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181 results for "augustine"
1. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.2, 17.29, 33.9, 60.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on lord’s prayer •augustine of hippo, theories of vision •augustine of hippo, on images Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 6, 163; Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 157
1.2. "כִּי אִם בְּתוֹרַת יְהוָה חֶפְצוֹ וּבְתוֹרָתוֹ יֶהְגֶּה יוֹמָם וָלָיְלָה׃", 33.9. "כִּי הוּא אָמַר וַיֶּהִי הוּא־צִוָּה וַיַּעֲמֹד׃", 60.9. "לִי גִלְעָד וְלִי מְנַשֶּׁה וְאֶפְרַיִם מָעוֹז רֹאשִׁי יְהוּדָה מְחֹקְקִי׃", 1.2. "But his delight is in the law of the LORD; and in His law doth he meditate day and night.", 33.9. "For He spoke, and it was; He commanded, and it stood.", 60.9. "Gilead is mine, and Manasseh is mine; Ephraim also is the defence of my head; Judah is my sceptre.",
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 21.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, depiction of jews as bookbearers Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 97
21.5. "לֹא־יקרחה [יִקְרְחוּ] קָרְחָה בְּרֹאשָׁם וּפְאַת זְקָנָם לֹא יְגַלֵּחוּ וּבִבְשָׂרָם לֹא יִשְׂרְטוּ שָׂרָטֶת׃", 21.5. "They shall not make baldness upon their head, neither shall they shave off the corners of their beard, nor make any cuttings in their flesh.",
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.26-1.27, 14.18-14.20, 30.37 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 96; Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 477; Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 144, 154
1.26. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 1.27. "וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃", 14.18. "וּמַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק מֶלֶךְ שָׁלֵם הוֹצִיא לֶחֶם וָיָיִן וְהוּא כֹהֵן לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן׃", 14.19. "וַיְבָרְכֵהוּ וַיֹּאמַר בָּרוּךְ אַבְרָם לְאֵל עֶלְיוֹן קֹנֵה שָׁמַיִם וָאָרֶץ׃", 30.37. "וַיִּקַּח־לוֹ יַעֲקֹב מַקַּל לִבְנֶה לַח וְלוּז וְעֶרְמוֹן וַיְפַצֵּל בָּהֵן פְּצָלוֹת לְבָנוֹת מַחְשֹׂף הַלָּבָן אֲשֶׁר עַל־הַמַּקְלוֹת׃", 1.26. "And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’", 1.27. "And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.", 14.18. "And Melchizedek king of Salem brought forth bread and wine; and he was priest of God the Most High.", 14.19. "And he blessed him, and said: ‘Blessed be Abram of God Most High, Maker of heaven and earth;", 14.20. "and blessed be God the Most High, who hath delivered thine enemies into thy hand.’ And he gave him a tenth of all.", 30.37. "And Jacob took him rods of fresh poplar, and of the almond and of the plane-tree; and peeled white streaks in them, making the white appear which was in the rods.",
4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 38 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, depiction of jews as bookbearers Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 97
5. Xenophanes, Fragments, a b c d\n0 10. 10. 10 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, confessions Found in books: Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 10
6. Xenophanes, Fragments, a b c d\n0 10. 10. 10 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, confessions Found in books: Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 10
7. Xenophanes, Fragments, a b c d\n0 10. 10. 10 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, confessions Found in books: Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 10
8. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 135
9. Plato, Symposium, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, astrological divination, critique of •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, demonic divination, critique of Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 426
202e. μεταξύ ἐστι θεοῦ τε καὶ θνητοῦ. 202e. Through it are conveyed all divination and priestcraft concerning sacrifice and ritual
10. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 448
11. Plato, Meno, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, education and pedagogy, priorities of authority and reason in Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 454
80e. ΣΩ. μανθάνω οἷον βούλει λέγειν, ὦ Μένων. ὁρᾷς τοῦτον ὡς ἐριστικὸν λόγον κατάγεις, ὡς οὐκ ἄρα ἔστιν ζητεῖν ἀνθρώπῳ οὔτε ὃ οἶδε οὔτε ὃ μὴ οἶδε; οὔτε γὰρ ἂν ὅ γε οἶδεν ζητοῖ—οἶδεν γάρ, καὶ οὐδὲν δεῖ τῷ γε τοιούτῳ ζητήσεως—οὔτε ὃ μὴ οἶδεν—οὐδὲ γὰρ οἶδεν ὅτι ζητήσει. 80e. Do you see what a captious argument you are introducing—that, forsooth, a man cannot inquire either about what he knows or about what he does not know? For he cannot inquire about what he knows, because he knows it, and in that case is in no need of inquiry; nor again can he inquire about what he does not know, since he does not know about what he is to inquire.
12. Plato, Apology of Socrates, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, defining authority and reason •augustine of hippo, interrelated nature of duplex via of authority and reason •augustine of hippo, modern scholarship on Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 448
25b. βελτίους ποιοῦντες αὐτοὺς πάντες ἄνθρωποι εἶναι, εἷς δέ τις ὁ διαφθείρων; ἢ τοὐναντίον τούτου πᾶν εἷς μέν τις ὁ βελτίους οἷός τʼ ὢν ποιεῖν ἢ πάνυ ὀλίγοι, οἱ ἱππικοί, οἱ δὲ πολλοὶ ἐάνπερ συνῶσι καὶ χρῶνται ἵπποις, διαφθείρουσιν; οὐχ οὕτως ἔχει, ὦ Μέλητε, καὶ περὶ ἵππων καὶ τῶν ἄλλων ἁπάντων ζῴων; πάντως δήπου, ἐάντε σὺ καὶ Ἄνυτος οὐ φῆτε ἐάντε φῆτε· πολλὴ γὰρ ἄν τις εὐδαιμονία εἴη περὶ τοὺς νέους εἰ εἷς μὲν μόνος αὐτοὺς διαφθείρει, οἱ δʼ ἄλλοι 25b. make them better are all mankind, and he who injures them some one person? Or, quite the opposite of this, that he who is able to make them better is some one person, or very few, the horse-trainers, whereas most people, if they have to do with and use horses, injure them? Is it not so, Meletus, both in the case of horses and in that of all other animals? Certainly it is, whether you and Anytus deny it or agree; for it would be a great state of blessedness in the case of the youth if one alone corrupts them, and the others do them good. But,
13. Euclid, Optics, 2-3, 9, 1 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 142
14. Aristotle, Topics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, defining authority and reason Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 447
15. Aristotle, Problems, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, illusions •augustine of hippo, sensory perception •augustine of hippo, subjectivity of vision •augustine of hippo, theories of vision Found in books: Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 139, 140
16. Aristotle, Politics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on liberal arts Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 666
17. Aristotle, Soul, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 476; Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 10
18. Aristotle, Sense And Sensibilia, 2 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on vision, as mode of knowing Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 476
19. Cicero, Pro Archia, 3 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on liberal arts Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 666
3. sed ne cui vestrum mirum esse videatur, me in quaestione legitima et in iudicio publico, cum res agatur res agitatur Schol. apud praetorem populi Romani, lectissimum rectissimum Schol. virum, et apud severissimos iudices, tanto conventu hominum ac frequentia hoc uti genere dicendi quod non modo a consuetudine iudiciorum verum etiam a forensi sermone abhorreat, quaeso a vobis ut in hac hac om. e causa mihi detis hanc veniam accommodatam huic reo, vobis, quem ad modum spero, non molestam, ut me pro summo poeta atque eruditissimo homine dicentem hoc concursu hominum litteratissimorum, hac vestra humanitate, hoc denique praetore exercente iudicium, patiamini de studiis humanitatis ac litterarum paulo loqui liberius, et in eius modi persona quae propter otium ac studium minime in iudiciis periculisque tractata est uti prope novo quodam et inusitato genere dicendi.
20. Cicero, De Finibus, 3.18, 4.65 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on liberal arts •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, deceit and trickery, divination’s dependence on •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, demonic divination, critique of •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, limits of human autopsy as basis for critique Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 440, 666
3.18.  The sciences also, we consider, are things to be chosen for their own sake, partly because there is in them something worthy of choice, partly because they consist of acts of cognition and contain an element of fact established by methodical reasoning. The mental assent to what is false, as the Stoics believe, is more repugt to us than all the other things that are contrary to nature. "(Again, of the members or parts of the body, some appear to have been bestowed on us by nature for the sake of their use, for example the hands, legs, feet, and internal organs, as to the degree of whose utility even physicians are not agreed; while others serve no useful purpose, but appear to be intended for ornament: for instance the peacock's tail, the plumage of the dove with its shifting colours, and the breasts and beard of the male human being.) 4.65.  "Really, Cato, there is no analogy between progress in virtue and cases such as you describe, in which however far one advances, the situation one wishes to escape from still remains the same until one has actually emerged from it. The man does not breathe until he has risen to the surface; the puppies are as blind before they have opened their eyes as if they were going to be blind always. Good analogies would be these: one man's eyesight is dim, another's general health is weak; apply remedies, and they get better day by day; every day the one is stronger and the other sees better; similarly with all who earnestly pursue virtue; they get better, their vices and errors are gradually reduced. Surely you would not maintain that the elder Tiberius Gracchus was not happier than his son, when the one devoted himself to the service of the state and the other to its destruction. But still the elder Gracchus was not a Wise Man; who ever was? or when, or where, or how? Still he aspired to fame and honour, and therefore had advanced to a high point in virtue.
21. Cicero, De Oratore, 1.11, 1.72, 2.154, 2.162 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on liberal arts Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 666
1.11. Vere mihi hoc videor esse dicturus, ex omnibus eis, qui in harum artium liberalissimis studiis sint doctrinisque versati, minimam copiam poetarum et oratorum egregiorum exstitisse: atque in hoc ipso numero, in quo perraro exoritur aliquis excellens, si diligenter et ex nostrorum et ex Graecorum copia comparare voles, multo tamen pauciores oratores quam poetae boni reperientur. 1.72. Sed, ut solebat C. Lucilius saepe dicere, homo tibi subiratus, mihi propter eam ipsam causam minus quam volebat familiaris, sed tamen et doctus et perurbanus, sic sentio neminem esse in oratorum numero habendum, qui non sit omnibus eis artibus, quae sunt libero dignae, perpolitus; quibus ipsis si in dicendo non utimur, tamen apparet atque exstat, utrum simus earum rudes an didicerimus: ut qui pila ludunt, non utuntur in ipsa lusione artificio proprio palaestrae, sed indicat ipse motus, didicerintne palaestram an nesciant, et qui aliquid fingunt, etsi tum pictura nihil utuntur, tamen, utrum sciant pingere an nesciant, non obscurum est; 2.154. 'Valde hercule' inquit Catulus 'timide tamquam ad aliquem libidinis scopulum sic tuam mentem ad philosophiam appulisti, quam haec civitas aspernata numquam est; nam et referta quondam Italia Pythagoreorum fuit tum, cum erat in hac gente magna illa Graecia; ex quo etiam quidam Numam Pompilium, regem nostrum, fuisse Pythagoreum ferunt, qui annis ante permultis fuit quam ipse Pythagoras; quo etiam maior vir habendus est, quoniam illam sapientiam constituendae civitatis duobus prope saeculis ante cognovit, quam eam Graeci natam esse senserunt; et certe non tulit ullos haec civitas clariores aut auctoritate graviores aut humanitate politiores P. Africano, C. Laelio, L. Furio, qui secum eruditissimos homines ex Graecia palam semper habuerunt. 2.162. Ego autem, si quem nunc plane rudem institui ad dicendum velim, his potius tradam adsiduis uno opere eandem incudem diem noctemque tundentibus, qui omnis tenuissimas particulas atque omnia minima mansa ut nutrices infantibus pueris in os inserant; sin sit is, qui et doctrina mihi liberaliter institutus et aliquo iam imbutus usu et satis acri ingenio esse videatur, illuc eum rapiam, ubi non seclusa aliqua acula teneatur, sed unde universum flumen erumpat; qui illi sedis et quasi domicilia omnium argumentorum commonstret et ea breviter inlustret verbisque definiat.
22. Cicero, On Invention, 2.40-2.41 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on mixed church Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 129
2.40. hoc ergo in genere spectabitur locus, tempus, occasio, facultas; quorum unius cuiusque vis diligenter in con- firmationis praeceptis explicata est. quare, ne aut hic non admonuisse aut ne eadem iterum dixisse videamur, breviter iniciemus, quid quaque in parte considerari oporteat. in loco igitur opportunitas, in tempore longinquitas, in occasione commoditas ad faciendum idonea, in facultate copia et potestas earum rerum, propter quas aliquid facilius fit aut quibus sine omnino confici non potest, consideranda est. 2.41. De- inde videndum est, quid adiunctum sit negotio, hoc est, quid maius, quid minus, quid aeque magnum sit, quid simile; ex quibus coniectura quaedam ducitur, si, quemadmodum res maiores, minores, aeque magnae, similes agi soleant, diligenter considerabitur. quo in genere eventus quoque videndus erit, hoc est, quid ex quaque re soleat evenire, magno opere consi- derandum est, ut metus, laetitia, titubatio, audacia.
23. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 3.18, 4.65 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on liberal arts •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, deceit and trickery, divination’s dependence on •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, demonic divination, critique of •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, limits of human autopsy as basis for critique Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 440, 666
3.18. artis etiam ipsas propter se adsumendas putamus, cum cum ABE tum N (t corr. ut vid., ex c), RV quia sit in iis iis Mdv. his aliquid dignum adsumptione, tum quod constent ex cognitionibus et contineant quiddam in se ratione constitutum et via. a falsa autem adsensione magis nos alienatos esse quam a ceteris rebus, quae sint sunt R contra naturam, arbitrantur. iam membrorum, id est partium corporis, alia videntur propter eorum usum a natura esse donata, ut manus, crura, pedes, ut ea, ut ea et ea BE quae sunt intus in corpore, quorum utilitas quanta sit a medicis etiam etiam a medicis R disputatur, alia autem nullam ob utilitatem quasi ad quendam ornatum, ut cauda pavoni, plumae versicolores columbis, viris mammae atque barba. 4.65. ista similia non sunt, Cato, in quibus quamvis multum processeris tamen illud in eadem causa est, a quo abesse velis, donec evaseris; nec enim ille respirat, ante quam emersit, et catuli aeque caeci, prius quam dispexerunt, dispexerunt Lamb. despexerunt RNV depexerunt BE ac si ita futuri semper essent. illa sunt similia: hebes hebes NV habes BER acies est cuipiam oculorum, corpore alius senescit; senescit Mdv. nescit ERN 1 nestit B languescit N 2 V hi curatione adhibita levantur in dies, valet alter plus cotidie, alter videt. his similes sunt omnes, qui virtuti student; levantur vitiis, levantur erroribus, nisi forte censes Ti. censes Ti. censesti N consesti R censes ca (= causa) V censes ( om. ti) BE Gracchum patrem non beatiorem fuisse 'Aldus primus addidisse videtur' Mdv. quam filium, cum alter stabilire rem publicam studuerit, alter evertere. nec tamen ille erat sapiens— quis enim hoc aut quando aut ubi aut unde?—; sed quia studebat laudi et dignitati, multum in virtute processerat. 3.18.  The sciences also, we consider, are things to be chosen for their own sake, partly because there is in them something worthy of choice, partly because they consist of acts of cognition and contain an element of fact established by methodical reasoning. The mental assent to what is false, as the Stoics believe, is more repugt to us than all the other things that are contrary to nature. "(Again, of the members or parts of the body, some appear to have been bestowed on us by nature for the sake of their use, for example the hands, legs, feet, and internal organs, as to the degree of whose utility even physicians are not agreed; while others serve no useful purpose, but appear to be intended for ornament: for instance the peacock's tail, the plumage of the dove with its shifting colours, and the breasts and beard of the male human being.) 4.65.  "Really, Cato, there is no analogy between progress in virtue and cases such as you describe, in which however far one advances, the situation one wishes to escape from still remains the same until one has actually emerged from it. The man does not breathe until he has risen to the surface; the puppies are as blind before they have opened their eyes as if they were going to be blind always. Good analogies would be these: one man's eyesight is dim, another's general health is weak; apply remedies, and they get better day by day; every day the one is stronger and the other sees better; similarly with all who earnestly pursue virtue; they get better, their vices and errors are gradually reduced. Surely you would not maintain that the elder Tiberius Gracchus was not happier than his son, when the one devoted himself to the service of the state and the other to its destruction. But still the elder Gracchus was not a Wise Man; who ever was? or when, or where, or how? Still he aspired to fame and honour, and therefore had advanced to a high point in virtue.
24. Cicero, Lucullus, 7 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, defining authority and reason Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 447
25. Cicero, On Divination, 2.19-2.22, 2.28.61, 2.90-2.91 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, de divinatione daemonum •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, demonic divination, critique of •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, limits of human autopsy as basis for critique •augustine of hippo, cassiciacum dialogues, on aerial beings •augustine of hippo, confessiones •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, astrological divination, critique of •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, cicero, influence of •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, earlier critiques of astrology influencing Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 429, 435, 436, 437
2.19. Aut si negas esse fortunam et omnia, quae fiunt quaeque futura sunt, ex omni aeternitate definita dicis esse fataliter, muta definitionem divinationis, quam dicebas praesensionem esse rerum fortuitarum. Si enim nihil fieri potest, nihil accidere, nihil evenire, nisi quod ab omni aeternitate certum fuerit esse futurum rato tempore, quae potest esse fortuna? qua sublata qui locus est divinationi? quae a te fortuitarum rerum est dicta praesensio. Quamquam dicebas omnia, quae fierent futurave essent, fato contineri. Anile sane et plenum superstitionis fati nomen ipsum; sed tamen apud Stoicos de isto fato multa dicuntur; de quo alias; nunc quod necesse est. 2.20. Si omnia fato, quid mihi divinatio prodest? Quod enim is, qui divinat, praedicit, id vero futurum est, ut ne illud quidem sciam quale sit, quod Deiotarum, necessarium nostrum, ex itinere aquila revocavit; qui nisi revertisset, in eo conclavi ei cubandum fuisset, quod proxuma nocte corruit; ruina igitur oppressus esset. At id neque, si fatum fuerat, effugisset nec, si non fuerat, in eum casum incidisset. Quid ergo adiuvat divinatio? aut quid est, quod me moneant aut sortes aut exta aut ulla praedictio? Si enim fatum fuit classes populi Romani bello Punico primo, alteram naufragio, alteram a Poenis depressam, interire, etiamsi tripudium solistumum pulli fecissent L. Iunio et P. Claudio consulibus, classes tamen interissent. Sin, cum auspiciis obtemperatum esset, interiturae classes non fuerunt, non interierunt fato; vultis autem omnia fato; 2.21. nulla igitur est divinatio. Quodsi fatum fuit bello Punico secundo exercitum populi Romani ad lacum Trasumennum interire, num id vitari potuit, si Flaminius consul iis signis iisque auspiciis, quibus pugnare prohibebatur, paruisset? Certe potuit. Aut igitur non fato interiit exercitus, aut, si fato (quod certe vobis ita dicendum est), etiamsi obtemperasset auspiciis, idem eventurum fuisset; mutari enim fata non possunt. Ubi est igitur ista divinatio Stoicorum? quae, si fato omnia fiunt, nihil nos admonere potest, ut cautiores simus; quoquo enim modo nos gesserimus, fiet tamen illud, quod futurum est; sin autem id potest flecti, nullum est fatum; ita ne divinatio quidem, quoniam ea rerum futurarum est. Nihil autem est pro certo futurum, quod potest aliqua procuratione accidere ne fiat. 2.22. Atque ego ne utilem quidem arbitror esse nobis futurarum rerum scientiam. Quae enim vita fuisset Priamo, si ab adulescentia scisset, quos eventus senectutis esset habiturus? Abeamus a fabulis, propiora videamus. Clarissimorum hominum nostrae civitatis gravissimos exitus in Consolatione collegimus. Quid igitur? ut omittamus superiores, Marcone Crasso putas utile fuisse tum, cum maxumis opibus fortunisque florebat, scire sibi interfecto Publio filio exercituque deleto trans Euphratem cum ignominia et dedecore esse pereundum? An Cn. Pompeium censes tribus suis consulatibus, tribus triumphis, maximarum rerum gloria laetaturum fuisse, si sciret se in solitudine Aegyptiorum trucidatum iri amisso exercitu, post mortem vero ea consecutura, quae sine lacrimis non possumus dicere? 2.90. O delirationem incredibilem! non enim omnis error stultitia dicenda est. Quibus etiam Diogenes Stoicus concedit aliquid, ut praedicere possint dumtaxat, qualis quisque natura et ad quam quisque maxume rem aptus futurus sit; cetera, quae profiteantur, negat ullo modo posse sciri; etenim geminorum formas esse similis, vitam atque fortunam plerumque disparem. Procles et Eurysthenes, Lacedaemoniorum reges, gemini fratres fuerunt. 2.91. At ii nec totidem annos vixerunt; anno enim Procli vita brevior fuit, multumque is fratri rerum gestarum gloria praestitit. At ego id ipsum, quod vir optumus, Diogenes, Chaldaeis quasi quadam praevaricatione concedit, nego posse intellegi. Etenim cum, ut ipsi dicunt, ortus nascentium luna moderetur, eaque animadvertant et notent sidera natalicia Chaldaei, quaecumque lunae iuncta videantur, oculorum fallacissimo sensu iudicant ea, quae ratione atque animo videre debebant. Docet enim ratio mathematicorum, quam istis notam esse oportebat, quanta humilitate luna feratur terram paene contingens, quantum absit a proxuma Mercurii stella, multo autem longius a Veneris, deinde alio intervallo distet a sole, cuius lumine conlustrari putatur; reliqua vero tria intervalla infinita et inmensa, a sole ad Martis, inde ad Iovis, ab eo ad Saturni stellam, inde ad caelum ipsum, quod extremum atque ultumum mundi est. 2.19. But if you deny the existence of chance and assert that the course of everything present or future has been inevitably determined from all eternity, then you must change your definition of divination, which you said was the foreknowledge of things that happen by chance. For if nothing can happen, nothing befall, nothing come to pass, except what has been determined from all eternity as bound to happen at a fixed time, how can there be such a thing as chance? And if there is no such thing as chance, what room is there for that divination, which you termed a foreknowledge of things that happen by chance? And you were inconsistent enough, too, to say that everything that is or will be is controlled by Fate! Why, the very word Fate is full of superstition and old womens credulity, and yet the Stoics have much to say of this Fate of yours. A discussion on Fate is reserved for another occasion; at present I shall speak of it only in so far as it is necessary. [8] 2.20. of what advantage to me is divination if everything is ruled by Fate? On that hypothesis what the diviner predicts is bound to happen. Hence I do not know what to make of the fact that an eagle recalled our intimate friend Deiotarus from his journey; for if he had not turned back he must have been sleeping in the room when it was destroyed the following night, and, therefore, have been crushed in the ruins. And yet, if Fate had willed it, he would not have escaped that calamity; and vice versa. Hence, I repeat, what is the good of divination? Or what is it that lots, entrails, or any other means of prophecy warn me to avoid? For, if it was the will of Fate that the Roman fleets in the First Punic War should perish — the one by shipwreck and the other at the hands of the Carthaginians — they would have perished just the same even if the sacred chickens had made a tripudium solistimum in the consulship of Lucius Junius and Publius Claudius! On the other hand, if obedience to the auspices would have prevented the destruction of the fleets, then they did not perish in accordance with Fate. But you insist that all things happen by Fate; therefore there is no such thing as divination. 2.21. Again, if it was the will of Fate that the Roman army should perish at Lake Trasimenus in the Second Punic War, could that result have been avoided if the consul Flaminius had obeyed the signs and the auspices which forbade his joining battle? Assuredly not. Therefore, either the army did not perish by the will of Fate, or, if it did (and you are certainly bound as a Stoic to say that it did), the same result would have happened even if the auspices had been obeyed; for the decrees of Fate are unchangeable. Then what becomes of that vaunted divination of you Stoics? For if all things happen by Fate, it does us no good to be warned to be on our guard, since that which is to happen, will happen regardless of what we do. But if that which is to be can be turned aside, there is no such thing as Fate; so, too, there is no such thing as divination — since divination deals with things that are going to happen. But nothing is certain to happen which there is some means of dealing with so as to prevent its happening. [9] 2.22. And further, for my part, I think that a knowledge of the future would be a disadvantage. Consider, for example, what Priams life would have been if he had known from youth what dire events his old age held in store for him! But let us leave the era of myths and come to events nearer home. In my work On Consolation I have collected instances of very grievous deaths that befell some of the most illustrious men of our commonwealth. Passing by men of earlier day, let us take Marcus Crassus. What advantage, pray, do you think it would have been to him, when he was at the very summit of power and wealth, to know that he was destined to perish beyond the Euphrates in shame and dishonour, after his son had been killed and his own army had been destroyed? Or do you think that Gnaeus Pompey would have found joy in his three consulships, in his three triumphs, and in the fame of his transcendent deeds, if he had known that he would be slain in an Egyptian desert, after he had lost his army, and that following his death those grave events would occur of which I cannot speak without tears? 2.90. What inconceivable madness! For it is not enough to call an opinion foolishness when it is utterly devoid of reason. However, Diogenes the Stoic makes some concessions to the Chaldeans. He says that they have the power of prophecy to the extent of being able to tell the disposition of any child and the calling for which he is best fitted. All their other claims of prophetic powers he absolutely denies. He says, for example, that twins are alike in appearance, but that they generally unlike in career and in fortune. Procles and Eurysthenes, kings of the Lacedaemonians, were twin brothers. 2.91. But they did not live the same number of years, for the life of Procles was shorter by a year than that of his brother and his deeds were far more glorious. But for my part I say that even this concession which our excellent friend Diogenes makes to the Chaldeans in a sort of collusive way, is in itself unintelligible. For the Chaldeans, according to their own statements, believe that a persons destiny is affected by the condition of the moon at the time of his birth, and hence they make and record their observations of the stars which anything in conjunction with the moon on his birthday. As a result, in forming their judgements, they depend on the sense of sight, which is the least trustworthy of the senses, whereas they should employ reason and intelligence. For the science of mathematics which the Chaldeans ought to know, teaches us how close the moon comes to the earth, which indeed it almost touches; how far it is from Mercury, the nearest star; how much further yet it is from Venus; and what a great interval separates it from the sun, which is supposed to give it light. The three remaining distances are beyond computation: from the Sun to Mars, from Mars to Jupiter, from Jupiter to Saturn. Then there is the distance from Saturn to the limits of heaven — the ultimate bounds of space.
26. Lucretius Carus, On The Nature of Things, 4.145-4.160, 4.379 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, biblical interpretation •augustine of hippo, extramission •augustine of hippo, illusions •augustine of hippo, sensory perception •augustine of hippo, subjectivity of vision •augustine of hippo, theories of vision •augustine of hippo, transformation •augustine of hippo, vision •augustine of hippo, vision of god •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, earlier critiques of astrology influencing Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 430; Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 152, 154, 155, 156, 157
4.145. semper enim summum quicquid de rebus abundat, 4.146. quod iaculentur. et hoc alias cum pervenit in res, 4.147. transit, ut in primis vestem; sed ubi aspera saxa 4.148. aut in materiam ligni pervenit, ibi iam 4.149. scinditur, ut nullum simulacrum reddere possit. 4.150. at cum splendida quae constant opposta fuerunt 4.151. densaque, ut in primis speculum est, nihil accidit horum; 4.152. nam neque, uti vestem, possunt transire, neque autem 4.153. scindi; quam meminit levor praestare salutem. 4.154. qua propter fit ut hinc nobis simulacra redundent. 4.155. et quamvis subito quovis in tempore quamque 4.156. rem contra speculum ponas, apparet imago; 4.157. perpetuo fluere ut noscas e corpore summo 4.158. texturas rerum tenuis tenuisque figuras. 4.159. ergo multa brevi spatio simulacra genuntur, 4.160. ut merito celer his rebus dicatur origo. 4.379. Nec tamen hic oculos falli concedimus hilum.
27. Vergil, Eclogues, 2.25-2.37 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, earlier critiques of astrology influencing Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 430
28. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.117 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, depiction of jews as bookbearers Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 97
2.117. Such, then, is the dress of the high priest. But we must not omit to mention the signification which it conceals beneath both in its whole and in its parts. In its whole it is a copy and representation of the world; and the parts are a representation of the separate parts of the world.
29. Columella, De Re Rustica, 6.6.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, deceit and trickery, divination’s dependence on •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, demonic divination, critique of •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, limits of human autopsy as basis for critique Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 440
6.6.1. Cruditatis signa sunt crebri ructus ac ventris sonitus, fastidia cibi, nervorum intentio, hebetes oeuli. Propter quae bos neque ruminat neque lingua se deterget. Remedio erunt aquae calidae duo congii, et mox triginta brassicae modicae caules coeti et ex aceto dati.
30. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 2.17.41 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on liberal arts Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 666
2.17.41.  That rhetoric is an art may, however, proved in a very few words. For if Cleanthes' definition be accepted that "Art is a power reaching its ends by a definite path, that is, by ordered methods," no one can doubt that there is such method and order in good speaking: while if, on the other hand, we accept the definition which meets with almost universal approval that art consists in perceptions agreeing and cooperating to the achievement of some useful end, we shall be able to show that rhetoric lacks none of these characteristics.
31. Juvenal, Satires, 13.64 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, cassiciacum dialogues, on aerial beings •augustine of hippo, confessiones •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, astrological divination, critique of •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, demonic divination, critique of Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 436
32. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 13.12, 15.12, 15.40, 15.52 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, extramission •augustine of hippo, on spiritual seeing •augustine of hippo, on vision, as mode of knowing •augustine of hippo, theories of vision •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, earlier critiques of astrology influencing Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 430, 479; Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 154, 157
13.12. βλέπομεν γὰρ ἄρτι διʼ ἐσόπτρου ἐν αἰνίγματι, τότε δὲ πρόσωπον πρὸς πρόσωπον· ἄρτι γινώσκω ἐκ μέρους, τότε δὲ ἐπιγνώσομαι καθὼς καὶ ἐπεγνώσθην. 15.12. Εἰ δὲ Χριστὸς κηρύσσεται ὅτι ἐκ νεκρῶν ἐγήγερται, πῶς λέγουσιν ἐν ὑμῖν τινὲς ὅτι ἀνάστασις νεκρῶν οὐκ ἔστιν; 15.40. καὶ σώματα ἐπουράνια, καὶ σώματα ἐπίγεια· ἀλλὰ ἑτέρα μὲν ἡ τῶν ἐπουρανίων δόξα, ἑτέρα δὲ ἡ τῶν ἐπιγείων. 15.52. ἐν ἀτόμῳ, ἐν ῥιπῇ ὀφθαλμοῦ, ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ σάλπιγγι· σαλπίσει γάρ, καὶ οἱ νεκροὶ ἐγερθήσονται ἄφθαρτοι, καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀλλαγησόμεθα. 13.12. For now we see in a mirror, dimly, butthen face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, evenas I was also fully known. 15.12. Now if Christ is preached, that he has been raised from thedead, how do some among you say that there is no resurrection of thedead? 15.40. There are also celestial bodies, andterrestrial bodies; but the glory of the celestial differs from that ofthe terrestrial. 15.52. in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye,at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will beraised incorruptible, and we will be changed.
33. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, theories of vision •augustine of hippo, transformation •augustine of hippo, on spiritual seeing •augustine of hippo, on vision, as mode of knowing Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 479; Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 156
3.18. ἡμεῖς δὲ πάντες ἀνακεκαλυμμένῳ προσώπῳτὴν δόξαν Κυρίουκατοπτριζόμενοι τὴν αὐτὴν εἰκόνα μεταμορφούμεθα ἀπὸ δόξης εἰς δόξαν, καθάπερ ἀπὸ κυρίου πνεύματος.
34. New Testament, Apocalypse, 2.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on spiritual senses Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 29
2.7. Ὁ ἔχων οὖς ἀκουσάτω τί τὸ πνεῦμα λέγει ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις. Τῷ νικῶντι δώσω αὐτῷφαγεῖν ἐκ τοῦ ξύλου τῆς ζωῆς,ὅ ἐστινἐν τῷ παραδείσῳ τοῦ θεοῦ. 2.7. He who has an ear, let him hear what the Spirit says to the assemblies. To him who overcomes I will give to eat of the tree of life, which is in the Paradise of my God.
35. New Testament, Colossians, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on lord’s prayer Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 163
4.2. Τῇ προσευχῇ προσκαρτερεῖτε, γρηγοροῦντες ἐν αὐτῇ ἐν εὐχαριστίᾳ, 4.2. Continue steadfastly in prayer, watching therein with thanksgiving;
36. New Testament, Hebrews, 7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, depiction of jews as bookbearers Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 97
37. New Testament, John, 1.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on language Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 418
1.14. Καὶ ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο καὶ ἐσκήνωσεν ἐν ἡμῖν, καὶ ἐθεασάμεθα τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ, δόξαν ὡς μονογενοῦς παρὰ πατρός, πλήρης χάριτος καὶ ἀληθείας·?̔ 1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth.
38. New Testament, Luke, 2.22-2.38, 3.2, 9.10-9.17, 11.34, 16.19-16.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, distinction between jews and hebrews •augustine of hippo, depiction of jews as bookbearers •augustine of hippo, quaestiones evangeliorum •augustine of hippo, on vision, as mode of knowing Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 96, 97; Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 475, 747
2.22. Καὶ ὅτε ἐπλήσθησαν αἱ ἡμέραι τοῦ καθαρισμοῦ αὐτῶν κατὰ τὸν νόμον Μωυσέως, ἀνήγαγον αὐτὸν εἰς Ἰεροσόλυμα παραστῆσαι τῷ κυρίῳ, 2.23. καθὼς γέγραπται ἐν νόμῳ Κυρίου ὅτι Πᾶν ἄρσεν διανοῖγον μήτραν ἅγιον τῷ κυρίῳ κληθήσεται, 2.24. καὶ τοῦ δοῦναι θυσίαν κατὰ τὸ εἰρημένον ἐν τῷ νόμῳ Κυρίου, ζεῦγος τρυγόνων ἢ δύο νοσσοὺς περιστερῶν. 2.25. Καὶ ἰδοὺ ἄνθρωπος ἦν ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ ᾧ ὄνομα Συμεών, καὶ ὁ ἄνθρωπος οὗτος δίκαιος καὶ εὐλαβής, προσδεχόμενος παράκλησιν τοῦ Ἰσραήλ, καὶ πνεῦμα ἦν ἅγιον ἐπʼ αὐτόν· 2.26. καὶ ἦν αὐτῷ κεχρηματισμένον ὑπὸ τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ ἁγίου μὴ ἰδεῖν θάνατον πρὶν [ἢ] ἂν ἴδῃ τὸν χριστὸν Κυρίου. 2.27. καὶ ἦλθεν ἐν τῷ πνεύματι εἰς τὸ ἱερόν· καὶ ἐν τῷ εἰσαγαγεῖν τοὺς γονεῖς τὸ παιδίον Ἰησοῦν τοῦ ποιῆσαι αὐτοὺς κατὰ τὸ εἰθισμένον τοῦ νόμου περὶ αὐτοῦ 2.28. καὶ αὐτὸς ἐδέξατο αὐτὸ εἰς τὰς ἀγκάλας καὶ εὐλόγησεν τὸν θεὸν καὶ εἶπεν 2.29. Νῦν ἀπολύεις τὸν δοῦλόν σου, δέσποτα, κατὰ τὸ ῥῆμά σου ἐν εἰρήνῃ· 2.30. ὅτι εἶδον οἱ ὀφθαλμοί μου τὸ σωτήριόν σου 2.31. ὃ ἡτοίμασας κατὰ πρόσωπον πάντων τῶν λαῶν, 2.32. Φῶς εἰς ἀποκάλυψιν ἐθνῶν καὶ δόξαν λαοῦ σου Ἰσραήλ. 2.33. καὶ ἦν ὁ πατὴρ αὐτοῦ καὶ ἡ μήτηρ θαυμάζοντες ἐπὶ τοῖς λαλουμένοις περὶ αὐτοῦ. 2.34. καὶ εὐλόγησεν αὐτοὺς Συμεὼν καὶ εἶπεν πρὸς Μαριὰμ τὴν μητέρα αὐτοῦ Ἰδοὺ οὗτος κεῖται εἰς πτῶσιν καὶ ἀνάστασιν πολλῶν ἐν τῷ Ἰσραὴλ καὶ εἰς σημεῖον ἀντιλεγόμενον, 2.35. καὶ σοῦ αὐτῆς τὴν ψυχὴν διελεύσεται ῥομφαία, ὅπως ἂν ἀποκαλυφθῶσιν ἐκ πολλῶν καρδιῶν διαλογισμοί. 2.36. Καὶ ἦν Ἅννα προφῆτις, θυγάτηρ Φανουήλ, ἐκ φυλῆς Ἀσήρ,?̔αὕτη προβεβηκυῖα ἐν ἡμέραις πολλαῖς, ζήσασα μετὰ ἀνδρὸς ἔτη ἑπτὰ ἀπὸ τῆς παρθενίας αὐτῆς, 2.37. καὶ αὐτὴ χήρα ἕως ἐτῶν ὀγδοήκοντα τεσσάρων?̓ ἣ οὐκ ἀφίστατο τοῦ ἱεροῦ νηστείαις καὶ δεήσεσιν λατρεύουσα νύκτα καὶ ἡμέραν. 2.38. καὶ αὐτῇ τῇ ὥρᾳ ἐπιστᾶσα ἀνθωμολογεῖτο τῷ θεῷ καὶ ἐλάλει περὶ αὐτοῦ πᾶσιν τοῖς προσδεχομένοις λύτρωσιν Ἰερουσαλήμ. 3.2. ἐπὶ ἀρχιερέως Ἅννα καὶ Καιάφα, ἐγένετο ῥῆμα θεοῦ ἐπὶ Ἰωάνην τὸν Ζαχαρίου υἱὸν ἐν τῇ ἐρήμῳ. 9.10. Καὶ ὑποστρέψαντες οἱ ἀπόστολοι διηγήσαντο αὐτῷ ὅσα ἐποίησαν. Καὶ παραλαβὼν αὐτοὺς ὑπεχώρησεν κατʼ ἰδίαν εἰς πόλιν καλουμένην Βηθσαιδά. 9.11. οἱ δὲ ὄχλοι γνόντες ἠκολούθησαν αὐτῷ. καὶ ἀποδεξάμενος αὐτοὺς ἐλάλει αὐτοῖς περὶ τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ θεοῦ, καὶ τοὺς χρείαν ἔχοντας θεραπείας ἰᾶτο. 9.12. Ἡ δὲ ἡμέρα ἤρξατο κλίνειν· προσελθόντες δὲ οἱ δώδεκα εἶπαν αὐτῷ Ἀπόλυσον τὸν ὄχλον, ἵνα πορευθέντες εἰς τὰς κύκλῳ κώμας καὶ ἀγροὺς καταλύσωσιν καὶ εὕρωσιν ἐπισιτισμόν, ὅτι ὧδε ἐν ἐρήμῳ τόπῳ ἐσμέν. 9.13. εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς αὐτούς Δότε αὐτοῖς φαγεῖν ὑμεῖς. οἱ δὲ εἶπαν Οὐκ εἰσὶν ἡμῖν πλεῖον ἢ ἄρτοι πέντε καὶ ἰχθύες δύο, εἰ μήτι πορευθέντες ἡμεῖς ἀγοράσωμεν εἰς πάντα τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον βρώματα. 9.14. ἦσαν γὰρ ὡσεὶ ἄνδρες πεντακισχίλιοι. εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς τοὺς μαθητὰς αὐτοῦ Κατακλίνατε αὐτοὺς κλισίας ὡσεὶ ἀνὰ πεντήκοντα. 9.15. καὶ ἐποίησαν οὕτως καὶ κατέκλιναν ἅπαντας. 9.16. λαβὼν δὲ τοὺς πέντε ἄρτους καὶ τοὺς δύο ἰχθύας ἀναβλέψας εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν εὐλόγησεν αὐτοὺς καὶ κατέκλασεν καὶ ἐδίδου τοῖς μαθηταῖς παραθεῖναι τῷ ὄχλῳ. 9.17. καὶ ἔφαγον καὶ ἐχορτάσθησαν πάντες, καὶ ἤρθη τὸ περισσεῦσαν αὐτοῖς κλασμάτων κόφινοι δώδεκα. 11.34. Ὁ λύχνος τοῦ σώματός ἐστιν ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου. ὅταν ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου ἁπλοῦς ᾖ, καὶ ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου φωτινόν ἐστιν· ἐπὰν δὲ πονηρὸς ᾖ, καὶ τὸ σῶμά σου σκοτινόν. 16.19. Ἄνθρωπος δέ τις ἦν πλούσιος, καὶ ἐνεδιδύσκετο πορφύραν καὶ βύσσον εὐφραινόμενος καθʼ ἡμέραν λαμπρῶς. 16.20. πτωχὸς δέ τις ὀνόματι Λάζαρος ἐβέβλητο πρὸς τὸν πυλῶνα αὐτοῦ εἱλκωμένος 16.21. καὶ ἐπιθυμῶν χορτασθῆναι ἀπὸ τῶν πιπτόντων ἀπὸ τῆς τραπέζης τοῦ πλουσίου· ἀλλὰ καὶ οἱ κύνες ἐρχόμενοι ἐπέλειχον τὰ ἕλκη αὐτοῦ. 16.22. ἐγένετο δὲ ἀποθανεῖν τὸν πτωχὸν καὶ ἀπενεχθῆναι αὐτὸν ὑπὸ τῶν ἀγγέλων εἰς τὸν κόλπον Ἀβραάμ· ἀπέθανεν δὲ καὶ ὁ πλούσιος καὶ ἐτάφη. 16.23. καὶ ἐν τῷ ᾄδῃ ἐπάρας τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς αὐτοῦ, ὑπάρχων ἐν βασάνοις, ὁρᾷ Ἀβραὰμ ἀπὸ μακρόθεν καὶ Λάζαρον ἐν τοῖς κόλποις αὐτοῦ. 16.24. καὶ αὐτὸς φωνήσας εἶπεν Πάτερ Ἀβραάμ, ἐλέησόν με καὶ πέμψον Λάζαρον ἴνα βάψῃ τὸ ἄκρον τοῦ δακτύλου αὐτοῦ ὕδατος καὶ καταψύξῃ τὴν γλῶσσάν μου, ὅτι ὀδυνῶμαι ἐν τῇ φλογὶ ταύτῃ. 16.25. εἶπεν δὲ Ἀβραάμ Τέκνον, μνήσθητι ὅτι ἀπέλαβες τὰ ἀγαθά σου ἐν τῇ ζωῇ σου, καὶ Λάζαρος ὁμοίως τὰ κακά· νῦν δὲ ὧδε παρακαλεῖται σὺ δὲ ὀδυνᾶσαι. 16.26. καὶ ἐν πᾶσι τούτοις μεταξὺ ἡμῶν καὶ ὑμῶν χάσμα μέγα ἐστήρικται, ὅπως οἱ θέλοντες διαβῆναι ἔνθεν πρὸς ὑμᾶς μὴ δύνωνται, μηδὲ ἐκεῖθεν πρὸς ἡμᾶς διαπερῶσιν. 16.27. εἶπεν δέ Ἐρωτῶ σε οὖν, πάτερ, ἵνα πέμψῃς αὐτὸν εἰς τὸν οἶκον τοῦ πατρός μου, 16.28. ἔχω γὰρ πέντε ἀδελφούς, ὅπως διαμαρτύρηται αὐτοῖς, ἵνα μὴ καὶ αὐτοὶ ἔλθωσιν εἰς τὸν τόπον τοῦτον τῆς βασάνου. 16.29. λέγει δὲ Ἀβραάμ Ἔχουσι Μωυσέα καὶ τοὺς προφήτας· ἀκουσάτωσαν αὐτῶν. 16.30. ὁ δὲ εἶπεν Οὐχί, πάτερ Ἀβραάμ, ἀλλʼ ἐάν τις ἀπὸ νεκρῶν πορευθῇ πρὸς αὐτοὺς μετανοήσουσιν. 16.31. εἶπεν δὲ αὐτῷ Εἰ Μωυσέως καὶ τῶν προφητῶν οὐκ ἀκούουσιν, οὐδʼ ἐάν τις ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναστῇ πεισθήσονται. 2.22. When the days of their purification according to the law of Moses were fulfilled, they brought him up to Jerusalem, to present him to the Lord 2.23. (as it is written in the law of the Lord, "Every male who opens the womb shall be called holy to the Lord"), 2.24. and to offer a sacrifice according to that which is said in the law of the Lord, "A pair of turtledoves, or two young pigeons." 2.25. Behold, there was a man in Jerusalem whose name was Simeon; and this man was righteous and devout, looking for the consolation of Israel, and the Holy Spirit was on him. 2.26. It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he should not see death before he had seen the Lord's Christ. 2.27. He came in the Spirit into the temple. When the parents brought in the child, Jesus, that they might do concerning him according to the custom of the law, 2.28. then he received him into his arms, and blessed God, and said, 2.29. "Now you are releasing your servant, Master, According to your word, in peace; 2.30. For my eyes have seen your salvation, 2.31. Which you have prepared before the face of all peoples; 2.32. A light for revelation to the Gentiles, And the glory of your people Israel." 2.33. Joseph and his mother were marveling at the things which were spoken concerning him, 2.34. and Simeon blessed them, and said to Mary, his mother, "Behold, this child is set for the falling and the rising of many in Israel, and for a sign which is spoken against. 2.35. Yes, a sword will pierce through your own soul, that the thoughts of many hearts may be revealed." 2.36. There was one Anna, a prophetess, the daughter of Phanuel, of the tribe of Asher (she was of a great age, having lived with a husband seven years from her virginity, 2.37. and she had been a widow for about eighty-four years), who didn't depart from the temple, worshipping with fastings and petitions night and day. 2.38. Coming up at that very hour, she gave thanks to the Lord, and spoke of him to all those who were looking for redemption in Jerusalem. 3.2. in the high priesthood of Annas and Caiaphas, the word of God came to John, the son of Zacharias, in the wilderness. 9.10. The apostles, when they had returned, told him what things they had done. He took them, and withdrew apart to a deserted place of a city called Bethsaida. 9.11. But the multitudes, perceiving it, followed him. He welcomed them, and spoke to them of the Kingdom of God, and he cured those who needed healing. 9.12. The day began to wear away; and the twelve came, and said to him, "Send the multitude away, that they may go into the surrounding villages and farms, and lodge, and get provisions, for we are here in a deserted place." 9.13. But he said to them, "You give them something to eat."They said, "We have no more than five loaves and two fish, unless we should go and buy food for all these people." 9.14. For they were about five thousand men. He said to his disciples, "Make them sit down in groups of about fifty each." 9.15. They did so, and made them all sit down. 9.16. He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to the sky, he blessed them, and broke them, and gave them to the disciples to set before the multitude. 9.17. They ate, and were all filled. They gathered up twelve baskets of broken pieces that were left over. 11.34. The lamp of the body is the eye. Therefore when your eye is good, your whole body is also full of light; but when it is evil, your body also is full of darkness. 16.19. "Now there was a certain rich man, and he was clothed in purple and fine linen, living in luxury every day. 16.20. A certain beggar, named Lazarus, was laid at his gate, full of sores, 16.21. and desiring to be fed with the crumbs that fell from the rich man's table. Yes, even the dogs came and licked his sores. 16.22. It happened that the beggar died, and that he was carried away by the angels to Abraham's bosom. The rich man also died, and was buried. 16.23. In Hades, he lifted up his eyes, being in torment, and saw Abraham far off, and Lazarus at his bosom. 16.24. He cried and said, 'Father Abraham, have mercy on me, and send Lazarus, that he may dip the tip of his finger in water, and cool my tongue! For I am in anguish in this flame.' 16.25. "But Abraham said, 'Son, remember that you, in your lifetime, received your good things, and Lazarus, in like manner, bad things. But now here he is comforted and you are in anguish. 16.26. Besides all this, between us and you there is a great gulf fixed, that those who want to pass from here to you are not able, and that none may cross over from there to us.' 16.27. "He said, 'I ask you therefore, father, that you would send him to my father's house; 16.28. for I have five brothers, that he may testify to them, so they won't also come into this place of torment.' 16.29. "But Abraham said to him, 'They have Moses and the prophets. Let them listen to them.' 16.30. "He said, 'No, father Abraham, but if one goes to them from the dead, they will repent.' 16.31. "He said to him, 'If they don't listen to Moses and the prophets, neither will they be persuaded if one rises from the dead.'"
39. New Testament, Matthew, 2.4-2.6, 6.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, depiction of jews as bookbearers •augustine of hippo, distinction between jews and hebrews •augustine of hippo, on vision, as mode of knowing Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 96, 98; Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 475
2.4. καὶ συναγαγὼν πάντας τοὺς ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ γραμματεῖς τοῦ λαοῦ ἐπυνθάνετο παρʼ αὐτῶν ποῦ ὁ χριστὸς γεννᾶται. 2.5. οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτῷ Ἐν Βηθλεὲμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας· οὕτως γὰρ γέγραπται διὰ τοῦ προφήτου 2.6. Καὶ σύ, Βηθλεὲμ γῆ Ἰούδα, οὐδαμῶς ἐλαχίστη εἶ ἐν τοῖς ἡγεμόσιν Ἰούδα· ἐκ σοῦ γὰρ ἐξελεύσεται ἡγούμενος, ὅστις ποιμανεῖ τὸν λαόν μου τὸν Ἰσραήλ. 6.22. Ὁ λύχνος τοῦ σώματός ἐστιν ὁ ὀφθαλμός. ἐὰν οὖν ᾖ ὁ ὀφθαλμός σου ἁπλοῦς, ὅλον τὸ σῶμά σου φωτινὸν ἔσται· 2.4. Gathering together all the chief priests and scribes of the people, he asked them where the Christ would be born. 2.5. They said to him, "In Bethlehem of Judea, for thus it is written through the prophet, 2.6. 'You Bethlehem, land of Judah, Are in no way least among the princes of Judah: For out of you shall come forth a governor, Who shall shepherd my people, Israel.'" 6.22. "The lamp of the body is the eye. If therefore your eye is sound, your whole body will be full of light.
40. Plutarch, Against Colotes, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, illusions •augustine of hippo, sensory perception •augustine of hippo, subjectivity of vision •augustine of hippo, theories of vision Found in books: Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 139, 140
41. Plutarch, Whether Land Or Sea Animals Are More Clever, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, extramission •augustine of hippo, illusions •augustine of hippo, sensory perception •augustine of hippo, theories of vision Found in books: Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 142
42. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.181-3.186 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, depiction of jews as bookbearers Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 97
3.181. When Moses distinguished the tabernacle into three parts, and allowed two of them to the priests, as a place accessible and common, he denoted the land and the sea, these being of general access to all; but he set apart the third division for God, because heaven is inaccessible to men. 3.182. And when he ordered twelve loaves to be set on the table, he denoted the year, as distinguished into so many months. By branching out the candlestick into seventy parts, he secretly intimated the Decani, or seventy divisions of the planets; and as to the seven lamps upon the candlesticks, they referred to the course of the planets, of which that is the number. 3.183. The veils, too, which were composed of four things, they declared the four elements; for the fine linen was proper to signify the earth, because the flax grows out of the earth; the purple signified the sea, because that color is dyed by the blood of a sea shell-fish; the blue is fit to signify the air; and the scarlet will naturally be an indication of fire. 3.184. Now the vestment of the high priest being made of linen, signified the earth; the blue denoted the sky, being like lightning in its pomegranates, and in the noise of the bells resembling thunder. And for the ephod, it showed that God had made the universe of four elements; and as for the gold interwoven, I suppose it related to the splendor by which all things are enlightened. 3.185. He also appointed the breastplate to be placed in the middle of the ephod, to resemble the earth, for that has the very middle place of the world. And the girdle which encompassed the high priest round, signified the ocean, for that goes round about and includes the universe. Each of the sardonyxes declares to us the sun and the moon; those, I mean, that were in the nature of buttons on the high priest’s shoulders. 3.186. And for the twelve stones, whether we understand by them the months, or whether we understand the like number of the signs of that circle which the Greeks call the Zodiac, we shall not be mistaken in their meaning. And for the mitre, which was of a blue color, it seems to me to mean heaven;
43. New Testament, Romans, 1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on vision, as mode of knowing Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 474
44. Ptolemy, Astrological Influences, 1.3, 3.2-3.3 (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, earlier critiques of astrology influencing Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 429
45. Seneca The Younger, Natural Questions, 1.3.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, deceit and trickery, divination’s dependence on •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, demonic divination, critique of •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, limits of human autopsy as basis for critique Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 440
46. Suetonius, Nero, 51 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, deceit and trickery, divination’s dependence on •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, demonic divination, critique of •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, limits of human autopsy as basis for critique Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 440
47. Suetonius, Domitianus, 18.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, deceit and trickery, divination’s dependence on •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, demonic divination, critique of •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, limits of human autopsy as basis for critique Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 440
48. Suetonius, Galba, 4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, cassiciacum dialogues, on aerial beings •augustine of hippo, confessiones •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, astrological divination, critique of •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, demonic divination, critique of Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 436
49. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 1.1 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, manuscripts and transcriptions of Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 46
1.1. Whatever in times past we have wrought in opposition to Marcion, is from the present moment no longer to be accounted of. It is a new work which we are undertaking in lieu of the old one. My original tract, as too hurriedly composed, I had subsequently superseded by a fuller treatise. This latter I lost, before it was completely published, by the fraud of a person who was then a brother, but became afterwards an apostate. He, as it happened, had transcribed a portion of it, full of mistakes, and then published it. The necessity thus arose for an amended work; and the occasion of the new edition induced me to make a considerable addition to the treatise. This present text, therefore, of my work - which is the third as superseding the second, but henceforward to be considered the first instead of the third - renders a preface necessary to this issue of the tract itself that no reader may be perplexed, if he should by chance fall in with the various forms of it which are scattered about. The Euxine Sea, as it is called, is self-contradictory in its nature, and deceptive in its name. As you would not account it hospitable from its situation, so is it severed from our more civilised waters by a certain stigma which attaches to its barbarous character. The fiercest nations inhabit it, if indeed it can be called habitation, when life is passed in waggons. They have no fixed abode; their life has no germ of civilization; they indulge their libidinous desires without restraint, and for the most part naked. Moreover, when they gratify secret lust, they hang up their quivers on their car-yokes, to warn off the curious and rash observer. Thus without a blush do they prostitute their weapons of war. The dead bodies of their parents they cut up with their sheep, and devour at their feasts. They who have not died so as to become food for others, are thought to have died an accursed death. Their women are not by their sex softened to modesty. They uncover the breast, from which they suspend their battle-axes, and prefer warfare to marriage. In their climate, too, there is the same rude nature. The day-time is never clear, the sun never cheerful; the sky is uniformly cloudy; the whole year is wintry; the only wind that blows is the angry North. Waters melt only by fires; their rivers flow not by reason of the ice; their mountains are covered with heaps of snow. All things are torpid, all stiff with cold. Nothing there has the glow of life, but that ferocity which has given to scenic plays their stories of the sacrifices of the Taurians, and the loves of the Colchians, and the torments of the Caucasus. Nothing, however, in Pontus is so barbarous and sad as the fact that Marcion was born there, fouler than any Scythian, more roving than the waggon-life of the Sarmatian, more inhuman than the Massagete, more audacious than an Amazon, darker than the cloud, (of Pontus) colder than its winter, more brittle than its ice, more deceitful than the Ister, more craggy than Caucasus. Nay more, the true Prometheus, Almighty God, is mangled by Marcion's blasphemies. Marcion is more savage than even the beasts of that barbarous region. For what beaver was ever a greater emasculator than he who has abolished the nuptial bond? What Pontic mouse ever had such gnawing powers as he who has gnawed the Gospels to pieces? Verily, O Euxine, you have produced a monster more credible to philosophers than to Christians. For the cynic Diogenes used to go about, lantern in hand, at mid-day to find a man; whereas Marcion has quenched the light of his faith, and so lost the God whom he had found. His disciples will not deny that his first faith he held along with ourselves; a letter of his own proves this; so that for the future a heretic may from his case be designated as one who, forsaking that which was prior, afterwards chose out for himself that which was not in times past. For in as far as what was delivered in times past and from the beginning will be held as truth, in so far will that be accounted heresy which is brought in later. But another brief treatise will maintain this position against heretics, who ought to be refuted even without a consideration of their doctrines, on the ground that they are heretical by reason of the novelty of their opinions. Now, so far as any controversy is to be admitted, I will for the time (lest our compendious principle of novelty, being called in on all occasions to our aid, should be imputed to want of confidence) begin with setting forth our adversary's rule of belief, that it may escape no one what our main contention is to be.
50. Apuleius, On The God of Socrates, 3.8, 4.7, 6.2-6.3, 11.2-11.4, 13.3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 426, 438, 440
51. Tertullian, On Idolatry, 19 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, optatus’s influence on Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 205
19. In that last section, decision may seem to have been given likewise concerning military service, which is between dignity and power. But now inquiry is made about this point, whether a believer may turn himself unto military service, and whether the military may be admitted unto the faith, even the rank and file, or each inferior grade, to whom there is no necessity for taking part in sacrifices or capital punishments. There is no agreement between the divine and the human sacrament, the standard of Christ and the standard of the devil, the camp of light and the camp of darkness. One soul cannot be due to two masters- God and C sar. And yet Moses carried a rod, and Aaron wore a buckle, and John (Baptist) is girt with leather and Joshua the Son of Nun leads a line of march; and the People warred: if it pleases you to sport with the subject. But how will a Christian man war, nay, how will he serve even in peace, without a sword, which the Lord has taken away? For albeit soldiers had come unto John, and had received the formula of their rule; albeit, likewise, a centurion had believed; still the Lord afterward, in disarming Peter, unbe**d every soldier. No dress is lawful among us, if assigned to any unlawful action.
52. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 11.21, 11.29 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on dignatio Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 60
11.21. This done, I retired to the service of the goddess in hope of greater benefits. I considered that I had received a sign and token whereby my courage increased more and more each day to take up the orders and sacraments of the temple. Thus I often communed with the priest, desiring him greatly to give me the degree of the religion. But he, a man of gravity and well-renowned in the order of priesthood, deferred my desire from day to day. He comforted me and gave me better hope, just like as parents who commonly bridle the desires of their children when they attempt or endeavor any unprofitable thing. He said that the day when any one would be admitted into their order is appointed by the goddess. He said that the priest who would minister the sacrifice is chosen by her providence, and the necessary charges of the ceremonies is allotted by her command. Regarding all these things he urged me to attend with marvelous patience, and he told me that I should beware either of too much haste or too great slackness. He said that there was like danger if, being called, I should delay or, not being called. I should be hasty. Moreover he said that there were none in his company either of so desperate a mind or who were so rash and hardy that they would attempt anything without the command of the goddess. If anyone were to do so, he should commit a deadly offence, considering how it was in the power of the goddess to condemn and save all persons. And if anyone should be at the point of death and on the path to damnation, so that he might be capable of receiving the secrets of the goddess, it was in her power by divine providence to reduce him to the path of health, as though by a certain kind of regeneration. Finally he said that I must attend the celestial precept, although it was evident and plain that the goddess had already vouchsafed to call and appoint me to her ministry. He urged me to refrain from profane and unlawful foods just like those priests who had already been received. This was so that I might come more apt and clean to the knowledge of the secrets of religion. 11.29. Immediately afterwards I was called upon by the god Osiris and admonished to receive a third order of religion. Then I was greatly astonished, because I could not tell what this new vision signified or what the intent of the celestial god was. I began to suspect the former priests of having given me ill counsel, and I feared that they had not faithfully instructed me. While I was, as it were, incensed because of this, the god Osiris appeared to me the following night and gave me admonition, saying, “There is no reason why you should be afraid of these many orders of religion, or that something has been omitted. You should rather rejoice since as it has pleased the gods to call upon you three times, whereas most do not achieve the order even once. Wherefore you should think yourself happy because of our great benefits. And know that the initiation which you must now receive is most necessary if you mean to persevere in the worship of the goddess. You will be able to participate in solemnity on the festival day adorned in the blessed habit. This shall be a glory and source of renown for you.
53. Sextus, Outlines of Pyrrhonism, 100-101, 103-117, 2, 102 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 139, 140
54. Gellius, Attic Nights, 13.17.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on liberal arts Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 666
55. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 6.11, 7.6.1-7.6.2 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, earlier critiques of astrology influencing •augustine of hippo, distinction between jews and hebrews Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 95; Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 431
56. Cyprian, Letters, 11.5.1, 73.9.1-73.9.2, 73.14.1, 73.21.1 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on lord’s prayer •augustine of hippo, on mixed church Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 163; Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 129
57. Cyprian, The Unity of The Catholic Church, 22 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on dignatio Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 61
58. Cyprian, Exhortation To Martyrdom, None (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 61
59. Athanasius, Life of Anthony, 21 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, demonic divination, critique of Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 439
60. Cyprian, Testimoniorum Libri Tres Adversus Judaeos (Ad Quirinum), 3.32, 3.120 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 163; Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 61
61. Athanasius, Epistula Festalis Xxxix (Fragmentum In Collectione Canonum), 39 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, and the biblical canon Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 26
62. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 9.87 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, illusions •augustine of hippo, sensory perception •augustine of hippo, subjectivity of vision •augustine of hippo, theories of vision Found in books: Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 139, 140
9.87. The ninth mode has to do with perpetuity, strangeness, or rarity. Thus earthquakes are no surprise to those among whom they constantly take place; nor is the sun, for it is seen every day. This ninth mode is put eighth by Favorinus and tenth by Sextus and Aenesidemus; moreover the tenth is put eighth by Sextus and ninth by Favorinus.The tenth mode rests on inter-relation, e.g. between light and heavy, strong and weak, greater and less, up and down. Thus that which is on the right is not so by nature, but is so understood in virtue of its position with respect to something else; for, if that change its position, the thing is no longer on the right.
63. Origen, Against Celsus, 4.92 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, demonic divination, critique of Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 439
4.92. In my opinion, however, it is certain wicked demons, and, so to speak, of the race of Titans or Giants, who have been guilty of impiety towards the true God, and towards the angels in heaven, and who have fallen from it, and who haunt the denser parts of bodies, and frequent unclean places upon earth, and who, possessing some power of distinguishing future events, because they are without bodies of earthly material, engage in an employment of this kind, and desiring to lead the human race away from the true God, secretly enter the bodies of the more rapacious and savage and wicked of animals, and stir them up to do whatever they choose, and at whatever time they choose: either turning the fancies of these animals to make flights and movements of various kinds, in order that men may be caught by the divining power that is in the irrational animals, and neglect to seek after the God who contains all things; or to search after the pure worship of God, but allow their reasoning powers to grovel on the earth, and among birds and serpents, and even foxes and wolves. For it has been observed by those who are skilled in such matters, that the clearest prognostications are obtained from animals of this kind; because the demons cannot act so effectively in the milder sort of animals as they can in these, in consequence of the similarity between them in point of wickedness; and yet it is not wickedness, but something like wickedness, which exist in these animals.
64. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 3.16, 3.23 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, demonic divination, critique of Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 439
3.16. 16.To men, therefore, on account of their voracity, brutes do not appear to possess reason; but by the Gods and divine men, they are |94 honoured equally with sacred suppliants. Hence, the God 9 said to Aristodicus, the Cumean, that sparrows were his suppliants. Socrates also, and prior to him, Rhadamanthus, swore by animals. But the Egyptians conceive them to be Gods, whether they, in reality, thought them to be so, or whether they intentionally represented the Gods in the forms of oxen, birds, and other animals, in order that these animals might be no less abstained from than from men, or whether they did this through other more mystical causes 10. Thus also the Greeks united a ram to the statue of Jupiter, but the horns of a bull to that of Bacchus. They likewise fashioned the statue of Pan from the form of a man and a goat; but they represented the Muses and the Sirens winged, and also Victory, Iris, Love, and Hermes. Pindar too, in his hymns, represents the Gods, when they were expelled by Typhon, not resembling men, but other animals. And Jupiter, when in love with Pasiphae, is said to have become a bull; but at another time, he is said to have been changed into an eagle and a swan; through all which the ancients indicated the honour which they paid to animals, and this in a still greater degree when they assert that Jupiter was nursed by a goat. The Cretans, from a law established by Rhadamanthus, swore by all animals. Nor was Socrates in jest when he swore by the dog and the goose; but in so doing, he swore conformably to the just son of Jupiter [Rhadamanthus] nor did he sportfully say that swans were his fellow-servants. But fables obscurely signify, that animals have souls similar to ours, when they say that the Gods in their anger changed men into brutes, and that, when they were so changed, they afterwards pitied and loved them. For things of this kind are asserted of Dolphins and halcyons, of nightingales and swallows. SPAN 3.23. 23.But he who thinks that the nature which is not adapted to receive rectitude of reason, does not at all receive reason, he, in the first place, does not differ from one who fancies that an ape does not naturally participate of deformity, nor a tortoise of tardity; because the former is not receptive of beauty, nor the latter of celerity. And, in the next place, this is the opinion of one who does not perceive the obvious difference of things. For reason, indeed, is ingenerated by nature; but right and perfect reason is acquired by study and discipline. Hence all animated beings participate of reason, but our opponents cannot mention any man who possesses rectitude of reason and wisdom [naturally], though the multitude of men is innumerable. But as the sight of one animal differs from that of another, and the flying of one bird from that of another, (for hawks and grasshoppers do not similarly see, nor eagles and partridges); thus, also, neither does every thing which participates of reason possess genius and acuteness in the highest perfection. Indeed there are many indications in brutes of association, fortitude, and craft, in procuring what is necessary, and in economical conduct; as, on the contrary, there are also indications in them of injustice, timidity, and fatuity. Hence it is a question with some, which are the more excellent, terrestrial or aquatic animals 17? And that there are these indications, is evident from comparing storks with river horses: for the former nourish, but the latter destroy their fathers, in order that they may have connexion with their mothers. This is likewise seen on comparing doves with partridges: for the latter conceal and destroy their eggs, if the female, during her incubation, refuses to be connected with the male. But doves successively relieve each other in incubation, alternately cherishing the eggs; and first, indeed, they feed the young, and afterwards the male strikes the female with his beak, and drives her to the eggs and her young, if she has for a long time wandered from them. Antipater, however, when he blames asses and sheep for the neglect of purity, overlooks, I know not how, lynxes and swallows; of which, the former remove and entirely conceal and bury their |103 excrement, but the latter teach their young to throw it out of their nest. Moreover, we do not say that one tree is more ignorant than another, as we say that a sheep is more stupid than a dog. Nor do we say that one herb is more timid than another, as we do that a stag is more timid than a lion. For, as in things which are immoveable, one is not slower than another, and in things which are not vocal, one is not less vocal than another: thus, too, in all things in which the power of intellection is wanting, one thing cannot be said to be more timid, more dull, or more intemperate than another. For, as these qualities are present differently in their different participants, they produce in animals the diversities which we perceive. Nor is it wonderful that man should so much excel other animals in docility, sagacity, justice and association. For many brutes surpass all men in magnitude of body, and celerity of foot, and likewise in strength of sight, and accuracy of hearing; yet man is not on this account either deaf, or blind, or powerless. But we run, though slower than stags, and we see, though not so accurately as hawks; and nature has not deprived us of strength and magnitude, though our possession of these is nothing, when compared with the strength and bulk of the elephant and the camel. Hence, in a similar manner, we must not say that brutes, because their intellection is more dull than ours, and because they reason worse than we do, neither energize discursively, nor, in short, possess intellection and reason; but it must be admitted that they possess these, though in an imbecile and turbid manner, just as a dull and disordered eye participates of sight. SPAN
65. Origen, On First Principles, 1.2.8 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, confessiones •augustine of hippo, on vision, as mode of knowing Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 473
1.2.8. But since He is called by the apostle not only the brightness of His glory, but also the express figure of His person or subsistence, it does not seem idle to inquire how there can be said to be another figure of that person besides the person of God Himself, whatever be the meaning of person and subsistence. Consider, then, whether the Son of God, seeing He is His Word and Wisdom, and alone knows the Father, and reveals Him to whom He will (i.e., to those who are capable of receiving His word and wisdom), may not, in regard of this very point of making God to be understood and acknowledged, be called the figure of His person and subsistence; that is, when that Wisdom, which desires to make known to others the means by which God is acknowledged and understood by them, describes Himself first of all, it may by so doing be called the express figure of the person of God. In order, however, to arrive at a fuller understanding of the manner in which the Saviour is the figure of the person or subsistence of God, let us take an instance, which, although it does not describe the subject of which we are treating either fully or appropriately, may nevertheless be seen to be employed for this purpose only, to show that the Son of God, who was in the form of God, divesting Himself (of His glory), makes it His object, by this very divesting of Himself, to demonstrate to us the fullness of His deity. For instance, suppose that there were a statue of so enormous a size as to fill the whole world, and which on that account could be seen by no one; and that another statue were formed altogether resembling it in the shape of the limbs, and in the features of the countece, and in form and material, but without the same immensity of size, so that those who were unable to behold the one of enormous proportions, should, on seeing the latter, acknowledge that they had seen the former, because it preserved all the features of its limbs and countece, and even the very form and material, so closely, as to be altogether undistinguishable from it; by some such similitude, the Son of God, divesting Himself of His equality with the Father, and showing to us the way to the knowledge of Him, is made the express image of His person: so that we, who were unable to look upon the glory of that marvellous light when placed in the greatness of His Godhead, may, by His being made to us brightness, obtain the means of beholding the divine light by looking upon the brightness. This comparison, of course, of statues, as belonging to material things, is employed for no other purpose than to show that the Son of God, though placed in the very insignificant form of a human body, in consequence of the resemblance of His works and power to the Father, showed that there was in Him an immense and invisible greatness, inasmuch as He said to His disciples, He who sees Me, sees the Father also; and, I and the Father are one. And to these belong also the similar expression, The Father is in Me, and I in the Father.
66. Origen, Philocalia, 23.6, 23.17 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, earlier critiques of astrology influencing •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, cicero, influence of •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, astrological divination, critique of Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 431, 435
67. Plotinus, Enneads, 1.6 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, interrelated nature of duplex via of authority and reason •augustine of hippo, on vision, as mode of knowing Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 452, 476
68. Origen, Philocalia, 23.6, 23.17 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, earlier critiques of astrology influencing •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, cicero, influence of •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, astrological divination, critique of Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 431, 435
69. Gregory of Nyssa, In Canticum Canticorum (Homiliae 15), 15.467 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, biblical interpretation •augustine of hippo, extramission •augustine of hippo, illusions •augustine of hippo, sensory perception •augustine of hippo, subjectivity of vision •augustine of hippo, theories of vision •augustine of hippo, transformation •augustine of hippo, vision •augustine of hippo, vision of god Found in books: Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, 152, 154, 155, 156, 157, 160, 161, 162, 178, 183
70. Augustine, De Beata Vita, 1.1.1, 1.4 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, defining authority and reason •augustine of hippo, interrelated nature of duplex via of authority and reason •augustine of hippo, modern scholarship on •augustine of hippo, contra academicos •augustine of hippo, education and pedagogy, priorities of authority and reason in Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 445, 448, 452, 453
71. Augustine, De Baptismo Contra Donatistas, 4.7-4.10 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on mixed church Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 129
4.7. 11. For in fact, as to what some opposed to the reasoning of Cyprian, that the apostle says, "Notwithstanding every way, whether in pretence or in truth, let Christ be preached;" Cyprian rightly exposed their error, showing that it has nothing to do with the case of heretics, since the apostle was speaking of those who were acting within the Church, with malicious envy seeking their own profit. They announced Christ, indeed, according to the truth whereby we believe in Christ, but not in the spirit in which He was announced by the good evangelists to the sons of the dove. "For Paul," he says, "in his epistle was not speaking of heretics, or of their baptism, so that it could be shown that he had laid down anything concerning this matter. He was speaking of brethren, whether as walking disorderly and contrary to the discipline of the Church, or as keeping the discipline of the Church in the fear of God. And he declared that some of them spoke the word of God steadfastly and fearlessly, but that some were acting in envy and strife; that some had kept themselves encompassed with kindly Christian love, but that others entertained malice and strife: but yet that he patiently endured all things, with the view that, whether in truth or in pretence, the name of Christ, which Paul preached, might come to the knowledge of the greatest number, and that the sowing of the word, which was as yet a new and unaccustomed work, might spread more widely by the preaching of those that spoke. Furthermore, it is one thing for those who are within the Church to speak in the name of Christ, another thing for those who are without, acting against the Church, to baptize in the name of Christ." These words of Cyprian seem to warn us that we must distinguish between those who are bad outside, and those who are bad within the Church. And those whom he says that the apostle represents as preaching the gospel impurely and of envy, he says truly were within. This much, however, I think I may say without rashness, if no one outside can have anything which is of Christ, neither can any one within have anything which is of the devil. For if that closed garden can contain the thorns of the devil, why cannot the fountain of Christ equally flow beyond the garden's bounds? But if it cannot contain them, whence, even in the time of the Apostle Paul himself, did there arise among those who were within so great an evil of envy and malicious strife? For these are the words of Cyprian. Can it be that envy and malicious strife are a small evil? How then were those in unity who were not at peace? For it is not my voice, nor that of any man, but of the Lord Himself; nor did the sound go forth from men, but from angels, at the birth of Christ, "Glory to God in the highest, and on earth peace to men of good will." And this certainly would not have been proclaimed by the voice of angels when Christ was born upon the earth, unless God wished this to be understood, that those are in the unity of the body of Christ who are united in the peace of Christ, and those are in the peace of Christ who are of good will. Furthermore, as good will is shown in kindliness, so is bad will shown in malice. 4.8. 12. In short, we may see how great an evil in itself is envy, which cannot be other than malicious. Let us not look for other testimony. Cyprian himself is sufficient for us, through whose mouth the Lord poured forth so many thunders in most perfect truth, and uttered so many useful precepts about envy and malignity. Let us therefore read the letter of Cyprian about envy and malignity, and see how great an evil it is to envy those better than ourselves - an evil whose origin he shows in memorable words to have sprung from the devil himself. "To feel jealousy," he says, "of what you regard as good, and to envy those who are better than yourselves, to some, dearest brethren, seems a light and minute offense." And again a little later, when he was inquiring into the source and origin of the evil, he says, "From this the devil, in the very beginning of the world, perished first himself, and led others to destruction." And further on in the same chapter: "What an evil, dearest brethren, is that by which an angel fell! By which that exalted and illustrious loftiness was able to be deceived and overthrown! By which he was deceived who was the deceiver! From that time envy stalks upon the earth, when man, about to perish through malignity, submits himself to the teacher of perdition - when he who envies imitates the devil, as it is written, 'Through envy of the devil came death into the world, and they that do hold of his side do find it.'" Wisdom 2:24-25 How true, how forcible are these words of Cyprian, in an epistle known throughout the world, we cannot fail to recognize. It was truly fitting for Cyprian to argue and warn most forcibly about envy and malignity, from which most deadly evil he proved his own heart to be so far removed by the abundance of his Christian love; by carefully guarding which he remained in the unity of communion with his colleagues, who without ill-feeling entertained different views about baptism, while he himself differed in opinion from them, not through any contention of ill will, but through human infirmity, erring in a point which God, in His own good time, would reveal to him by reason of his perseverance in love. For he says openly, "Judging no one, nor depriving any of the right of communion if he differ from us. For no one of us sets himself up as a bishop of bishops, or by tyrannical terror forces his colleagues to a necessity of obeying." And in the end of the epistle before us he says, "These things I have written to you briefly, dearest brother, according to my poor ability, prescribing to or prejudging no one, so as to prevent each bishop from doing what he thinks right in the free exercise of his own judgment. We, so far as in us lies, do not strive on behalf of heretics with our colleges and fellow bishops, with whom we hold the harmony that God enjoins, and the peace of our Lord, especially as the apostle says, 'If any man seem to be contentious, we have no such custom, neither the churches of God.' 1 Corinthians 11:16 Christian love in our souls, the honor of our fraternity, the bond of faith, the harmony of the priesthood, all these are maintained by us with patience and gentleness. For this cause we have also, so far as our poor ability admitted, by the permission and inspiration of the Lord, written now a treatise on the benefit of patience, which we have sent to you in consideration of our mutual affection." 4.9. 13. By this patience of Christian love he not only endured the difference of opinion manifested in all kindliness by his good colleagues on an obscure point, as he also himself received toleration, till, in process of time, when it so pleased God, what had always been a most wholesome custom was further confirmed by a declaration of the truth in a plenary Council, but he even put up with those who were manifestly bad, as was very well known to himself, who did not entertain a different view in consequence of the obscurity of the question, but acted contrary to their preaching in the evil practices of an abandoned life, as the apostle says of them, "Thou that preachest a man should not steal, do you steal?" Romans 2:21 For Cyprian says in his letter of such bishops of his own time, his own colleagues, and remaining in communion with him, "While they had brethren starving in the Church, they tried to amass large sums of money, they took possession of estates by fraudulent proceedings, they multiplied their gains by accumulated usuries." For here there is no obscure question. Scripture declares openly, "Neither covetous nor extortioners shall inherit the kingdom of God;" 1 Corinthians 6:10 and "He that puts out his money to usury," and "No whoremonger, nor unclean person, nor covetous man, who is an idolater, has any inheritance in the kingdom of Christ and of God." Ephesians 5:5 He therefore certainly would not, without knowledge, have brought accusations of such covetousness, that men not only greedily treasured up their own goods, but also fraudulently appropriated the goods of others, or of idolatry existing in such enormity as he understands and proves it to exist; nor assuredly would he bear false witness against his fellow bishops. And yet with the bowels of fatherly and motherly love he endured them, lest that, by rooting out the tares before their time, the wheat should also have been rooted up, Matthew 13:29 imitating assuredly the Apostle Paul, who, with the same love towards the Church, endured those who were ill-disposed and envious towards him. Philippians 1:15-18 14. But yet because "by the envy of the devil death entered into the world, and they that do hold of his side do find it," Wisdom 2:24-25 not because they are created by God, but because they go astray of themselves, as Cyprian also says himself, seeing that the devil, before he was a devil, was an angel, and good, how can it be that they who are of the devil's side are in the unity of Christ? Beyond all doubt, as the Lord Himself says, "an enemy has done this," who "sowed tares among the wheat." As therefore what is of the devil within the fold must be convicted, so what is of Christ without must be recognized. Has the devil what is his within the unity of the Church, and shall Christ not have what is His without? This, perhaps, might be said of individual men, that as the devil has none that are his among the holy angels, so God has none that are His outside the communion of the Church. But though it may be allowed to the devil to mingle tares, that is, wicked men, with this Church which still wears the mortal nature of flesh, so long as it is wandering far from God, he being allowed this just because of the pilgrimage of the Church herself, that men may desire more ardently the rest of that country which the angels enjoy, yet this cannot be said of the sacraments. For, as the tares within the Church can have and handle them, though not for salvation, but for the destruction to which they are destined in the fire, so also can the tares without, which received them from seceders from within; for they did not lose them by seceding. This, indeed, is made plain from the fact that baptism is not conferred again on their return, when any of the very men who seceded happen to come back again. And let not any one say, Why, what fruit has the tares? For if this be so, their condition is the same, so far as this goes, both inside and without. For it surely cannot be that grains of grain are found in the tares inside, and not in those without. But when the question is of the sacrament, we do not consider whether the tares bear any fruit, but whether they have any share of heaven; for the tares, both within and without, share the rain with the wheat itself, which rain is in itself heavenly and sweet, even though under its influence the tares grow up in barrenness. And so the sacrament, according to the gospel of Christ, is divine and pleasant; nor is it to be esteemed as naught because of the barrenness of those on whom its dew falls even without. 4.10. 15. But some one may say that the tares within may more easily be converted into wheat. I grant that it is so; but what has this to do with the question of repeating baptism? You surely do not maintain that if a man converted from heresy, through the occasion and opportunity given by his conversion, should bear fruit before another who, being within the Church, is more slow to be washed from his iniquity, and so corrected and changed, the former therefore needs not to be baptized again, but the churchman to be baptized again, who was outstripped by him who came from the heretics, because of the greater slowness of his amendment. It has nothing, therefore, to do with the question now at issue who is later or slower in being converted from his special waywardness to the straight path of faith, or hope, or charity. For although the bad within the fold are more easily made good yet it will sometimes happen that certain of the number of those outside will outstrip in their conversion certain of those within; and while these remain in barrenness, the former, being restored to unity and communion, will bear fruit with patience, thirty-fold, or sixty-fold, or a hundred-fold. Or if those only are to be called tares who remain in perverse error to the end, there are many ears of grain outside, and many tares within. 16. But it will be urged that the bad outside are worse than those within. It is indeed a weighty question, whether Nicolaus, being already severed from the Church, Revelation 2:6 or Simon, who was still within it, Acts 8:9-24 was the worse - the one being a heretic, the other a sorcerer. But if the mere fact of division, as being the clearest token of violated charity, is held to be the worse evil, I grant that it is so. Yet many, though they have lost all feelings of charity, yet do not secede from considerations of worldly profit; and as they seek their own, not the things which are Jesus Christ's, Philippians 2:21 what they are unwilling to secede from is not the unity of Christ, but their own temporal advantage. Whence it is said in praise of charity, that she "seeks not her own." 1 Corinthians 13:5 17. Now, therefore, the question is, how could men of the party of the devil belong to the Church, which has no spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing, of which also it is said, "My dove is one?" Song of Songs 6:9 But if they cannot, it is clear that she groans among those who are not of her, some treacherously laying wait within, some barking at her gate without. Such men, however, even within, both receive baptism, and possess it, and transmit it holy in itself; nor is it in any way defiled by their wickedness, in which they persevere even to the end. Wherefore the same blessed Cyprian teaches us that baptism is to be considered as consecrated in itself by the words of the gospel, as the Church has received, without joining to it or mingling with it any consideration of waywardness and wickedness on the part of either minister or recipients; since he himself points out to us both truths, - both that there have been some within the Church who did not cherish kindly Christian love, but practised envy and unkind dissension, of whom the Apostle Paul spoke; and also that the envious belong to the devil's party, as he testifies in the most open way in the epistle which he wrote about envy and malignity. Wherefore, since it is clearly possible that in those who belong to the devil's party, Christ's sacrament may yet be holy - not, indeed, to their salvation, but to their condemnation, and that not only if they are led astray after they have been baptized, but even if they were such in heart when they received the sacrament, renouncing the world (as the same Cyprian shows) in words only and not in deeds; and since even if afterwards they be brought into the right way, the sacrament is not to be again administered which they received when they were astray; so far as I can see, the case is already clear and evident, that in the question of baptism we have to consider, not who gives, but what he gives; not who receives, but what he receives; not who has, but what he has. For if men of the party of the devil, and therefore in no way belonging to the one dove, can yet receive, and have, and give baptism in all its holiness, in no way defiled by their waywardness, as we are taught by the letters of Cyprian himself, how are we ascribing to heretics what does not belong to them? How are we saying that what is really Christ's is theirs, and not rather recognizing in them the signs of our Sovereign, and correcting the deeds of deserters from Him? Wherefore it is one thing, as the holy Cyprian says, "for those within in the Church, to speak in the name of Christ, another thing for those without, who are acting against the Church, to baptize in His name." But both many who are within act against the Church by evil living, and by enticing weak souls to copy their lives; and some who are without speak in Christ's name, and are not forbidden to work the works of Christ, but only to be without, since for the healing of their souls we grasp at them, or reason with them, or exhort them. For he, too, was without who did not follow Christ with His disciples, and yet in Christ's name was casting out devils, which the Lord enjoined that he should not be prevented from doing; Luke 9:49-50 although, certainly, in the point where he was imperfect he was to be made whole, in accordance with the words of the Lord, in which He says, "He that is not with me is against me; and he that gathers not with me scatters abroad." Matthew 12:30 Therefore both some things are done outside in the name of Christ not against the Church, and some things are done inside on the devil's part which are against the Church.
72. Augustine, Against Julian, 4.65-4.66, 4.69, 4.73, 5.14.51, 5.23 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on language •augustine of hippo, on vision, as mode of knowing Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 423, 424, 477
73. Paulinus of Nola, Carmina, 27.542 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on vision, as mode of knowing Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 483
74. Paulinus of Milan, Vita Sancti Ambrosii Mediolanensis, 13.3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, confessiones Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 392
75. Augustine, Against Fortunatus, 16-17, 21 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 258, 279, 284
76. Augustine, Contra Felicem, 2.10 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, de genesi contra manichaeos •augustine of hippo, on manichaean literalism and old testament rejection Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 270
77. Optatus of Mileve, Opera (De Schismate Donatistarum Adversus Parmenianum), 3.7.8 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, optatus’s influence on Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 205
78. Augustine, Reply To Faustus, 8.1-8.2, 9.2, 14.1, 16.5, 19.31, 32.5 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, and the biblical canon •augustine of hippo, distinction between jews and hebrews •augustine of hippo, de genesi contra manichaeos •augustine of hippo, on manichaean literalism and old testament rejection Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 96; Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 270, 325
79. Augustine, On The Morals of The Manichaeans, 1.1.2, 1.2.3, 1.7.11-1.7.12, 1.8.13, 1.9.15, 1.10.16-1.10.17, 1.11.18, 1.14.27, 1.16.28, 1.17.30-1.17.32, 1.18.34, 1.19.35-1.19.36, 1.20.37, 1.21.39, 1.22.40, 1.23.42-1.23.43, 1.24.44-1.24.45, 1.25.46, 1.25.50, 1.28.56-1.28.57, 1.29.59, 1.30.62, 1.33.71, 1.34.78, 2.14.32-2.14.34, 10.16-10.17 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on manichaean literalism and old testament rejection •augustine of hippo, on divine pedagogy of scripture •augustine of hippo, on unity of scripture •augustine of hippo, on allegory of scripture •augustine of hippo, on dispensatio temporalis •augustine of hippo, scriptural interpretation in earliest treatises, overview •augustine of hippo, de vera religione •augustine of hippo, on ideal liberal arts curriculum Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 459; Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 216, 217, 218, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 227, 228, 231, 232, 271
80. Augustine, Contra Epistolam Parmeniani, 1.1, 1.1.1, 1.3, 2.22.42 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, contra epistulam parmeniani •augustine of hippo, on tyconius •augustine of hippo, description of lucilla Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 157; Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 290, 291, 293, 319
81. Augustine, Contra Cresconium Grammaticum Partis Donati, 3.28.21 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, description of lucilla Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 157
82. Augustine, Contra Adimantum Manichaei Discipulum, 10-11, 13, 17, 19-22, 25-27, 5, 8, 7 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 277
83. Augustine, Contra Academicos, 1.1.1, 1.2.5, 1.3.7, 1.3.9, 1.4.1, 1.4.12, 1.7.20, 1.8.23, 1.9.24, 2.2.5, 2.6.14, 2.10.24, 2.13.29, 3.7.14, 3.18.41, 3.19.42, 3.20.43 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, defining authority and reason •augustine of hippo, de vera religione •augustine of hippo, contra academicos •augustine of hippo, on ideal liberal arts curriculum •augustine of hippo, on moral purification Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 445, 446, 447, 456, 460; Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 215
84. Augustine, Confessions, 1.8.13, 4.3, 4.3.4, 4.3.6, 4.3.5, 6.2.2, 6.4.6, 6.5.8, 6.8.13, 7, 7.1.1, 7.1.2, 7.3.5, 7.5.7, 7.6.10, 7.6.9, 7.6.8, 7.7.1.1, 7.8.12, 7.9.15, 7.9.13, 7.17.24, 7.17.23, 8.1.2.3, 8.5.12, 8.5.11, 8.6.15, 8.6.14, 8.12.29, 9.5.13, 9.7, 10, 10.8.13, 10.11.18, 10.17-11.18, 10.35.51, 10.35.54, 11.5.7, 11.12.14, 12, 12.25.35, 12.29.40, 12.32.43, 13.15.18, 13.18.22, 13.18.23, 13.23.34, 13.24.35, 13.24.36, 13.26.39-27.42, 13.32.47, 13.34.49 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 97
85. Tyconius, Liber Regularum, 1.4.1, 3.17, 6.4.1, 7.4.2 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on tyconius •augustine of hippo, de diversis quaestionibus ad simplicianum •augustine of hippo, tyconius’s influence on •augustine of hippo, on free will and grace •augustine of hippo, on law and grace Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 283, 293, 309, 318
86. Tyconius, Expositio Apocalypseos, 1.5, 1.11, 1.42, 3.35, 3.38 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, tyconius’s influence on •augustine of hippo, on tyconius Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 290, 292, 293, 309, 318
87. Hilary of Poitiers, Commentary On Matthew, 5.1 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on lord’s prayer Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 163
88. Augustine, De Musica, 5.10, 6.1.1, 6.5.8 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, scriptural interpretation in earliest treatises, overview •augustine of hippo, on ideal liberal arts curriculum •augustine of hippo, extramission •augustine of hippo, sensory perception •augustine of hippo, theories of vision •augustine of hippo, transformation •augustine of hippo, vision Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 458; Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 136, 137; Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 217
89. Leo I Pope, Sermons, 5.3, 33.3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, depiction of jews as bookbearers Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 97, 98
90. Ambrose, Hymns, 1-2 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 401
91. Augustine, On Genesis Against The Manichaeans, 2.5-3.6, 227, 228 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 275, 276
92. Augustine, Enarrationes In Psalmos, 56.9, 93.6, 99.3-99.4 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 98; Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 408, 410; Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 278
93. Augustine, De Genesi Contra Manichaeos Libri Duo, 1.2.3-1.2.4, 1.13.19, 1.16.25, 1.17.27, 1.19.30, 1.23.35-1.23.41, 2.1.1, 2.2.3, 2.3.4, 2.4.5, 2.6.7, 2.7.8, 2.9.12, 2.10.13, 2.11.15, 2.12.17, 2.13.19, 2.14.20, 2.20.30, 2.21.32, 2.22.34, 2.24.37, 2.26.39, 2.28.42 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 270
94. Augustine, De Libero Arbitrio, 3.18.51 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, tyconius’s influence on •augustine of hippo, four-stage teaching on salvation •augustine of hippo, on free will and grace Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 280
95. Basil of Caesarea, Homiliae In Hexaemeron, 6.5-6.7 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, earlier critiques of astrology influencing Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 430
96. Basil of Caesarea, Letters, 38.8 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, confessiones •augustine of hippo, on vision, as mode of knowing Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 473
97. Augustine, Soliloquiorum Libri Duo, 1.6.12 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, contra academicos •augustine of hippo, education and pedagogy, priorities of authority and reason in •augustine of hippo, interrelated nature of duplex via of authority and reason Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 453
98. Augustine, Sermons, None (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 47
99. Augustine, Commentary On Genesis, 1.4.9, 1.5.10, 1.38-1.41, 4.34.54, 7.18.24, 8.4, 12.6.15-12.6.16, 12.8.19, 12.11.22, 12.13.38, 25.26-25.34 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on language •augustine of hippo, genesis, on study of •augustine of hippo, extramission •augustine of hippo, sensory perception •augustine of hippo, theories of vision •augustine of hippo, vision •augustine of hippo, on manichaean literalism and old testament rejection •augustine of hippo, on allegory of scripture •augustine of hippo, on vision, as mode of knowing •augustine of hippo, transformation •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, limits of human autopsy as basis for critique •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, modern scholars on •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, astrological divination, critique of Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 417, 418, 427, 434, 478, 714; Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 136, 137; Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 272
100. Augustine, Retractiones, 1.2.1, 1.3.2-1.3.3, 1.18, 1.20-1.21, 1.23.1-1.23.4, 2.1.1, 2.1.3, 2.15.1, 2.30 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, interrelated nature of duplex via of authority and reason •augustine of hippo, contra adimantum •augustine of hippo, on manichaean literalism and old testament rejection •augustine of hippo, on allegory of scripture •augustine of hippo, on unity of scripture •augustine of hippo, genesis, on study of •augustine of hippo, psalmus contra partem donati •augustine of hippo, de baptismo contra donatistas •augustine of hippo, retractationes •augustine of hippo, expositio quarundam quaestionum in epistula ad romanos •augustine of hippo, de diversis quaestionibus ad simplicianum •augustine of hippo, on law and grace •augustine of hippo, tyconius’s influence on •augustine of hippo, on free will and grace •augustine of hippo, manuscripts and transcriptions of •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, cicero, influence of •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, demonic divination, critique of Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 401, 438, 449, 452, 714; Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 22, 46, 247, 257, 276, 283
101. Augustine, Rule, 3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, expositio quarundam quaestionum in epistula ad romanos Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 247
102. Augustine, Expositio Quarumdam Propositionum Ex Epistula Ad Romanos, None (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 248
103. Augustine, Regula Ad Servos Dei, 3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, expositio quarundam quaestionum in epistula ad romanos Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 247
104. Augustine, Quaestionum Evangeliorum Libri Duo, 38 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, quaestiones evangeliorum Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 747
105. Augustine, Psalmus Contra Partem Donati, 15.1, 15.8-15.9, 15.47-15.48 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, psalmus contra partem donati Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 402
106. Augustine, The City of God, 18.46, 22.24, 22.29-22.30 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, depiction of jews as bookbearers •augustine of hippo,, on the resurrection body •augustine of hippo,, on paradise Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 97; Brakke, Satlow, Weitzman (2005), Religion and the Self in Antiquity. 155, 156
18.46. While Herod, therefore, reigned in Judea, and C sar Augustus was emperor at Rome, the state of the republic being already changed, and the world being set at peace by him, Christ was born in Bethlehem of Judah, man manifest out of a human virgin, God hidden out of God the Father. For so had the prophet foretold: Behold, a virgin shall conceive in the womb, and bring forth a Son, and they shall call His name Immanuel, which, being interpreted, is, God with us. He did many miracles that He might commend God in Himself, some of which, even as many as seemed sufficient to proclaim Him, are contained in the evangelic Scripture. The first of these is, that He was so wonderfully born, and the last, that with His body raised up again from the dead He ascended into heaven. But the Jews who slew Him, and would not believe in Him, because it behooved Him to die and rise again, were yet more miserably wasted by the Romans, and utterly rooted out from their kingdom, where aliens had already ruled over them, and were dispersed through the lands (so that indeed there is no place where they are not), and are thus by their own Scriptures a testimony to us that we have not forged the prophecies about Christ. And very many of them, considering this, even before His passion, but chiefly after His resurrection, believed on Him, of whom it was predicted, Though the number of the children of Israel be as the sand of the sea, the remt shall be saved. But the rest are blinded, of whom it was predicted, Let their table be made before them a trap, and a retribution, and a stumbling-block. Let their eyes be darkened lest they see, and bow down their back always. Therefore, when they do not believe our Scriptures, their own, which they blindly read, are fulfilled in them, lest perchance any one should say that the Christians have forged these prophecies about Christ which are quoted under the name of the sibyl, or of others, if such there be, who do not belong to the Jewish people. For us, indeed, those suffice which are quoted from the books of our enemies, to whom we make our acknowledgment, on account of this testimony which, in spite of themselves, they contribute by their possession of these books, while they themselves are dispersed among all nations, wherever the Church of Christ is spread abroad. For a prophecy about this thing was sent before in the Psalms, which they also read, where it is written, My God, His mercy shall prevent me. My God has shown me concerning mine enemies, that You shall not slay them, lest they should at last forget Your law: disperse them in Your might. Therefore God has shown the Church in her enemies the Jews the grace of His compassion, since, as says the apostle, their offense is the salvation of the Gentiles. Romans 11:11 And therefore He has not slain them, that is, He has not let the knowledge that they are Jews be lost in them, although they have been conquered by the Romans, lest they should forget the law of God, and their testimony should be of no avail in this matter of which we treat. But it was not enough that he should say, Slay them not, lest they should at last forget Your law, unless he had also added, Disperse them; because if they had only been in their own land with that testimony of the Scriptures, and not every where, certainly the Church which is everywhere could not have had them as witnesses among all nations to the prophecies which were sent before concerning Christ. 22.24. But we must now contemplate the rich and countless blessings with which the goodness of God, who cares for all He has created, has filled this very misery of the human race, which reflects His retributive justice. That first blessing which He pronounced before the fall, when He said, Increase, and multiply, and replenish the earth, Genesis 1:28 He did not inhibit after man had sinned, but the fecundity originally bestowed remained in the condemned stock; and the vice of sin, which has involved us in the necessity of dying, has yet not deprived us of that wonderful power of seed, or rather of that still more marvellous power by which seed is produced, and which seems to be as it were inwrought and inwoven in the human body. But in this river, as I may call it, or torrent of the human race, both elements are carried along together - both the evil which is derived from him who begets, and the good which is bestowed by Him who creates us. In the original evil there are two things, sin and punishment; in the original good, there are two other things, propagation and conformation. But of the evils, of which the one, sin, arose from our audacity, and the other, punishment, from God's judgment, we have already said as much as suits our present purpose. I mean now to speak of the blessings which God has conferred or still confers upon our nature, vitiated and condemned as it is. For in condemning it He did not withdraw all that He had given it, else it had been annihilated; neither did He, in penally subjecting it to the devil, remove it beyond His own power; for not even the devil himself is outside of God's government, since the devil's nature subsists only by the supreme Creator who gives being to all that in any form exists. of these two blessings, then, which we have said flow from God's goodness, as from a fountain, towards our nature, vitiated by sin and condemned to punishment, the one, propagation, was conferred by God's benediction when He made those first works, from which He rested on the seventh day. But the other, conformation, is conferred in that work of His wherein He works hitherto. John 5:17 For were He to withdraw His efficacious power from things, they should neither be able to go on and complete the periods assigned to their measured movements, nor should they even continue in possession of that nature they were created in. God, then, so created man that He gave him what we may call fertility, whereby he might propagate other men, giving them a congenital capacity to propagate their kind, but not imposing on them any necessity to do so. This capacity God withdraws at pleasure from individuals, making them barren; but from the whole race He has not withdrawn the blessing of propagation once conferred. But though not withdrawn on account of sin, this power of propagation is not what it would have been had there been no sin. For since man placed in honor fell, he has become like the beasts, and generates as they do, though the little spark of reason, which was the image of God in him, has not been quite quenched. But if conformation were not added to propagation, there would be no reproduction of one's kind. For even though there were no such thing as copulation, and God wished to fill the earth with human inhabitants, He might create all these as He created one without the help of human generation. And, indeed, even as it is, those who copulate can generate nothing save by the creative energy of God. As, therefore, in respect of that spiritual growth whereby a man is formed to piety and righteousness, the apostle says, Neither is he that plants anything, neither he that waters, but God that gives the increase, 1 Corinthians 3:7 so also it must be said that it is not he that generates that is anything, but God that gives the essential form; that it is not the mother who carries and nurses the fruit of her womb that is anything, but God that gives the increase. For He alone, by that energy wherewith He works hitherto, causes the seed to develop, and to evolve from certain secret and invisible folds into the visible forms of beauty which we see. He alone, coupling and connecting in some wonderful fashion the spiritual and corporeal natures, the one to command, the other to obey, makes a living being. And this work of His is so great and wonderful, that not only man, who is a rational animal, and consequently more excellent than all other animals of the earth, but even the most diminutive insect, cannot be considered attentively without astonishment and without praising the Creator. It is He, then, who has given to the human soul a mind, in which reason and understanding lie as it were asleep during infancy, and as if they were not, destined, however, to be awakened and exercised as years increase, so as to become capable of knowledge and of receiving instruction, fit to understand what is true and to love what is good. It is by this capacity the soul drinks in wisdom, and becomes endowed with those virtues by which, in prudence, fortitude, temperance, and righteousness, it makes war upon error and the other inborn vices, and conquers them by fixing its desires upon no other object than the supreme and unchangeable Good. And even though this be not uniformly the result, yet who can competently utter or even conceive the grandeur of this work of the Almighty, and the unspeakable boon He has conferred upon our rational nature, by giving us even the capacity of such attainment? For over and above those arts which are called virtues, and which teach us how we may spend our life well, and attain to endless happiness - arts which are given to the children of the promise and the kingdom by the sole grace of God which is in Christ - has not the genius of man invented and applied countless astonishing arts, partly the result of necessity, partly the result of exuberant invention, so that this vigor of mind, which is so active in the discovery not merely of superfluous but even of dangerous and destructive things, betokens an inexhaustible wealth in the nature which can invent, learn, or employ such arts? What wonderful - one might say stupefying - advances has human industry made in the arts of weaving and building, of agriculture and navigation! With what endless variety are designs in pottery, painting, and sculpture produced, and with what skill executed! What wonderful spectacles are exhibited in the theatres, which those who have not seen them cannot credit! How skillful the contrivances for catching, killing, or taming wild beasts! And for the injury of men, also, how many kinds of poisons, weapons, engines of destruction, have been invented, while for the preservation or restoration of health the appliances and remedies are infinite! To provoke appetite and please the palate, what a variety of seasonings have been concocted! To express and gain entrance for thoughts, what a multitude and variety of signs there are, among which speaking and writing hold the first place! What ornaments has eloquence at command to delight the mind! What wealth of song is there to captivate the ear! How many musical instruments and strains of harmony have been devised! What skill has been attained in measures and numbers! With what sagacity have the movements and connections of the stars been discovered! Who could tell the thought that has been spent upon nature, even though, despairing of recounting it in detail, he endeavored only to give a general view of it? In fine, even the defense of errors and misapprehensions, which has illustrated the genius of heretics and philosophers, cannot be sufficiently declared. For at present it is the nature of the human mind which adorns this mortal life which we are extolling, and not the faith and the way of truth which lead to immortality. And since this great nature has certainly been created by the true and supreme God, who administers all things He has made with absolute power and justice, it could never have fallen into these miseries, nor have gone out of them to miseries eternal, - saving only those who are redeemed - had not an exceeding great sin been found in the first man from whom the rest have sprung. Moreover, even in the body, though it dies like that of the beasts, and is in many ways weaker than theirs, what goodness of God, what providence of the great Creator, is apparent! The organs of sense and the rest of the members, are not they so placed, the appearance, and form, and stature of the body as a whole, is it not so fashioned, as to indicate that it was made for the service of a reasonable soul? Man has not been created stooping towards the earth, like the irrational animals; but his bodily form, erect and looking heavenwards, admonishes him to mind the things that are above. Then the marvellous nimbleness which has been given to the tongue and the hands, fitting them to speak, and write, and execute so many duties, and practise so many arts, does it not prove the excellence of the soul for which such an assistant was provided? And even apart from its adaptation to the work required of it, there is such a symmetry in its various parts, and so beautiful a proportion maintained, that one is at a loss to decide whether, in creating the body, greater regard was paid to utility or to beauty. Assuredly no part of the body has been created for the sake of utility which does not also contribute something to its beauty. And this would be all the more apparent, if we knew more precisely how all its parts are connected and adapted to one another, and were not limited in our observations to what appears on the surface; for as to what is covered up and hidden from our view, the intricate web of veins and nerves, the vital parts of all that lies under the skin, no one can discover it. For although, with a cruel zeal for science, some medical men, who are called anatomists, have dissected the bodies of the dead, and sometimes even of sick persons who died under their knives, and have inhumanly pried into the secrets of the human body to learn the nature of the disease and its exact seat, and how it might be cured, yet those relations of which I speak, and which form the concord, or, as the Greeks call it, harmony, of the whole body outside and in, as of some instrument, no one has been able to discover, because no one has been audacious enough to seek for them. But if these could be known, then even the inward parts, which seem to have no beauty, would so delight us with their exquisite fitness, as to afford a profounder satisfaction to the mind - and the eyes are but its ministers - than the obvious beauty which gratifies the eye. There are some things, too, which have such a place in the body, that they obviously serve no useful purpose, but are solely for beauty, as e.g. the teats on a man's breast, or the beard on his face; for that this is for ornament, and not for protection, is proved by the bare faces of women, who ought rather, as the weaker sex, to enjoy such a defense. If, therefore, of all those members which are exposed to our view, there is certainly not one in which beauty is sacrificed to utility, while there are some which serve no purpose but only beauty, I think it can readily be concluded that in the creation of the human body comeliness was more regarded than necessity. In truth, necessity is a transitory thing; and the time is coming when we shall enjoy one another's beauty without any lust - a condition which will specially redound to the praise of the Creator, who, as it is said in the psalm, has put on praise and comeliness. How can I tell of the rest of creation, with all its beauty and utility, which the divine goodness has given to man to please his eye and serve his purposes, condemned though he is, and hurled into these labors and miseries? Shall I speak of the manifold and various loveliness of sky, and earth, and sea; of the plentiful supply and wonderful qualities of the light; of sun, moon, and stars; of the shade of trees; of the colors and perfume of flowers; of the multitude of birds, all differing in plumage and in song; of the variety of animals, of which the smallest in size are often the most wonderful - the works of ants and bees astonishing us more than the huge bodies of whales? Shall I speak of the sea, which itself is so grand a spectacle, when it arrays itself as it were in vestures of various colors, now running through every shade of green, and again becoming purple or blue? Is it not delightful to look at it in storm, and experience the soothing complacency which it inspires, by suggesting that we ourselves are not tossed and shipwrecked? What shall I say of the numberless kinds of food to alleviate hunger, and the variety of seasonings to stimulate appetite which are scattered everywhere by nature, and for which we are not indebted to the art of cookery? How many natural appliances are there for preserving and restoring health! How grateful is the alternation of day and night! How pleasant the breezes that cool the air! How abundant the supply of clothing furnished us by trees and animals! Who can enumerate all the blessings we enjoy? If I were to attempt to detail and unfold only these few which I have indicated in the mass, such an enumeration would fill a volume. And all these are but the solace of the wretched and condemned, not the rewards of the blessed. What then shall these rewards be, if such be the blessings of a condemned state? What will He give to those whom He has predestined to life, who has given such things even to those whom He has predestined to death? What blessings will He in the blessed life shower upon those for whom, even in this state of misery, He has been willing that His only-begotten Son should endure such sufferings even to death? Thus the apostle reasons concerning those who are predestined to that kingdom: He that spared not His own Son, but delivered Him up for us all, how shall He not with Him also give us all things? Romans 8:32 When this promise is fulfilled, what shall we be? What blessings shall we receive in that kingdom, since already we have received as the pledge of them Christ's dying? In what condition shall the spirit of man be, when it has no longer any vice at all; when it neither yields to any, nor is in bondage to any, nor has to make war against any, but is perfected, and enjoys undisturbed peace with itself? Shall it not then know all things with certainty, and without any labor or error, when unhindered and joyfully it drinks the wisdom of God at the fountain-head? What shall the body be, when it is in every respect subject to the spirit, from which it shall draw a life so sufficient, as to stand in need of no other nutriment? For it shall no longer be animal, but spiritual, having indeed the substance of flesh, but without any fleshly corruption. 22.29. And now let us consider, with such ability as God may vouchsafe, how the saints shall be employed when they are clothed in immortal and spiritual bodies, and when the flesh shall live no longer in a fleshly but a spiritual fashion. And indeed, to tell the truth, I am at a loss to understand the nature of that employment, or, shall I rather say, repose and ease, for it has never come within the range of my bodily senses. And if I should speak of my mind or understanding, what is our understanding in comparison of its excellence? For then shall be that peace of God which, as the apostle says, passes all understanding, Philippians 4:7 - that is to say, all human, and perhaps all angelic understanding, but certainly not the divine. That it passes ours there is no doubt; but if it passes that of the angels - and he who says all understanding seems to make no exception in their favor - then we must understand him to mean that neither we nor the angels can understand, as God understands, the peace which God Himself enjoys. Doubtless this passes all understanding but His own. But as we shall one day be made to participate, according to our slender capacity, in His peace, both in ourselves, and with our neighbor, and with God our chief good, in this respect the angels understand the peace of God in their own measure, and men too, though now far behind them, whatever spiritual advance they have made. For we must remember how great a man he was who said, We know in part, and we prophesy in part, until that which is perfect has come; 1 Corinthians 13:9-10 and Now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face. 1 Corinthians 13:12 Such also is now the vision of the holy angels, who are also called our angels, because we, being rescued out of the power of darkness, and receiving the earnest of the Spirit, are translated into the kingdom of Christ, and already begin to belong to those angels with whom we shall enjoy that holy and most delightful city of God of which we have now written so much. Thus, then, the angels of God are our angels, as Christ is God's and also ours. They are God's, because they have not abandoned Him; they are ours, because we are their fellow citizens. The Lord Jesus also said, See that you despise not one of these little ones: for I say unto you, That in heaven their angels do always see the face of my Father which is in heaven. Matthew 18:10 As, then, they see, so shall we also see; but not yet do we thus see. Wherefore the apostle uses the words cited a little ago, Now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face. This vision is reserved as the reward of our faith; and of it the Apostle John also says, When He shall appear, we shall be like Him, for we shall see Him as He is. 1 John 3:2 By the face of God we are to understand His manifestation, and not a part of the body similar to that which in our bodies we call by that name. And so, when I am asked how the saints shall be employed in that spiritual body, I do not say what I see, but I say what I believe, according to that which I read in the psalm, I believed, therefore have I spoken. I say, then, they shall in the body see God; but whether they shall see Him by means of the body, as now we see the sun, moon, stars, sea, earth, and all that is in it, that is a difficult question. For it is hard to say that the saints shall then have such bodies that they shall not be able to shut and open their eyes as they please; while it is harder still to say that every one who shuts his eyes shall lose the vision of God. For if the prophet Elisha, though at a distance, saw his servant Gehazi, who thought that his wickedness would escape his master's observation and accepted gifts from Naaman the Syrian, whom the prophet had cleansed from his foul leprosy, how much more shall the saints in the spiritual body see all things, not only though their eyes be shut, but though they themselves be at a great distance? For then shall be that which is perfect, of which the apostle says, We know in part, and we prophesy in part; but when that which is perfect has come, then that which is in part shall be done away. Then, that he may illustrate as well as possible, by a simile, how superior the future life is to the life now lived, not only by ordinary men, but even by the foremost of the saints, he says, When I was a child, I understood as a child, I spoke as a child, I thought as a child; but when I became a man, I put away childish things. Now we see through a glass, darkly; but then face to face: now I know in part; but then shall I know even as also I am known. 1 Corinthians 13:11-12 If, then, even in this life, in which the prophetic power of remarkable men is no more worthy to be compared to the vision of the future life than childhood is to manhood, Elisha, though distant from his servant, saw him accepting gifts, shall we say that when that which is perfect has come, and the corruptible body no longer oppresses the soul, but is incorruptible and offers no impediment to it, the saints shall need bodily eyes to see, though Elisha had no need of them to see his servant? For, following the Septuagint version, these are the prophet's words: Did not my heart go with you, when the man came out of his chariot to meet you, and you tooked his gifts? 2 Kings 5:26 Or, as the presbyter Jerome rendered it from the Hebrew, Was not my heart present when the man turned from his chariot to meet you? The prophet said that he saw this with his heart, miraculously aided by God, as no one can doubt. But how much more abundantly shall the saints enjoy this gift when God shall be all in all? Nevertheless the bodily eyes also shall have their office and their place, and shall be used by the spirit through the spiritual body. For the prophet did not forego the use of his eyes for seeing what was before them, though he did not need them to see his absent servant, and though he could have seen these present objects in spirit, and with his eyes shut, as he saw things far distant in a place where he himself was not. Far be it, then, from us to say that in the life to come the saints shall not see God when their eyes are shut, since they shall always see Him with the spirit. But the question arises, whether, when their eyes are open, they shall see Him with the bodily eye? If the eyes of the spiritual body have no more power than the eyes which we now possess, manifestly God cannot be seen with them. They must be of a very different power if they can look upon that incorporeal nature which is not contained in any place, but is all in every place. For though we say that God is in heaven and on earth, as He, Himself says by the prophet, I fill heaven and earth, Jeremiah 23:24 we do not mean that there is one part of God in heaven and another part on earth; but He is all in heaven and all on earth, not at alternate intervals of time, but both at once, as no bodily nature can be. The eye, then, shall have a vastly superior power - the power not of keen sight, such as is ascribed to serpents or eagles, for however keenly these animals see, they can discern nothing but bodily substances, - but the power of seeing things incorporeal. Possibly it was this great power of vision which was temporarily communicated to the eyes of the holy Job while yet in this mortal body, when he says to God, I have heard of You by the hearing of the ear; but now my eye sees You: wherefore I abhor myself, and melt away, and count myself dust and ashes; Job 42:5-6 although there is no reason why we should not understand this of the eye of the heart, of which the apostle says, Having the eyes of your heart illuminated. Ephesians 1:18 But that God shall be seen with these eyes no Christian doubts who believingly accepts what our God and Master says, Blessed are the pure in heart: for they shall see God. Matthew 5:8 But whether in the future life God shall also be seen with the bodily eye, this is now our question. The expression of Scripture, And all flesh shall see the salvation of God, Luke 3:6 may without difficulty be understood as if it were said, And every man shall see the Christ of God. And He certainly was seen in the body, and shall be seen in the body when He judges quick and dead. And that Christ is the salvation of God, many other passages of Scripture witness, but especially the words of the venerable Simeon, who, when he had received into his hands the infant Christ, said, Now let Your servant depart in peace, according to Your word: for my eyes have seen Your salvation. Luke 2:29-30 As for the words of the above-mentioned Job, as they are found in the Hebrew manuscripts, And in my flesh I shall see God, no doubt they were a prophecy of the resurrection of the flesh; yet he does not say by the flesh. And indeed, if he had said this, it would still be possible that Christ was meant by God; for Christ shall be seen by the flesh in the flesh. But even understanding it of God, it is only equivalent to saying, I shall be in the flesh when I see God. Then the apostle's expression, face to face, 1 Corinthians 13:12 does not oblige us to believe that we shall see God by the bodily face in which are the eyes of the body, for we shall see Him without intermission in spirit. And if the apostle had not referred to the face of the inner man, he would not have said, But we, with unveiled face beholding as in a glass the glory of the Lord, are transformed into the same image, from glory to glory, as by the spirit of the Lord. 2 Corinthians 3:18 In the same sense we understand what the Psalmist sings, Draw near unto Him, and be enlightened; and your faces shall not be ashamed. For it is by faith we draw near to God, and faith is an act of the spirit, not of the body. But as we do not know what degree of perfection the spiritual body shall attain - for here we speak of a matter of which we have no experience, and upon which the authority of Scripture does not definitely pronounce - it is necessary that the words of the Book of Wisdom be illustrated in us: The thoughts of mortal men are timid, and our fore-castings uncertain. Wisdom 9:14 For if that reasoning of the philosophers, by which they attempt to make out that intelligible or mental objects are so seen by the mind, and sensible or bodily objects so seen by the body, that the former cannot be discerned by the mind through the body, nor the latter by the mind itself without the body - if this reasoning were trustworthy, then it would certainly follow that God could not be seen by the eye even of a spiritual body. But this reasoning is exploded both by true reason and by prophetic authority. For who is so little acquainted with the truth as to say that God has no cognisance of sensible objects? Has He therefore a body, the eyes of which give Him this knowledge? Moreover, what we have just been relating of the prophet Elisha, does this not sufficiently show that bodily things can be discerned by the spirit without the help of the body? For when that servant received the gifts, certainly this was a bodily or material transaction, yet the prophet saw it not by the body, but by the spirit. As, therefore, it is agreed that bodies are seen by the spirit, what if the power of the spiritual body shall be so great that spirit also is seen by the body? For God is a spirit. Besides, each man recognizes his own life - that life by which he now lives in the body, and which vivifies these earthly members and causes them to grow - by an interior sense, and not by his bodily eye; but the life of other men, though it is invisible, he sees with the bodily eye. For how do we distinguish between living and dead bodies, except by seeing at once both the body and the life which we cannot see save by the eye? But a life without a body we cannot see thus. Wherefore it may very well be, and it is thoroughly credible, that we shall in the future world see the material forms of the new heavens and the new earth in such a way that we shall most distinctly recognize God everywhere present and governing all things, material as well as spiritual, and shall see Him, not as now we understand the invisible things of God, by the things which are made, Romans 1:20 and see Him darkly, as in a mirror, and in part, and rather by faith than by bodily vision of material appearances, but by means of the bodies we shall wear and which we shall see wherever we turn our eyes. As we do not believe, but see that the living men around us who are exercising vital functions are alive, though we cannot see their life without their bodies, but see it most distinctly by means of their bodies, so, wherever we shall look with those spiritual eyes of our future bodies, we shall then, too, by means of bodily substances behold God, though a spirit, ruling all things. Either, therefore, the eyes shall possess some quality similar to that of the mind, by which they may be able to discern spiritual things, and among these God - a supposition for which it is difficult or even impossible to find any support in Scripture, - or, which is more easy to comprehend, God will be so known by us, and shall be so much before us, that we shall see Him by the spirit in ourselves, in one another, in Himself, in the new heavens and the new earth, in every created thing which shall then exist; and also by the body we shall see Him in every body which the keen vision of the eye of the spiritual body shall reach. Our thoughts also shall be visible to all, for then shall be fulfilled the words of the apostle, Judge nothing before the time, until the Lord come, who both will bring to light the hidden things of darkness, and will make manifest the thoughts of the heart, and then shall every one have praise of God. 1 Corinthians 4:5 22.30. How great shall be that felicity, which shall be tainted with no evil, which shall lack no good, and which shall afford leisure for the praises of God, who shall be all in all! For I know not what other employment there can be where no lassitude shall slacken activity, nor any want stimulate to labor. I am admonished also by the sacred song, in which I read or hear the words, Blessed are they that dwell in Your house, O Lord; they will be still praising You. All the members and organs of the incorruptible body, which now we see to be suited to various necessary uses, shall contribute to the praises of God; for in that life necessity shall have no place, but full, certain, secure, everlasting felicity. For all those parts of the bodily harmony, which are distributed through the whole body, within and without, and of which I have just been saying that they at present elude our observation, shall then be discerned; and, along with the other great and marvellous discoveries which shall then kindle rational minds in praise of the great Artificer, there shall be the enjoyment of a beauty which appeals to the reason. What power of movement such bodies shall possess, I have not the audacity rashly to define, as I have not the ability to conceive. Nevertheless I will say that in any case, both in motion and at rest, they shall be, as in their appearance, seemly; for into that state nothing which is unseemly shall be admitted. One thing is certain, the body shall immediately be wherever the spirit wills, and the spirit shall will nothing which is unbecoming either to the spirit or to the body. True honor shall be there, for it shall be denied to none who is worthy, nor yielded to any unworthy; neither shall any unworthy person so much as sue for it, for none but the worthy shall be there. True peace shall be there, where no one shall suffer opposition either from himself or any other. God Himself, who is the Author of virtue, shall there be its reward; for, as there is nothing greater or better, He has promised Himself. What else was meant by His word through the prophet, I will be your God, and you shall be my people, Leviticus 26:12 than, I shall be their satisfaction, I shall be all that men honorably desire - life, and health, and nourishment, and plenty, and glory, and honor, and peace, and all good things? This, too, is the right interpretation of the saying of the apostle, That God may be all in all. 1 Corinthians 15:28 He shall be the end of our desires who shall be seen without end, loved without cloy, praised without weariness. This outgoing of affection, this employment, shall certainly be, like eternal life itself, common to all. But who can conceive, not to say describe, what degrees of honor and glory shall be awarded to the various degrees of merit? Yet it cannot be doubted that there shall be degrees. And in that blessed city there shall be this great blessing, that no inferior shall envy any superior, as now the archangels are not envied by the angels, because no one will wish to be what he has not received, though bound in strictest concord with him who has received; as in the body the finger does not seek to be the eye, though both members are harmoniously included in the complete structure of the body. And thus, along with his gift, greater or less, each shall receive this further gift of contentment to desire no more than he has. Neither are we to suppose that because sin shall have no power to delight them, free will must be withdrawn. It will, on the contrary, be all the more truly free, because set free from delight in sinning to take unfailing delight in not sinning. For the first freedom of will which man received when he was created upright consisted in an ability not to sin, but also in an ability to sin; whereas this last freedom of will shall be superior, inasmuch as it shall not be able to sin. This, indeed, shall not be a natural ability, but the gift of God. For it is one thing to be God, another thing to be a partaker of God. God by nature cannot sin, but the partaker of God receives this inability from God. And in this divine gift there was to be observed this gradation, that man should first receive a free will by which he was able not to sin, and at last a free will by which he was not able to sin - the former being adapted to the acquiring of merit, the latter to the enjoying of the reward. But the nature thus constituted, having sinned when it had the ability to do so, it is by a more abundant grace that it is delivered so as to reach that freedom in which it cannot sin. For as the first immortality which Adam lost by sinning consisted in his being able not to die, while the last shall consist in his not being able to die; so the first free will consisted in his being able not to sin, the last in his not being able to sin. And thus piety and justice shall be as indefeasible as happiness. For certainly by sinning we lost both piety and happiness; but when we lost happiness, we did not lose the love of it. Are we to say that God Himself is not free because He cannot sin? In that city, then, there shall be free will, one in all the citizens, and indivisible in each, delivered from all ill, filled with all good, enjoying indefeasibly the delights of eternal joys, oblivious of sins, oblivious of sufferings, and yet not so oblivious of its deliverance as to be ungrateful to its Deliverer. The soul, then, shall have an intellectual remembrance of its past ills; but, so far as regards sensible experience, they shall be quite forgotten. For a skillful physician knows, indeed, professionally almost all diseases; but experimentally he is ignorant of a great number which he himself has never suffered from. As, therefore, there are two ways of knowing evil things - one by mental insight, the other by sensible experience, for it is one thing to understand all vices by the wisdom of a cultivated mind, another to understand them by the foolishness of an abandoned life - so also there are two ways of forgetting evils. For a well-instructed and learned man forgets them one way, and he who has experimentally suffered from them forgets them another - the former by neglecting what he has learned, the latter by escaping what he has suffered. And in this latter way the saints shall forget their past ills, for they shall have so thoroughly escaped them all, that they shall be quite blotted out of their experience. But their intellectual knowledge, which shall be great, shall keep them acquainted not only with their own past woes, but with the eternal sufferings of the lost. For if they were not to know that they had been miserable, how could they, as the Psalmist says, for ever sing the mercies of God? Certainly that city shall have no greater joy than the celebration of the grace of Christ, who redeemed us by His blood. There shall be accomplished the words of the psalm, Be still, and know that I am God. There shall be the great Sabbath which has no evening, which God celebrated among His first works, as it is written, And God rested on the seventh day from all His works which He had made. And God blessed the seventh day, and sanctified it; because that in it He had rested from all His work which God began to make. Genesis 2:2-3 For we shall ourselves be the seventh day, when we shall be filled and replenished with God's blessing and sanctification. There shall we be still, and know that He is God; that He is that which we ourselves aspired to be when we fell away from Him, and listened to the voice of the seducer, You shall be as gods, Genesis 3:5 and so abandoned God, who would have made us as gods, not by deserting Him, but by participating in Him. For without Him what have we accomplished, save to perish in His anger? But when we are restored by Him, and perfected with greater grace, we shall have eternal leisure to see that He is God, for we shall be full of Him when He shall be all in all. For even our good works, when they are understood to be rather His than ours, are imputed to us that we may enjoy this Sabbath rest. For if we attribute them to ourselves, they shall be servile; for it is said of the Sabbath, You shall do no servile work in it. Deuteronomy 5:14 Wherefore also it is said by Ezekiel the prophet, And I gave them my Sabbaths to be a sign between me and them, that they might know that I am the Lord who sanctify them. Ezekiel 20:12 This knowledge shall be perfected when we shall be perfectly at rest, and shall perfectly know that He is God. This Sabbath shall appear still more clearly if we count the ages as days, in accordance with the periods of time defined in Scripture, for that period will be found to be the seventh. The first age, as the first day, extends from Adam to the deluge; the second from the deluge to Abraham, equalling the first, not in length of time, but in the number of generations, there being ten in each. From Abraham to the advent of Christ there are, as the evangelist Matthew calculates, three periods, in each of which are fourteen generations - one period from Abraham to David, a second from David to the captivity, a third from the captivity to the birth of Christ in the flesh. There are thus five ages in all. The sixth is now passing, and cannot be measured by any number of generations, as it has been said, It is not for you to know the times, which the Father has put in His own power. Acts 1:7 After this period God shall rest as on the seventh day, when He shall give us (who shall be the seventh day) rest in Himself. But there is not now space to treat of these ages; suffice it to say that the seventh shall be our Sabbath, which shall be brought to a close, not by an evening, but by the Lord's day, as an eighth and eternal day, consecrated by the resurrection of Christ, and prefiguring the eternal repose not only of the spirit, but also of the body. There we shall rest and see, see and love, love and praise. This is what shall be in the end without end. For what other end do we propose to ourselves than to attain to the kingdom of which there is no end? I think I have now, by God's help, discharged my obligation in writing this large work. Let those who think I have said too little, or those who think I have said too much, forgive me; and let those who think I have said just enough join me in giving thanks to God. Amen.
107. Augustine, In Evangelium Joannis Tractatus Cxxiv, 7.12 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, breviculus collationis cum donatistis •augustine of hippo, enarrationes in psalmos •augustine of hippo, sermones ad populum •augustine of hippo, manuscripts and transcriptions of Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 47
108. Augustine, De Consensu Evangelistarum Libri Quatuor, 2.3-2.4 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, and the biblical canon Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 325
109. Augustine, Expositio Epistolae Ad Galatas, 1, 1.2, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, 6.2, 12.4, 15.1, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 19.2, 19.3, 19.4, 19.5, 19.6, 19.7, 19.8, 19.9, 19.10, 24.14, 38.3, 38.4, 44.2, 44.3, 44.4, 46.1-47.5, 46.1, 46.2, 46.4, 46.5, 46.6, 46.7, 46.8, 46.9, 47.2, 47.3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 281
110. Augustine, On Two Souls, Against The Manichaeans, 1 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, de vera religione Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 215
111. Basil of Caesarea, Letters, 38.8 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, confessiones •augustine of hippo, on vision, as mode of knowing Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 473
112. Augustine, De Vera Religione Liber Unus, 3.4, 5.9, 7.12-7.13, 10.19, 16.30, 17.33-17.34, 21.41, 24.45, 25.46, 26.48-26.49, 27.50, 33.61, 38.70-38.71, 39.72-39.73, 42.79, 49.97, 50.98-50.99, 51.100, 52.101, 54.104-54.106, 55.107, 55.110 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, de vera religione •augustine of hippo, scriptural interpretation in earliest treatises, overview •augustine of hippo, on dispensatio temporalis •augustine of hippo, on manichaean literalism and old testament rejection •augustine of hippo, on divine pedagogy of scripture •augustine of hippo, on unity of scripture •augustine of hippo, on allegory of scripture Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 465; Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 217, 218, 219, 223, 225, 229, 230, 231, 272
113. Augustine, On Christian Doctrine, 1.30.42, 1.36.40, 1.39.43, 2.2.3, 2.3.4, 2.5.6, 2.7.11, 2.8.12-2.8.13, 2.9.14, 2.10.16, 2.11.16, 2.12.18, 2.13.19, 2.16.16, 2.16.23-2.16.24, 2.18, 2.20.31, 2.22.33-2.22.34, 2.23.33-2.23.34, 2.23.36, 2.41.62, 3.2.2-3.2.3, 3.3.6, 3.5.9, 3.9.13, 3.14.22, 3.18.27, 3.21.30-3.21.31, 3.25.36, 3.29.41, 3.30.42, 3.34.48, 3.37.56, 3.39.40-3.39.41, 4.1.2, 4.3.4, 4.5.7, 4.6.9-4.6.10, 4.7.11, 4.7.16, 4.9, 4.15.32, 4.16.33, 4.18.37, 4.20.21, 4.26.56, 4.28.61 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 338
114. Augustine, De Ordine Libri Duo, 1.1.2, 1.2.4, 1.8.24, 1.8.25, 1.11.31, 1.24, 2.5.15, 2.5.16, 2.5.14, 2.5.13, 2.7.24, 2.8.25, 2.9.27, 2.9.26, 2.11.30, 2.11.31, 2.15.16, 2.15.43, 2.16.44, 2.19.49, 2.19.51, 5.16, 7.22, 12.35-16.44 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 456, 459, 460, 461
115. Augustine, De Praedestinatione Sanctorum., 8, 7 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 257
116. Ambrose, Hexameron, 4.4.14, 4.5.20 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, earlier critiques of astrology influencing •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, mischaracterisations of opponents Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 428, 431
117. Augustine, De Utilitate Credendi Ad Honoratum, 1.2, 2.4, 3.5, 3.7-3.9, 5.10-5.12, 6.13, 14.30, 14.32, 50.99 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, de vera religione •augustine of hippo, on manichaean literalism and old testament rejection •augustine of hippo, on allegory of scripture •augustine of hippo, on divine pedagogy of scripture •augustine of hippo, and the biblical canon •augustine of hippo, on dispensatio temporalis •augustine of hippo, scriptural interpretation in earliest treatises, overview Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 215, 219, 225, 226, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 271, 272, 325
118. Augustine, On The Holy Trinity, None (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 46
119. Ambrose, Letters, None (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, confessiones Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 392
120. Augustine, De Sermone Domini In Monte Secundum Matthaeum, 1.12.34, 1.20.65, 1.21.71-1.21.72 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on manichaean literalism and old testament rejection •augustine of hippo, on law and grace •augustine of hippo, on unity of scripture •augustine of hippo, contra adimantum •augustine of hippo, contra faustum manichaeum •augustine of hippo, de sermone domini in monte •augustine of hippo, on allegory of scripture Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 277, 278
121. Augustine, De Quantitate Animae, 23.43 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, extramission •augustine of hippo, sensory perception •augustine of hippo, theories of vision •augustine of hippo, vision •augustine of hippo, vision of god •augustine of hippo, scriptural interpretation in earliest treatises, overview Found in books: Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 135, 136; Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 217
122. Augustine, De Divinatione Demonum, 1.1-2.6, 2.6, 3.7, 5.9 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 427, 436, 439
123. Augustine, De Diversis Quaestionibus Ad Simplicianum, 1.1.2-1.1.3, 1.1.7, 1.1.10-1.1.11, 1.1.16-1.1.17, 1.2.2-1.2.5, 1.2.10, 1.2.12-1.2.13, 1.2.16, 1.2.18, 1.2.22, 66.1, 66.3, 67.2, 67.5, 67.7, 68.1, 68.3-68.5, 71.2, 71.4-71.5, 73.2, 75.1-75.3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, de diversis quaestionibus ad simplicianum •augustine of hippo, on free will and grace •augustine of hippo, on law and grace •augustine of hippo, de diversis quaestionibus lxxxiii •augustine of hippo, expositio quarundam quaestionum in epistula ad romanos •augustine of hippo, four-stage teaching on salvation Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 251, 252, 253, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 282, 284, 285, 286
124. Ambrose, On The Mysteries, 9.53 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, confessiones Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 392
125. Ambrose, On Orthodox Faith, 5.12.148-16.192 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, de diversis quaestionibus lxxxiii •augustine of hippo, on free will and grace •augustine of hippo, on law and grace Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 252
126. Ambrose, Jacob And The Happy Life, 1.4.13-1.4.16 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, de diversis quaestionibus ad simplicianum •augustine of hippo, on law and grace Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 257
127. Justinian, Codex Justinianus, 1.3 (5th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, depiction of jews as bookbearers Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 97
128. Gennadius of Marseilles 5Th Cent, Catalogue of Illustrious Men, 101, 18 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 290, 292
129. Boethius, De Consolatione, None (5th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on spiritual senses Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 29
130. Jerome, Commentary On Galatians, 2.3 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, psalmus contra partem donati Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 402
131. Jerome, Letters, 121.8, 134.2 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, de diversis quaestionibus ad simplicianum •augustine of hippo, on law and grace •augustine of hippo, manuscripts and transcriptions of Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 46, 257
132. Gregory The Great, Libri Duo In Evangelia, 2.40 (6th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, quaestiones evangeliorum Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 747
133. Isidore of Seville, Etymologies, 1.14, 19.27.4, 19.28.2 (6th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, confessiones •augustine of hippo, ambivalence of augustine’s relationship with language •augustine of hippo, meaning, words versus sound as means of conveying •augustine of hippo, on language •augustine of hippo, quaestiones evangeliorum Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 407, 747
134. Augustine, Letters, 9.2-9.3, 28.3-28.4, 40.3, 41.2, 43.17, 43.25, 44.4.9, 55.20, 82.2.6, 93.10.43-93.10.44, 101.4, 102.18, 172.2 (7th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 157; Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 422, 426, 427, 436, 437, 440; Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 46, 48, 205, 254, 291, 292, 293, 325
135. Gregory of Nyssa, De Hom. Opif., 5.1-5.2  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, confessiones •augustine of hippo, on vision, as mode of knowing Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 473
136. Calcidius, Epistula, 4  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on liberal arts Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 666
137. Iamblichus, In Timaeum Frag., None  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on liberal arts Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 666
138. Theon of Smyrna, Expos., 15.16-15.18  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on liberal arts Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 666
139. Basil of Caesarea, Vita Cuthberti, 5  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on images Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 6
140. Romanos The Melodist, On The Prodigal Son, 49.10.1-49.10.2  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on images Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 6
141. Cyprian, Dom. Orat., 28, 31, 7  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 163
142. Aelius Donatus, Ars Maior, 1.1  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, meaning, words versus sound as means of conveying •augustine of hippo, on language Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 404
143. Augustine, Adv. Ar., 1.50  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on integration of authority and reason Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 463
144. Priscian, Institutiones Grammaticae, 1.1, 3.91.3-3.91.4, 20.20.4  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, meaning, words versus sound as means of conveying •augustine of hippo, on language •augustine of hippo, theological significance of affective interjections Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 406
145. Augustine, Mag., 11.38  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, earlier critiques of astrology influencing Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 430
146. Livy, Epistulae, 5.18.4  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, deceit and trickery, divination’s dependence on •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, demonic divination, critique of •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, limits of human autopsy as basis for critique Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 440
147. Seneca The Younger, Hercules Furens Frag., 653  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, deceit and trickery, divination’s dependence on •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, demonic divination, critique of •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, limits of human autopsy as basis for critique Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 440
148. Augustine, Leg., 1.8.11-9.12  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, confessiones •augustine of hippo, creation of world from formless matter •augustine of hippo, on language Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 413
149. Augustine, Praed., 2.5  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, education and pedagogy, priorities of authority and reason in Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 454
150. Plutarch, Soll. An., None  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, demonic divination, critique of Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 439
151. David, De Ordine Creaturarum, 5.11  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, multiple interpretations, tendency to note Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 716
152. Augustine, De Civitate Dei (City of God), 5.2-5.5, 5.2.4, 8.12, 8.14, 8.16, 22.8, 22.29  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 421, 422, 434, 435, 438, 439, 480
153. Pseudo-Tertullian, Martyrdom of Perpetua And Felicitas, 1.5, 4.1-4.2  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on dignatio Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 60
154. Leo I, Epistula, 15  Tagged with subjects: •augustine, st, on records of court at hippo Found in books: Humfress (2007), Oppian's Halieutica: Charting a Didactic Epic, 170
155. Optatus, Against The Donatists, 1.18-1.19  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, description of lucilla Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 157
156. August., Conf., 1.20, 7.17  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, confessions Found in books: Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 10
158. Eriugena, De Divisione Naturae, 2.23  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, confessions Found in books: Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 10
159. Julianus Pomerius, De Vita Contemplativa Libri Tres, 1.2  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, multiple interpretations, tendency to note Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 716
160. Manilius, Astronomica, 1.57  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, earlier critiques of astrology influencing Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 429
161. Passio Perpetuae Et Felicitatis, Vita Augustini, 7.3  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, breviculus collationis cum donatistis •augustine of hippo, enarrationes in psalmos •augustine of hippo, sermones ad populum •augustine of hippo, manuscripts and transcriptions of Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 47
162. Cyprian, De Aleatoribus, 2  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, and the biblical canon Found in books: Yates and Dupont (2020), The Bible in Christian North Africa: Part I: Commencement to the Confessiones of Augustine (ca. 180 to 400 CE), 26
163. Ptolemy, Optica, 3  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, extramission Found in books: Cain (2023), Mirrors of the Divine: Late Ancient Christianity and the Vision of God, 154, 155
164. Basil of Caesarea, In Regum Librum Xxx Questiones, None  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, multiple interpretations, tendency to note Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 716
165. David, De Mirabilibus Sacrae Scripturae, 6  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, multiple interpretations, tendency to note Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 716
166. Basil of Caesarea, Libri Quattuor In Principium Genesis, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 714
167. Basil of Caesarea, Historia Ecclesiastica Gens Anglorum, 11  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on language •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 14
168. Basil of Caesarea, In Lucam, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 747
169. Basil of Caesarea, In Genesim, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 748
170. Jerome, Orig. Hom. Cant., None  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, confessiones Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 748
171. Evagrius of Pontus, Antirhêtikos, 4.8-4.11  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on language •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 14
172. Romanos The Melodist, On The Sinful Woman, 10.6.1  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on images Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 6
173. Sextus Empiricus, Adversus Mathematikos, 6.52-6.54  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, earlier critiques of astrology influencing Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 430
174. Seneca The Elder, Epistulae, None  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on liberal arts •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, deceit and trickery, divination’s dependence on •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, demonic divination, critique of •augustine of hippo, on pagan divination, limits of human autopsy as basis for critique Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 440, 666
175. Cassiodorus, Expositio In Psalmos, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 714
176. Romanos The Melodist, On Mary At The Cross, 19.4  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, on images Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 6
177. Calcidius, In Tim., 127, 148, 168, 272, 355, 128  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 666
178. Donatus, Ars Maior, 652.5-652.6  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, meaning, words versus sound as means of conveying •augustine of hippo, on language Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 405
179. Augustine, Tract. Ev. Jo., 7.12.2, 24.1-24.2  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 426, 480, 481
180. Augustine, Div. Quaest. Simpl., None  Tagged with subjects: •augustine of hippo, response to simplician •augustine of hippo, on spiritual seeing •augustine of hippo, on vision, as mode of knowing Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 480
181. Basil of Caesarea, Homily, 13.3  Tagged with subjects: •augustine, st, on records of court at hippo Found in books: Humfress (2007), Oppian's Halieutica: Charting a Didactic Epic, 170