nam, ut vere loquamur, superstitio fusa per gentis oppressit omnium fere animos atque hominum inbecillitatem occupavit. Quod et in iis libris dictum est, qui sunt de natura deorum, et hac disputatione id maxume egimus. Multum enim et nobismet ipsis et nostris profuturi videbamur, si eam funditus sustulissemus. Nec vero (id enim diligenter intellegi volo) superstitione tollenda religio tollitur. Nam et maiorum instituta tueri sacris caerimoniisque retinendis sapientis est, et esse praestantem aliquam aeternamque naturam, et eam suspiciendam admirandamque hominum generi pulchritudo mundi ordoque rerum caelestium cogit confiteri. 2.149. Quam ob rem, ut religio propaganda etiam est, quae est iuncta cum cognitione naturae, sic superstitionis stirpes omnes eligendae. Instat enim et urget et, quo te cumque verteris, persequitur, sive tu vatem sive tu omen audieris, sive immolaris sive avem aspexeris, si Chaldaeum, si haruspicem videris, si fulserit, si tonuerit, si tactum aliquid erit de caelo, si ostenti simile natum factumve quippiam; quorum necesse est plerumque aliquid eveniat, ut numquam liceat quieta mente consistere.' '. None
1.95. But who fails to observe that auspices and all other kinds of divination flourish best in the best regulated states? And what king or people has there ever been who did not employ divination? I do not mean in time of peace only, but much more even in time of war, when the strife and struggle for safety is hardest. Passing by our own countrymen, who do nothing in war without examining entrails and nothing in peace without taking the auspices, let us look at the practice of foreign nations. The Athenians, for instance, in every public assembly always had present certain priestly diviners, whom they call manteis. The Spartans assigned an augur to their kings as a judicial adviser, and they also enacted that an augur should be present in their Council of Elders, which is the name of their Senate. In matters of grave concern they always consulted the oracle at Delphi, or that of Jupiter Hammon or that of Dodona.
2.74. Again, do you not think that formerly it was the habit of the celebrants themselves to make observation of the heavens? Now they order the poulterer, and he gives responses! We regard lightning on the left as a most favourable omen for everything except for an election, and this exception was made, no doubt, from reasons of political expediency so that the rulers of the State would be the judges of the regularity of an election, whether held to pass judgements in criminal cases, or to enact laws, or to elect magistrates.The consuls, Scipio and Figulus, you say, resigned their office when the augurs rendered a decision based on a letter written by Tiberius Gracchus, to the effect that those consuls had not been elected according to augural law. Who denies that augury is an art? What I deny is the existence of divination. But you say: Soothsayers have the power of divination; and you mention the fact that, on account of the unexpected death of the person who had suddenly fallen while bringing in the report of the vote of the prerogative century, Tiberius Gracchus introduced the soothsayers into the Senate and they declared that the president had violated augural law.
2.81. But, you say, all kings, peoples, and nations employ auspices. As if there were anything so absolutely common as want of sense, or as if you yourself in deciding anything would accept the opinion of the mob! How often will you find a man who will say that pleasure is not a good! Most people actually call it the highest good. Then will the Stoics abandon their views about pleasure because the crowd is against them? or do you think that the multitude follows the lead of the Stoics in very many matters? What wonder, then, if in auspices and in every kind of divination weak minds should adopt the superstitious practices which you have mentioned and should be unable to discern the truth?
2.137. Now what Marius do you think it was I saw? His likeness or phantom, I suppose — at least that is what Democritus thinks. Whence did the phantom come? He would have it that phantoms emanate from material bodies and from actual forms. Then, it was the body of Marius from which my phantom came? No, says Democritus, but from his body that was. So that phantom of Marius was pursuing me to the plains of Atina? Oh, but the universe is full of phantoms; no picture of anything can be formed in the mind except as the result of the impact of phantoms.
2.148. Then let dreams, as a means of divination, be rejected along with the rest. Speaking frankly, superstition, which is widespread among the nations, has taken advantage of human weakness to cast its spell over the mind of almost every man. This same view was stated in my treatise On the Nature of the Gods; and to prove the correctness of that view has been the chief aim of the present discussion. For I thought that I should be rendering a great service both to myself and to my countrymen if I could tear this superstition up by the roots. But I want it distinctly understood that the destruction of superstition does not mean the destruction of religion. For I consider it the part of wisdom to preserve the institutions of our forefathers by retaining their sacred rites and ceremonies. Furthermore, the celestial order and the beauty of the universe compel me to confess that there is some excellent and eternal Being, who deserves the respect and homage of men. 2.149. Wherefore, just as it is a duty to extend the influence of true religion, which is closely associated with the knowledge of nature, so it is a duty to weed out every root of superstition. For superstition is ever at your heels to urge you on; it follows you at every turn. It is with you when you listen to a prophet, or an omen; when you offer sacrifices or watch the flight of birds; when you consult an astrologer or a soothsayer; when it thunders or lightens or there is a bolt from on high; or when some so‑called prodigy is born or is made. And since necessarily some of these signs are nearly always being given, no one who believes in them can ever remain in a tranquil state of mind.' '. None
64. Cicero, De Finibus, 1.6, 2.75, 4.61, 5.9-5.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Academic philosophy, attitude towards auctoritas • Cicero, Marcus Tullius, and auctoritas • Epicurus, authority in the De Rerum Natura • Plato, his authority • auctor • auctoritas • auctoritas, contrasted with ratio • authority (Lat. auctoritas) • authority, • authority, argument from • authority, argument from, of Plato • authority, argument from, of the ‘ancients’

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 76; Bryan (2018) 229; Tsouni (2019) 33, 46, 58; Wardy and Warren (2018) 229, 265, 267, 268, 269, 272, 273, 293


2.75. \xa0"But let us grant your position. The actual word \'pleasure\' has not a lofty sound; and perhaps we do not understand its significance: you are always repeating that we do not understand what you mean by pleasure. As though it were a difficult or recondite notion! If we understand you when you talk of \'indivisible atoms\' and \'cosmic interspaces,\' things that don\'t exist and never can exist, is our intelligence incapable of grasping the meaning of pleasure, a feeling known to every sparrow? What if I\xa0force you to admit that I\xa0do know not only what pleasure really is (it is an agreeable activity of the sense), but also what you mean by it? For at one moment you mean by it the feeling that I\xa0have just defined, and this you entitle \'kinetic\' pleasure, as producing a definite change of feeling, but at another moment you say it is quite a different feeling, which is the acme and climax of pleasure, but yet consists merely in the complete absence of pain; this you call \'static\' pleasure. <
4.61. \xa0What if those pupils of Plato were to come to life again, and their pupils again in succession, and were to address you in this fashion? \'As we listened, Marcus Cato, to so devoted a student of philosophy, so just a man, so upright a judge, so scrupulous a witness as yourself, we marvelled what reason could induce you to reject us for the Stoics, whose views on good and evil were the views that Zeno learnt from Polemo here, but who expressed those views in terms at first sight startling but upon examination ridiculous. If you accepted those views on their merits, why did you not hold them under their own terminology? or if you were swayed by authority, could you prefer that nobody to all of us, even to Plato himself? especially when you aspired to play a leading part in the state, and we were the very persons to arm and equip you to protect the state with the highest honour to yourself. Why, it is we who invented political philosophy; and reduced it to a system; its nomenclature, its principles are our creation; on all the various forms of government, their stability, their revolutions, the laws, institutions and customs of states, we have written exhaustively. Oratory again is the proudest distinction of the statesman, and in it you, we are told, are preâ\x80\x91eminent; but how vastly you might have enriched your eloquence from the records of our genius.\' What answer, pray, could you give to these words from such men as those?" <
5.9. \xa0Accordingly Piso spoke as follows: "About the educational value of the Peripatetic system I\xa0have said enough, in the briefest possible way, a\xa0few moments ago. Its arrangement, like that of most other systems, is threefold: one part deals with nature, the second with discourse, and the third with conduct. Natural Philosophy the Peripatetics have investigated so thoroughly that no region in sky or sea or land (to speak poetically) has been passed over. Nay more, in treating of the elements of being and the constitution of the universe they have established much of their doctrine not merely by probable arguments but by conclusive mathematical demonstration, applying a quantity of material derived from facts that they have themselves investigated to the discovery of other facts beyond the reach of observation. < 5.10. \xa0Aristotle gave a complete account of the birth, nutrition and structure of all living creatures, Theophrastus of the natural history of plants and the causes and constitution of vegetable organisms in general; and the knowledge thus attained facilitated the investigation of the most obscure questions. In Logic their teachings include the rules of rhetoric as well as of dialectic; and Aristotle their founder started the practice of arguing both pro and contra upon every topic, not like Arcesilas, always controverting every proposition, but setting out all the possible arguments on either side in every subject. < 5.11. \xa0The third division of philosophy investigates the rules of human well-being; this too was treated by the Peripatetics, so as to comprise not only the principles of individual conduct but also of the government of states. From Aristotle we learn the manners, customs and institutions, and from Theophrastus the laws also, of nearly all the states not only of Greece but of the barbarians as well. Both described the proper qualifications of a statesman, both moreover wrote lengthy treatises on the best form of constitution; Theophrastus treated the subject more fully, discussing the forces and occasions of political change, and their control as circumstances demand. Among the alternative ideals of conduct they gave the highest place to the life of retirement, devoted to contemplation and to study. This was pronounced to be most worthy of the Wise Man, as most nearly resembling the life of the gods. And these topics they handle in a style as brilliant as it is illuminating. < 5.12. \xa0"Their books on the subject of the Chief Good fall into two classes, one popular in style, and this class they used to call their exoteric works; the other more carefully wrought. The latter treatises they left in the form of note-books. This distinction occasionally gives them an appearance of inconsistency; but as a matter of fact in the main body of their doctrine there is no divergence, at all events among the philosophers I\xa0have mentioned, nor did they disagree among themselves. But on the chief object of inquiry, namely Happiness, and the one question which philosophy has to consider and to investigate, whether this lies entirely within the control of the Wise Man, or whether it can be impaired or destroyed by adversity, here there does appear sometimes to exist among them some divergence and uncertainty. This effect is chiefly produced by Theophrastus\'s book On\xa0Happiness, in which a very considerable amount of importance is assigned to fortune; though if this be correct, wisdom alone could not guarantee happiness. This theory seems to me to be, if I\xa0may so call it, too enervating and unmanly to be adequate to the force and dignity of virtue. Hence we had better keep to Aristotle and his son Nicomachus; the latter\'s elaborate volumes on Ethics are ascribed, it is true, to Aristotle, but I\xa0do not see why the son should not have been capable of emulating the father. Still, we may use Theophrastus on most points, so long as we maintain a larger element of strength and solidity in virtue than he did. <' '. None
65. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 1.6, 2.75, 4.61, 5.9-5.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Academic philosophy, attitude towards auctoritas • Cicero, Marcus Tullius, and auctoritas • Epicurus, authority in the De Rerum Natura • Plato, his authority • auctor • auctoritas • auctoritas, contrasted with ratio • authority (Lat. auctoritas) • authority, • authority, argument from • authority, argument from, of Plato • authority, argument from, of the ‘ancients’

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 76; Bryan (2018) 229; Tsouni (2019) 33, 46, 58; Wardy and Warren (2018) 229, 265, 267, 268, 269, 272, 273, 293


2.75. Verum esto: verbum ipsum voluptatis non habet dignitatem, nec nos fortasse intellegimus. hoc enim identidem dicitis, non intellegere nos quam dicatis voluptatem. rem videlicet videlicet P. Man. vides difficilem et obscuram! individua cum dicitis et intermundia, quae nec sunt ulla nec possunt esse, intellegimus, voluptas, quae passeribus omnibus nota est, nota est omnibus A a nobis intellegi non potest? quid, si efficio ut fateare me non modo quid sit voluptas scire—est enim iucundus motus in sensu—, sed etiam quid eam tu velis velis tu eam BE esse? tum enim eam ipsam vis, quam modo ego dixi, dixi ego BE et nomen inponis, in motu ut sit et faciat aliquam varietatem, tum aliam quandam summam voluptatem, quo quo ARN qua BE cui V Mdv. ('quo et qua orta puto ex quoi') addi nihil possit; eam tum adesse, cum dolor omnis absit; eam stabilem appellas." '
4.61. quid, si reviviscant Platonis illi et deinceps qui eorum auditores fuerunt, et tecum ita loquantur? Nos cum te, M. Cato, studiosissimum philosophiae, iustissimum virum, optimum iudicem, religiosissimum testem, audiremus, admirati sumus, quid esset cur nobis Stoicos anteferres, qui de rebus bonis et malis sentirent ea, quae ab hoc Polemone Zeno cognoverat, nominibus uterentur iis, quae prima specie admirationem, re explicata risum moverent. tu autem, si tibi illa probabantur, cur non propriis verbis ea ea NV eas R illa BE tenebas? sin te auctoritas commovebat, nobisne omnibus et Platoni ipsi nescio quem illum anteponebas? praesertim cum in re publica princeps esse velles ad eamque tuendam cum summa tua dignitate maxime a nobis ornari atque instrui posses. a nobis enim ista quaesita, a nobis descripta, notata, add. Lamb. praecepta sunt, omniumque rerum publicarum rectionis rectionis Mdv. rectiones BERN rectores V genera, status, mutationes, leges etiam et leges etiam et ERN leges et etiam B et etiam leges et V instituta ac mores civitatum perscripsimus. eloquentiae vero, quae et principibus maximo ornamento maximo ornamento RV maximo e ornamento B maximo cornamento E maxime (e ex corr. m. alt. ) ornamento N est, et qua te audimus audivimus RV valere plurimum, et qua te ... plurimum om. N quantum tibi ex monumentis monimentis RV nostris addidisses! Ea cum dixissent, quid tandem talibus viris responderes?
5.9. Sic est igitur locutus: Quantus ornatus in Peripateticorum disciplina sit satis est a me, ut brevissime potuit, paulo ante dictum. sed est forma eius disciplinae, sicut fere ceterarum, triplex: una pars est naturae, naturae edd. natura ( etiam B) disserendi altera, vivendi tertia. Natura sic ab iis investigata est, ut nulla pars caelo, mari, terra, ut poe+tice loquar, praetermissa sit; quin etiam, cum de rerum initiis omnique mundo locuti essent, ut multa non modo probabili argumentatione, sed etiam necessaria mathematicorum ratione concluderent, maximam materiam ex rebus per se investigatis ad rerum occultarum cognitionem attulerunt. 5.10. persecutus est est N 2 om. BERN 1 V Non. p. 232 Aristoteles animantium omnium ortus, victus, figuras, Theophrastus autem stirpium naturas omniumque fere rerum, quae e terra gignerentur, causas atque rationes; qua ex cognitione facilior facta est investigatio rerum occultissimarum. Disserendique ab isdem non dialectice solum, sed etiam oratorie praecepta sunt tradita, ab Aristoteleque principe de singulis rebus in utramque partem dicendi exercitatio est instituta, ut non contra omnia semper, sicut Arcesilas, diceret, et tamen ut in omnibus rebus, quicquid ex utraque parte dici posset, expromeret. exprimeret R 5.11. Cum autem tertia pars bene vivendi praecepta quaereret, ea quoque est ab isdem non solum ad privatae vitae rationem, sed etiam ad rerum publicarum rectionem relata. omnium fere civitatum non Graeciae solum, sed etiam barbariae ab Aristotele mores, instituta, disciplinas, a Theophrasto leges etiam cognovimus. cumque uterque eorum docuisset qualem in re publica principem esse conveniret, add. Ascens. 1511 pluribus praeterea conscripsisset cum scripsisset NV qui esset optimus rei publicae status, hoc amplius Theophrastus: quae essent in re publica status ... in re publica om. BER rerum inclinationes et momenta temporum, quibus esset moderandum, utcumque res postularet. vitae autem degendae elegendae E eligendae B ratio maxime quidem illis illis quidem BE placuit quieta, in contemplatione et cognitione posita rerum, quae quia deorum erat vitae vite erat BE simillima, sapiente visa est dignissima. atque his de rebus et splendida est eorum et illustris oratio. 5.12. De summo autem bono, quia duo genera librorum sunt, unum populariter scriptum, quod e)cwteriko/n appellabant, alterum limatius, quod in commentariis reliquerunt, non semper idem dicere videntur, nec in summa tamen ipsa aut varietas est ulla apud hos quidem, quos nominavi, aut inter ipsos dissensio. sed cum beata vita quaeratur idque sit unum, quod philosophia philosophia dett. philosophiam spectare et sequi debeat, sitne ea tota sita in potestate sapientis an possit aut labefactari aut eripi rebus adversis, in eo non numquam variari inter eos inter eos variari R et dubitari videtur. quod maxime efficit Theophrasti de beata vita liber, in quo multum admodum fortunae datur. quod si ita se habeat, non possit beatam praestare vitam vitam praestare BE sapientia. Haec mihi videtur delicatior, delicatior videtur NV ut ita dicam, molliorque ratio, quam virtutis vis gravitasque postulat. quare teneamus Aristotelem et eius filium Nicomachum, cuius accurate scripti de moribus libri dicuntur illi quidem esse Aristoteli, sed non video, cur non potuerit patri similis esse filius. Theophrastum tamen adhibeamus ad pleraque, dum modo plus in virtute teneamus, quam ille tenuit, firmitatis et roboris. Simus igitur contenti his.' ". None
2.75. \xa0"But let us grant your position. The actual word \'pleasure\' has not a lofty sound; and perhaps we do not understand its significance: you are always repeating that we do not understand what you mean by pleasure. As though it were a difficult or recondite notion! If we understand you when you talk of \'indivisible atoms\' and \'cosmic interspaces,\' things that don\'t exist and never can exist, is our intelligence incapable of grasping the meaning of pleasure, a feeling known to every sparrow? What if I\xa0force you to admit that I\xa0do know not only what pleasure really is (it is an agreeable activity of the sense), but also what you mean by it? For at one moment you mean by it the feeling that I\xa0have just defined, and this you entitle \'kinetic\' pleasure, as producing a definite change of feeling, but at another moment you say it is quite a different feeling, which is the acme and climax of pleasure, but yet consists merely in the complete absence of pain; this you call \'static\' pleasure. <
4.61. \xa0What if those pupils of Plato were to come to life again, and their pupils again in succession, and were to address you in this fashion? \'As we listened, Marcus Cato, to so devoted a student of philosophy, so just a man, so upright a judge, so scrupulous a witness as yourself, we marvelled what reason could induce you to reject us for the Stoics, whose views on good and evil were the views that Zeno learnt from Polemo here, but who expressed those views in terms at first sight startling but upon examination ridiculous. If you accepted those views on their merits, why did you not hold them under their own terminology? or if you were swayed by authority, could you prefer that nobody to all of us, even to Plato himself? especially when you aspired to play a leading part in the state, and we were the very persons to arm and equip you to protect the state with the highest honour to yourself. Why, it is we who invented political philosophy; and reduced it to a system; its nomenclature, its principles are our creation; on all the various forms of government, their stability, their revolutions, the laws, institutions and customs of states, we have written exhaustively. Oratory again is the proudest distinction of the statesman, and in it you, we are told, are preâ\x80\x91eminent; but how vastly you might have enriched your eloquence from the records of our genius.\' What answer, pray, could you give to these words from such men as those?" <
5.9. \xa0Accordingly Piso spoke as follows: "About the educational value of the Peripatetic system I\xa0have said enough, in the briefest possible way, a\xa0few moments ago. Its arrangement, like that of most other systems, is threefold: one part deals with nature, the second with discourse, and the third with conduct. Natural Philosophy the Peripatetics have investigated so thoroughly that no region in sky or sea or land (to speak poetically) has been passed over. Nay more, in treating of the elements of being and the constitution of the universe they have established much of their doctrine not merely by probable arguments but by conclusive mathematical demonstration, applying a quantity of material derived from facts that they have themselves investigated to the discovery of other facts beyond the reach of observation. < 5.10. \xa0Aristotle gave a complete account of the birth, nutrition and structure of all living creatures, Theophrastus of the natural history of plants and the causes and constitution of vegetable organisms in general; and the knowledge thus attained facilitated the investigation of the most obscure questions. In Logic their teachings include the rules of rhetoric as well as of dialectic; and Aristotle their founder started the practice of arguing both pro and contra upon every topic, not like Arcesilas, always controverting every proposition, but setting out all the possible arguments on either side in every subject. < 5.11. \xa0The third division of philosophy investigates the rules of human well-being; this too was treated by the Peripatetics, so as to comprise not only the principles of individual conduct but also of the government of states. From Aristotle we learn the manners, customs and institutions, and from Theophrastus the laws also, of nearly all the states not only of Greece but of the barbarians as well. Both described the proper qualifications of a statesman, both moreover wrote lengthy treatises on the best form of constitution; Theophrastus treated the subject more fully, discussing the forces and occasions of political change, and their control as circumstances demand. Among the alternative ideals of conduct they gave the highest place to the life of retirement, devoted to contemplation and to study. This was pronounced to be most worthy of the Wise Man, as most nearly resembling the life of the gods. And these topics they handle in a style as brilliant as it is illuminating. < 5.12. \xa0"Their books on the subject of the Chief Good fall into two classes, one popular in style, and this class they used to call their exoteric works; the other more carefully wrought. The latter treatises they left in the form of note-books. This distinction occasionally gives them an appearance of inconsistency; but as a matter of fact in the main body of their doctrine there is no divergence, at all events among the philosophers I\xa0have mentioned, nor did they disagree among themselves. But on the chief object of inquiry, namely Happiness, and the one question which philosophy has to consider and to investigate, whether this lies entirely within the control of the Wise Man, or whether it can be impaired or destroyed by adversity, here there does appear sometimes to exist among them some divergence and uncertainty. This effect is chiefly produced by Theophrastus\'s book On\xa0Happiness, in which a very considerable amount of importance is assigned to fortune; though if this be correct, wisdom alone could not guarantee happiness. This theory seems to me to be, if I\xa0may so call it, too enervating and unmanly to be adequate to the force and dignity of virtue. Hence we had better keep to Aristotle and his son Nicomachus; the latter\'s elaborate volumes on Ethics are ascribed, it is true, to Aristotle, but I\xa0do not see why the son should not have been capable of emulating the father. Still, we may use Theophrastus on most points, so long as we maintain a larger element of strength and solidity in virtue than he did. <' '. None
66. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Academic philosophy, attitude towards auctoritas • Cicero, Marcus Tullius, and auctoritas • Epicurus, authority in the De Rerum Natura • auctoritas • auctoritas, contrasted with ratio • authority • authority (Lat. auctoritas) • authority, • authority, argument from, of Plato

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 29; Bryan (2018) 225, 229, 230, 231, 233, 234, 235, 237, 240; Rosa and Santangelo (2020) 14; Tsouni (2019) 34, 35; Wardy and Warren (2018) 225, 229, 230, 231, 233, 234, 235, 237, 240, 264, 265, 280, 286; Wynne (2019) 268


1.1. There are a number of branches of philosophy that have not as yet been by any means adequately explored; but the inquiry into the nature of the gods, which is both highly interesting in relation to the theory of the soul, and fundamentally important for the regulation of religion, is one of special difficulty and obscurity, as you, Brutus, are well aware. The multiplicity and variety of the opinions held upon this subject by eminent scholars are bound to constitute a strong argument for the view that philosophy has its origin and starting-point in ignorance, and that the Academic School were well-advised in "withholding assent" from beliefs that are uncertain: for what is more unbecoming than ill‑considered haste? and what is so ill‑considered or so unworthy of the dignity and seriousness proper to a philosopher as to hold an opinion that is not true, or to maintain with unhesitating certainty a proposition not based on adequate examination, comprehension and knowledge? ' "1.10. Those however who seek to learn my personal opinion on the various questions show an unreasonable degree of curiosity. In discussion it is not so much weight of authority as force of argument that should be demanded. Indeed the authority of those who profess to teach is often a positive hindrance to those who desire to learn; they cease to employ their own judgement, and take what they perceive to be the verdict of their chosen master as settling the question. In fact I am not disposed to approve the practice traditionally ascribed to the Pythagoreans, who, when questioned as to the grounds of any assertion that they advanced in debate, are said to have been accustomed to reply 'He himself said so, he himself' being Pythagoras. So potent was an opinion already decided, making authority prevail unsupported by reason. " '1.18. Hereupon Velleius began, in the confident manner (I need not say) that is customary with Epicureans, afraid of nothing so much as lest he should appear to have doubts about anything. One would have supposed he had just come down from the assembly of the gods in the intermundane spaces of Epicurus! "I am not going to expound to you doctrines that are mere baseless figments of the imagination, such as the artisan deity and world-builder of Plato\'s Timaeus, or that old hag of a fortune-teller, the Pronoia (which we may render \'Providence\') of the Stoics; nor yet a world endowed with a mind and senses of its own, a spherical, rotatory god of burning fire; these are the marvels and monstrosities of philosophers who do not reason but dream. 1.43. With the errors of the poets may be classed the monstrous doctrines of the magi and the insane mythology of Egypt, and also the popular beliefs, which are a mere mass of inconsistencies sprung from ignorance. "Anyone pondering on the baseless and irrational character of these doctrines ought to regard Epicurus with reverence, and to rank him as one of the very gods about whom we are inquiring. For he alone perceived, first, that the gods exist, because nature herself has imprinted a conception of them on the minds of all mankind. For what nation or what tribe is there but possesses untaught some \'preconception\' of the gods? Such notions Epicurus designates by the word prolepsis, that is, a sort of preconceived mental picture of a thing, without which nothing can be understood or investigated or discussed. The force and value of this argument we learn in that work of genius, Epicurus\'s Rule or Standard of Judgement. ' "1.44. You see therefore that the foundation (for such it is) of our inquiry has been well and truly laid. For the belief in the gods has not been established by authority, custom or law, but rests on the uimous and abiding consensus of mankind; their existence is therefore a necessary inference, since we possess an instinctive or rather an innate concept of them; but a belief which all men by nature share must necessarily be true; therefore it must be admitted that the gods exist. And since this truth is almost universally accepted not only among philosophers but also among the unlearned, we must admit it as also being an accepted truth that we possess a 'preconception,' as I called it above, or 'prior notion,' of the gods. (For we are bound to employ novel terms to denote novel ideas, just as Epicurus himself employed the word prolepsis in a sense in which no one had ever used it before.) " '1.45. We have then a preconception of such a nature that we believe the gods to be blessed and immortal. For nature, which bestowed upon us an idea of the gods themselves, also engraved on our minds the belief that they are eternal and blessed. If this is so, the famous maxim of Epicurus truthfully enunciates that \'that which is blessed and eternal can neither know trouble itself nor cause trouble to another, and accordingly cannot feel either anger or favour, since all such things belong only to the weak.\' "If we sought to attain nothing else beside piety in worshipping the gods and freedom from superstition, what has been said had sufficed; since the exalted nature of the gods, being both eternal and supremely blessed, would receive man\'s pious worship (for what is highest commands the reverence that is its due); and furthermore all fear of the divine power or divine anger would have been banished (since it is understood that anger and favour alike are excluded from the nature of a being at once blessed and immortal, and that these being eliminated we are menaced by no fears in regard to the powers above). But the mind strives to strengthen this belief by trying to discover the form of god, the mode of his activity, and the operation of his intelligence. 1.46. "For the divine form we have the hints of nature supplemented by the teachings of reason. From nature all men of all races derive the notion of gods as having human shape and none other; for in what other shape do they ever appear to anyone, awake or asleep? But not to make primary concepts the sole test of all things, reason itself delivers the same pronouncement. 1.47. For it seems appropriate that the being who is the most exalted, whether by reason of his happiness or his eternity, should also be the most beautiful; but what disposition of the limbs, what cast of features, what shape or outline can be more beautiful than the human form? You Stoics at least, Lucilius, (for my friend Cotta says one thing at one time and another at another) are wont to portray the skill of the divine creator by enlarging on the beauty as well as the utility of design displayed in all parts of the human figure. 1.48. But if the human figure surpasses the form of all other living beings, and god is a living being, god must possess the shape which is the most beautiful of all; and since it is agreed that the gods are supremely happy, and no one can be happy without virtue, and virtue cannot exist without reason, and reason is only found in the human shape, it follows that the gods possess the form of man. 1.49. Yet their form is not corporeal, but only resembles bodily substance; it does not contain blood, but the semblance of blood. "These discoveries of Epicurus are so acute in themselves and so subtly expressed that not everyone would be capable of appreciating them. Still I may rely on your intelligence, and make my exposition briefer than the subject demands. Epicurus then, as he not merely discerns abstruse and recondite things with his mind\'s eye, but handles them as tangible realities, teaches that the substance and nature of the gods is such that, in the first place, it is perceived not by the senses but by the mind, and not materially or individually, like the solid objects which Epicurus in virtue of their substantiality entitles steremnia; but by our perceiving images owing to their similarity and succession, because an endless train of precisely similar images arises from the innumerable atoms and streams towards the gods, our minds with the keenest feelings of pleasure fixes its gaze on these images, and so attains an understanding of the nature of a being both blessed and eternal. 1.71. "He does the same as regards the nature of the gods. In his desire to avoid the assumption of a dense cluster of atoms, which would involve the possibility of destruction and dissipation, he says that the gods have not a body but a semblance of body, and not blood but a semblance of blood. It is thought surprising that an augur can see an augur without smiling; but it is more surprising that you Epicureans keep a grave face when by yourselves. \'It is not body but a semblance of body.\' I could understand what this supposition meant if it related to waxen images or figures of earthenware, but what \'a semblance of body\' or \'a semblance of blood\' may mean in the case of god, I cannot understand; nor can you either, Velleius, only you won\'t admit it. 1.74. "As to your formula \'a semblance of body\' and \'a semblance of blood,\' what meaning do you attach to it? That you have a better knowledge of the matter than I have I freely admit, and what is more, am quite content that this should be so; but once it is expressed in words, why should one of us be able to understand it and not the other? Well then, I do understand what body is and what blood is, but what \'a semblance of body\' and \'a semblance of blood\' are I don\'t understand in the very least. You are not trying to hide the truth from me, as Pythagoras used to hide it from strangers, nor yet are you speaking obscurely on purpose like Heraclitus, but (to speak candidly between ourselves) you don\'t understand it yourself any more than I do. ' "1.85. Well then, if the gods do not possess the appearance of men, as I have proved, nor some such form as that of the heavenly bodies, as you are convinced, why do you hesitate to deny their existence? You do not dare to. Well, that is no doubt wise — although in this matter it is not the public that you fear, but the gods themselves: I personally am acquainted with Epicureans who worship every paltry image, albeit I am aware that according to some people's view Epicurus really abolished the gods, but nominally retained them in order not to offend the people of Athens. Thus the first of his selected aphorisms or maxims, which you call the Kyriai Doxai, runs, I believe, thus: That which is blessed and immortal neither experiences trouble nor causes it to anyone. Now there are people who think that the wording of this maxim was intentional, though really it was due to the author's inability to express himself clearly; their suspicion does an injustice to the most guileless of mankind. " '1.105. Your assertion was that the form of god is perceived by thought and not by the senses, that it has no solidity nor numerical persistence, and that our perception of it is such that it is seen owing to similarity and succession, a never-ceasing stream of similar forms arriving continually from the infinite number of atoms, and that thus it results that our mind, when its attention is fixed on these forms, conceives the divine nature to be happy and eternal. Now in the name of the very gods about whom we are talking, what can possibly be the meaning of this? If the gods only appeal to the faculty of thought, and have no solidity or definite outline, what difference does it make whether we think of a god or of a hippocentaur? Such mental pictures are called by all other philosophers mere empty imaginations, but you say they are the arrival and entrance into our minds of certain images. ' "1.109. And how extravagantly! There is a constant passage or stream of visual presentations which collectively produce a single visual impression. I should be ashamed to say that I do not understand the doctrine, if you who maintain it understood it yourselves! How can you prove that the stream of images is continuous, or if it is, how are the images eternal? You say that there is an innumerable supply of atoms. Are you going to argue then that everything is eternal, for the same reason? You take refuge in the principle of 'equilibrium' (for so with your consent we will translate isonomia), and you say that because there is mortal substance there must also be immortal substance. On that showing, because there are mortal men, there are also some that are immortal, and because there are men born on land, there are men born in the water. 'And because there are forces of destruction, there are also forces of preservation.' Suppose there were, they would only preserve things that already exist; but I am not aware that your gods do exist. " "1.114. 'But they are free from pain.' Does that satisfy the ideal of perfect bliss, overflowing with good things? 'God is engaged (they say) in ceaseless contemplation of his own happiness, for he has no other object for his thoughts.' I beg of you to realize in your imagination a vivid picture of a deity solely occupied for all eternity in reflecting 'What a good time I am having! How happy I am!' And yet I can't see how this happy god of yours is not to fear destruction, since he is subjected without a moment's respite to the buffeting and jostling of a horde of atoms that eternally assail him, while from his own person a ceaseless stream of images is given off. Your god is therefore neither happy nor eternal. " '3.95. "I on my side," replied Cotta, "only desire to be refuted. My purpose was rather to discuss the doctrines I have expounded than to pronounce judgement upon them, and I am confident that you can easily defeat me." "Oh, no doubt," interposed Velleius; "why, he thinks that even our dreams are sent to us by Jupiter — though dreams themselves are not so unsubstantial as a Stoic disquisition on the nature of the gods." Here the conversation ended, and we parted, Velleius thinking Cotta\'s discourse to be the truer, while I felt that that of Balbus approximated more nearly to a semblance of the truth. ' '. None
67. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 7.14, 7.18, 7.21-7.22, 7.25, 7.27, 12.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Author, of 2 maccabees, Ptolemaic Influence • Authority, of the son of man • Authority, of/For the Righteous • Book of Judith, author • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • John, author of Revelation • Oniad authorship • Oniad authorship, background/origin/milieu • Oniad authorship, dynasty • Oniad authorship, literature • authority

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 134, 135, 136, 137, 140; Gera (2014) 95, 96, 387; Levison (2009) 294; Lynskey (2021) 237; Piotrkowski (2019) 129, 214, 219, 312; Schwartz (2008) 541; Stuckenbruck (2007) 224, 230, 286, 315, 735


7.14. וְלֵהּ יְהִיב שָׁלְטָן וִיקָר וּמַלְכוּ וְכֹל עַמְמַיָּא אֻמַיָּא וְלִשָּׁנַיָּא לֵהּ יִפְלְחוּן שָׁלְטָנֵהּ שָׁלְטָן עָלַם דִּי־לָא יֶעְדֵּה וּמַלְכוּתֵהּ דִּי־לָא תִתְחַבַּל׃
7.18. וִיקַבְּלוּן מַלְכוּתָא קַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין וְיַחְסְנוּן מַלְכוּתָא עַד־עָלְמָא וְעַד עָלַם עָלְמַיָּא׃
7.21. חָזֵה הֲוֵית וְקַרְנָא דִכֵּן עָבְדָה קְרָב עִם־קַדִּישִׁין וְיָכְלָה לְהוֹן׃ 7.22. עַד דִּי־אֲתָה עַתִּיק יוֹמַיָּא וְדִינָא יְהִב לְקַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין וְזִמְנָא מְטָה וּמַלְכוּתָא הֶחֱסִנוּ קַדִּישִׁין׃
7.25. וּמִלִּין לְצַד עליא עִלָּאָה יְמַלִּל וּלְקַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין יְבַלֵּא וְיִסְבַּר לְהַשְׁנָיָה זִמְנִין וְדָת וְיִתְיַהֲבוּן בִּידֵהּ עַד־עִדָּן וְעִדָּנִין וּפְלַג עִדָּן׃
7.27. וּמַלְכוּתָה וְשָׁלְטָנָא וּרְבוּתָא דִּי מַלְכְוָת תְּחוֹת כָּל־שְׁמַיָּא יְהִיבַת לְעַם קַדִּישֵׁי עֶלְיוֹנִין מַלְכוּתֵהּ מַלְכוּת עָלַם וְכֹל שָׁלְטָנַיָּא לֵהּ יִפְלְחוּן וְיִשְׁתַּמְּעוּן׃
12.1. וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יַעֲמֹד מִיכָאֵל הַשַּׂר הַגָּדוֹל הָעֹמֵד עַל־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְהָיְתָה עֵת צָרָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־נִהְיְתָה מִהְיוֹת גּוֹי עַד הָעֵת הַהִיא וּבָעֵת הַהִיא יִמָּלֵט עַמְּךָ כָּל־הַנִּמְצָא כָּתוּב בַּסֵּפֶר׃'
12.1. יִתְבָּרֲרוּ וְיִתְלַבְּנוּ וְיִצָּרְפוּ רַבִּים וְהִרְשִׁיעוּ רְשָׁעִים וְלֹא יָבִינוּ כָּל־רְשָׁעִים וְהַמַּשְׂכִּלִים יָבִינוּ׃ '. None
7.14. And there was given him dominion, And glory, and a kingdom, That all the peoples, nations, and languages Should serve him; His dominion is an everlasting dominion, which shall not pass away, And his kingdom that which shall not be destroyed.
7.18. But the saints of the Most High shall receive the kingdom, and possess the kingdom for ever, even for ever and ever.’
7.21. I beheld, and the same horn made war with the saints, and prevailed against them; 7.22. until the Ancient of days came, and judgment was given for the saints of the Most High; and the time came, and the saints possessed the kingdom.
7.25. And he shall speak words against the Most High, and shall wear out the saints of the Most High; and he shall think to change the seasons and the law; and they shall be given into his hand until a time and times and half a time.
7.27. And the kingdom and the dominion, and the greatness of the kingdoms under the whole heaven, shall be given to the people of the saints of the Most High; their kingdom is an everlasting kingdom, and all dominions shall serve and obey them.’
12.1. And at that time shall Michael stand up, the great prince who standeth for the children of thy people; and there shall be a time of trouble, such as never was since there was a nation even to that same time; and at that time thy people shall be delivered, every one that shall be found written in the book.' '. None
68. Polybius, Histories, 6.56.9, 16.17.9, 16.18.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Callisthenes, historian, author of Phocian War, illustrates tragic approach in a monograph • Timaeus, author of Wars of Pyrrhus, highly rhetorical style of • auctoritas (authority) • author • authority

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 37; Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 137; Feldman (2006) 347; Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 330


6.56.9. ἐμοί γε μὴν δοκοῦσι τοῦ πλήθους χάριν τοῦτο πεποιηκέναι.
16.17.9. τί τις οὖν εἰκότως ἂν Ζήνωνι μέμψαιτο; διότι τὸ πλεῖον οὐ περὶ τὴν τῶν πραγμάτων ζήτησιν οὐδὲ περὶ τὸν χειρισμὸν τῆς ὑποθέσεως, ἀλλὰ περὶ τὴν τῆς λέξεως κατασκευὴν ἐσπούδακε, καὶ δῆλός ἐστι πολλάκις ἐπὶ τούτῳ σεμνυνόμενος, καθάπερ καὶ πλείους ἕτεροι τῶν ἐπιφανῶν συγγραφέων;
16.18.2. ἐξηγούμενος γὰρ ὁ προειρημένος συγγραφεὺς τήν τε Γάζης πολιορκίαν καὶ τὴν γενομένην παράταξιν Ἀντιόχου πρὸς Σκόπαν ἐν Κοίλῃ Συρίᾳ περὶ τὸ Πάνιον, περὶ μὲν τὴν τῆς λέξεως κατασκευὴν δῆλός ἐστιν ἐπὶ τοσοῦτον ἐσπουδακὼς ὡς ὑπερβολὴν τερατείας μὴ καταλιπεῖν τοῖς τὰς ἐπιδεικτικὰς καὶ πρὸς ἔκπληξιν τῶν πολλῶν συντάξεις ποιουμένοις,''. None
6.56.9. \xa0My own opinion at least is that they have adopted this course for the sake of the common people. <
16.17.9. \xa0Have we then any more valid reason for finding fault with Zeno? Yes: because he is not for the most part so much concerned with inquiry into the facts and proper treatment of his material, as with elegance of style, a quality on which he, like several other famous authors, often shows that he prides himself. <
16.18.2. \xa0The above-mentioned author in narrating the siege of Gaza and the engagement between Antiochus and Scopas at the Panium in Coele-Syria has evidently taken so much pains about his style that the extravagance of his language is not excelled by any of those declamatory works written to produce a sensation among the vulgar. <''. None
69. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 3.8, 4.4, 6.3, 6.9, 7.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Author, of 2 maccabees • Author, of 2 maccabees, Jewish Identity • Book of Judith, author • Oniad authorship • Oniad authorship, Jews • Oniad authorship, background/origin/milieu • Oniad authorship, literature • Oniad authorship, soldiers/units

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 93, 344; Piotrkowski (2019) 248, 249, 279, 314, 407; Schwartz (2008) 199, 283, 486


3.8. The Greeks in the city, though wronged in no way, when they saw an unexpected tumult around these people and the crowds that suddenly were forming, were not strong enough to help them, for they lived under tyranny. They did try to console them, being grieved at the situation, and expected that matters would change;
4.4. For with such a harsh and ruthless spirit were they being sent off, all together, by the generals in the several cities, that at the sight of their unusual punishments, even some of their enemies, perceiving the common object of pity before their eyes, reflected upon the uncertainty of life and shed tears at the most miserable expulsion of these people.
6.3. look upon the descendants of Abraham, O Father, upon the children of the sainted Jacob, a people of your consecrated portion who are perishing as foreigners in a foreign land.
6.3. Then the king, when he had returned to the city, summoned the official in charge of the revenues and ordered him to provide to the Jews both wines and everything else needed for a festival of seven days, deciding that they should celebrate their rescue with all joyfulness in that same place in which they had expected to meet their destruction.
6.9. And now, you who hate insolence, all-merciful and protector of all, reveal yourself quickly to those of the nation of Israel -- who are being outrageously treated by the abominable and lawless Gentiles.
7.13. When they had applauded him in fitting manner, their priests and the whole multitude shouted the Hallelujah and joyfully departed.''. None
70. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 1.11, 1.58-1.64, 3.5-3.8, 4.11, 5.9-5.23, 5.26, 5.54, 6.5-6.13, 10.18-10.21, 10.24-10.25, 11.30-11.37, 12.7, 12.19-12.22, 13.36-13.40 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Author, of 2 maccabees • Author, of 2 maccabees, Confusion of • Author, of 2 maccabees, Lack of Interest in Details of Temple Cult • Author, of 2 maccabees, Lack of Interest in Military Details • Author, of 2 maccabees, Objective of • Author, of 2 maccabees, Ptolemaic Influence • Author, of 2 maccabees, Sitz im Leben • Author, of 2 maccabees, Versus Epitomator • Authority, Conferring strategies xviii • Authority, Interpretive Strategies • Book of Judith, author • Divine, Authority • Epitomator, see also Author • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • Lysimachus (author) • Oniad authorship • Oniad authorship, dynasty • Oniad authorship, genealogy (high priestly succession) • Oniad authorship, soldiers/units • Roman authorities, and religious benefaction • Writing, Authoritative

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 318, 410, 434; Gordon (2020) 143, 144; Levison (2009) 294; Najman (2010) 55; Piotrkowski (2019) 84, 111, 129, 243, 351, 379; Salvesen et al (2020) 287; Schwartz (2008) 11, 13, 25, 34, 46, 48, 54, 73, 171, 324, 329, 396, 406, 419, 454, 542


1.11. In those days lawless men came forth from Israel, and misled many, saying, "Let us go and make a covet with the Gentiles round about us, for since we separated from them many evils have come upon us."
1.58. They kept using violence against Israel, against those found month after month in the cities. 1.59. And on the twenty-fifth day of the month they offered sacrifice on the altar which was upon the altar of burnt offering. 1.60. According to the decree, they put to death the women who had their children circumcised, 1.61. and their families and those who circumcised them; and they hung the infants from their mothers necks. 1.62. But many in Israel stood firm and were resolved in their hearts not to eat unclean food. 1.63. They chose to die rather than to be defiled by food or to profane the holy covet; and they did die. 1.64. And very great wrath came upon Israel.
3.5. He searched out and pursued the lawless;he burned those who troubled his people. 3.6. Lawless men shrank back for fear of him;all the evildoers were confounded;and deliverance prospered by his hand. 3.7. He embittered many kings,but he made Jacob glad by his deeds,and his memory is blessed for ever. 3.8. He went through the cities of Judah;he destroyed the ungodly out of the land;thus he turned away wrath from Israel.
4.11. Then all the Gentiles will know that there is one who redeems and saves Israel."
5.9. Now the Gentiles in Gilead gathered together against the Israelites who lived in their territory, and planned to destroy them. But they fled to the stronghold of Dathema, 5.10. and sent to Judas and his brothers a letter which said, "The Gentiles around us have gathered together against us to destroy us. 5.11. They are preparing to come and capture the stronghold to which we have fled, and Timothy is leading their forces. 5.12. Now then come and rescue us from their hands, for many of us have fallen, 5.13. and all our brethren who were in the land of Tob have been killed; the enemy have captured their wives and children and goods, and have destroyed about a thousand men there." 5.14. While the letter was still being read, behold, other messengers, with their garments rent, came from Galilee and made a similar report; 5.15. they said that against them had gathered together men of Ptolemais and Tyre and Sidon, and all Galilee of the Gentiles, "to annihilate us." 5.16. When Judas and the people heard these messages, a great assembly was called to determine what they should do for their brethren who were in distress and were being attacked by enemies. 5.17. Then Judas said to Simon his brother, "Choose your men and go and rescue your brethren in Galilee; I and Jonathan my brother will go to Gilead." 5.18. But he left Joseph, the son of Zechariah, and Azariah, a leader of the people, with the rest of the forces, in Judea to guard it; 5.19. and he gave them this command, "Take charge of this people, but do not engage in battle with the Gentiles until we return." 5.20. Then three thousand men were assigned to Simon to go to Galilee, and eight thousand to Judas for Gilead. 5.21. o Simon went to Galilee and fought many battles against the Gentiles, and the Gentiles were crushed before him. 5.22. He pursued them to the gate of Ptolemais, and as many as three thousand of the Gentiles fell, and he despoiled them. 5.23. Then he took the Jews of Galilee and Arbatta, with their wives and children, and all they possessed, and led them to Judea with great rejoicing.
5.26. "Many of them have been shut up in Bozrah and Bosor, in Alema and Chaspho, Maked and Carnaim" -- all these cities were strong and large--
5.54. So they went up to Mount Zion with gladness and joy, and offered burnt offerings, because not one of them had fallen before they returned in safety.
6.5. Then some one came to him in Persia and reported that the armies which had gone into the land of Judah had been routed; 6.6. that Lysias had gone first with a strong force, but had turned and fled before the Jews; that the Jews had grown strong from the arms, supplies, and abundant spoils which they had taken from the armies they had cut down; 6.7. that they had torn down the abomination which he had erected upon the altar in Jerusalem; and that they had surrounded the sanctuary with high walls as before, and also Beth-zur, his city. 6.8. When the king heard this news, he was astounded and badly shaken. He took to his bed and became sick from grief, because things had not turned out for him as he had planned. 6.9. He lay there for many days, because deep grief continually gripped him, and he concluded that he was dying. 6.10. So he called all his friends and said to them, "Sleep departs from my eyes and I am downhearted with worry. 6.11. I said to myself, `To what distress I have come! And into what a great flood I now am plunged! For I was kind and beloved in my power. 6.12. But now I remember the evils I did in Jerusalem. I seized all her vessels of silver and gold; and I sent to destroy the inhabitants of Judah without good reason. 6.13. I know that it is because of this that these evils have come upon me; and behold, I am perishing of deep grief in a strange land."
10.18. King Alexander to his brother Jonathan, greeting. 10.19. We have heard about you, that you are a mighty warrior and worthy to be our friend. 10.20. And so we have appointed you today to be the high priest of your nation; you are to be called the kings friend" (and he sent him a purple robe and a golden crown) "and you are to take our side and keep friendship with us." 10.21. So Jonathan put on the holy garments in the seventh month of the one hundred and sixtieth year, at the feast of tabernacles, and he recruited troops and equipped them with arms in abundance.
10.24. I also will write them words of encouragement and promise them honor and gifts, that I may have their help." 10.25. So he sent a message to them in the following words:"King Demetrius to the nation of the Jews, greeting.
11.30. King Demetrius to Jonathan his brother and to the nation of the Jews, greeting. 11.31. This copy of the letter which we wrote concerning you to Lasthenes our kinsman we have written to you also, so that you may know what it says. 11.32. `King Demetrius to Lasthenes his father, greeting. 11.33. To the nation of the Jews, who are our friends and fulfil their obligations to us, we have determined to do good, because of the good will they show toward us. 11.34. We have confirmed as their possession both the territory of Judea and the three districts of Aphairema and Lydda and Rathamin; the latter, with all the region bordering them, were added to Judea from Samaria. To all those who offer sacrifice in Jerusalem, we have granted release from the royal taxes which the king formerly received from them each year, from the crops of the land and the fruit of the trees. 11.35. And the other payments henceforth due to us of the tithes, and the taxes due to us, and the salt pits and the crown taxes due to us -- from all these we shall grant them release. 11.36. And not one of these grants shall be canceled from this time forth for ever. 11.37. Now therefore take care to make a copy of this, and let it be given to Jonathan and put up in a conspicuous place on the holy mountain."
12.7. Already in time past a letter was sent to Onias the high priest from Arius, who was king among you, stating that you are our brethren, as the appended copy shows.
12.19. This is a copy of the letter which they sent to Onias: 12.20. "Arius, king of the Spartans, to Onias the high priest, greeting. 12.21. It has been found in writing concerning the Spartans and the Jews that they are brethren and are of the family of Abraham. 12.22. And now that we have learned this, please write us concerning your welfare;
13.36. "King Demetrius to Simon, the high priest and friend of kings, and to the elders and nation of the Jews, greeting. 13.37. We have received the gold crown and the palm branch which you sent, and we are ready to make a general peace with you and to write to our officials to grant you release from tribute. 13.38. All the grants that we have made to you remain valid, and let the strongholds that you have built be your possession. 13.39. We pardon any errors and offenses committed to this day, and cancel the crown tax which you owe; and whatever other tax has been collected in Jerusalem shall be collected no longer. 13.40. And if any of you are qualified to be enrolled in our bodyguard, let them be enrolled, and let there be peace between us."' '. None
71. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.1, 1.5-1.7, 1.9-1.10, 1.16, 3.15, 3.34, 3.36, 4.7-4.9, 4.11, 4.13-4.14, 4.16-4.21, 4.23, 4.29, 4.33-4.37, 5.11, 5.15-5.20, 5.23, 6.8, 6.18, 6.20-6.21, 6.23, 6.25, 6.29, 6.31, 7.1-7.2, 7.6, 7.13, 7.15, 7.18, 7.24, 7.31, 7.33-7.34, 7.37-7.39, 7.42, 9.16, 10.1-10.8, 11.29, 12.13-12.15, 12.18-12.19, 12.28, 12.30-12.31, 13.3, 13.7, 13.25, 15.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Author, of 2 maccabees • Author, of 2 maccabees, Confusion of • Author, of 2 maccabees, Educational Purpose • Author, of 2 maccabees, Jewish Identity • Author, of 2 maccabees, Lack of Interest in Details of Temple Cult • Author, of 2 maccabees, Lack of Interest in Military Details • Author, of 2 maccabees, Lack of Interest in Numbers • Author, of 2 maccabees, Objective of • Author, of 2 maccabees, Preface • Author, of 2 maccabees, Ptolemaic Influence • Author, of 2 maccabees, Reflections of • Author, of 2 maccabees, Sitz im Leben • Book of Judith, author • Epitomator, see also Author • Oniad authorship • Oniad authorship, Jews • Oniad authorship, background/origin/milieu • Oniad authorship, dynasty • Oniad authorship, genealogy (high priestly succession) • Oniad authorship, soldiers/units • Roman authorities, and religious benefaction • author’s relationship with audience, style and vocabulary • composite authorship claims • letters, Author of

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 93, 397, 434; Gordon (2020) 143; Keener(2005) 21; Piotrkowski (2019) 16, 93, 97, 99, 111, 129, 233, 243, 248, 259, 286, 356, 372, 375, 377, 433; Schwartz (2008) 10, 11, 12, 14, 16, 17, 24, 25, 32, 34, 35, 37, 46, 47, 48, 51, 52, 53, 73, 144, 189, 199, 204, 231, 235, 260, 264, 279, 283, 287, 288, 291, 301, 329, 343, 406, 419, 447, 456, 459, 484, 486, 501; deSilva (2022) 48


1.1. The Jewish brethren in Jerusalem and those in the land of Judea, To their Jewish brethren in Egypt, Greeting, and good peace.'" "
1.5. May he hear your prayers and be reconciled to you, and may he not forsake you in time of evil.'" '1.6. We are now praying for you here."' "1.7. In the reign of Demetrius, in the one hundred and sixty-ninth year, we Jews wrote to you, in the critical distress which came upon us in those years after Jason and his company revolted from the holy land and the kingdom'" "
1.9. And now see that you keep the feast of booths in the month of Chislev, in the one hundred and eighty-eighth year.'" "
1.10. Those in Jerusalem and those in Judea and the senate and Judas,To Aristobulus, who is of the family of the anointed priests, teacher of Ptolemy the king, and to the Jews in Egypt,Greeting, and good health.'" "

1.16. Opening the secret door in the ceiling, they threw stones and struck down the leader and his men, and dismembered them and cut off their heads and threw them to the people outside.'" "
3.15. The priests prostrated themselves before the altar in their priestly garments and called toward heaven upon him who had given the law about deposits, that he should keep them safe for those who had deposited them.'" "
3.34. And see that you, who have been scourged by heaven, report to all men the majestic power of God.'Having said this they vanished.'" "
3.36. And he bore testimony to all men of the deeds of the supreme God, which he had seen with his own eyes.'" "
4.7. When Seleucus died and Antiochus who was called Epiphanes succeeded to the kingdom, Jason the brother of Onias obtained the high priesthood by corruption,'" "4.8. promising the king at an interview three hundred and sixty talents of silver and, from another source of revenue, eighty talents.'" "4.9. In addition to this he promised to pay one hundred and fifty more if permission were given to establish by his authority a gymnasium and a body of youth for it, and to enrol the men of Jerusalem as citizens of Antioch.'" "
4.11. He set aside the existing royal concessions to the Jews, secured through John the father of Eupolemus, who went on the mission to establish friendship and alliance with the Romans; and he destroyed the lawful ways of living and introduced new customs contrary to the law.'" "
4.13. There was such an extreme of Hellenization and increase in the adoption of foreign ways because of the surpassing wickedness of Jason, who was ungodly and no high priest,'" "4.14. that the priests were no longer intent upon their service at the altar. Despising the sanctuary and neglecting the sacrifices, they hastened to take part in the unlawful proceedings in the wrestling arena after the call to the discus,'" "
4.16. For this reason heavy disaster overtook them, and those whose ways of living they admired and wished to imitate completely became their enemies and punished them.'" '4.17. For it is no light thing to show irreverence to the divine laws -- a fact which later events will make clear."' "4.18. When the quadrennial games were being held at Tyre and the king was present,'" "4.19. the vile Jason sent envoys, chosen as being Antiochian citizens from Jerusalem, to carry three hundred silver drachmas for the sacrifice to Hercules. Those who carried the money, however, thought best not to use it for sacrifice, because that was inappropriate, but to expend it for another purpose.'" "4.20. So this money was intended by the sender for the sacrifice to Hercules, but by the decision of its carriers it was applied to the construction of triremes.'" "4.21. When Apollonius the son of Menestheus was sent to Egypt for the coronation of Philometor as king, Antiochus learned that Philometor had become hostile to his government, and he took measures for his own security. Therefore upon arriving at Joppa he proceeded to Jerusalem.'" "
4.23. After a period of three years Jason sent Menelaus, the brother of the previously mentioned Simon, to carry the money to the king and to complete the records of essential business.'" "
4.29. Menelaus left his own brother Lysimachus as deputy in the high priesthood, while Sostratus left Crates, the commander of the Cyprian troops.'" "
4.33. When Onias became fully aware of these acts he publicly exposed them, having first withdrawn to a place of sanctuary at Daphne near Antioch.'" "4.34. Therefore Menelaus, taking Andronicus aside, urged him to kill Onias. Andronicus came to Onias, and resorting to treachery offered him sworn pledges and gave him his right hand, and in spite of his suspicion persuaded Onias to come out from the place of sanctuary; then, with no regard for justice, he immediately put him out of the way.'" "4.35. For this reason not only Jews, but many also of other nations, were grieved and displeased at the unjust murder of the man.'" "4.36. When the king returned from the region of Cilicia, the Jews in the city appealed to him with regard to the unreasonable murder of Onias, and the Greeks shared their hatred of the crime.'" "4.37. Therefore Antiochus was grieved at heart and filled with pity, and wept because of the moderation and good conduct of the deceased;'" "
5.11. When news of what had happened reached the king, he took it to mean that Judea was in revolt. So, raging inwardly, he left Egypt and took the city by storm.'" "
5.15. Not content with this, Antiochus dared to enter the most holy temple in all the world, guided by Menelaus, who had become a traitor both to the laws and to his country.'" "5.16. He took the holy vessels with his polluted hands, and swept away with profane hands the votive offerings which other kings had made to enhance the glory and honor of the place.'" "5.17. Antiochus was elated in spirit, and did not perceive that the Lord was angered for a little while because of the sins of those who dwelt in the city, and that therefore he was disregarding the holy place.'" "5.18. But if it had not happened that they were involved in many sins, this man would have been scourged and turned back from his rash act as soon as he came forward, just as Heliodorus was, whom Seleucus the king sent to inspect the treasury.'" "5.19. But the Lord did not choose the nation for the sake of the holy place, but the place for the sake of the nation.'" '5.20. Therefore the place itself shared in the misfortunes that befell the nation and afterward participated in its benefits; and what was forsaken in the wrath of the Almighty was restored again in all its glory when the great Lord became reconciled."' "
5.23. and at Gerizim, Andronicus; and besides these Menelaus, who lorded it over his fellow citizens worse than the others did. In his malice toward the Jewish citizens,'" "
6.8. At the suggestion of Ptolemy a decree was issued to the neighboring Greek cities, that they should adopt the same policy toward the Jews and make them partake of the sacrifices,'" "
6.18. Eleazar, one of the scribes in high position, a man now advanced in age and of noble presence, was being forced to open his mouth to eat swine's flesh.'" "
6.20. as men ought to go who have the courage to refuse things that it is not right to taste, even for the natural love of life.'" "6.21. Those who were in charge of that unlawful sacrifice took the man aside, because of their long acquaintance with him, and privately urged him to bring meat of his own providing, proper for him to use, and pretend that he was eating the flesh of the sacrificial meal which had been commanded by the king,'" "
6.23. But making a high resolve, worthy of his years and the dignity of his old age and the gray hairs which he had reached with distinction and his excellent life even from childhood, and moreover according to the holy God-given law, he declared himself quickly, telling them to send him to Hades.'" "
6.25. and through my pretense, for the sake of living a brief moment longer, they should be led astray because of me, while I defile and disgrace my old age.'" "
6.29. And those who a little before had acted toward him with good will now changed to ill will, because the words he had uttered were in their opinion sheer madness.'" "
6.31. So in this way he died, leaving in his death an example of nobility and a memorial of courage, not only to the young but to the great body of his nation.'" "
7.1. It happened also that seven brothers and their mother were arrested and were being compelled by the king, under torture with whips and cords, to partake of unlawful swine's flesh.'" "7.2. One of them, acting as their spokesman, said, 'What do you intend to ask and learn from us? For we are ready to die rather than transgress the laws of our fathers.'" "
7.6. The Lord God is watching over us and in truth has compassion on us, as Moses declared in his song which bore witness against the people to their faces, when he said, `And he will have compassion on his servants.''" "

7.13. When he too had died, they maltreated and tortured the fourth in the same way.'" '

7.15. Next they brought forward the fifth and maltreated him."' "

7.18. After him they brought forward the sixth. And when he was about to die, he said, 'Do not deceive yourself in vain. For we are suffering these things on our own account, because of our sins against our own God. Therefore astounding things have happened.'" "
7.24. Antiochus felt that he was being treated with contempt, and he was suspicious of her reproachful tone. The youngest brother being still alive, Antiochus not only appealed to him in words, but promised with oaths that he would make him rich and enviable if he would turn from the ways of his fathers, and that he would take him for his friend and entrust him with public affairs.'" "
7.31. But you, who have contrived all sorts of evil against the Hebrews, will certainly not escape the hands of God.'" "
7.33. And if our living Lord is angry for a little while, to rebuke and discipline us, he will again be reconciled with his own servants.'" "7.34. But you, unholy wretch, you most defiled of all men, do not be elated in vain and puffed up by uncertain hopes, when you raise your hand against the children of heaven.'" "
7.37. I, like my brothers, give up body and life for the laws of our fathers, appealing to God to show mercy soon to our nation and by afflictions and plagues to make you confess that he alone is God,'" "7.38. and through me and my brothers to bring to an end the wrath of the Almighty which has justly fallen on our whole nation.'" "7.39. The king fell into a rage, and handled him worse than the others, being exasperated at his scorn.'" "
7.42. Let this be enough, then, about the eating of sacrifices and the extreme tortures.'" "
9.16. and the holy sanctuary, which he had formerly plundered, he would adorn with the finest offerings; and the holy vessels he would give back, all of them, many times over; and the expenses incurred for the sacrifices he would provide from his own revenues;'" "
10.1. Now Maccabeus and his followers, the Lord leading them on, recovered the temple and the city;'" "10.2. and they tore down the altars which had been built in the public square by the foreigners, and also destroyed the sacred precincts.'" "10.3. They purified the sanctuary, and made another altar of sacrifice; then, striking fire out of flint, they offered sacrifices, after a lapse of two years, and they burned incense and lighted lamps and set out the bread of the Presence.'" "10.4. And when they had done this, they fell prostrate and besought the Lord that they might never again fall into such misfortunes, but that, if they should ever sin, they might be disciplined by him with forbearance and not be handed over to blasphemous and barbarous nations.'" "10.5. It happened that on the same day on which the sanctuary had been profaned by the foreigners, the purification of the sanctuary took place, that is, on the twenty-fifth day of the same month, which was Chislev.'" "10.6. And they celebrated it for eight days with rejoicing, in the manner of the feast of booths, remembering how not long before, during the feast of booths, they had been wandering in the mountains and caves like wild animals.'" "10.7. Therefore bearing ivy-wreathed wands and beautiful branches and also fronds of palm, they offered hymns of thanksgiving to him who had given success to the purifying of his own holy place.'" '10.8. They decreed by public ordice and vote that the whole nation of the Jews should observe these days every year."
11.29. Menelaus has informed us that you wish to return home and look after your own affairs."' "
12.13. He also attacked a certain city which was strongly fortified with earthworks and walls, and inhabited by all sorts of Gentiles. Its name was Caspin.'" "12.14. And those who were within, relying on the strength of the walls and on their supply of provisions, behaved most insolently toward Judas and his men, railing at them and even blaspheming and saying unholy things.'" "12.15. But Judas and his men, calling upon the great Sovereign of the world, who without battering-rams or engines of war overthrew Jericho in the days of Joshua, rushed furiously upon the walls.'" "
12.18. They did not find Timothy in that region, for he had by then departed from the region without accomplishing anything, though in one place he had left a very strong garrison.'" "12.19. Dositheus and Sosipater, who were captains under Maccabeus, marched out and destroyed those whom Timothy had left in the stronghold, more than ten thousand men.'" "
12.28. But the Jews called upon the Sovereign who with power shatters the might of his enemies, and they got the city into their hands, and killed as many as twenty-five thousand of those who were within it.'" "
12.30. But when the Jews who dwelt there bore witness to the good will which the people of Scythopolis had shown them and their kind treatment of them in times of misfortune,'" "12.31. they thanked them and exhorted them to be well disposed to their race in the future also. Then they went up to Jerusalem, as the feast of weeks was close at hand.'" "
13.3. Menelaus also joined them and with utter hypocrisy urged Antiochus on, not for the sake of his country's welfare, but because he thought that he would be established in office.'" "
13.7. By such a fate it came about that Menelaus the lawbreaker died, without even burial in the earth.'" '
13.25. and went to Ptolemais. The people of Ptolemais were indigt over the treaty; in fact they were so angry that they wanted to annul its terms."' "
15.12. What he saw was this: Onias, who had been high priest, a noble and good man, of modest bearing and gentle manner, one who spoke fittingly and had been trained from childhood in all that belongs to excellence, was praying with outstretched hands for the whole body of the Jews.'"". None
72. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 34.1-34.2, 34.5, 34.7-34.8, 39.1, 51.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • authority • authority of God • authority, scribal

 Found in books: Jaffee (2001) 20; Levison (2009) 121, 122, 399; Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 3, 5, 25, 55


34.1. A man of no understanding has vain and false hopes,and dreams give wings to fools.
34.1. He that is inexperienced knows few things,but he that has traveled acquires much cleverness. 34.2. As one who catches at a shadow and pursues the wind,so is he who gives heed to dreams. 34.2. Like one who kills a son before his fathers eyes is the man who offers a sacrifice from the property of the poor.
34.5. Divinations and omens and dreams are folly,and like a woman in travail the mind has fancies.
34.7. For dreams have deceived many,and those who put their hope in them have failed. 34.8. Without such deceptions the law will be fulfilled,and wisdom is made perfect in truthful lips.
39.1. Nations will declare his wisdom,and the congregation will proclaim his praise;
39.1. On the other hand he who devotes himself to the study of the law of the Most High will seek out the wisdom of all the ancients,and will be concerned with prophecies;
51.23. Draw near to me, you who are untaught,and lodge in my school.''. None
73. Septuagint, Judith, 9.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority • Book of Judith, author

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 56, 107, 410, 449; Stuckenbruck (2007) 553


9.11. "For thy power depends not upon numbers, nor thy might upon men of strength; for thou art God of the lowly, helper of the oppressed, upholder of the weak, protector of the forlorn, savior of those without hope. ''. None
74. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 2.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority(ies) • Septuagint, used by author of Wisdom of Solomon

 Found in books: Bar Kochba (1997) 179; Tellbe Wasserman and Nyman (2019) 79


2.12. And the earth recognized all Thy righteous judgements, O God.
2.12. "Let us lie in wait for the righteous man,because he is inconvenient to us and opposes our actions;he reproaches us for sins against the law,and accuses us of sins against our training.''. None
75. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Academic philosophy, attitude towards auctoritas • Epicureans, authority of Epicurus • auctor • auctoritas • auctoritas, contrasted with ratio • authority,

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 76, 88, 106; Bryan (2018) 244; Wardy and Warren (2018) 2, 244, 268, 281


76. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • auctoritas • author

 Found in books: Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 274, 284, 290; Oksanish (2019) 42, 147


77. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Logos, Logoi, influential author of the Nile and Egypt • pater / patres, auctoritas patrum

 Found in books: Manolaraki (2012) 242; Walters (2020) 37


78. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Academic philosophy, attitude towards auctoritas • Valerius Maximus (our author), as a source for Roman religion • auctoritas • auctoritas, contrasted with ratio

 Found in books: Mueller (2002) 180; Wardy and Warren (2018) 287


79. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Academic philosophy, attitude towards auctoritas • auctoritas • auctoritas, contrasted with ratio • religious authority, regulations

 Found in books: Ando and Ruepke (2006) 36; Rosa and Santangelo (2020) 24, 38; Wardy and Warren (2018) 287


80. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • auctoritas • authority • body, authority

 Found in books: Oksanish (2019) 140; Tuori (2016) 42


81. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Academic philosophy, attitude towards auctoritas • Epictetus, as author of dialogues • Tullius Cicero, M., consul, author • auctoritas • auctoritas, contrasted with ratio • authority, • dictator, authority over/suspension of other magistrates • medical imagery, and auctoritas

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 36, 76; Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 278; Howley (2018) 211; Konrad (2022) 79, 84; Walters (2020) 34; Wardy and Warren (2018) 279, 294


82. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Academic philosophy, attitude towards auctoritas • auctoritas • auctoritas, contrasted with ratio • authority, argument from, of Plato • authority, argument from, of the Peripatos

 Found in books: Tsouni (2019) 8; Wardy and Warren (2018) 291


83. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Epicurus, authority in the De Rerum Natura

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 232; Wardy and Warren (2018) 232


84. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Academic philosophy, attitude towards auctoritas • auctoritas • auctoritas, contrasted with ratio • authority,

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 227; Wardy and Warren (2018) 279


85. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Academic philosophy, attitude towards auctoritas • Cicero, Marcus Tullius, and auctoritas • Epicurus, authority in the De Rerum Natura • auctoritas • authority (Lat. auctoritas) • authority, argument from • authority, argument from, of Plato • authority, argument from, of the ‘ancients’

 Found in books: Bryan (2018) 10, 225; Tsouni (2019) 33, 34; Wardy and Warren (2018) 10, 225, 265, 273


86. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Judicial authority (misuse of) • Judicial authority (misuse of), service, age limits for • Moses, as legal authority • Qumran literature, legal authority in • Roman authorities, and religious benefaction • authority • authority of women, in Damascus Document • authority, as human legislation • authority, human vs. divine/scriptural • authority, of Scripture • authority, prophetic • authority, rabbinic constructions of,vs. priestly authority • authority, rabbinic constructions of,vs. prophetic authority • oral Tora, human vs. divine source of authority • rewritten scripture, as a marker of authority • scripture as source of authority • textual authority • textual authority, in Dead Sea Scrolls • textual authority, in rabbinic texts

 Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 52; Brooke et al (2008) 31, 43, 84; Flatto (2021) 70, 71, 72, 74, 78; Gordon (2020) 228; Hayes (2022) 80; Jaffee (2001) 32; Jassen (2014) 27, 37, 38, 65, 97, 155, 217, 243, 248; Schiffman (1983) 30, 31, 56, 189


87. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Judicial authority (misuse of) • Judicial authority (misuse of), service, age limits for • Qumran literature, legal authority in • authority • authority of women, in Damascus Document • authority, as human legislation • authority, human vs. divine/scriptural • authority, of Scripture • authority, rabbinic constructions of,vs. priestly authority • authority, rabbinic constructions of,vs. prophetic authority • oral Tora, human vs. divine source of authority • scripture as source of authority

 Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 52; Brooke et al (2008) 31, 43, 84; Flatto (2021) 71, 72, 74, 78; Hayes (2022) 80; Schiffman (1983) 30, 31, 56, 189


88. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Christian, literature/authors • Constitutionalism comparative, legal authority of • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • John,, author of Gospel • Judicial authority (misuse of), service, age limits for • Oniad authorship, Zadokites • Oniad authorship, dynasty • Qumran literature, legal authority in • authoritative works • authority • authority, prophetic • authority, rabbinic constructions of,vs. prophetic authority • priests, prophecy as authority, vs. rabbinic • textual authority, in Dead Sea Scrolls

 Found in books: Brooke et al (2008) 43, 68, 84; Flatto (2021) 71, 74, 75, 76, 77; Frey and Levison (2014) 169; Hayes (2022) 78; Jaffee (2001) 32; Jassen (2014) 48; Levison (2009) 211, 214, 215, 286, 288, 290, 303, 312, 387, 388, 408; Piotrkowski (2019) 381; Schiffman (1983) 30


89. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Qumran literature, legal authority in • authority of women, in Damascus Document

 Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 53; Flatto (2021) 77


90. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Moses, as legal authority • authoritative works • authority • rewritten scripture, as a marker of authority • textual authority • textual authority, divinely granted • textual authority, in Dead Sea Scrolls • textual authority, in rabbinic texts

 Found in books: Brooke et al (2008) 111, 113, 142; Jassen (2014) 27, 28, 29, 37, 38, 54, 62


91. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.224 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • Oniad authorship

 Found in books: Levison (2009) 319; Piotrkowski (2019) 219


3.224. of wickedness, male will consort with male,''. None
92. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 1.23.7, 12.10.3-12.10.4, 15.54.2, 40.3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Derveni author • Hippocratic authors • Oniad authorship • Oniad authorship, background/origin/milieu • Orpheus, literary author • Roman authorities, and Judean land • authority, of the experts • divination, and authority • religious authority, experts (exegetes) • religious authority, seers/diviners (manteis)

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 305; Gordon (2020) 130; Johnston and Struck (2005) 196, 219; Piotrkowski (2019) 291; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 57; Álvarez (2019) 81, 137


1.23.7. \xa0And since he had become conversant with the teachings of the Egyptians about the gods, he transferred the birth of the ancient Osiris to more recent times, and, out of regard for the descendants of Cadmus, instituted a new initiation, in the ritual of which the initiates were given the account that Dionysus had been born of Semelê and Zeus. And the people observed these initiatory rites, partly because they were deceived through their ignorance, partly because they were attracted to them by the trustworthiness of Orpheus and his reputation in such matters, and most of all because they were glad to receive the god as a Greek, which, as has been said, is what he was considered to be.
12.10.3. \xa0And shortly thereafter the city was moved to another site and received another name, its founders being Lampon and Xenocritus; the circumstances of its founding were as follows. The Sybarites who were driven a second time from their native city dispatched ambassadors to Greece, to the Lacedaemonians and Athenians, requesting that they assist their repatriation and take part in the settlement. 12.10.4. \xa0Now the Lacedaemonians paid no attention to them, but the Athenians promised to join in the enterprise, and they manned ten ships and sent them to the Sybarites under the leadership of Lampon and Xenocritus; they further sent word to the several cities of the Peloponnesus, offering a share in the colony to anyone who wished to take part in it.
15.54.2. \xa0Certain local oracle-mongers likewise came up to Epameinondas, saying that the Lacedaemonians were destined to meet with a great disaster by the tomb of the daughters of Leuctrus and Scedasus for the following reasons.' '. None
93. Horace, Sermones, 1.4.1, 1.10.72, 1.10.81, 2.1, 2.1.30-2.1.32, 2.1.82-2.1.86 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus, as legal authority • Jonson, Ben, Jonson as author in • Jonson, Ben, and the author function • Jonson, Ben, editions of ancient authors and Vitae • Petronius, author of Liber Satyricon, • Satires (Horace), presentation of author-figure in • Titus Albucius, contrasted with author-figure • author function

 Found in books: Bowersock (1997) 19; Goldschmidt (2019) 61, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83; Xinyue (2022) 68, 69, 86, 87, 104; Yona (2018) 1, 5, 81, 199


1.4.1. As for the witnesses whom I shall produce for the proof of what I say, they shall be such as are esteemed to be of the greatest reputation for truth, and the most skilful in the knowledge of all antiquity, by the Greeks themselves. I will also show, that those who have written so reproachfully and falsely about us, are to be convicted by what they have written themselves to the contrary.
1.4.1. but as to the time from the death of Moses till the reign of Artaxerxes, king of Persia, who reigned after Xerxes, the prophets, who were after Moses, wrote down what was done in their times in thirteen books. The remaining four books contain hymns to God, and precepts for the conduct of human life.
2.1.86. Or how is it possible that all the Jews should get together to these sacrifices, and the entrails of one man should be sufficient for so many thousands to taste of them, as Apion pretends? Or why did not the king carry this man, whosoever he was, and whatsoever was his name (which is not set down in Apion’s book), '
2.1. 1. In the former book, most honored Epaphroditus, I have demonstrated our antiquity, and confirmed the truth of what I have said, from the writings of the Phoenicians, and Chaldeans, and Egyptians. I have, moreover, produced many of the Grecian writers, as witnesses thereto. I have also made a refutation of Manetho and Cheremon, and of certain others of our enemies.
2.1. Or how is it possible that all the Jews should get together to these sacrifices, and the entrails of one man should be sufficient for so many thousands to taste of them, as Apion pretends? Or why did not the king carry this man, whosoever he was, and whatsoever was his name (which is not set down in Apion’s book),
2.1. for in his third book, which relates to the affairs of Egypt, he speaks thus:—“I have heard of the ancient men of Egypt, that Moses was of Heliopolis, and that he thought himself obliged to follow the customs of his forefathers, and offered his prayers in the open air, towards the city walls; but that he reduced them all to be directed towards the sun-rising, which was agreeable to the situation of Heliopolis; '. None
94. Ovid, Ars Amatoria, 1.77 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus/Octavian, as author and builder • Theriomorphism, trademark institution of Egypt, criticized by authors • authority, poetic

 Found in books: Manolaraki (2012) 205; Pandey (2018) 173, 174


1.77. Nec fuge linigerae Memphitica templa iuvencae:''. None
1.77. The cruel father urging his commands.''. None
95. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 3, 16, 276 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Abraham, references to in pagan authors • Authority, Scripture • authority

 Found in books: Brooke et al (2008) 143; Feldman (2006) 265; Najman (2010) 95, 99, 100


3. but since it is necessary, to be consistent with the regular order in which the sacred history proceeds to go on, now to investigate the laws, we will for the present postpone the particular laws which are copies as it were; and first of all examine the more general laws which are, as it were, the models of the others.
16. Therefore the lawgivers, and the laws in every state on earth, labour with great diligence to fill the souls of free men with good hopes; but he who, without any recommendation and without being enjoined to be so, is nevertheless hopeful, has acquired this virtue by an unwritten, self-taught law, which nature has implanted in him. '
276. Such is the life of the first author and founder of our nation; a man according to the law, as some persons think, but, as my argument has shown, one who is himself the unwritten law and justice of God. '. None
96. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 27-29 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • Papias of Hieropolis, oral-traditional authority in work of • Tannaim, oral-traditional authority in • authority • authority,, Christian sources, decline of non-intellectual authority in • authority,, oral-traditional • authority,, prophetic or revelatory • oral-traditional authority,, decline of, in early Christian sources • prophetic or revelatory authority,, decline of, in Christian sources

 Found in books: Ayres and Ward (2021) 174; Brooke et al (2008) 144; Levison (2009) 182, 191, 192, 344


27. I have also, on one occasion, heard a more ingenious train of reasoning from my own soul, which was accustomed frequently to be seized with a certain divine inspiration, even concerning matters which it could not explain even to itself; which now, if I am able to remember it accurately, I will relate. It told me that in the one living and true God there were two supreme and primary powers--goodness and authority; and that by his goodness he had created every thing, and by his authority he governed all that he had created; '28. and that the third thing which was between the two, and had the effect of bringing them together was reason, for that it was owing to reason that God was both a ruler and good. Now, of this ruling authority and of this goodness, being two distinct powers, On the Cherubim were the symbols, but of reason the flaming sword was the symbol. For reason is a thing capable of rapid motion and impetuous, and especially the reason of the Creator of all things is so, inasmuch as it was before everything and passed by everything, and was conceived before everything, and appears in everything. 29. And do thou, O my mind, receive the impression of each of these cherubims unadulterated, that thus becoming thoroughly instructed about the ruling authority of the Creator of all things and about his goodness, thou mayest receive a happy inheritance; for immediately thou shalt understand the conjunction and combination of these imperishable powers, and learn in what respects God is good, his majesty arising from his sovereign power being all the time conspicuous; and in what he is powerful, his goodness, being equally the object of attention, that is this way thou mayest attain to the virtues which are engendered by these conceptions, namely, a love and a reverential awe of God, neither being uplifted to arrogance by any prosperity which may befall thee, having regard always to the greatness of the sovereignty of thy King; nor abjectly giving up hope of better things in the hour of unexpected misfortune, having regard, then, to the mercifulness of thy great and bounteous God. '. None
97. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 14 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Moses, author of the Torah • intention, of author

 Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2013) 92; Niehoff (2011) 142


14. Those, then, who put these things together, and cavil at them, and raise malicious objections, will be easily refuted separately by those who can produce ready solutions of all such questions as arise from the plain words of the law, arguing in a spirit far from contentious, and not encountering them by sophisms drawn from any other source, but following the connection of natural consequences, which does not permit them to stumble, but which easily puts aside any impediments that arise, so that the course of their arguments proceeds without any interruption or mishap. ''. None
98. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 34-35 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • Papias of Hieropolis, oral-traditional authority in work of • Tannaim, oral-traditional authority in • authority • authority,, Christian sources, decline of non-intellectual authority in • authority,, oral-traditional • authority,, prophetic or revelatory • oral-traditional authority,, decline of, in early Christian sources • prophetic or revelatory authority,, decline of, in Christian sources

 Found in books: Ayres and Ward (2021) 174; Brooke et al (2008) 144; Levison (2009) 189, 249, 344, 355


34. I am not ashamed to relate what has happened to me myself, which I know from having experienced it ten thousand times. Sometimes, when I have desired to come to my usual employment of writing on the doctrines of philosophy, though I have known accurately what it was proper to set down, I have found my mind barren and unproductive, and have been completely unsuccessful in my object, being indigt at my mind for the uncertainty and vanity of its then existent opinions, and filled with amazement at the power of the living God, by whom the womb of the soul is at times opened and at times closed up; '35. and sometimes when I have come to my work empty I have suddenly become full, ideas being, in an invisible manner, showered upon me, and implanted in me from on high; so that, through the influence of divine inspiration, I have become greatly excited, and have known neither the place in which I was nor those who were present, nor myself, nor what I was saying, nor what I was writing; for then I have been conscious of a richness of interpretation, an enjoyment of light, a most penetrating sight, a most manifest energy in all that was to be done, having such an effect on my mind as the clearest ocular demonstration would have on the eyes. VIII. '. None
99. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 15-35, 134-135 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • Jewish, authors • Moses, author of the Torah

 Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2013) 116; Geljon and Runia (2019) 236; Levison (2009) 146, 147, 148, 309, 311, 371; Černušková (2016) 105


15. And he allotted each of the six days to one of the portions of the whole, taking out the first day, which he does not even call the first day, that it may not be numbered with the others, but entitling it one, he names it rightly, perceiving in it, and ascribing to it the nature and appellation of the limit. IV. We must mention as much as we can of the matters contained in his account, since to enumerate them all is impossible; for he embraces that beautiful world which is perceptible only by the intellect, as the account of the first day will show: 16. for God, as apprehending beforehand, as a God must do, that there could not exist a good imitation without a good model, and that of the things perceptible to the external senses nothing could be faultless which wax not fashioned with reference to some archetypal idea conceived by the intellect, when he had determined to create this visible world, previously formed that one which is perceptible only by the intellect, in order that so using an incorporeal model formed as far as possible on the image of God, he might then make this corporeal world, a younger likeness of the elder creation, which should embrace as many different genera perceptible to the external senses, as the other world contains of those which are visible only to the intellect. 17. But that world which consists of ideas, it were impious in any degree to attempt to describe or even to imagine: but how it was created, we shall know if we take for our guide a certain image of the things which exist among us. When any city is founded through the exceeding ambition of some king or leader who lays claim to absolute authority, and is at the same time a man of brilliant imagination, eager to display his good fortune, then it happens at times that some man coming up who, from his education, is skilful in architecture, and he, seeing the advantageous character and beauty of the situation, first of all sketches out in his own mind nearly all the parts of the city which is about to be completed--the temples, the gymnasia, the prytanea, and markets, the harbour, the docks, the streets, the arrangement of the walls, the situations of the dwelling houses, and of the public and other buildings. 18. Then, having received in his own mind, as on a waxen tablet, the form of each building, he carries in his heart the image of a city, perceptible as yet only by the intellect, the images of which he stirs up in memory which is innate in him, and, still further, engraving them in his mind like a good workman, keeping his eyes fixed on his model, he begins to raise the city of stones and wood, making the corporeal substances to resemble each of the incorporeal ideas. 19. Now we must form a somewhat similar opinion of God, who, having determined to found a mighty state, first of all conceived its form in his mind, according to which form he made a world perceptible only by the intellect, and then completed one visible to the external senses, using the first one as a model. V. 20. As therefore the city, when previously shadowed out in the mind of the man of architectural skill had no external place, but was stamped solely in the mind of the workman, so in the same manner neither can the world which existed in ideas have had any other local position except the divine reason which made them; for what other place could there be for his powers which should be able to receive and contain, I do not say all, but even any single one of them whatever, in its simple form? 21. And the power and faculty which could be capable of creating the world, has for its origin that good which is founded on truth; for if any one were desirous to investigate the cause on account of which this universe was created, I think that he would come to no erroneous conclusion if he were to say as one of the ancients did say: "That the Father and Creator was good; on which account he did not grudge the substance a share of his own excellent nature, since it had nothing good of itself, but was able to become everything." 22. For the substance was of itself destitute of arrangement, of quality, of animation, of distinctive character, and full of all disorder and confusion; and it received a change and transformation to what is opposite to this condition, and most excellent, being invested with order, quality, animation, resemblance, identity, arrangement, harmony, and everything which belongs to the more excellent idea. VI. 23. And God, not being urged on by any prompter (for who else could there have been to prompt him?) but guided by his own sole will, decided that it was fitting to benefit with unlimited and abundant favours a nature which, without the divine gift, was unable to itself to partake of any good thing; but he benefits it, not according to the greatness of his own graces, for they are illimitable and eternal, but according to the power of that which is benefited to receive his graces. For the capacity of that which is created to receive benefits does not correspond to the natural power of God to confer them; since his powers are infinitely greater, and the thing created being not sufficiently powerful to receive all their greatness would have sunk under it, if he had not measured his bounty, allotting to each, in due proportion, that which was poured upon it. 24. And if any one were to desire to use more undisguised terms, he would not call the world, which is perceptible only to the intellect, any thing else but the reason of God, already occupied in the creation of the world; for neither is a city, while only perceptible to the intellect, anything else but the reason of the architect, who is already designing to build one perceptible to the external senses, on the model of that which is so only to the intellect-- 25. this is the doctrine of Moses, not mine. Accordingly he, when recording the creation of man, in words which follow, asserts expressly, that he was made in the image of God--and if the image be a part of the image, then manifestly so is the entire form, namely, the whole of this world perceptible by the external senses, which is a greater imitation of the divine image than the human form is. It is manifest also, that the archetypal seal, which we call that world which is perceptible only to the intellect, must itself be the archetypal model, the idea of ideas, the Reason of God. VII. 26. Moses says also; "In the beginning God created the heaven and the earth:" taking the beginning to be, not as some men think, that which is according to time; for before the world time had no existence, but was created either simultaneously with it, or after it; for since time is the interval of the motion of the heavens, there could not have been any such thing as motion before there was anything which could be moved; but it follows of necessity that it received existence subsequently or simultaneously. It therefore follows also of necessity, that time was created either at the same moment with the world, or later than it--and to venture to assert that it is older than the world is absolutely inconsistent with philosophy. 27. But if the beginning spoken of by Moses is not to be looked upon as spoken of according to time, then it may be natural to suppose that it is the beginning according to number that is indicated; so that, "In the beginning he created," is equivalent to "first of all he created the heaven;" for it is natural in reality that that should have been the first object created, being both the best of all created things, and being also made of the purest substance, because it was destined to be the most holy abode of the visible Gods who are perceptible by the external senses; 28. for if the Creator had made everything at the same moment, still those things which were created in beauty would no less have had a regular arrangement, for there is no such thing as beauty in disorder. But order is a due consequence and connection of things precedent and subsequent, if not in the completion of a work, at all events in the intention of the maker; for it is owing to order that they become accurately defined and stationary, and free from confusion. 29. In the first place therefore, from the model of the world, perceptible only by intellect, the Creator made an incorporeal heaven, and an invisible earth, and the form of air and of empty space: the former of which he called darkness, because the air is black by nature; and the other he called the abyss, for empty space is very deep and yawning with immense width. Then he created the incorporeal substance of water and of air, and above all he spread light, being the seventh thing made; and this again was incorporeal, and a model of the sun, perceptible only to intellect, and of all the lightgiving stars, which are destined to stand together in heaven. VIII. 30. And air and light he considered worthy of the pre-eminence. For the one he called the breath of God, because it is air, which is the most life-giving of things, and of life the causer is God; and the other he called light, because it is surpassingly beautiful: for that which is perceptible only by intellect is as far more brilliant and splendid than that which is seen, as I conceive, the sun is than darkness, or day than night, or the intellect than any other of the outward senses by which men judge (inasmuch as it is the guide of the entire soul), or the eyes than any other part of the body. 31. And the invisible divine reason, perceptible only by intellect, he calls the image of God. And the image of this image is that light, perceptible only by the intellect, which is the image of the divine reason, which has explained its generation. And it is a star above the heavens, the source of those stars which are perceptible by the external senses, and if any one were to call it universal light he would not be very wrong; since it is from that the sun and the moon, and all the other planets and fixed stars derive their due light, in proportion as each has power given to it; that unmingled and pure light being obscured when it begins to change, according to the change from that which is perceptible only by the intellect, to that which is perceptible by the external senses; for none of those things which are perceptible to the external senses is pure. IX. 32. Moses is right also when he says, that "darkness was over the face of the abyss." For the air is in a manner spread above the empty space, since having mounted up it entirely fills all that open, and desolate, and empty place, which reaches down to us from the regions below the moon. 33. And after the shining forth of that light, perceptible only to the intellect, which existed before the sun, then its adversary darkness yielded, as God put a wall between them and separated them, well knowing their opposite characters, and the enmity existing between their natures. In order, therefore, that they might not war against one another from being continually brought in contact, so that war would prevail instead of peace, God, burning want of order into order, did not only separate light and darkness, but did also place boundaries in the middle of the space between the two, by which he separated the extremities of each. For if they had approximated they must have produced confusion, preparing for the contest, for the supremacy, with great and unextinguishable rivalry, if boundaries established between them had not separated them and prevented them from clashing together, 34. and these boundaries are evening and morning; the one of which heralds in the good tidings that the sun is about to rise, gently dissipating the darkness: and evening comes on as the sun sets, receiving gently the collective approach of darkness. And these, I mean morning and evening, must be placed in the class of incorporeal things, perceptible only by the intellect; for there is absolutely nothing in them which is perceptible by the external senses, but they are entirely ideas, and measures, and forms, and seals, incorporeal as far as regards the generation of other bodies. 35. But when light came, and darkness retreated and yielded to it, and boundaries were set in the space between the two, namely, evening and morning, then of necessity the measure of time was immediately perfected, which also the Creator called "day." and He called it not "the first day," but "one day;" and it is spoken of thus, on account of the single nature of the world perceptible only by the intellect, which has a single nature. X.
134. After this, Moses says that "God made man, having taken clay from the earth, and he breathed into his face the breath of life." And by this expression he shows most clearly that there is a vast difference between man as generated now, and the first man who was made according to the image of God. For man as formed now is perceptible to the external senses, partaking of qualities, consisting of body and soul, man or woman, by nature mortal. But man, made according to the image of God, was an idea, or a genus, or a seal, perceptible only by the intellect, incorporeal, neither male nor female, imperishable by nature. '135. But he asserts that the formation of the individual man, perceptible by the external senses is a composition of earthy substance, and divine spirit. For that the body was created by the Creator taking a lump of clay, and fashioning the human form out of it; but that the soul proceeds from no created thing at all, but from the Father and Ruler of all things. For when he uses the expression, "he breathed into," etc., he means nothing else than the divine spirit proceeding form that happy and blessed nature, sent to take up its habitation here on earth, for the advantage of our race, in order that, even if man is mortal according to that portion of him which is visible, he may at all events be immortal according to that portion which is invisible; and for this reason, one may properly say that man is on the boundaries of a better and an immortal nature, partaking of each as far as it is necessary for him; and that he was born at the same time, both mortal and the immortal. Mortal as to his body, but immortal as to his intellect. XLVII. '. None
100. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 2.252 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Christian, literature/authors • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • Papias of Hieropolis, oral-traditional authority in work of • Tannaim, oral-traditional authority in • authority • authority,, Christian sources, decline of non-intellectual authority in • authority,, oral-traditional • authority,, prophetic or revelatory • oral-traditional authority,, decline of, in early Christian sources • prophetic or revelatory authority,, decline of, in Christian sources

 Found in books: Ayres and Ward (2021) 174; Levison (2009) 190, 192, 229, 356


2.252. And again, the invisible spirit which is accustomed to converse with me in an unseen manner prompts me with a suggestion, and says, O my friend, you seem to be ignorant of an important and most desirable matter which I will explain to you completely; for I have also in a most seasonable manner explained many other things to you also. ''. None
101. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 3.1-3.6 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority, Scripture • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • authority

 Found in books: Brooke et al (2008) 143, 144; Levison (2009) 344, 356, 400; Najman (2010) 105


3.1. There was once a time when, devoting my leisure to philosophy and to the contemplation of the world and the things in it, I reaped the fruit of excellent, and desirable, and blessed intellectual feelings, being always living among the divine oracles and doctrines, on which I fed incessantly and insatiably, to my great delight, never entertaining any low or grovelling thoughts, nor ever wallowing in the pursuit of glory or wealth, or the delights of the body, but I appeared to be raised on high and borne aloft by a certain inspiration of the soul, and to dwell in the regions of the sun and moon, and to associate with the whole heaven, and the whole universal world. 3.2. At that time, therefore, looking down from above, from the air, and straining the eye of my mind as from a watch-tower, I surveyed the unspeakable contemplation of all the things on the earth, and looked upon myself as happy as having forcibly escaped from all the evil fates that can attack human life. 3.3. Nevertheless, the most grievous of all evils was lying in wait for me, namely, envy, that hates every thing that is good, and which, suddenly attacking me, did not cease from dragging me after it by force till it had taken me and thrown me into the vast sea of the cares of public politics, in which I was and still am tossed about without being able to keep myself swimming at the top. 3.4. But though I groan at my fate, I still hold out and resist, retaining in my soul that desire of instruction which has been implanted in it from my earliest youth, and this desire taking pity and compassion on me continually raises me up and alleviates my sorrow. And it is through this fondness for learning that I at times lift up my head, and with the eyes of my soul, which are indeed dim (for the mist of affairs, wholly inconsistent with their proper objects, has overshadowed their acute clear-sightedne 3.5. And if at any time unexpectedly there shall arise a brief period of tranquillity, and a short calm and respite from the troubles which arise from state affairs, I then rise aloft and float above the troubled waves, soaring as it were in the air, and being, I may almost say, blown forward by the breezes of knowledge, which often persuades me to flee away, and to pass all my days with her, escaping as it were from my pitiless masters, not men only, but also affairs which pour upon me from all quarters and at all times like a torrent. 3.6. But even in these circumstances I ought to give thanks to God, that though I am so overwhelmed by this flood, I am not wholly sunk and swallowed up in the depths. But I open the eyes of my soul, which from an utter despair of any good hope had been believed to have been before now wholly darkened, and I am irradiated with the light of wisdom, since I am not given up for the whole of my life to darkness. Behold, therefore, I venture not only to study the sacred commands of Moses, but also with an ardent love of knowledge to investigate each separate one of them, and to endeavour to reveal and to explain to those who wish to understand them, things concerning them which are not known to the multitude.II. ''. None
102. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 78 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority, Scripture • Jewish, authors

 Found in books: Najman (2010) 104; Černušková (2016) 104


78. And these explanations of the sacred scriptures are delivered by mystic expressions in allegories, for the whole of the law appears to these men to resemble a living animal, and its express commandments seem to be the body, and the invisible meaning concealed under and lying beneath the plain words resembles the soul, in which the rational soul begins most excellently to contemplate what belongs to itself, as in a mirror, beholding in these very words the exceeding beauty of the sentiments, and unfolding and explaining the symbols, and bringing the secret meaning naked to the light to all who are able by the light of a slight intimation to perceive what is unseen by what is visible. ''. None
103. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.4, 1.21, 2.14, 2.26-2.27, 2.31-2.40, 2.48 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority, Conferring strategies xviii • Authority, Scripture • Cato the Censor, deeply Hellenized Roman author • Moses, author of the Torah • Prison escape topos in ancient authors • Writing, Authoritative • authority • authority, prophetic • authority, scribal • authority, scriptural

 Found in books: Brooke et al (2008) 143, 144; Feldman (2006) 25; Geljon and Runia (2013) 92; Jaffee (2001) 25; Najman (2010) 90, 93, 94, 97, 101, 102; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 201


1.4. But I disregard the envious disposition of these men, and shall proceed to narrate the events which befell him, having learnt them both from those sacred scriptures which he has left as marvellous memorials of his wisdom, and having also heard many things from the elders of my nation, for I have continually connected together what I have heard with what I have read, and in this way I look upon it that I am acquainted with the history of his life more accurately than other people.
1.21. And immediately he had all kinds of masters, one after another, some coming of their own accord from the neighbouring countries and the different districts of Egypt, and some being even procured from Greece by the temptation of large presents. But in a short time he surpassed all their knowledge, anticipating all their lessons by the excellent natural endowments of his own genius; so that everything in his case appeared to be a ecollecting rather than a learning, while he himself also, without any teacher, comprehended by his instinctive genius many difficult subjects;
2.14. But the enactments of this lawgiver are firm, not shaken by commotions, not liable to alteration, but stamped as it were with the seal of nature herself, and they remain firm and lasting from the day on which they were first promulgated to the present one, and there may well be a hope that they will remain to all future time, as being immortal, as long as the sun and the moon, and the whole heaven and the whole world shall endure.
2.26. In olden time the laws were written in the Chaldaean language, and for a long time they remained in the same condition as at first, not changing their language as long as their beauty had not made them known to other nations; 2.27. but when, from the daily and uninterrupted respect shown to them by those to whom they had been given, and from their ceaseless observance of their ordices, other nations also obtained an understanding of them, their reputation spread over all lands; for what was really good, even though it may through envy be overshadowed for a short time, still in time shines again through the intrinsic excellence of its nature. Some persons, thinking it a scandalous thing that these laws should only be known among one half portion of the human race, namely, among the barbarians, and that the Greek nation should be wholly and entirely ignorant of them, turned their attention to their translation.
2.31. He, then, being a sovereign of this character, and having conceived a great admiration for and love of the legislation of Moses, conceived the idea of having our laws translated into the Greek language; and immediately he sent out ambassadors to the high-priest and king of Judea, for they were the same person. 2.32. And having explained his wishes, and having requested him to pick him out a number of men, of perfect fitness for the task, who should translate the law, the high-priest, as was natural, being greatly pleased, and thinking that the king had only felt the inclination to undertake a work of such a character from having been influenced by the providence of God, considered, and with great care selected the most respectable of the Hebrews whom he had about him, who in addition to their knowledge of their national scriptures, had also been well instructed in Grecian literature, and cheerfully sent them. ' "2.33. And when they arrived at the king's court they were hospitably received by the king; and while they feasted, they in return feasted their entertainer with witty and virtuous conversation; for he made experiment of the wisdom of each individual among them, putting to them a succession of new and extraordinary questions; and they, since the time did not allow of their being prolix in their answers, replied with great propriety and fidelity as if they were delivering apophthegms which they had already prepared. " '2.34. So when they had won his approval, they immediately began to fulfil the objects for which that honourable embassy had been sent; and considering among themselves how important the affair was, to translate laws which had been divinely given by direct inspiration, since they were not able either to take away anything, or to add anything, or to alter anything, but were bound to preserve the original form and character of the whole composition, they looked out for the most completely purified place of all the spots on the outside of the city. For the places within the walls, as being filled with all kinds of animals, were held in suspicion by them by reason of the diseases and deaths of some, and the accursed actions of those who were in health. 2.35. The island of Pharos lies in front of Alexandria, the neck of which runs out like a sort of tongue towards the city, being surrounded with water of no great depth, but chiefly with shoals and shallow water, so that the great noise and roaring from the beating of the waves is kept at a considerable distance, and so mitigated. 2.36. They judged this place to be the most suitable of all the spots in the neighbourhood for them to enjoy quiet and tranquillity in, so that they might associate with the laws alone in their minds; and there they remained, and having taken the sacred scriptures, they lifted up them and their hands also to heaven, entreating of God that they might not fail in their object. And he assented to their prayers, that the greater part, or indeed the universal race of mankind might be benefited, by using these philosophical and entirely beautiful commandments for the correction of their lives. 2.37. Therefore, being settled in a secret place, and nothing even being present with them except the elements of nature, the earth, the water, the air, and the heaven, concerning the creation of which they were going in the first place to explain the sacred account; for the account of the creation of the world is the beginning of the law; they, like men inspired, prophesied, not one saying one thing and another another, but every one of them employed the self-same nouns and verbs, as if some unseen prompter had suggested all their language to them. 2.38. And yet who is there who does not know that every language, and the Greek language above all others, is rich in a variety of words, and that it is possible to vary a sentence and to paraphrase the same idea, so as to set it forth in a great variety of manners, adapting many different forms of expression to it at different times. But this, they say, did not happen at all in the case of this translation of the law, but that, in every case, exactly corresponding Greek words were employed to translate literally the appropriate Chaldaic words, being adapted with exceeding propriety to the matters which were to be explained; 2.39. for just as I suppose the things which are proved in geometry and logic do not admit any variety of explanation, but the proposition which was set forth from the beginning remains unaltered, in like manner I conceive did these men find words precisely and literally corresponding to the things, which words were alone, or in the greatest possible degree, destined to explain with clearness and force the matters which it was desired to reveal. 2.40. And there is a very evident proof of this; for if Chaldaeans were to learn the Greek language, and if Greeks were to learn Chaldaean, and if each were to meet with those scriptures in both languages, namely, the Chaldaic and the translated version, they would admire and reverence them both as sisters, or rather as one and the same both in their facts and in their language; considering these translators not mere interpreters but hierophants and prophets to whom it had been granted it their honest and guileless minds to go along with the most pure spirit of Moses.
2.48. for he was not like any ordinary compiler of history, studying to leave behind him records of ancient transactions as memorials to future ages for the mere sake of affording pleasure without any advantage; but he traced back the most ancient events from the beginning of the world, commencing with the creation of the universe, in order to make known two most necessary principles. First, that the same being was the father and creator of the world, and likewise the lawgiver of truth; secondly, that the man who adhered to these laws, and clung closely to a connection with and obedience to nature, would live in a manner corresponding to the arrangement of the universe with a perfect harmony and union, between his words and his actions and between his actions and his words.''. None
104. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 50, 74 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Author, of 2 maccabees, Sitz im Leben • Authority, Scripture • Theriomorphism, trademark institution of Egypt, criticized by authors

 Found in books: Manolaraki (2012) 40; Najman (2010) 87; Schwartz (2008) 52


50. For if we were to neglect the opportunity of adhering to our national customs when it is afforded to us, we should deserve to meet with the severest punishment, as not giving any proper or adequate return for the benefits which we have received; but if, while it is in our power to do so, we, in conformity with our own laws which Augustus himself is in the habit of confirming, obey in everything, then I do not see what great, or even what small offence can be laid to our charge; unless any one were to impute to us that we do not transgress the laws of deliberate purpose, and that we do not intentionally take care to depart from our national customs, which practices, even if they at first attack others, do often in the end visit those who are guilty of them. '
74. for he arrested thirty-eight members of our council of elders, which our saviour and benefactor, Augustus, elected to manage the affairs of the Jewish nation after the death of the king of our own nation, having sent written commands to that effect to Manius Maximus when he was about to take upon himself for the second time the government of Egypt and of the country, he arrested them, I say, in their own houses, and commanded them to be thrown into prison, and arranged a splendid procession to send through the middle of the market-place a body of old men prisoners, with their hands bound, some with thongs and others with iron chains, whom he led in this plight into the theatre, a most miserable spectacle, and one wholly unsuited to the times. '. None
105. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 89-91 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority, Scripture • Jesus of Nazareth, challenge to Pharisee authority • New Testament, Pharisees and legal authority in

 Found in books: Najman (2010) 95; Taylor (2012) 114


89. And a proof of this is that, though at different times a great number of chiefs of every variety of disposition and character, have occupied their country, some of whom have endeavoured to surpass even ferocious wild beasts in cruelty, leaving no sort of inhumanity unpractised, and have never ceased to murder their subjects in whole troops, and have even torn them to pieces while living, like cooks cutting them limb from limb, till they themselves, being overtaken by the vengeance of divine justice, have at last experienced the same miseries in their turn: '90. others again having converted their barbarous frenzy into another kind of wickedness, practising an ineffable degree of savageness, talking with the people quietly, but through the hypocrisy of a more gentle voice, betraying the ferocity of their real disposition, fawning upon their victims like treacherous dogs, and becoming the causes of irremediable miseries to them, have left in all their cities monuments of their impiety, and hatred of all mankind, in the never to be forgotten miseries endured by those whom they oppressed: 91. and yet no one, not even of those immoderately cruel tyrants, nor of the more treacherous and hypocritical oppressors was ever able to bring any real accusation against the multitude of those called Essenes or Holy. But everyone being subdued by the virtue of these men, looked up to them as free by nature, and not subject to the frown of any human being, and have celebrated their manner of messing together, and their fellowship with one another beyond all description in respect of its mutual good faith, which is an ample proof of a perfect and very happy life. XIV. '. None
106. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus, authority of • actor and auctor • auctoritas • authority, Augustan • authority, mutual constitution of

 Found in books: Brodd and Reed (2011) 231; Oksanish (2019) 61, 68; Pandey (2018) 2, 97; Tuori (2016) 97


107. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Virgil, author portrait as paratext to ancient editions • recitation, for living authors of own works

 Found in books: Goldschmidt (2019) 15; Johnson and Parker (2009) 225


108. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus, and authority • Augustus, author, alientation of • Augustus/Octavian, as author and builder • authority, poetic • book, alienation of author from

 Found in books: Bowditch (2001) 112; Johnson and Parker (2009) 183; Pandey (2018) 183, 205, 248


109. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Authority • Scipio Africanus, and excessive religious authority • Scipio Africanus, as authoritative interpreter • auctor est • auctoritas (authority) • author • authority • authority, of Ammianus, priestly • comitia, legislation authorizing ver sacrum • pontifices, authority over statuary • senate, failure of authority

 Found in books: Czajkowski et al (2020) 244; Davies (2004) 54, 68, 73, 132, 205; Edmondson (2008) 28, 29; Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 356; Konrad (2022) 257; Rutledge (2012) 293; Santangelo (2013) 206


110. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus/Octavian, as author and builder • Epicurus, authority in the De Rerum Natura • Heraclitus (author of Homeric Problems) • Lucretius, implied author in • Lucretius, read as document of the author’s mind • Theriomorphism, trademark institution of Egypt, criticized by authors • Vitruvius, auctoritas • auctoritas • author function, implied author • authority • authority,, oral-traditional • authority,, pagan sources, decline of non-intellectual authority in • authority,, prophetic or revelatory • implied author • oral-traditional authority,, decline of, in pagan sources • power, of artists and authors • prophetic or revelatory authority,, decline of, in pagan sources

 Found in books: Ayres and Ward (2021) 188, 189; Bryan (2018) 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 232, 236, 238, 239, 240, 241; Goldschmidt (2019) 136, 137; Gordon (2012) 43; Manolaraki (2012) 35; Oksanish (2019) 103; Pandey (2018) 223; Wardy and Warren (2018) 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 229, 230, 232, 236, 238, 239, 240, 241


111. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristides (author of Milesiaka) • Augustus/Octavian, as author and builder • Jonson, Ben, editions of ancient authors and Vitae • Virgil, author portrait as paratext to ancient editions • authority, mutual constitution of • authority, poetic • death of the author

 Found in books: Goldschmidt (2019) 43, 62; Pandey (2018) 25, 26, 133, 249; Stephens and Winkler (1995) 474


112. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus/Octavian, as author and builder • Theriomorphism, trademark institution of Egypt, criticized by authors

 Found in books: Manolaraki (2012) 31; Pandey (2018) 205


113. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 4.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Epistle of Barnabas, Authorship • authority

 Found in books: Bird and Harrower (2021) 269; Vinzent (2013) 58


4.9. But though I would fain write many things, not as a teacher, but as becometh one who loveth you not to fall short of that which we possess, I was anxious to write to you, being your devoted slave. Wherefore let us take heed in these last days. For the whole time of our faith shall profit us nothing, unless we now, in the season of lawlessness and in the offenses that shall be, as becometh sons of God, offer resistance, that the Black One may not effect an entrance.''. None
114. Epictetus, Discourses, 2.2.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Cleanthes, as author of the Hymn • authority

 Found in books: Wilson (2012) 282; Wilson (2022) 66


2.2.4. CONSIDER, you who are going into court, what you wish to maintain and what you wish to succeed in. For if you wish to maintain a will conformable to nature, you have every security, every facility, you have no troubles. For if you wish to maintain what is in your own power and is naturally free, and if you are content with these, what else do you care for? For who is the master of such things? Who can take them away? If you choose to be modest and faithful, who shall not allow you to be so? If you choose not to be restrained or compelled, who shall compel you to desire what you think that you ought not to desire? who shall compel you to avoid what you do not think fit to avoid? But what do you say? The judge will determine against you something that appears formidable; but that you should also suffer in trying to avoid it, how can he do that? When then the pursuit of objects and the avoiding of them are in your power, what else do you care for? Let this be your preface, this your narrative, this your confirmation, this your victory, this your peroration, this your applause (or the approbation which you will receive). Therefore Socrates said to one who was reminding him to prepare for his trial, Do you not think then that I have been preparing for it all my life? By what kind of preparation? I have maintained that which was in my own power. How then? I have never done anything unjust either in my private or in my public life. But if you wish to maintain externals also, your poor body, your little property and your little estimation, I advise you to make from this moment all possible preparation, and then consider both the nature of your judge and your adversary. If it is necessary to embrace his knees, embrace his knees; if to weep, weep; if to groan, groan. For when you have subjected to externals what is your own, then be a slave and do not resist, and do not sometimes choose to be a slave, and sometimes not choose, but with all your mind be one or the other, either free or a slave, either instructed or uninstructed, either a well bred cock or a mean one, either endure to be beaten until you die or yield at once; and let it not happen to you to receive many stripes and then to yield. But if these things are base, determine immediately. Where is the nature of evil and good? It is where truth is: where truth is and where nature is, there is caution: where truth is, there is courage where nature is. For what do you think? do you think that, if Socrates had wished to preserve externals, he would have come forward and said: Anytus and Melitus can certainly kill me, but to harm me they are not able? Was he so foolish as not to see that this way leads not to the preservation of life and fortune, but to another end? What is the reason then that he takes no account of his adversaries, and even irritates them? Just in the same way my friend Heraclitus, who had a little suit in Rhodes about a bit of land, and had proved to the judges ( δικασταῖς ) that his case was just, said when he had come to the peroration of his speech, I will neither intreat you nor do I care what judgment you will give, and it is you father than I who are on your trial. And thus he ended the business. What need was there of this? Only do not intreat; but do not also say, I do not intreat. unless there is a fit occasion to irritate purposely the judges, as was the case with Socrates. And you, if you are preparing such a peroration, why do you wait, why do you obey the order to submit to trial? For if you wish to be crucified, wait and the cross will come: but if you choose to submit and to plead your cause as well as you can, you must do what is consistent with this object, provided you maintain what is your own (your proper character). For this reason also it is ridiculous to say, Suggest something to me (tell me what to do). What should I suggest to you? Well, form my mind so as to accommodate itself to any event. Why that is just the same as if a man who is ignorant of letters should say, Tell me what to write when any name is proposed to me. For if I should tell him to write Dion, and then another should come and propose to him not the name of Dion but that of Theon, what will be done? what will he write? But if you have practised writing, you are also prepared to write (or to do) any thing that is required. If you are not, what can I now suggest? For if circumstances require something else, what will you say, or what will you do? Remember then this general precept and you will need no suggestion. But if you gape after externals, you must of necessity ramble up and down in obedience to the will of your master. And who is the master? He who has the power over the things which you seek to gain or try to avoid.''. None
115. Ignatius, To The Magnesians, 8.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • authoritative tradition, disputed • authority • bishops, authority of

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 197; Vinzent (2013) 148


8.2. for the divine prophets lived after Christ Jesus. For this cause also they were persecuted, being inspired by His grace to the end that they which are disobedient might be fully persuaded that there is one God who manifested Himself through Jesus Christ His Son, who is His Word that proceeded from silence, who in all things was well-pleasing unto Him that sent Him. ''. None
116. Ignatius, To The Romans, 4.2, 5.1, 5.3, 9.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • John (author of Apocalypse), • author • authoritative tradition, disputed • authority

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 196; Huttner (2013) 113; Maier and Waldner (2022) 166, 167, 169, 170


4.2. Rather entice the wild beasts, that they may become my sepulchre and may leave no part of my body behind, so that I may not, when I am fallen asleep, be burdensome to any one. Then shall I be truly a disciple of Jesus Christ, when the world shall not so much as see my body. Supplicate the Lord for me, that through these instruments I may be found a sacrifice to God.
5.1. From Syria even unto Rome I fight with wild beasts, by land and sea, by night and by day, being bound amidst ten leopards, even a company of soldiers, who only wax worse when they are kindly treated. Howbeit through their wrong doings I become more completely a disciple; yet am I not hereby justified.
5.3. Bear with me. I know what is expedient for me. Now am I beginning to be a disciple. May nought of things visible and things invisible envy me; that I may attain unto Jesus Christ. Come fire and cross and grapplings with wild beasts, cuttings and manglings, wrenching of bones, hacking of limbs, crushings of my whole body, come cruel tortures of the devil to assail me. Only be it mine to attain unto Jesus Christ.
9.3. My spirit saluteth you, and the love of the churches which received me in the name of Jesus Christ, not as a mere wayfarer: for even those churches which did not lie on my route after the flesh went before me from city to city. ''. None
117. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 6.329, 12.120, 12.237, 12.383, 12.387-12.388, 13.56, 13.62, 13.66-13.71, 13.288, 13.298, 13.354-13.355, 13.380, 14.124, 20.224-20.236 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Asclepiades of Tragilus, historian, author of work on subjects of tragedy • Author, of 2 maccabees, Confusion of • Author, of 2 maccabees, Lack of Interest in Details of Temple Cult • Author, of 2 maccabees, Objective of • Epitomator, see also Author • Jesus of Nazareth, challenge to Pharisee authority • Jew/Jewish, literature/ authors • Jews, history of, and Greco-Roman authors • Oniad authorship • Oniad authorship, Jews • Oniad authorship, background/origin/milieu • Oniad authorship, dynasty • Oniad authorship, genealogy (high priestly succession) • Oniad authorship, literature • Oniad authorship, soldiers/units • Persian imperial authorities, and fiscal reforms of Nehemiah • Persian imperial authorities, and temple administration • Roman authorities, and Judean land • Roman authorities, and religious benefaction • Tobit, author x • authority • authority, scriptural • authority, traditional

 Found in books: Brooke et al (2008) 138; Feldman (2006) 415; Gordon (2020) 95, 129, 130, 227, 228; Jaffee (2001) 51, 52, 53; Levison (2009) 319; Piotrkowski (2019) 39, 44, 54, 58, 61, 63, 65, 82, 85, 87, 92, 93, 94, 97, 99, 100, 106, 256, 279, 288, 291, 375, 376, 377, 379, 408, 429; Schwartz (2008) 13, 25, 235, 459; Taylor (2012) 113; Toloni (2022) 4; Udoh (2006) 21; Vinzent (2013) 29, 74, 75


6.329. οὐκ ἀποκρινομένου δὲ τοῦ θεοῦ ἔτι μᾶλλον ὁ Σαοῦλος κατέδεισε καὶ τὴν ψυχὴν ἀνέπεσε, τὸ κακὸν οἷον εἰκὸς οὐ παρόντος αὐτῷ κατὰ χεῖρα τοῦ θείου προορώμενος. ζητηθῆναι δ' αὑτῷ κελεύει γύναιόν τι τῶν ἐγγαστριμύθων καὶ τῶν τεθνηκότων ψυχὰς ἐκκαλουμένων ὡς οὕτως γνωσομένῳ, ποῖ χωρεῖν αὐτῷ μέλλει τὰ πράγματα:" '
12.237. ̔Υπὸ δὲ τὸν αὐτὸν καιρὸν ἀποθανόντος καὶ ̓Ονίου τοῦ ἀρχιερέως τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ ̓Ιησοῦ τὴν ἀρχιερωσύνην ̓Αντίοχος δίδωσιν: ὁ γὰρ παῖς, ὃν ̓Ονίας καταλελοίπει, ἔτι νήπιος ἦν. δηλώσομεν δὲ τὰ περὶ τοῦ παιδὸς τούτου κατὰ χώραν ἕκαστα.
12.383. εἰσελθὼν δὲ ̓Αντίοχος εἰς αὐτὸ καὶ θεασάμενος ὀχυρὸν οὕτως τὸ χωρίον παρέβη τοὺς ὅρκους καὶ κελεύει τὴν δύναμιν παραστᾶσαν καθελεῖν τὸ τεῖχος εἰς ἔδαφος. καὶ ταῦτα ποιήσας ἀνέστρεψεν εἰς ̓Αντιόχειαν ἐπαγόμενος ̓Ονίαν τὸν ἀρχιερέα, ὃς καὶ Μενέλαος ἐκαλεῖτο.' "
12.387. ὁ δὲ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως υἱὸς ̓Ονίας, ὃν προείπομεν ἔτι παῖδα τελευτήσαντος ἀφίεσθαι τοῦ πατρός, ἰδὼν ὅτι τὸν θεῖον αὐτοῦ Μενέλαον ὁ βασιλεὺς ἀνελὼν τὴν ἀρχιερωσύνην ̓Αλκίμῳ δέδωκεν οὐκ ὄντι τῆς τῶν ἀρχιερέων γενεᾶς, ἀλλ' ὑπὸ Λυσίου πεισθεὶς μεταθεῖναι τὴν τιμὴν ἀπὸ ταύτης τῆς οἰκίας εἰς ἕτερον οἶκον, φεύγει πρὸς Πτολεμαῖον τὸν Αἰγύπτου βασιλέα." '12.388. καὶ τιμῆς ἀξιωθεὶς ὑπό τε αὐτοῦ καὶ τῆς γυναικὸς Κλεοπάτρας λαμβάνει τόπον ἀξιώσας ἐν τῷ νομῷ τῷ ̔Ηλιοπολίτῃ, ἐν ᾧ καὶ ὅμοιον τῷ ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις ᾠκοδόμησεν ἱερόν. περὶ τούτου μὲν οὖν εὐκαιρότερον ἡμῖν ἔσται διελθεῖν.' "
13.56. καὶ ὅσοι δ' ἂν φύγωσιν εἰς τὸ ἱερὸν τὸ ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις καὶ εἰς τὰ ἀπ' αὐτοῦ χρηματίζοντα ἢ βασιλικὰ ὀφείλοντες χρήματα ἢ δι' ἄλλην αἰτίαν, ἀπολελύσθωσαν οὗτοι καὶ τὰ ὑπάρχοντα αὐτοῖς σῶα ἔστω." '
13.62. ̔Ο δὲ ̓Ονίου τοῦ ἀρχιερέως υἱὸς ὁμώνυμος δὲ ὢν τῷ πατρί, ὃς ἐν ̓Αλεξανδρείᾳ φυγὼν πρὸς τὸν βασιλέα Πτολεμαῖον τὸν ἐπικαλούμενον Φιλομήτορα διῆγεν, ὡς καὶ πρότερον εἰρήκαμεν, ἰδὼν τὴν ̓Ιουδαίαν κακουμένην ὑπὸ τῶν Μακεδόνων καὶ τῶν βασιλέων αὐτῶν,
13.66. καὶ πλείστους εὑρὼν παρὰ τὸ καθῆκον ἔχοντας ἱερὰ καὶ διὰ τοῦτο δύσνους ἀλλήλοις, ὃ καὶ Αἰγυπτίοις συμβέβηκεν διὰ τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ἱερῶν καὶ τὸ περὶ τὰς θρησκείας οὐχ ὁμόδοξον, ἐπιτηδειότατον εὑρὼν τόπον ἐν τῷ προσαγορευομένῳ τῆς ἀγρίας Βουβάστεως ὀχυρώματι βρύοντα ποικίλης ὕλης καὶ τῶν ἱερῶν ζῴων μεστόν,' "13.67. δέομαι συγχωρῆσαί μοι τὸ ἀδέσποτον ἀνακαθάραντι ἱερὸν καὶ συμπεπτωκὸς οἰκοδομῆσαι ναὸν τῷ μεγίστῳ θεῷ καθ' ὁμοίωσιν τοῦ ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις αὐτοῖς μέτροις ὑπὲρ σοῦ καὶ τῆς σῆς γυναικὸς καὶ τῶν τέκνων, ἵν' ἔχωσιν οἱ τὴν Αἴγυπτον κατοικοῦντες ̓Ιουδαῖοι εἰς αὐτὸ συνιόντες κατὰ τὴν πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὁμόνοιαν ταῖς σαῖς ἐξυπηρετεῖν χρείαις:" '13.68. καὶ γὰρ ̔Ησαί̈ας ὁ προφήτης τοῦτο προεῖπεν: ἔσται θυσιαστήριον ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ κυρίῳ τῷ θεῷ: καὶ πολλὰ δὲ προεφήτευσεν ἄλλα τοιαῦτα διὰ τὸν τόπον.”' "13.69. Καὶ ταῦτα μὲν ὁ ̓Ονίας τῷ βασιλεῖ Πτολεμαίῳ γράφει. κατανοήσειε δ' ἄν τις αὐτοῦ τὴν εὐσέβειαν καὶ Κλεοπάτρας τῆς ἀδελφῆς αὐτοῦ καὶ γυναικὸς ἐξ ἧς ἀντέγραψαν ἐπιστολῆς: τὴν γὰρ ἁμαρτίαν καὶ τὴν τοῦ νόμου παράβασιν εἰς τὴν ̓Ονίου κεφαλὴν ἀνέθεσαν:" "13.71. ἐπεὶ δὲ σὺ φῂς ̔Ησαί̈αν τὸν προφήτην ἐκ πολλοῦ χρόνου τοῦτο προειρηκέναι, συγχωροῦμέν σοι, εἰ μέλλει τοῦτ' ἔσεσθαι κατὰ τὸν νόμον: ὥστε μηδὲν ἡμᾶς δοκεῖν εἰς τὸν θεὸν ἐξημαρτηκέναι.”" "
13.288. ̔Υρκανῷ δὲ φθόνον ἐκίνησεν παρὰ τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων ἡ εὐπραγία, μάλιστα δ' οἱ Φαρισαῖοι κακῶς πρὸς αὐτὸν εἶχον, αἵρεσις ὄντες μία τῶν ̓Ιουδαίων, ὡς καὶ ἐν τοῖς ἐπάνω δεδηλώκαμεν. τοσαύτην δὲ ἔχουσι τὴν ἰσχὺν παρὰ τῷ πλήθει, ὡς καὶ κατὰ βασιλέως τι λέγοντες καὶ κατ' ἀρχιερέως εὐθὺς πιστεύεσθαι." '
13.298. καὶ περὶ τούτων ζητήσεις αὐτοῖς καὶ διαφορὰς γίνεσθαι συνέβαινεν μεγάλας, τῶν μὲν Σαδδουκαίων τοὺς εὐπόρους μόνον πειθόντων τὸ δὲ δημοτικὸν οὐχ ἑπόμενον αὐτοῖς ἐχόντων, τῶν δὲ Φαρισαίων τὸ πλῆθος σύμμαχον ἐχόντων. ἀλλὰ περὶ μὲν τούτων τῶν δύο καὶ τῶν ̓Εσσηνῶν ἐν τῇ δευτέρᾳ μου τῶν ̓Ιουδαϊκῶν ἀκριβῶς δεδήλωται.
13.354. ̓Ανανίας δὲ συνεβούλευσε τούτοις ἐναντία, λέγων ἄδικα ποιήσειν αὐτήν, εἰ σύμμαχον ἄνθρωπον ἀφαιρήσεται τῆς ἰδίας ἐξουσίας καὶ ταῦτα συγγενῆ ἡμέτερον: “οὐ γὰρ ἀγνοεῖν βούλομαί σε, φησίν, εἰ τὸ πρὸς τοῦτον ἄδικον ἐχθροὺς ἅπαντας ἡμᾶς σοι τοὺς ̓Ιουδαίους κατασκευάζει.” 13.355. ταῦτα δὲ ̓Ανανία παραινέσαντος ἡ Κλεοπάτρα πείθεται μηδὲν ἀδικῆσαι τὸν ̓Αλέξανδρον, ἀλλὰ συμμαχίαν πρὸς αὐτὸν ἐποιήσατο ἐν Σκυθοπόλει τῆς κοίλης Συρίας.' "
14.124. ̓Αριστόβουλος δ' οὐκ ὤνατο τῶν ἐλπίδων, ἐφ' αἷς ἔτυχε τῆς παρὰ Καίσαρος ἐξουσίας, ἀλλ' αὐτὸν φθάσαντες οἱ τὰ Πομπηίου φρονοῦντες φαρμάκῳ διαφθείρουσιν, θάπτουσι δ' αὐτὸν οἱ τὰ Καίσαρος θεραπεύοντες πράγματα, καὶ ὁ νεκρὸς ἔκειτο ἐν μέλιτι κεκηδευμένος ἐπὶ χρόνον πολὺν ἕως ̓Αντώνιος αὐτὸν ὕστερον ἀποπέμψας εἰς τὴν ̓Ιουδαίαν ἐν ταῖς βασιλικαῖς θήκαις ἐποίησεν τεθῆναι." "
20.224. ̓Αναγκαῖον δ' εἶναι νομίζω καὶ τῇ ἱστορίᾳ ταύτῃ προσῆκον διηγήσασθαι περὶ τῶν ἀρχιερέων, πῶς ἀρξάμενοι καὶ τίσιν ἔξεστι τῆς τιμῆς ταύτης μεταλαμβάνειν καὶ πόσοι γεγόνασιν μέχρι τῆς τοῦ πολέμου τελευτῆς." "20.225. πρῶτον μὲν οὖν πάντων λέγουσιν ̓Ααρῶνα τὸν Μωυσέως ἀδελφὸν ἀρχιερατεῦσαι τῷ θεῷ, τελευτήσαντος δὲ ἐκείνου διαδέξασθαι τοὺς παῖδας εὐθὺς κἀπ' ἐκείνων τοῖς ἐγγόνοις αὐτῶν διαμεῖναι τὴν τιμὴν ἅπασιν." "20.226. ὅθεν καὶ πάτριόν ἐστι μηδένα τοῦ θεοῦ τὴν ἀρχιερωσύνην λαμβάνειν ἢ τὸν ἐξ αἵματος τοῦ ̓Ααρῶνος, ἑτέρου δὲ γένους οὐδ' ἂν βασιλεὺς ὢν τύχῃ τεύξεται τῆς ἀρχιερωσύνης." '20.227. ἐγένοντο οὖν πάντες τὸν ἀριθμὸν ἀπὸ ̓Ααρῶνος, ὡς ἔφαμεν, τοῦ πρώτου γενομένου μέχρι Φανάσου τοῦ κατὰ τὸν πόλεμον ὑπὸ τῶν στασιαστῶν ἀρχιερέως ἀναδειχθέντος ὀγδοήκοντα τρεῖς. 20.228. ἐκ τούτων κατὰ τὴν ἔρημον ἐπὶ τῶν Μωυσέως χρόνων τῆς σκηνῆς ἑστώσης, ἣν Μωυσῆς τῷ θεῷ κατεσκεύασεν, μέχρι τῆς εἰς ̓Ιουδαίαν ἀφίξεως, ἔνθα Σολόμων ὁ βασιλεὺς τῷ θεῷ τὸν ναὸν ἤγειρεν, ἀρχιεράτευσαν δεκατρεῖς. 20.229. τὸ γὰρ πρῶτον ἕως τοῦ βίου τελευτῆς τὰς ἀρχιερωσύνας εἶχον, ὕστερον δὲ καὶ παρὰ ζώντων διεδέχοντο. οἱ τοίνυν δεκατρεῖς οὗτοι τῶν δύο παίδων ̓Ααρῶνος ὄντες ἔγγονοι κατὰ διαδοχὴν τὴν τιμὴν παρελάμβανον. ἐγένετο δὲ αὐτῶν ἀριστοκρατικὴ μὲν ἡ πρώτη πολιτεία, μετὰ ταύτην δὲ μοναρχία, βασιλέων δὲ τρίτη. 20.231. Μετὰ δὲ τοὺς δεκατρεῖς ἀρχιερέας ἐκείνους οἱ δέκα καὶ ὀκτὼ τὴν ἀρχιερωσύνην ἔσχον ἀπὸ Σολόμωνος βασιλέως ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις αὐτὴν διαδεξάμενοι, μέχρι οὗ Ναβουχοδονόσορος ὁ τῶν Βαβυλωνίων βασιλεὺς ἐπιστρατεύσας τῇ πόλει τὸν μὲν ναὸν ἐνέπρησεν, τὸ δὲ ἔθνος ἡμῶν εἰς Βαβυλῶνα μετήνεγκεν καὶ τὸν ἀρχιερέα ̓Ιωσαδάκην αἰχμάλωτον ἔλαβεν. 20.232. τούτων χρόνος τῆς ἱερωσύνης τετρακοσίων ἑξηκονταὲξ ἐτῶν ἐστι μηνῶν ἓξ ἡμερῶν δέκα ἤδη βασιλευομένων ̓Ιουδαίων. 20.233. μετὰ δὲ χρόνον ἐτῶν ἁλώσεως ἑβδομήκοντα τῆς ὑπὸ Βαβυλωνίων γενομένης Κῦρος ὁ Περσῶν βασιλεὺς ἀπέλυσεν τοὺς ἐκ Βαβυλῶνος ̓Ιουδαίους ἐπὶ τὴν οἰκείαν γῆν πάλιν καὶ συνεχώρησεν τὸν ναὸν ἀνεγεῖραι.' "20.234. τότε δὴ τῶν ὑποστρεψάντων αἰχμαλώτων ̓Ιησοῦς ὁ τοῦ ̓Ιωσεδὲκ εἷς ὢν τὴν ἀρχιερωσύνην λαμβάνει. λαμβάνει δ' οὗτος αὐτὸς καὶ οἱ ἔγγονοι αὐτοῦ πεντεκαίδεκα συνάπαντες μέχρι βασιλέως ̓Αντιόχου τοῦ Εὐπάτορος, ἐπολιτεύοντο δὲ δημοκρατικῶς ἔτη τετρακόσια δεκατέσσαρα." "20.235. Πρῶτος δ' ̓Αντίοχος ὁ προειρημένος καὶ ὁ στρατηγὸς αὐτοῦ Λυσίας τὸν ̓Ονίαν, ᾧ Μενέλαος ἐπίκλην, παύουσι τῆς ἀρχιερωσύνης ἀνελόντες αὐτὸν ἐν Βεροίᾳ καὶ καθιστᾶσιν ̓Ιάκιμον ἀρχιερέα, γένους μὲν τοῦ ̓Ααρῶνος, οὐκ ὄντα δὲ τῆς οἰκίας ταύτης." '20.236. διὰ τοῦτο καὶ ̓Ονίας ὁ τοῦ τετελευτηκότος ̓Ονίου ἐξάδελφος ὁμώνυμος τῷ πατρὶ παραγενόμενος εἰς Αἴγυπτον καὶ διὰ φιλίας ἀφικόμενος Πτολεμαίῳ τῷ Φιλομήτορι καὶ Κλεοπάτρᾳ τῇ γυναικὶ αὐτοῦ, πείθει τούτους κατὰ τὸν ̔Ηλιοπολίτην νομὸν δειμαμένους τῷ θεῷ ναὸν παραπλήσιον τῷ ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις αὐτὸν ἀρχιερέα καταστῆσαι.' ". None
6.329. And when God did not answer him, Saul was under a still greater dread, and his courage fell, foreseeing, as was but reasonable to suppose, that mischief would befall him, now God was not there to assist him; yet did he bid his servants to inquire out for him some woman that was a necromancer and called up the souls of the dead, that So he might know whether his affairs would succeed to his mind;
12.237. 1. About this time, upon the death of Onias the high priest, they gave the high priesthood to Jesus his brother; for that son which Onias left or Onias IV. was yet but an infant; and, in its proper place, we will inform the reader of all the circumstances that befell this child.
12.383. But when Antiochus came into it, and saw how strong the place was, he broke his oaths, and ordered his army that was there to pluck down the walls to the ground; and when he had so done, he returned to Antioch. He also carried with him Onias the high priest, who was also called Menelaus;
12.387. Now as to Onias, the son of the high priest, who, as we before informed you, was left a child when his father died, when he saw that the king had slain his uncle Menelaus, and given the high priesthood to Alcimus, who was not of the high priest stock, but was induced by Lysias to translate that dignity from his family to another house, he fled to Ptolemy, king of Egypt; 12.388. and when he found he was in great esteem with him, and with his wife Cleopatra, he desired and obtained a place in the Nomus of Heliopolis, wherein he built a temple like to that at Jerusalem; of which therefore we shall hereafter give an account, in a place more proper for it.
13.56. And whosoever shall fly to the temple at Jerusalem, or to the places thereto belonging, or who owe the king money, or are there on any other account, let them be set free, and let their goods be in safety.
13.62. 1. But then the son of Onias the high priest, who was of the same name with his father, and who fled to king Ptolemy, who was called Philometor, lived now at Alexandria, as we have said already. When this Onias saw that Judea was oppressed by the Macedonians and their kings,
13.66. where I found that the greatest part of your people had temples in an improper manner, and that on this account they bare ill-will one against another, which happens to the Egyptians by reason of the multitude of their temples, and the difference of opinions about divine worship. Now I found a very fit place in a castle that hath its name from the country Diana; this place is full of materials of several sorts, and replenished with sacred animals; 13.67. I desire therefore that you will grant me leave to purge this holy place, which belongs to no master, and is fallen down, and to build there a temple to Almighty God, after the pattern of that in Jerusalem, and of the same dimensions, that may be for the benefit of thyself, and thy wife and children, that those Jews which dwell in Egypt may have a place whither they may come and meet together in mutual harmony one with another, and he subservient to thy advantages; 13.68. for the prophet Isaiah foretold that, ‘there should be an altar in Egypt to the Lord God;’” and many other such things did he prophesy relating to that place. 13.69. 2. And this was what Onias wrote to king Ptolemy. Now any one may observe his piety, and that of his sister and wife Cleopatra, by that epistle which they wrote in answer to it; for they laid the blame and the transgression of the law upon the head of Onias. And this was their reply: 13.71. But since thou sayest that Isaiah the prophet foretold this long ago, we give thee leave to do it, if it may be done according to your law, and so that we may not appear to have at all offended God herein.”
13.288. 5. However, this prosperous state of affairs moved the Jews to envy Hyrcanus; but they that were the worst disposed to him were the Pharisees, who were one of the sects of the Jews, as we have informed you already. These have so great a power over the multitude, that when they say any thing against the king, or against the high priest, they are presently believed.
13.298. And concerning these things it is that great disputes and differences have arisen among them, while the Sadducees are able to persuade none but the rich, and have not the populace obsequious to them, but the Pharisees have the multitude on their side. But about these two sects, and that of the Essenes, I have treated accurately in the second book of Jewish affairs.
13.354. But Aias’s counsel was contrary to theirs, who said that “she would do an unjust action if she deprived a man that was her ally of that authority which belonged to him, and this a man who is related to us; for,” said he, “I would not have thee ignorant of this, that what injustice thou dost to him will make all us that are Jews to be thy enemies.” 13.355. This desire of Aias Cleopatra complied with, and did no injury to Alexander, but made a league of mutual assistance with him at Scythopolis, a city of Celesyria.
14.124. But Aristobulus had no enjoyment of what he hoped for from the power that was given him by Caesar; for those of Pompey’s party prevented it, and destroyed him by poison; and those of Caesar’s party buried him. His dead body also lay, for a good while, embalmed in honey, till Antony afterward sent it to Judea, and caused him to be buried in the royal sepulcher.
20.224. 1. And now I think it proper and agreeable to this history to give an account of our high priests; how they began, who those are which are capable of that dignity, and how many of them there had been at the end of the war. 20.225. In the first place, therefore, history informs us that Aaron, the brother of Moses, officiated to God as a high priest, and that, after his death, his sons succeeded him immediately; and that this dignity hath been continued down from them all to their posterity. 20.226. Whence it is a custom of our country, that no one should take the high priesthood of God but he who is of the blood of Aaron, while every one that is of another stock, though he were a king, can never obtain that high priesthood. 20.227. Accordingly, the number of all the high priests from Aaron, of whom we have spoken already, as of the first of them, until Phanas, who was made high priest during the war by the seditious, was eighty-three; 20.228. of whom thirteen officiated as high priests in the wilderness, from the days of Moses, while the tabernacle was standing, until the people came into Judea, when king Solomon erected the temple to God; 20.229. for at the first they held the high priesthood till the end of their life, although afterward they had successors while