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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
audience Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 1, 2, 10, 81, 83, 87, 89, 96, 99, 112, 132, 143, 146, 156, 160, 213, 237, 298, 299, 300
Balberg (2017) 135, 136, 204
Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 114, 115, 116, 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 138, 144, 146, 148, 149, 178, 185, 187, 189, 193, 194, 196, 197, 204, 213, 447, 449, 450
Castagnoli and Ceccarelli (2019) 81, 94, 98, 115, 118, 141, 143, 147, 150, 212, 214, 271, 286, 302, 307, 328, 346
Clay and Vergados (2022) 1, 3, 8, 11, 39, 41, 42, 43, 44, 49, 50, 52, 53, 56, 58, 65, 70, 76, 78, 92, 195, 207, 257, 264, 280, 324, 348, 349
Davies (2004) 28
Demoen and Praet (2009) 99, 193, 195, 198, 200, 202, 364
Edmonds (2004) 12, 113, 161, 234, 237
Fraade (2011) 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 90, 97, 105, 154, 163, 230, 329, 330, 383, 410, 414
Gagné (2020) 8, 23, 147, 204, 219, 249, 260, 266, 271, 277, 293, 301, 401
Joosse (2021) 43, 159, 164, 181, 192, 216, 219
Ker and Wessels (2020) 163
Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 11, 23, 24, 27, 77, 126, 159, 162, 165, 169, 170, 172, 189, 190, 196, 205, 212, 213, 217, 238, 255, 257, 279, 282
Lynskey (2021) 59, 93, 157, 160, 259, 319, 333
Maier and Waldner (2022) 4, 19, 30, 47, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 102, 133, 147, 187
Martin (2009) 18, 21, 33, 236
Pinheiro et al (2018) 23, 65, 66, 75, 76, 130, 167, 173, 206, 225, 226, 232, 294, 295, 300, 366, 367
Rosen-Zvi (2012) 135
Stavrianopoulou (2013) 11, 186, 208, 216, 217, 220, 221, 222, 329
Tuori (2016) 28, 29, 47, 48, 51, 159, 167, 202, 205, 211, 244, 248, 251, 290
Verhelst and Scheijnens (2022) 174, 175, 177, 178, 181, 182, 185, 186, 187, 191, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203
deSilva (2022) 7, 8, 9, 10, 11
audience, actors, critique Richlin (2018) 49, 124, 145, 316
audience, alexis, on the Jouanna (2018) 183
audience, also addressee, of text Singer and van Eijk (2018) 16, 26, 37, 38, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 61, 65, 124
audience, and bodily signals Bexley (2022) 192, 193, 213, 214, 216, 219, 221, 245, 246, 247
audience, and debt Richlin (2018) 184, 197
audience, and dramatic irony Bexley (2022) 80, 81
audience, and dramaturgy Bexley (2022) 210
audience, and empathy with slaves Richlin (2018) 26, 49, 86, 91, 105, 110, 111, 119, 137, 140, 144, 203, 212, 214, 223, 229, 230, 232, 260, 261, 264, 265, 321, 340, 391, 445
audience, and experience of war Richlin (2018) 125, 137, 141, 145, 148
audience, and hercules Bexley (2022) 165, 167, 168, 169
audience, and inscribed display Wilding (2022) 16, 63, 104, 264
audience, and metapoetics Bexley (2022) 29, 30, 31
audience, and metatheatre Bexley (2022) 62, 66, 140, 141
audience, and oedipus Bexley (2022) 20, 245, 246, 247, 249, 250, 251, 252, 253, 254, 258, 259, 342
audience, and phaedra Bexley (2022) 192, 193, 210, 213, 214, 216
audience, and purpose of gospel, mark Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 709, 710, 711, 751, 752
audience, and sense of geography Richlin (2018) 367, 384, 385
audience, and sophocles Jouanna (2018) 458, 459
audience, and sympathetic engagement Bexley (2022) 193, 251, 304
audience, and the judges Jouanna (2018) 651
audience, and thyestes Bexley (2022) 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 80, 81
audience, and troades Bexley (2022) 139, 140, 141, 142
audience, aristophanes, on the Jouanna (2018) 183
audience, as participants in performance Richlin (2018) 49, 70, 155, 164, 172, 174, 181, 356, 390, 397
audience, as “the crowd” in stoicism, judging Roller (2018) 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 274, 275
audience, at the festivals Jouanna (2018) 182, 183, 184, 185
audience, athenian Papadodima (2022) 117
audience, author, and Pinheiro et al (2015) 119
audience, author, and his Verhelst and Scheijnens (2022) 175
audience, authorising function of Bexley (2022) 55
audience, author’s relationship with deSilva (2022) 13, 14, 15, 37, 86, 87, 159
audience, avenger, complicity with the Bexley (2022) 303
audience, captatio benevolentiae Gray (2021) 37, 39, 43, 50, 200
audience, communication, tailored to the Joosse (2021) 106, 107, 108, 109, 154, 157, 158, 169
audience, competence of Castagnoli and Ceccarelli (2019) 11, 93, 98, 124, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 133, 174
audience, contemporary of longus Cueva et al. (2018b) 347
audience, crowd, as embedded Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013) 213
audience, cumaean sibyl, relationship to Pillinger (2019) 238
audience, dance Stavrianopoulou (2006) 64
audience, de architectura Oksanish (2019) 7, 8, 9
audience, deception of Castagnoli and Ceccarelli (2019) 143
audience, demetrius, chronographer, intended Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 12, 13, 108
audience, education of Castagnoli and Ceccarelli (2019) 30, 94, 101, 116, 118, 123, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 134, 282
audience, enemy as, judging Roller (2018) 72, 81, 169, 186, 279
audience, expanded moral perspective of judging Roller (2018) 187, 188
audience, expectations of Castagnoli and Ceccarelli (2019) 156, 345
audience, external Bexley (2022) 33, 139, 140, 141, 252, 253
audience, for, de vita contemplativa Taylor and Hay (2020) 7, 24, 168, 224
audience, for, luke, gospel of Peppard (2011) 135
audience, for, mark, gospel of Peppard (2011) 28, 116, 121, 122
audience, for, matthew, gospel of Peppard (2011) 121
audience, for, midrash Stern (2004) 134
audience, foreign Davies (2004) 264
audience, from out of town Richlin (2018) 100, 374
audience, gorgias, plato, on the Jouanna (2018) 183
audience, grammatical archive, commentarial assumptions Ward (2022) 193, 194
audience, greek Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 103, 123, 132, 158, 167, 168, 174, 176
audience, gynecocracy, on the Jouanna (2018) 183
audience, harpokration, on noise made by Eidinow (2007) 311
audience, ideal Gray (2021) 12, 38, 96, 182, 205, 226
audience, idealized Martin (2009) 65
audience, imagined Gray (2021) 85, 167, 169, 170, 191, 201
audience, in legal setting, judging Roller (2018) 244, 248, 256
audience, in seneca Fertik (2019) 90, 102
audience, interaction with Richlin (2018) 8, 84, 104, 109, 112, 119, 124, 125, 141, 149, 150, 164, 183, 189, 190, 193, 199, 206, 215, 218, 225, 233, 242, 245, 262, 268, 271, 295, 302, 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 325, 326, 332, 345, 347, 380, 388, 401, 403, 404, 405, 408, 426, 471
audience, internal Bexley (2022) 33, 139, 140, 141, 252, 253
Gray (2021) 142, 151, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 164, 165, 172, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 214, 215, 216, 217, 223, 227, 239
Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 170
audience, involvement Fabian Meinel (2015) 57, 58, 241
audience, jewish and non-jewish, intended for antiquities Feldman (2006) 713, 714, 715, 716
audience, jews, jewish people, as chrysostom’s Azar (2016) 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140
audience, jews, jewish people, as cyril’s Azar (2016) 174, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181, 182, 183, 185, 188, 189
audience, john chrysostom, adapting to Azar (2016) 119
audience, judging Roller (2018) 40, 54, 81, 120, 169, 171, 183, 184, 186, 187, 188, 241, 279
audience, libanius, autobiography, date and Renberg (2017) 690
audience, maecenas, positioning in horace’s Yona (2018) 5, 77, 208, 223
audience, mark, intended Doble and Kloha (2014) 110, 111, 130
audience, martyrdom, emotional effect on Mermelstein (2021) 42, 43, 45, 46, 47, 48, 53, 54, 55, 56, 59
audience, mixed Richlin (2018) 12, 19, 26, 40, 44, 45, 70, 81, 85, 87, 97, 124, 141, 172, 326, 439, 456
audience, modelling response, internal Langlands (2018) 21, 301, 312, 315
audience, multiple, audience, Martin (2009) 6, 42, 43, 44, 103, 175, 293, 294
audience, narrative Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 12, 119
audience, oedipus, not, known to the Fabian Meinel (2015) 57, 58
audience, of ammianus Davies (2004) 234, 235, 252, 262, 264, 266
audience, of antiquities of josephus Feldman (2006) 150, 151
audience, of asconius, schoolroom Keeline (2018) 16
audience, of de abrahamo Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 28, 72, 315, 316, 354
audience, of epinikia Gygax (2016) 64, 69, 70, 72
audience, of exposition of the law Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 3, 4, 28, 72, 75
audience, of galens commentaries Jouanna (2012) 316
audience, of greek tragedy Jouanna (2012) 79
audience, of ḥor of sebennytos with ptolemies, alexandria sarapieion Renberg (2017) 438
audience, of john chrysostom Azar (2016) 118, 119, 120, 121, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 151, 152
audience, of kallir, eleazar Stern (2004) 134
audience, of livy Davies (2004) 29, 32, 45, 46, 58, 126, 132, 136
audience, of luke/acts Crabb (2020) 35, 187, 199, 315, 316
audience, of medical texts Jouanna (2012) 47, 51
audience, of medical writings Jouanna (2012) 151
audience, of medical/philosophical texts van der EIjk (2005) 257, 258
audience, of minim stories, in the babylonian talmud Bar Asher Siegal (2018) 190, 191
audience, of philo Feldman (2006) 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266
audience, of seneca Fertik (2019) 93, 95, 96, 97, 99, 100
audience, of tacitus Davies (2004) 147, 154
Fertik (2019) 51, 54
audience, of the canonical acts Pinheiro et al (2012b) 182
audience, of tragedy Seaford (2018) 229
audience, of zacharias Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 73
audience, orosius Van Nuffelen (2012) 9, 16, 17, 18, 20, 42, 43, 44, 92, 117, 119, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 132, 135, 157, 160, 165, 166, 202, 203
audience, plato, on the Jouanna (2018) 183
audience, populus, as Richlin (2018) 37, 49, 164
audience, portrayal of paul and apostles, author’s relationship with deSilva (2022) 15, 16, 150, 151, 161, 165, 166
audience, praeceptor judging, stoic, as Roller (2018) 275
audience, praeceptor, stoic, as judging Roller (2018) 275
audience, prayer Hickson (1993) 64, 75, 95, 112
audience, presupposed?, natural questions, dual Williams (2012) 227
audience, priests Gray (2021) 8, 11, 213
audience, primary vs. secondary, judging Roller (2018) 61, 71, 72, 73, 124
audience, prostitutes, historical, in the Richlin (2018) 114, 125, 377
audience, prostitutes, onstage, in the Richlin (2018) 125, 364, 393
audience, real Gray (2021) 10, 11, 12, 170
audience, relationship to colossians, author’s relationship with deSilva (2022) 27, 28, 29, 30
audience, roman people, as Clark (2007) 214
audience, royal Marincola et al (2021) 335, 336, 338, 340
audience, scarred Richlin (2018) 92
audience, seating Richlin (2018) 126, 185, 295
audience, secondary, judging Roller (2018) 7, 160, 284
audience, senate as, judging Roller (2018) 250
audience, sermones Glowalsky (2020) 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 16, 22, 27, 30, 36, 37, 38, 39, 57, 63, 66, 73, 75, 93, 96, 97, 98, 99, 122, 124, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131
audience, shout-outs to Richlin (2018) 12, 90, 232, 265
audience, size of Jouanna (2018) 693
audience, slave-women, historical, in the Richlin (2018) 265, 267, 280, 303
audience, slaves, historical, in the Richlin (2018) 21, 89, 97, 224, 231, 246, 248, 317, 377
audience, soldiers in Richlin (2018) 449
audience, space, cavea Richlin (2018) 14, 95, 141, 439
audience, speech, and Hoenig (2018) 114
audience, staging, plants in Richlin (2018) 49, 146, 185
audience, style and vocabulary, author’s relationship with deSilva (2022) 16, 17, 18, 19, 22, 47, 48, 53, 54, 57, 94
audience, theatrical Steiner (2001) 47, 50, 52, 53, 172, 176, 177, 291, 292, 293
audience, theological questions, author’s relationship with deSilva (2022) 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 289, 290, 295, 296, 309, 310
audience, withdrawal from, judging Roller (2018) 274
audience, women in Richlin (2018) 111
audience, women, in the Jouanna (2018) 183
audience, wreathed Richlin (2018) 37, 143, 150
audience, ”, “epigraphic Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 326
audience/public Stavrianopoulou (2006) 143, 203, 204, 207, 216, 298
audiences Clark (2007) 25, 78, 80, 83, 99, 105, 106, 108, 113, 180, 213, 229, 256
Csapo (2022) 3, 65, 92, 123
audiences, aeschylus, internal and external Pillinger (2019) 217, 218, 219, 220, 224, 225
audiences, characterization, internal Gray (2021) 152, 154
audiences, exemplarity, available to broad Roller (2018) 63
audiences, familiarity with myth Pillinger (2019) 93
audiences, heterogeneity of Pandey (2018) 37, 39, 146, 197, 200, 237, 238, 242
audiences, in senecas agamemnon Pillinger (2019) 218, 220, 224
audiences, internal vs. external Pillinger (2019) 54, 119, 136, 213
audiences, non-elites, in Clark (2007) 80, 99, 178
audiences, of local historiography Morrison (2020) 38
audiences, of lycophrons cassandra Pillinger (2019) 109, 115, 116, 138, 144
audiences, of the sirens Pillinger (2019) 135, 136, 137
audiences, popular Pandey (2018) 39, 47, 68, 105, 131, 171, 174, 182, 186, 187, 188, 195, 198, 206, 208, 209, 215, 220, 222, 234, 240, 241, 242, 243, 247
audiences, power of Pandey (2018) 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 25, 26, 80, 88, 92, 100, 101, 104, 114, 118, 129, 156, 160, 162, 169, 170, 183, 184, 186, 188, 191, 201, 205, 214, 215, 216, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 246, 247, 249, 251, 253
audiences, power, of Pandey (2018) 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 80, 88, 92, 100, 101, 104, 114, 118, 129, 156, 160, 162, 169, 170, 183, 184, 186, 188, 191, 201, 205, 214, 215, 216, 228, 229, 230, 231, 232, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 253
audiences, responsibility of Pillinger (2019) 236, 237, 238
audiences, satires, horace, target Yona (2018) 5, 6, 42, 60, 77, 93, 206
audiences, understanding of kedushtot Stern (2004) 134

List of validated texts:
49 validated results for "audiences"
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 6.5, 6.18, 6.24-6.25 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Audience • author’s relationship with audience, theological questions

 Found in books: Fraade (2011) 78, 80, 81, 83; deSilva (2022) 296

6.5. וְאָהַבְתָּ אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכָל־לְבָבְךָ וּבְכָל־נַפְשְׁךָ וּבְכָל־מְאֹדֶךָ׃
6.18. וְעָשִׂיתָ הַיָּשָׁר וְהַטּוֹב בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָךְ וּבָאתָ וְיָרַשְׁתָּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַטֹּבָה אֲשֶׁר־נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֶיךָ׃
6.24. וַיְצַוֵּנוּ יְהוָה לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־הַחֻקִּים הָאֵלֶּה לְיִרְאָה אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ לְטוֹב לָנוּ כָּל־הַיָּמִים לְחַיֹּתֵנוּ כְּהַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 6.25. וּצְדָקָה תִּהְיֶה־לָּנוּ כִּי־נִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־הַמִּצְוָה הַזֹּאת לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר צִוָּנוּ׃''. None
6.5. And thou shalt love the LORD thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with all thy might.
6.18. And thou shalt do that which is right and good in the sight of the LORD; that it may be well with thee, and that thou mayest go in and possess the good land which the LORD swore unto thy fathers,
6.24. And the LORD commanded us to do all these statutes, to fear the LORD our God, for our good always, that He might preserve us alive, as it is at this day. 6.25. And it shall be righteousness unto us, if we observe to do all this commandment before the LORD our God, as He hath commanded us.’''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 17.8-17.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Audience, internal • Demetrius, Chronographer, Intended audience

 Found in books: Gray (2021) 165; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 108

17.8. וַיָּבֹא עֲמָלֵק וַיִּלָּחֶם עִם־יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּרְפִידִם׃ 17.9. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בְּחַר־לָנוּ אֲנָשִׁים וְצֵא הִלָּחֵם בַּעֲמָלֵק מָחָר אָנֹכִי נִצָּב עַל־רֹאשׁ הַגִּבְעָה וּמַטֵּה הָאֱלֹהִים בְּיָדִי׃' '17.11. וְהָיָה כַּאֲשֶׁר יָרִים מֹשֶׁה יָדוֹ וְגָבַר יִשְׂרָאֵל וְכַאֲשֶׁר יָנִיחַ יָדוֹ וְגָבַר עֲמָלֵק׃ 17.12. וִידֵי מֹשֶׁה כְּבֵדִים וַיִּקְחוּ־אֶבֶן וַיָּשִׂימוּ תַחְתָּיו וַיֵּשֶׁב עָלֶיהָ וְאַהֲרֹן וְחוּר תָּמְכוּ בְיָדָיו מִזֶּה אֶחָד וּמִזֶּה אֶחָד וַיְהִי יָדָיו אֱמוּנָה עַד־בֹּא הַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃ 17.13. וַיַּחֲלֹשׁ יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶת־עֲמָלֵק וְאֶת־עַמּוֹ לְפִי־חָרֶב׃''. None
17.8. Then came Amalek, and fought with Israel in Rephidim. 17.9. And Moses said unto Joshua: ‘Choose us out men, and go out, fight with Amalek; tomorrow I will stand on the top of the hill with the rod of God in my hand.’ 17.10. So Joshua did as Moses had said to him, and fought with Amalek; and Moses, Aaron, and Hur went up to the top of the hill. 17.11. And it came to pass, when Moses held up his hand, that Israel prevailed; and when he let down his hand, Amalek prevailed. 17.12. But Moses’hands were heavy; and they took a stone, and put it under him, and he sat thereon; and Aaron and Hur stayed up his hands, the one on the one side, and the other on the other side; and his hands were steady until the going down of the sun. 17.13. And Joshua discomfited Amalek and his people with the edge of the sword.''. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.27, 35.16 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Audience • Audience, captatio benevolentiae • Demetrius, Chronographer, Intended audience • Luke, Gospel of audience for

 Found in books: Fraade (2011) 414; Gray (2021) 50; Peppard (2011) 135; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 108

1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃
35.16. וַיִּסְעוּ מִבֵּית אֵל וַיְהִי־עוֹד כִּבְרַת־הָאָרֶץ לָבוֹא אֶפְרָתָה וַתֵּלֶד רָחֵל וַתְּקַשׁ בְּלִדְתָּהּ׃''. None
1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.
35.16. And they journeyed from Beth-el; and there was still some way to come to Ephrath; and Rachel travailed, and she had hard labour.''. None
4. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Luke, Gospel of audience for • author’s relationship with audience, style and vocabulary

 Found in books: Peppard (2011) 135; deSilva (2022) 48

2.7. אֲסַפְּרָה אֶל חֹק יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי בְּנִי אַתָּה אֲנִי הַיּוֹם יְלִדְתִּיךָ׃''. None
2.7. I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me: 'Thou art My son, this day have I begotten thee."". None
5. Hesiod, Theogony, 27-28, 32, 501-506, 512-514, 617-628, 698-699, 716-718 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Communication, tailored to the audience • Pluto (Hades), as audience • audience • audience, Pluto, Proserpina, and underworld as • audience, theatrical • audiences, internal vs. external • audiences, of the Sirens

 Found in books: Beck (2021) 188, 206, 209, 217; Clay and Vergados (2022) 42; Johnson (2008) 54; Joosse (2021) 169; Lipka (2021) 19, 70; Pillinger (2019) 136; Steiner (2001) 172; Álvarez (2019) 48

27. ἴδμεν ψεύδεα πολλὰ λέγειν ἐτύμοισιν ὁμοῖα,'28. ἴδμεν δʼ, εὖτʼ ἐθέλωμεν, ἀληθέα γηρύσασθαι.
32. θέσπιν, ἵνα κλείοιμι τά τʼ ἐσσόμενα πρό τʼ ἐόντα.
501. λῦσε δὲ πατροκασιγνήτους ὀλοῶν ὑπὸ δεσμῶν 502. Οὐρανίδας, οὓς δῆσε πατὴρ ἀεσιφροσύνῃσιν· 503. οἳ οἱ ἀπεμνήσαντο χάριν ἐυεργεσιάων, 504. δῶκαν δὲ βροντὴν ἠδʼ αἰθαλόεντα κεραυνὸν 505. καὶ στεροπήν· τὸ πρὶν δὲ πελώρη Γαῖα κεκεύθει· 506. τοῖς πίσυνος θνητοῖσι καὶ ἀθανάτοισιν ἀνάσσει.
512. ὃς κακὸν ἐξ ἀρχῆς γένετʼ ἀνδράσιν ἀλφηστῇσιν· 513. πρῶτος γάρ ῥα Διὸς πλαστὴν ὑπέδεκτο γυναῖκα 514. παρθένον. ὑβριστὴν δὲ Μενοίτιον εὐρύοπα Ζεὺς
617. Βριάρεῳ δʼ ὡς πρῶτα πατὴρ ὠδύσσατο θυμῷ 618. Κόττῳ τʼ ἠδὲ Γύῃ, δῆσεν κρατερῷ ἐνὶ δεσμῷ 619. ἠνορέην ὑπέροπλον ἀγώμενος ἠδὲ καὶ εἶδος 620. καὶ μέγεθος· κατένασσε δʼ ὑπὸ χθονὸς εὐρυοδείης. 621. ἔνθʼ οἵ γʼ ἄλγεʼ ἔχοντες ὑπὸ χθονὶ ναιετάοντες 622. εἵατʼ ἐπʼ ἐσχατιῇ, μεγάλης ἐν πείρασι γαίης, 623. δηθὰ μάλʼ ἀχνύμενοι, κραδίῃ μέγα πένθος ἔχοντες. 624. ἀλλά σφεας Κρονίδης τε καὶ ἀθάνατοι θεοὶ ἄλλοι, 625. οὓς τέκεν ἠύκομος Ῥείη Κρόνου ἐν φιλότητι, 626. Γαίης φραδμοσύνῃσιν ἀνήγαγον ἐς φάος αὖτις· 6
27. αὐτὴ γάρ σφιν ἅπαντα διηνεκέως κατέλεξε 628. σὺν κείνοις νίκην τε καὶ ἀγλαὸν εὖχος ἀρέσθαι.
698. ἄσπετος, ὄσσε δʼ ἄμερδε καὶ ἰφθίμων περ ἐόντων 699. αὐγὴ μαρμαίρουσα κεραυνοῦ τε στεροπῆς τε.
716. πέμπον ἐπασσυτέρας, κατὰ δʼ ἐσκίασαν βελέεσσι 717. Τιτῆνας, καὶ τοὺς μὲν ὑπὸ χθονὸς εὐρυοδείης 718. πέμψαν καὶ δεσμοῖσιν ἐν ἀργαλέοισιν ἔδησαν '. None
27. Those daughters of Lord Zeus proclaimed to me:'28. “You who tend sheep, full of iniquity,
32. Spoke Zeus’s daughters. Then they gave to me
501. Who grants them many fish with ease, although 502. She’ll take them back if she should will it so. 503. With Hermes, too, she helps increase men’s stocks – 504. Their droves of cows and goats and fleecy flocks. 505. of few she’ll cause increase; of many, though 506. She’ll cause a dearth if she should will it so.
512. To Cronus awe-inspiring children, for 513. They were Demeter, Hestia and gold-shod 514. Hera and strong Hades, a pitiless god
617. The trick and planned against humanity 618. Mischief: he took the white fat angrily, 619. Seeing the bones beneath it, and therefore 620. On fragrant shrines men burn bones evermore 621. For all the gods. “O son of Iapetus,” 622. Said Zeus, who drives the clouds, still furious, 623. “The cleverest of all humanity, 624. You’ve not forgotten your chicanery.” 625. Thenceforth he brooded on that trick, and so 626. He would not give to mortal men below 6
27. Voracious fire. Prometheus, though, secreted 628. It in a fennel-stalk and thereby cheated
698. And those who grant mortals advantages, 699. The Olympians; ten years would it abide
716. That you returned us from a living hell 717. Where we were bound in grim obscurity; 718. Thus we enjoyed what we’d not hoped to see. '. None
6. Homer, Iliad, 2.182, 15.187-15.193 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Communication, tailored to the audience • Maecenas, positioning in Horace’s audience • audience • audience, nymphs as judges and • nymphs, as audience and judges

 Found in books: Johnson (2008) 142; Joosse (2021) 169; Lipka (2021) 84; Yona (2018) 223

2.182. ὣς φάθʼ, ὃ δὲ ξυνέηκε θεᾶς ὄπα φωνησάσης,
15.187. τρεῖς γάρ τʼ ἐκ Κρόνου εἰμὲν ἀδελφεοὶ οὓς τέκετο Ῥέα 15.188. Ζεὺς καὶ ἐγώ, τρίτατος δʼ Ἀΐδης ἐνέροισιν ἀνάσσων. 15.189. τριχθὰ δὲ πάντα δέδασται, ἕκαστος δʼ ἔμμορε τιμῆς· 15.190. ἤτοι ἐγὼν ἔλαχον πολιὴν ἅλα ναιέμεν αἰεὶ 15.191. παλλομένων, Ἀΐδης δʼ ἔλαχε ζόφον ἠερόεντα, 15.192. Ζεὺς δʼ ἔλαχʼ οὐρανὸν εὐρὺν ἐν αἰθέρι καὶ νεφέλῃσι· 15.193. γαῖα δʼ ἔτι ξυνὴ πάντων καὶ μακρὸς Ὄλυμπος.''. None
2.182. and with thy gentle words seek thou to restrain every man, neither suffer them to draw into the sea their curved ships. So said she, and he knew the voice of the goddess as she spake, and set him to run, and cast from him his cloak, which his herald gathered up, even Eurybates of Ithaca, that waited on him.
15.187. Out upon it, verily strong though he be he hath spoken overweeningly, if in sooth by force and in mine own despite he will restrain me that am of like honour with himself. For three brethren are we, begotten of Cronos, and born of Rhea,—Zeus, and myself, and the third is Hades, that is lord of the dead below. And in three-fold wise are all things divided, and unto each hath been apportioned his own domain. 15.190. I verily, when the lots were shaken, won for my portion the grey sea to be my habitation for ever, and Hades won the murky darkness, while Zeus won the broad heaven amid the air and the clouds; but the earth and high Olympus remain yet common to us all. Wherefore will I not in any wise walk after the will of Zeus; nay in quiet 15.193. I verily, when the lots were shaken, won for my portion the grey sea to be my habitation for ever, and Hades won the murky darkness, while Zeus won the broad heaven amid the air and the clouds; but the earth and high Olympus remain yet common to us all. Wherefore will I not in any wise walk after the will of Zeus; nay in quiet ''. None
7. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 1118 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Seneca, audience of • tragedy, audience of

 Found in books: Fertik (2019) 100; Seaford (2018) 229

1118. κατολολυξάτω θύματος λευσίμου. Χορός''. None
1118. A victim — by stoning —
1118. For murder atoning! CHOROS. '
1118. Sacrificial, about '. None
8. Euripides, Electra, 1254-1257 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • audience • audience, theatrical

 Found in books: Lipka (2021) 95; Steiner (2001) 176

1254. ἐλθὼν δ' ̓Αθήνας Παλλάδος σεμνὸν βρέτας"1255. πρόσπτυξον: εἵρξει γάρ νιν ἐπτοημένας 1256. δεινοῖς δράκουσιν ὥστε μὴ ψαύειν σέθεν,' "1257. γοργῶφ' ὑπερτείνουσα σῷ κάρᾳ κύκλον." "'. None
1254. but you leave Argos ; for it is not for you, who killed your mother, to set foot in this city. And the dread goddesses of death, the one who glare like hounds, will drive you up and down, a maddened wanderer. Go to Athens and embrace the holy image of Pallas;'1255. for she will prevent them, flickering with dreadful serpents, from touching you, as she stretches over your head her Gorgon-faced shield. There is a hill of Ares, where the gods first sat over their votes to decide on bloodshed, '. None
9. Euripides, Rhesus, 973 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • audience

 Found in books: Lipka (2021) 99; Álvarez (2019) 103

973. ᾤκησε, σεμνὸς τοῖσιν εἰδόσιν θεός.''. None
973. Priest of great light and worshipped of the wise.''. None
10. Herodotus, Histories, 4.5-4.10, 4.13, 4.15, 4.79-4.80, 8.57 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Audience • audience • audience, Greek

 Found in books: Gagné (2020) 249, 293, 301; Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 167, 174; Lipka (2021) 153; Michalopoulos et al. (2021) 83

4.5. ὣς δὲ Σκύθαι λέγουσι, νεώτατον πάντων ἐθνέων εἶναι τὸ σφέτερον, τοῦτο δὲ γενέσθαι ὧδε. ἄνδρα γενέσθαι πρῶτον ἐν τῇ γῆ ταύτῃ ἐούσῃ ἐρήμῳ τῳ οὔνομα εἶναι Ταργιτάον· τοῦ δὲ Ταργιτάου τούτου τοὺς τοκέας λέγουσι εἶναι, ἐμοὶ μὲν οὐ πιστὰ λέγοντες, λέγουσι δʼ ὦν, Δία τε καὶ Βορυσθένεος τοῦ ποταμοῦ θυγατέρα. γένεος μὲν τοιούτου δὴ τινος γενέσθαι τὸν Ταργιτάον, τούτου δὲ γενέσθαι παῖδας τρεῖς, Λιπόξαϊν καὶ Ἀρπόξαϊν καὶ νεώτατον Κολάξαιν. ἐπὶ τούτων ἀρχόντων ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ φερομένα χρύσεα ποιήματα, ἄροτρόν τε καὶ ζυγόν καὶ σάγαριν καὶ φιάλην, πεσεῖν ἐς τὴν Σκυθικήν· καὶ τῶν ἰδόντα πρῶτον τὸν πρεσβύτατον ἆσσον ἰέναι βουλόμενον αὐτὰ λαβεῖν, τὸν δὲ χρυσόν ἐπιόντος καίεσθαι. ἀπαλλαχθέντος δὲ τούτου προσιέναι τὸν δεύτερον, καὶ τὸν αὖτις ταὐτὰ ποιέειν. τοὺς μὲν δὴ καιόμενον τὸν χρυσὸν ἀπώσασθαι, τρίτῳ δὲ τῷ νεωτάτῳ ἐπελθόντι κατασβῆναι, καὶ μιν ἐκεῖνον κομίσαι ἐς ἑωυτοῦ· καὶ τοὺς πρεσβυτέρους ἀδελφεοὺς πρὸς ταῦτα συγγνόντας τὴν βασιληίην πᾶσαν παραδοῦναι τῷ νεωτάτῳ. 4.6. ἀπὸ μὲν δὴ Λιποξάιος γεγονέναι τούτους τῶν Σκυθέων οἳ Αὐχάται γένος καλέονται, ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ μέσου Ἀρποξάιος οἳ Κατίαροί τε καὶ Τράσπιες καλέονται, ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ νεωτάτου αὐτῶν τοῦ βασιλέος οἳ καλέονται Παραλάται· σύμπασι δὲ εἶναι οὔνομα Σκολότους, τοῦ βασιλέος ἐπωνυμίην. Σκύθας δὲ Ἕλληνες ὠνόμασαν. 4.7. γεγονέναι μέν νυν σφέας ὧδε λέγουσι οἱ Σκύθαι, ἔτεα δὲ σφίσι ἐπείτε γεγόνασι τὰ σύμπαντα λέγουσι εἶναι ἀπὸ τοῦ πρώτου βασιλέος Ταργιτάου ἐς τὴν Δαρείου διάβασιν τὴν ἐπὶ σφέας χιλίων οὐ πλέω ἀλλὰ τοσαῦτα. τὸν δὲ χρυσόν τοῦτον τὸν ἱρὸν φυλάσσουσι οἱ βασιλέες ἐς τὰ μάλιστα, καὶ θυσίῃσι μεγάλῃσι ἱλασκόμενοι μετέρχονται ἀνὰ πᾶν ἔτος. ὃς δʼ ἂν ἔχων τὸν χρυσὸν τὸν ἱρὸν ἐν τῇ ὁρτῇ ὑπαίθριος κατακοιμηθῇ, οὗτος λέγεται ὑπὸ Σκυθέων οὐ διενιαυτίζειν. δίδοσθαι δέ οἱ διὰ τοῦτο ὅσα ἂν ἵππω ἐν ἡμέρῃ μιῇ περιελάσῃ αὐτὸς. τῆς δὲ χώρης ἐούσης μεγάλης τριφασίας τὰς βασιληίας τοῖσι παισὶ τοῖσι ἑωυτοῦ καταστήσασθαι Κολάξαιν, καὶ τουτέων μίαν ποιῆσαι μεγίστην, ἐν τῇ τὸν χρυσὸν φυλάσσεσθαι. τὰ δὲ κατύπερθε πρὸς βορέην λέγουσι ἄνεμον τῶν ὑπεροίκων τῆς χώρης οὐκ οἷὰ τε εἶναι ἔτι προσωτέρω οὔτε ὁρᾶν οὔτε διεξιέναι ὑπὸ πτερῶν κεχυμένων· πτερῶν γὰρ καὶ τήν γῆν καὶ τὸν ἠέρα εἶναι πλέον, καὶ ταῦτα εἶναι τὰ ἀποκληίοντα τὴν ὄψιν. 4.8. Σκύθαι μὲν ὧδε ὕπερ σφέων τε αὐτῶν καὶ τῆς χώρης τῆς κατύπερθε λέγουσι, Ἑλλήνων δὲ οἱ τὸν Πόντον οἰκέοντες ὧδε. Ἡρακλέα ἐλαύνοντα τὰς Γηρυόνεω βοῦς ἀπικέσθαι ἐς γῆν ταύτην ἐοῦσαν ἐρήμην, ἥντινα νῦν Σκύθαι νέμονται. Γηρυόνεα δὲ οἰκέειν ἔξω τοῦ Πόντου, κατοικημένον τὴν Ἕλληνές λέγουσι Ἐρύθειαν νῆσον τὴν πρὸς Γαδείροισι τοῖσι ἔξω Ἡρακλέων στηλέων ἐπὶ τῷ Ὠκεανῷ. τὸν δὲ Ὠκεανὸν λόγῳ μὲν λέγουσι ἀπὸ ἡλίου ἀνατολέων ἀρξάμενον γῆν περὶ πᾶσαν ῥέειν, ἔργῳ δὲ οὐκ ἀποδεικνῦσι. ἐνθεῦτεν τόν Ἡρακλέα ἀπικέσθαι ἐς τὴν νῦν Σκυθίην χώρην καλεομένην, καὶ καταλαβεῖν γὰρ αὐτὸν χειμῶνα τε καὶ κρυμὸν, ἐπειρυσάμενον τὴν λεοντέην κατυπνῶσαι, τὰς δὲ οἱ ἵππους τὰς 1 ὑπὸ τοῦ ἅρματος νεμομένας ἐν τούτῳ τῳ χρόνῳ ἀφανισθῆναι θείη τύχῃ. 4.9. ὥς δʼ ἐγερθῆναι τὸν Ἡρακλέα, δίζησθαι, πάντα δὲ τῆς χώρης ἐπεξελθόντα τέλος ἀπικέσθαι ἐς τὴν Ὑλαίην καλεομένην γῆν· ἐνθαῦτα δὲ αὐτὸν εὑρεῖν ἐν ἄντρῳ μιξοπάρθενον τινά, ἔχιδναν διφυέα, τῆς τὰ μὲν ἄνω ἀπὸ τῶν γλουτῶν εἶναι γυναικός, τὰ δὲ ἔνερθε ὄφιος. ἰδόντα δὲ καὶ θωμάσαντα ἐπειρέσθαι μιν εἴ κου ἴδοι ἵππους πλανωμένας· τὴν δὲ φάναι ἑωυτήν ἔχειν καὶ οὐκ ἀποδώσειν ἐκείνῳ πρὶν ἢ οἱ μιχθῇ· τό δὲ Ἡρακλέα μιχθῆναι ἐπὶ τῷ μισθῷ τούτῳ. κείνην τε δὴ ὑπερβάλλεσθαι τὴν ἀπόδοσιν τῶν ἵππων, βουλομένην ὡς πλεῖστον χρόνον συνεῖναι τῷ Ἡρακλεῖ, καὶ τὸν κομισάμενον ἐθέλειν ἀπαλλάσσεσθαι· τέλος δὲ ἀποδιδοῦσαν αὐτὴν εἰπεῖν Ἵππους μὲν δὴ ταύτας ἀπικομένας ἐνθάδε ἔσωσα τοὶ ἐγώ, σῶστρά τε σὺ παρέσχες· ἐγὼ γὰρ ἐκ σεῦ τρεῖς παῖδας ἔχω. τούτους, ἐπεὰν γένωνται τρόφιες, ὃ τι χρὴ ποιέειν, ἐξηγέο σύ, εἴτε αὐτοῦ κατοικίζω ʽχώρης γὰρ τῆσδε ἔχω τὸ κράτος αὕτἠ εἴτε ἀποπέμπω παρὰ σέ. τὴν μὲν δὴ ταῦτα ἐπειρωτᾶν, τὸν δὲ λέγουσι πρὸς ταῦτα εἰπεῖν “ἐπεὰν ἀνδρωθέντας ἴδῃ τοὺς παῖδας, τάδε ποιεῦσα οὐκ ἂν ἁμαρτάνοις· τὸν μὲν ἂν ὁρᾷς αὐτῶν τόδε τὸ τόξον ὧδε διατεινόμενον καὶ τῳ ζωστῆρι τῷδε κατὰ τάδε ζωννύμενον, τοῦτον μὲν τῆσδε τῆς χώρης οἰκήτορα ποιεῦ· ὃς δʼ ἂν τούτων τῶν ἔργων τῶν ἐντέλλομαι λείπηται, ἔκπεμπε ἐκ τῆς χώρης. καὶ ταῦτα ποιεῦσα αὐτή τε εὐφρανέαι καὶ τὰ ἐντεταλμένα ποιήσεις.” 4.10. τὸν μὲν δὴ εἰρύσαντα τῶν τόξων τὸ ἕτερον ʽδύο γὰρ δὴ φορέειν τέως Ἡρακλέἀ καὶ τὸν ζωστῆρα προδέξαντα, παραδοῦναι τὸ τόξον τε καὶ τὸν ζωστῆρα ἔχοντα ἐπʼ ἄκρης τῆς συμβολῆς φιάλην χρυσέην, δόντα δὲ ἀπαλλάσσεσθαι. τὴν δʼ, ἐπεὶ οἱ γενομένους τοὺς παῖδας ἀνδρωθῆναι, τοῦτο μὲν σφι οὐνόματα θέσθαι, τῷ μὲν Ἀγάθυρσον αὐτῶν, τῷ δʼ ἑπομένῳ Γελωνόν, Σκύθην δὲ τῷ νεωτάτῳ, τοῦτο δὲ τῆς ἐπιστολῆς μεμνημένην αὐτὴν ποιῆσαι τά ἐντεταλμένα. καὶ δὴ δύο μὲν οἱ τῶν παίδων, τόν τε Ἀγάθυρσον καὶ τὸν Γελωνόν, οὐκ οἵους τε γενομένους ἐξικέσθαι πρὸς τὸν προκείμενον ἄεθλον, οἴχεσθαι ἐκ τῆς χώρης ἐκβληθέντας ὑπὸ τῆς γειναμένης, τὸν δὲ νεώτατον αὐτῶν Σκύθην ἐπιτελέσαντα καταμεῖναι ἐν τῇ χωρῇ. καὶ ἀπὸ μὲν Σκύθεω τοῦ Ἡρακλέος γενέσθαι τοὺς αἰεὶ βασιλέας γινομένους Σκυθέων, ἀπὸ δὲ τῆς φιάλης ἔτι καὶ ἐς τόδε φιάλας ἐκ τῶν ζωστήρων φορέειν Σκύθας· τὸ δὴ μοῦνον μηχανήσασθαι τὴν μητέρα Σκύθῃ. 1 ταῦτα δὲ Ἑλλήνων οἱ τὸν Πόντον οἰκέοντες λέγουσι.
4.13. ἔφη δὲ Ἀριστέης ὁ Καϋστροβίου ἀνὴρ Προκοννήσιος ποιέων ἔπεα, ἀπικέσθαι ἐς Ἰσσηδόνας φοιβόλαμπτος γενόμενος, Ἰσσηδόνων δὲ ὑπεροικέειν Ἀριμασποὺς ἄνδρας μουνοφθάλμους ὕπερ δὲ τούτων τοὺς χρυσοφύλακας γρῦπας, τούτων δὲ τοὺς Ὑπερβορέους κατήκοντας ἐπὶ θάλασσαν. τούτους ὦν πάντας πλὴν Ὑπερβορέων, ἀρξάντων Ἀριμασπῶν, αἰεὶ τοῖσι πλησιοχώροισι ἐπιτίθεσθαι, καὶ ὑπὸ μὲν Ἀριμασπῶν ἐξωθέεσθαι ἐκ τῆς χώρης Ἰσσηδόνας, ὑπὸ δὲ Ἰσσηδόνων Σκύθας, Κιμμερίους δὲ οἰκέοντας ἐπὶ τῇ νοτίῃ θαλάσσῃ ὑπὸ Σκυθέων πιεζομένους ἐκλείπειν τὴν χώρην. οὕτω οὐδὲ οὗτος συμφέρεται περὶ τῆς χώρης ταύτης Σκύθῃσι.
4.15. ταῦτα μὲν αἱ πόλιες αὗται λέγουσι, τάδε δὲ οἶδα Μεταποντίνοισι τοῖσι ἐν Ἰταλίῃ συγκυρήσαντα μετὰ τὴν ἀφάνισιν τὴν δευτέρην Ἀριστέω ἔτεσι τεσσεράκοντα καὶ διηκοσίοισι, ὡς ἐγὼ συμβαλλόμενος ἐν Προκοννήσῳ τε καὶ Μεταποντίῳ εὕρισκον. Μεταποντῖνοι φασὶ αὐτὸν Ἀριστέην φανέντα σφι ἐς τὴν χώρην κελεῦσαι βωμὸν Ἀπόλλωνος ἱδρύσασθαι καὶ Ἀριστέω τοῦ Προκοννησίου ἐπωνυμίην ἔχοντα ἀνδριάντα πὰρʼ αὐτὸν ἱστάναι· φάναι γὰρ σφι τὸν Ἀπόλλωνα Ἰταλιωτέων μούνοισι δὴ ἀπικέσθαι ἐς τὴν χώρην, καὶ αὐτὸς οἱ ἕπεσθαι ὁ νῦν ἐὼν Ἀριστέης· τότε δὲ, ὅτε εἵπετο τῷ θεῷ, εἶναι κόραξ. καὶ τὸν μὲν εἰπόντα ταῦτα ἀφανισθῆναι, σφέας δὲ Μεταποντῖνοι λέγουσι ἐς Δελφοὺς πέμψαντας τὸν θεὸν ἐπειρωτᾶν ὃ τι τὸ φάσμα τοῦ ἀνθρώπου εἴη. τὴν δὲ Πυθίην σφέας κελεύειν πείθεσθαι τῷ φάσματι, πειθομένοισι δὲ ἄμεινον συνοίσεσθαι. καὶ σφέας δεξαμένους ταῦτα ποιῆσαι ἐπιτελέα. καὶ νῦν ἔστηκε ἀνδριὰς ἐπωνυμίην ἔχων Ἀριστέω παρʼ αὐτῷ τῷ ἀγάλματι τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος, πέριξ δὲ αὐτὸν δάφναι ἑστᾶσι· τὸ δὲ ἄγαλμα ἐν τῇ ἀγορῇ ἵδρυται. Ἀριστέω μέν νυν πέρι τοσαῦτα εἰρήσθω.
4.79. ἐπείτε δὲ ἔδεέ οἱ κακῶς γενέσθαι, ἐγίνετο ἀπὸ προφάσιος τοιῆσδε. ἐπεθύμησε Διονύσῳ Βακχείῳ τελεσθῆναι· μέλλοντι δέ οἱ ἐς χεῖρας ἄγεσθαι τὴν τελετὴν ἐγένετο φάσμα μέγιστον. ἦν οἱ ἐν Βορυσθενεϊτέων τῇ πόλι οἰκίης μεγάλης καὶ πολυτελέος περιβολή, τῆς καὶ ὀλίγῳ τι πρότερον τούτων μνήμην εἶχον, τὴν πέριξ λευκοῦ λίθου σφίγγες τε καὶ γρῦπες ἕστασαν· ἐς ταύτην ὁ θεὸς ἐνέσκηψε βέλος. καὶ ἣ μὲν κατεκάη πᾶσα, Σκύλης δὲ οὐδὲν τούτου εἵνεκα ἧσσον ἐπετέλεσε τὴν τελετήν. Σκύθαι δὲ τοῦ βακχεύειν πέρι Ἕλλησι ὀνειδίζουσι· οὐ γὰρ φασὶ οἰκὸς εἶναι θεὸν ἐξευρίσκειν τοῦτον ὅστις μαίνεσθαι ἐνάγει ἀνθρώπους. ἐπείτε δὲ ἐτελέσθη τῷ Βακχείῳ ὁ Σκύλης, διεπρήστευσε τῶν τις Βορυσθενειτέων πρὸς τοὺς Σκύθας λέγων “ἡμῖν γὰρ καταγελᾶτε, ὦ Σκύθαι, ὅτι βακχεύομεν καὶ ἡμέας ὁ θεὸς λαμβάνει· νῦν οὗτος ὁ δαίμων καὶ τὸν ὑμέτερον βασιλέα λελάβηκε, καὶ βακχεύει τε καὶ ὑπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ μαίνεται. εἰ δέ μοι ἀπιστέετε, ἕπεσθε, καὶ ὑμῖν ἐγὼ δέξω.” εἵποντο τῶν Σκύθεων οἱ προεστεῶτες, καὶ αὐτοὺς ἀναγαγὼν ὁ Βορυσθενεΐτης λάθρῃ ἐπὶ πύργον κατεῖσε. ἐπείτε δὲ παρήιε σὺν τῷ θιάσῳ ὁ Σκύλης καὶ εἶδόν μιν βακχεύοντα οἱ Σκύθαι, κάρτα συμφορὴν μεγάλην ἐποιήσαντο, ἐξελθόντες δὲ ἐσήμαινον πάσῃ τῇ στρατιῇ τὰ ἴδοιεν. 4.80. ὡς δὲ μετὰ ταῦτα ἐξήλαυνε ὁ Σκύλης ἐς ἤθεα τὰ ἑωυτοῦ, οἱ Σκύθαι προστησάμενοι τὸν ἀδελφεὸν αὐτοῦ Ὀκταμασάδην, γεγονότα ἐκ τῆς Τήρεω θυγατρός, ἐπανιστέατο τῷ Σκύλῃ. ὁ δὲ μαθὼν τὸ γινόμενον ἐπʼ ἑωυτῷ καὶ τὴν αἰτίην διʼ ἣν ἐποιέετο, καταφεύγει ἐς τὴν Θρηίκην. πυθόμενος δὲ ὁ Ὀκταμασάδης ταῦτα ἐστρατεύετο ἐπὶ τὴν Θρηίκην. ἐπείτε δὲ ἐπὶ τῷ Ἴστρῳ ἐγένετο, ἠντίασάν μιν οἱ Θρήικες, μελλόντων δὲ αὐτῶν συνάψειν ἔπεμψε Σιτάλκης παρὰ τὸν Ὀκταμασάδην λέγων τοιάδε. “τι δεῖ ἡμέας ἀλλήλων πειρηθῆναι; εἶς μέν μευ τῆς ἀδελφεῆς παῖς, ἔχεις δέ μευ ἀδελφεόν. σὺ δέ μοι ἀπόδος τοῦτον, καὶ ἐγὼ σοὶ τὸν σὸν Σκύλην παραδίδωμι· στρατιῇ δὲ μήτε σὺ κινδυνεύσῃς μήτʼ ἐγώ.” ταῦτά οἱ πέμψας ὁ Σιτάλκης ἐπεκηρυκεύετο· ἦν γὰρ παρὰ τῷ Ὀκταμασάδη ἀδελφεὸς Σιτάλκεω πεφευγώς. ὁ δὲ Ὀκταμασάδης καταινέει ταῦτα, ἐκδοὺς δὲ τὸν ἑωυτοῦ μήτρωα Σιτάλκη ἔλαβε τὸν ἀδελφεὸν Σκύλην. καὶ Σιτάλκης μὲν παραλαβὼν τὸν ἀδελφεὸν ἀπήγετο, Σκύλεω δὲ Ὀκταμασάδης αὐτοῦ ταύτῃ ἀπέταμε τὴν κεφαλήν. οὕτω μὲν περιστέλλουσι τὰ σφέτερα νόμαια Σκύθαι, τοῖσι δὲ παρακτωμένοισι ξεινικοὺς νόμους τοιαῦτα ἐπιτίμια διδοῦσι.
8.57. ἐνθαῦτα δὴ Θεμιστοκλέα ἀπικόμενον ἐπὶ τὴν νέα εἴρετο Μνησίφιλος ἀνὴρ Ἀθηναῖος ὅ τι σφι εἴη βεβουλευμένον. πυθόμενος δὲ πρὸς αὐτοῦ ὡς εἴη δεδογμένον ἀνάγειν τὰς νέας πρὸς τὸν Ἰσθμὸν καὶ πρὸ τῆς Πελοποννήσου ναυμαχέειν, εἶπε “οὔτʼ ἄρα, ἤν ἀπαείρωσι τὰς νέας ἀπὸ Σαλαμῖνος, περὶ οὐδεμιῆς ἔτι πατρίδος ναυμαχήσεις· κατὰ γὰρ πόλις ἕκαστοι τρέψονται, καὶ οὔτε σφέας Εὐρυβιάδης κατέχειν δυνήσεται οὔτε τις ἀνθρώπων ἄλλος ὥστε μὴ οὐ διασκεδασθῆναι τὴν στρατιήν· ἀπολέεταί τε ἡ Ἑλλὰς ἀβουλίῃσι. ἀλλʼ εἴ τις ἐστὶ μηχανή, ἴθι καὶ πειρῶ διαχέαι τὰ βεβουλευμένα, ἤν κως δύνῃ ἀναγνῶσαι Εὐρυβιάδην μεταβουλεύσασθαι ὥστε αὐτοῦ μένειν.”''. None
4.5. The Scythians say that their nation is the youngest in the world, and that it came into being in this way. A man whose name was Targitaüs appeared in this country, which was then desolate. They say that his parents were Zeus and a daughter of the Borysthenes river (I do not believe the story, but it is told). ,Such was Targitaüs' lineage; and he had three sons: Lipoxaïs, Arpoxaïs, and Colaxaïs, youngest of the three. ,In the time of their rule (the story goes) certain implements—namely, a plough, a yoke, a sword, and a flask, all of gold—fell down from the sky into Scythia . The eldest of them, seeing these, approached them meaning to take them; but the gold began to burn as he neared, and he stopped. ,Then the second approached, and the gold did as before. When these two had been driven back by the burning gold, the youngest brother approached and the burning stopped, and he took the gold to his own house. In view of this, the elder brothers agreed to give all the royal power to the youngest. " "4.6. Lipoxaïs, it is said, was the father of the Scythian clan called Auchatae; Arpoxaïs, the second brother, of those called Katiari and Traspians; the youngest, who was king, of those called Paralatae. ,All these together bear the name of Skoloti, after their king; “Scythians” is the name given them by Greeks. This, then, is the Scythians' account of their origin, " '4.7. and they say that neither more nor less than a thousand years in all passed from the time of their first king Targitaüs to the entry of Darius into their country. The kings guard this sacred gold very closely, and every year offer solemn sacrifices of propitiation to it. ,Whoever falls asleep at this festival in the open air, having the sacred gold with him, is said by the Scythians not to live out the year; for which reason (they say) as much land as he can ride round in one day is given to him. Because of the great size of the country, the lordships that Colaxaïs established for his sons were three, one of which, where they keep the gold, was the greatest. ,Above and north of the neighbors of their country no one (they say) can see or travel further, because of showers of feathers; for earth and sky are full of feathers, and these hinder sight. ' "4.8. This is what the Scythians say about themselves and the country north of them. But the story told by the Greeks who live in Pontus is as follows. Heracles, driving the cattle of Geryones, came to this land, which was then desolate, but is now inhabited by the Scythians. ,Geryones lived west of the Pontus, settled in the island called by the Greeks Erythea, on the shore of Ocean near Gadira, outside the pillars of Heracles. As for Ocean, the Greeks say that it flows around the whole world from where the sun rises, but they cannot prove that this is so. ,Heracles came from there to the country now called Scythia, where, encountering wintry and frosty weather, he drew his lion's skin over him and fell asleep, and while he slept his mares, which were grazing yoked to the chariot, were spirited away by divine fortune. " '4.9. When Heracles awoke, he searched for them, visiting every part of the country, until at last he came to the land called the Woodland, and there he found in a cave a creature of double form that was half maiden and half serpent; above the buttocks she was a woman, below them a snake. ,When he saw her he was astonished, and asked her if she had seen his mares straying; she said that she had them, and would not return them to him before he had intercourse with her; Heracles did, in hope of this reward. ,But though he was anxious to take the horses and go, she delayed returning them, so that she might have Heracles with her for as long as possible; at last she gave them back, telling him, “These mares came, and I kept them safe here for you, and you have paid me for keeping them, for I have three sons by you. ,Now tell me what I am to do when they are grown up: shall I keep them here (since I am queen of this country), or shall I send them away to you?” Thus she inquired, and then (it is said) Heracles answered: ,“When you see the boys are grown up, do as follows and you will do rightly: whichever of them you see bending this bow and wearing this belt so, make him an inhabitant of this land; but whoever falls short of these accomplishments that I require, send him away out of the country. Do so and you shall yourself have comfort, and my will shall be done.” 4.10. So he drew one of his bows (for until then Heracles always carried two), and showed her the belt, and gave her the bow and the belt, that had a golden vessel on the end of its clasp; and, having given them, he departed. But when the sons born to her were grown men, she gave them names, calling one of them Agathyrsus and the next Gelonus and the youngest Scythes; furthermore, remembering the instructions, she did as she was told. ,Two of her sons, Agathyrsus and Gelonus, were cast out by their mother and left the country, unable to fulfill the requirements set; but Scythes, the youngest, fulfilled them and so stayed in the land. ,From Scythes son of Heracles comes the whole line of the kings of Scythia ; and it is because of the vessel that the Scythians carry vessels on their belts to this day. This alone his mother did for Scythes. This is what the Greek dwellers in Pontus say. ' "
4.13. There is also a story related in a poem by Aristeas son of Caüstrobius, a man of Proconnesus . This Aristeas, possessed by Phoebus, visited the Issedones; beyond these (he said) live the one-eyed Arimaspians, beyond whom are the griffins that guard gold, and beyond these again the Hyperboreans, whose territory reaches to the sea. ,Except for the Hyperboreans, all these nations (and first the Arimaspians) are always at war with their neighbors; the Issedones were pushed from their lands by the Arimaspians, and the Scythians by the Issedones, and the Cimmerians, living by the southern sea, were hard pressed by the Scythians and left their country. Thus Aristeas' story does not agree with the Scythian account about this country. " '
4.15. Such is the tale told in these two towns. But this, I know, happened to the Metapontines in Italy, two hundred and forty years after the second disappearance of Aristeas, as reckoning made at Proconnesus and Metapontum shows me: ,Aristeas, so the Metapontines say, appeared in their country and told them to set up an altar to Apollo, and set beside it a statue bearing the name of Aristeas the Proconnesian; for, he said, Apollo had come to their country alone of all Italian lands, and he—the man who was now Aristeas, but then when he followed the god had been a crow—had come with him. ,After saying this, he vanished. The Metapontines, so they say, sent to Delphi and asked the god what the vision of the man could mean; and the Pythian priestess told them to obey the vision, saying that their fortune would be better. ,They did as instructed. And now there stands beside the image of Apollo a statue bearing the name of Aristeas; a grove of bay-trees surrounds it; the image is set in the marketplace. Let it suffice that I have said this much about Aristeas.
4.79. But when things had to turn out badly for him, they did so for this reason: he conceived a desire to be initiated into the rites of the Bacchic Dionysus; and when he was about to begin the sacred mysteries, he saw the greatest vision. ,He had in the city of the Borysthenites a spacious house, grand and costly (the same house I just mentioned), all surrounded by sphinxes and griffins worked in white marble; this house was struck by a thunderbolt. And though the house burnt to the ground, Scyles none the less performed the rite to the end. ,Now the Scythians reproach the Greeks for this Bacchic revelling, saying that it is not reasonable to set up a god who leads men to madness. ,So when Scyles had been initiated into the Bacchic rite, some one of the Borysthenites scoffed at the Scythians: “You laugh at us, Scythians, because we play the Bacchant and the god possesses us; but now this deity has possessed your own king, so that he plays the Bacchant and is maddened by the god. If you will not believe me, follow me now and I will show him to you.” ,The leading men among the Scythians followed him, and the Borysthenite brought them up secretly onto a tower; from which, when Scyles passed by with his company of worshippers, they saw him playing the Bacchant; thinking it a great misfortune, they left the city and told the whole army what they had seen. ' "4.80. After this Scyles rode off to his own place; but the Scythians rebelled against him, setting up his brother Octamasades, son of the daughter of Teres, for their king. ,Scyles, learning what had happened concerning him and the reason why it had happened, fled into Thrace; and when Octamasades heard this he led his army there. But when he was beside the Ister, the Thracians barred his way; and when the armies were about to engage, Sitalces sent this message to Octamasades: ,“Why should we try each other's strength? You are my sister's son, and you have my brother with you; give him back to me, and I will give up your Scyles to you; and let us not endanger our armies.” ,Such was the offer Sitalces sent to him; for Sitalces' brother had fled from him and was with Octamasades. The Scythian agreed to this, and took his brother Scyles, giving up his own uncle to Sitalces. ,Sitalces then took his brother and carried him away, but Octamasades beheaded Scyles on the spot. This is how closely the Scythians guard their customs, and these are the penalties they inflict on those who add foreign customs to their own. " '
8.57. When Themistocles returned to his ship, Mnesiphilus, an Athenian, asked him what had been decided. Learning from him that they had resolved to sail to the Isthmus and fight for the Peloponnese, he said, ,“If they depart from Salamis, you will no longer be fighting for one country. Each will make his way to his own city, and neither Eurybiades nor any other man will be able to keep them from disbanding the army. Hellas will be destroyed by bad planning. If there is any way at all that you could persuade Eurybiades to change his decision and remain here, go try to undo this resolution.” '". None
11. Xenophon, The Persian Expedition, 3.1.11 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Audience • audience

 Found in books: Lipka (2021) 153; Michalopoulos et al. (2021) 174

3.1.11. ἐπεὶ δὲ ἀπορία ἦν, ἐλυπεῖτο μὲν σὺν τοῖς ἄλλοις καὶ οὐκ ἐδύνατο καθεύδειν· μικρὸν δʼ ὕπνου λαχὼν εἶδεν ὄναρ. ἔδοξεν αὐτῷ βροντῆς γενομένης σκηπτὸς πεσεῖν εἰς τὴν πατρῴαν οἰκίαν, καὶ ἐκ τούτου λάμπεσθαι πᾶσα.''. None
3.1.11. Now when the time of perplexity came, he was distressed as well as everybody else and was unable to sleep; but, getting at length a little sleep, he had a dream. It seemed to him that there was a clap of thunder and a bolt fell on his father’s house, setting the whole house ablaze. ''. None
12. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • audience • audiences

 Found in books: Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 1, 2; Csapo (2022) 65; Kingsley Monti and Rood (2022) 23; Lloyd (1989) 97

13. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Audience • audience, at the festivals • audience, size of

 Found in books: Jouanna (2018) 182, 693; Michalopoulos et al. (2021) 194

14. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Audience • audience

 Found in books: Lipka (2021) 106; Michalopoulos et al. (2021) 152

15. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Audience • internal audiences

 Found in books: Michalopoulos et al. (2021) 100; Spatharas (2019) 42

16. Aeschines, Letters, 1.26, 1.131, 3.1 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Audience • Harpokration, on noise made by audience • internal audiences

 Found in books: Eidinow (2007) 311; Michalopoulos et al. (2021) 56, 59, 90; Spatharas (2019) 20

1.26. See now, fellow citizens, how unlike to Timarchus were Solon and those men of old whom I mentioned a moment ago. They were too modest to speak with the arm outside the cloak, but this man not long ago, yes, only the other day, in an assembly of the people threw off his cloak and leaped about like a gymnast, half naked, his body so reduced and befouled through drunkenness and lewdness that right-minded men, at least, covered their eyes, being ashamed for the city, that we should let such men as he be our advisers.
1.131. in the case of Demosthenes, too, it was common report, and not his nurse, that gave him his nickname; and well did common report name him Batalus, for his effeminacy and lewdness! For, Demosthenes, if anyone should strip off those exquisite, pretty mantle of yours, and the soft, pretty shirts that you wear while you are writing your speeches against your friends,Writing speeches against his former friends is as brave an act as Demosthenes is capable of, and the only armor that he knows or needs is his soft shirt! Aeschines is smarting under the fact that Demosthenes, who, in the beginning of the negotiations with Philip for peace, had been on good terms with himself, has now caused his indictment for treason, and will shortly conduct the prosecution in court. and should pass them around among the jurors, I think, unless they were informed beforehand, they would be quite at a loss to say whether they had in their hands the clothing of a man or of a woman!
3.1. You see, fellow citizens, how certain persons have been making their preparations for this case: how they have mustered their forces, and how they have gone begging up and down the market place, in the attempt to prevent the fair and orderly course of justice in the state. But I have come trusting first in the gods, then in the laws and in you, believing that with you no scheming preparation can override law and justice.''. None
17. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Audience • audience • audience, Ovid’s direct addressesto • audience, artistic strategies as reaction to • audience, within the Iliad

 Found in books: Gagné (2020) 147; Johnson (2008) 36, 88; Michalopoulos et al. (2021) 356

18. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • actors, critique audience • audience • audience, and empathy with slaves • audience, and experience of war • audience, interaction with • audience, mixed • audience, wreathed • audiences • staging, plants in audience

 Found in books: Csapo (2022) 3; Lipka (2021) 88, 97; Richlin (2018) 84, 85, 144, 145, 146, 148, 150, 268

19. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • audience, and debt • audience, and empathy with slaves • audience, and experience of war • audience, interaction with • audience, mixed • audience, space (cavea) • audiences • slaves, historical, in the audience

 Found in books: Clark (2007) 83, 105; Richlin (2018) 21, 140, 141, 184

20. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • audience • audience, and experience of war • audience, interaction with • audience, seating • audience, wreathed • staging, plants in audience

 Found in books: Lipka (2021) 87; Richlin (2018) 148, 149, 150, 185

21. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • actors, critique audience • audience • audience, and experience of war • audience, interaction with • audiences • slaves, historical, in the audience

 Found in books: Clark (2007) 78; Lipka (2021) 88; Richlin (2018) 145, 149, 316, 317

22. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 1.13-1.16, 1.28-1.29, 1.65, 1.70-1.71, 1.75, 1.86-1.90, 1.96, 5.4 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Demetrius, Chronographer, Intended audience • Hecataeus of Abdera, audience of • Minerva (Athena), as audience • audience • audience, nymphs as judges and • audiences • nymphs, as audience and judges

 Found in books: Bar Kochba (1997) 16; Csapo (2022) 65; Johnson (2008) 67; Lipka (2021) 153; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 12; Stavrianopoulou (2013) 220

1.13. 1. \xa0And besides these there are other gods, they say, who were terrestrial, having once been mortals, but who, by reason of their sagacity and the good services which they rendered to all men, attained immortality, some of them having even been kings in Egypt.,2. \xa0Their names, when translated, are in some cases the same as those of the celestial gods, while others have a distinct appellation, such as Helius, Cronus, and Rhea, and also the Zeus who is called Ammon by some, and besides these Hera and Hephaestus, also Hestia, and, finally, Hermes. Helius was the first king of the Egyptians, his name being the same as that of the heavenly star.,3. \xa0Some of the priests, however, say that Hephaestus was their first king, since he was the discoverer of fire and received the rule because of this service to mankind; for once, when a tree on the mountains had been struck by lightning and the forest near by was ablaze, Hephaestus went up to it, for it was winter-time, and greatly enjoyed the heat; as the fire died down he kept adding fuel to it, and while keeping the fire going in this way he invited the rest of mankind to enjoy the advantage which came from it.,4. \xa0Then Cronus became the ruler, and upon marrying his sister Rhea he begat Osiris and Isis, according to some writers of mythology, but, according to the majority, Zeus and Hera, whose high achievements gave them dominion over the entire universe. From these last were sprung five gods, one born on each of the five days which the Egyptians intercalate; the names of these children were Osiris and Isis, and also Typhon, Apollo, and Aphroditê;,5. \xa0and Osiris when translated is Dionysus, and Isis is more similar to Demeter than to any other goddess; and after Osiris married Isis and succeeded to the kingship he did many things of service to the social life of man. 1.14. 1. \xa0Osiris was the first, they record, to make mankind give up cannibalism; for after Isis had discovered the fruit of both wheat and barley which grew wild over the land along with the other plants but was still unknown to man, and Osiris had also devised the cultivation of these fruits, all men were glad to change their food, both because of the pleasing nature of the newly-discovered grains and because it seemed to their advantage to refrain from their butchery of one another.,2. \xa0As proof of the discovery of these fruits they offer the following ancient custom which they still observe: Even yet at harvest time the people make a dedication of the first heads of the grain to be cut, and standing beside the sheaf beat themselves and call upon Isis, by this act rendering honour to the goddess for the fruits which she discovered, at the season when she first did this.,3. \xa0Moreover in some cities, during the Festival of Isis as well, stalks of wheat and barley are carried among the other objects in the procession, as a memorial of what the goddess so ingeniously discovered at the beginning. Isis also established laws, they say, in accordance with which the people regularly dispense justice to one another and are led to refrain through fear of punishment from illegal violence and insolence;,4. \xa0and it is for this reason also that the early Greeks gave Demeter the name Thesmophorus, acknowledging in this way that she had first established their laws.' "1.15. 1. \xa0Osiris, they say, founded in the Egyptian Thebaid a city with a\xa0hundred gates, which the men of his day named after his mother, though later generations called it Diospolis, and some named it Thebes.,2. \xa0There is no agreement, however, as to when this city was founded, not only among the historians, but even among the priests of Egypt themselves; for many writers say that Thebes was not founded by Osiris, but many years later by a certain king of whom we shall give a detailed account in connection with his period.,3. \xa0Osiris, they add, also built a temple to his parents, Zeus and Hera, which was famous both for its size and its costliness in general, and two golden chapels to Zeus, the larger one to him as god of heaven, the smaller one to him as former king and father of the Egyptians, in which rôle he is called by some Ammon.,4. \xa0He also made golden chapels for the rest of the gods mentioned above, allotting honours to each of them and appointing priests to have charge over these. Special esteem at the court of Osiris and Isis was also accorded to those who should invent any of the arts or devise any useful process;,5. \xa0consequently, since copper and gold mines had been discovered in the Thebaid, they fashioned implements with which they killed the wild beasts and worked the soil, and thus in eager rivalry brought the country under cultivation, and they made images of the gods and magnificent golden chapels for their worship.,6. \xa0Osiris, they say, was also interested in agriculture and was reared in Nysa, a city of Arabia Felix near Egypt, being a son of Zeus; and the name which he bears among the Greeks is derived both from his father and from the birthplace, since he is called Dionysus.,7. \xa0Mention is also made of Nysa by the poet in his Hymns, to the effect that it was in the vicinity of Egypt, when he says: There is a certain Nysa, mountain high, With forests thick, in Phoenicê afar, Close to Aegyptus' streams.,8. \xa0And the discovery of the vine, they say, was made by him near Nysa, and that, having further devised the proper treatment of its fruit, he was the first to drink wine and taught mankind at large the culture of the vine and the use of wine, as well as the way to harvest the grape and to store wine.,9. \xa0The one most highly honoured by him was Hermes, who was endowed with unusual ingenuity for devising things capable of improving the social life of man." "1.16. 1. \xa0It was by Hermes, for instance, according to them, that the common language of mankind was first further articulated, and that many objects which were still nameless received an appellation, that the alphabet was invented, and that ordices regarding the honours and offerings due to the gods were duly established; he was the first also to observe the orderly arrangement of the stars and the harmony of the musical sounds and their nature, to establish a wrestling school, and to give thought to the rhythmical movement of the human body and its proper development. He also made a lyre and gave it three strings, imitating the seasons of the year; for he adopted three tones, a high, a low, and a medium; the high from the summer, the low from the winter, and the medium from the spring.,2. \xa0The Greeks also were taught by him how to expound (hermeneia) their thoughts, and it was for this reason that he was given the name Hermes. In a word, Osiris, taking him for his priestly scribe, communicated with him on every matter and used his counsel above that of all others. The olive tree also, they claim, was his discovery, not Athena's, as the Greeks say." '
1.28. 1. \xa0Now the Egyptians say that also after these events a great number of colonies were spread from Egypt over all the inhabited world. To Babylon, for instance, colonists were led by Belus, who was held to be the son of Poseidon and Libya; and after establishing himself on the Euphrates river he appointed priests, called Chaldaeans by the Babylonians, who were exempt from taxation and free from every kind of service to the state, as are the priests of Egypt; and they also make observations of the stars, following the example of the Egyptian priests, physicists, and astrologers.,2. \xa0They say also that those who set forth with Danaus, likewise from Egypt, settled what is practically the oldest city in Greece, Argos, and that the nation of the Colchi in Pontus and that of the Jews, which lies between Arabia and Syria, were founded as colonies by certain emigrants from their country;,3. \xa0and this is the reason why it is a long-established institution among these two peoples to circumcise their male children, the custom having been brought over from Egypt.,4. \xa0Even the Athenians, they say, are colonists from Saïs in Egypt, and they undertake to offer proofs of such a relationship; for the Athenians are the only Greeks who call their city "Asty," a name brought over from the city Asty in Egypt. Furthermore, their body politic had the same classification and division of the people as found in Egypt, where the citizens have been divided into three orders:,5. \xa0the first Athenian class consisted of the "eupatrids," as they were called, being those who were such as had received the best education and were held worthy of the highest honour, as is the case with the priests of Egypt; the second was that of the "geomoroi," who were expected to possess arms and to serve in defence of the state, like those in Egypt who are known as husbandmen and supply the warriors; and the last class was reckoned to be that of the "demiurgoi," who practise the mechanical arts and render only the most menial services to the state, this class among the Egyptians having a similar function.,6. \xa0Moreover, certain of the rulers of Athens were originally Egyptians, they say. Petes, for instance, the father of that Menestheus who took part in the expedition against Troy, having clearly been an Egyptian, later obtained citizenship at Athens and the kingship. .\xa0.\xa0.,7. \xa0He was of double form, and yet the Athenians are unable from their own point of view to give the true explanation of this nature of his, although it is patent to all that it was because of his double citizenship, Greek and barbarian, that he was held to be of double form, that is, part animal and part man. 1.29. 1. \xa0In the same way, they continue, Erechtheus also, who was by birth an Egyptian, became king of Athens, and in proof of this they offer the following considerations. Once when there was a great drought, as is generally agreed, which extended over practically all the inhabited earth except Egypt because of the peculiar character of that country, and there followed a destruction both of crops and of men in great numbers, Erechtheus, through his racial connection with Egypt, brought from there to Athens a great supply of grain, and in return those who had enjoyed this aid made their benefactor king.,2. \xa0After he had secured the throne he instituted the initiatory rites of Demeter in Eleusis and established the mysteries, transferring their ritual from Egypt. And the tradition that an advent of the goddess into Attica also took place at that time is reasonable, since it was then that the fruits which are named after her were brought to Athens, and this is why it was thought that the discovery of the seed had been made again, as though Demeter had bestowed the gift.,3. \xa0And the Athenians on their part agree that it was in the reign of Erechtheus, when a lack of rain had wiped out the crops, that Demeter came to them with the gift of grain. Furthermore, the initiatory rites and mysteries of this goddess were instituted at Eleusis at that time.,4. \xa0And their sacrifices as well as their ancient ceremonies are observed by the Athenians in the same way as by the Egyptians; for the Eumolpidae were derived from the priests of Egypt and the Ceryces from the pastophoroi. They are also the only Greeks who swear by Isis, and they closely resemble the Egyptians in both their appearance and manners.,5. \xa0By many other statements like these, spoken more out of a love for glory than with regard for the truth, as I\xa0see the matter, they claim Athens as a colony of theirs because of the fame of that city. In general, the Egyptians say that their ancestors sent forth numerous colonies to many parts of the inhabited world, the pre-eminence of their former kings and their excessive population;,6. \xa0but since they offer no precise proof whatsoever for these statements, and since no historian worthy of credence testifies in their support, we have not thought that their accounts merited recording. So far as the ideas of the Egyptians about the gods are concerned, let what we have said suffice, since we are aiming at due proportion in our account, but with regard to the land, the Nile, and everything else worth hearing about we shall endeavour, in each case, to give the several facts in summary.
1.65. 1. \xa0After the kings mentioned above Bocchoris succeeded to the throne, a man who was altogether contemptible in personal appearance but in sagacity far surpassed all former kings.,2. \xa0Much later Egypt was ruled by Sabaco, who was by birth an Ethiopian and yet in piety and uprightness far surpassed his predecessors.,3. \xa0A\xa0proof of his goodness may be found in his abolition of the severest one of the customary penalties (I\xa0refer to the taking of life);,4. \xa0for instead of executing the condemned he put them in chains at forced labour for the cities, and by their services constructed many dykes and dug out not a\xa0few well-placed canals; for he held that in this way he had reduced for those who were being chastised the severity of their punishment, while for the cities he had procured, in exchange for useless penalties, something of great utility.,5. \xa0And the excessiveness of his piety may be inferred from a vision which he had in a dream and his consequent abdication of the throne.,6. \xa0For he thought that the god of Thebes told him while he slept that he would not be able to reign over Egypt in happiness or for any great length of time, unless he should cut the bodies of all the priests in twain and accompanied by his retinue pass through the very midst of them.,7. \xa0And when this dream came again and again, he summoned the priests from all over the land and told them that by his presence in the country he was offending the god; for were that not the case such a command would not be given to him in his sleep.,8. \xa0And so he would rather, he continued, departing pure of all defilement from the land, deliver his life to destiny than offend the Lord, stain his own life by an impious slaughter, and reign over Egypt. And in the end he returned the kingdom to the Egyptians and retired again to Ethiopia.
1.70. 1. \xa0In the first place, then, the life which the kings of the Egyptians lived was not like that of other men who enjoy autocratic power and do in all matters exactly as they please without being held to account, but all their acts were regulated by prescriptions set forth in laws, not only their administrative acts, but also those that had to do with the way in which they spent their time from day to day, and with the food which they ate.,2. \xa0In the matter of their servants, for instance, not one was a slave, such as had been acquired by purchase or born in the home, but all were sons of the most distinguished priests, over twenty years old and the best educated of their fellow-countrymen, in order that the king, by virtue of his having the noblest men to care for his person and to attend him throughout both day and night, might follow no low practices; for no ruler advances far along the road of evil until he has those about him who will minister to his passions.,3. \xa0And the hours of both the day and night were laid out according to a plan, and at the specified hours it was absolutely required of the king that he should do what the laws stipulated and not what he thought best.,4. \xa0For instance, in the morning, as soon as he was awake, he first of all had to receive the letters which had been sent from all sides, the purpose being that he might be able to despatch all administrative business and perform every act properly, being thus accurately informed about everything that was being done throughout his kingdom. Then, after he had bathed and bedecked his body with rich garments and the insignia of his office, he had to sacrifice to the gods.,5. \xa0When the victims had been brought to the altar it was the custom for the high priest to stand near the king, with the common people of Egypt gathered around, and pray in a loud voice that health and all the other good things of life be given the king if he maintains justice towards his subjects.,6. \xa0And an open confession had also to be made of each and every virtue of the king, the priest saying that towards the gods he was piously disposed and towards men most kindly; for he was self-controlled and just and magimous, truthful, and generous with his possessions, and, in a word, superior to every desire, and that he punished crimes less severely than they deserved and rendered to his benefactors a gratitude exceeding the benefaction.,7. \xa0And after reciting much more in a similar vein he concluded his prayer with a curse concerning things done in error, exempting the king from all blame therefor and asking that both the evil consequences and the punishment should fall upon those who served him and had taught him evil things.,8. \xa0All this he would do, partly to lead the king to fear the gods and live a life pleasing to them, and partly to accustom him to a proper manner of conduct, not by sharp admonitions, but through praises that were agreeable and most conductive to virtue.,9. \xa0After this, when the king had performed the divination from the entrails of a calf and had found the omens good, the sacred scribe read before the assemblage from out of the sacred books some of the edifying counsels and deeds of their most distinguished men, in order that he who held the supreme leadership should first contemplate in his mind the most excellent general principles and then turn to the prescribed administration of the several functions.,10. \xa0For there was a set time not only for his holding audiences or rendering judgments, but even for his taking a walk, bathing, and sleeping with his wife, and, in a word, for every act of his life.,11. \xa0And it was the custom for the kings to partake of delicate food, eating no other meat than veal and duck, and drinking only a prescribed amount of wine, which was not enough to make them unreasonably surfeited or drunken.,12. \xa0And, speaking generally, their whole diet was ordered with such continence that it had the appearance of having been drawn up, not by a lawgiver, but by the most skilled of their physicians, with only their health in view. 1.71. 1. \xa0Strange as it may appear that the king did not have the entire control of his daily fare, far more remarkable still was the fact that kings were not allowed to render any legal decision or transact any business at random or to punish anyone through malice or in anger or for any other unjust reason, but only in accordance with the established laws relative to each offence.,2. \xa0And in following the dictates of custom in these matters, so far were they from being indigt or taking offence in their souls, that, on the contrary, they actually held that they led a most happy life;,3. \xa0for they believed that all other men, in thoughtlessly following their natural passions, commit many acts which bring them injuries and perils, and that oftentimes some who realize that they are about to commit a sin nevertheless do base acts when overpowered by love or hatred or some other passion, while they, on the other hand, by virtue of their having cultivated a manner of life which had been chosen before all others by the most prudent of all men, fell into the fewest mistakes.,4. \xa0And since the kings followed so righteous a course in dealing with their subjects, the people manifested a goodwill towards their rulers which surpassed even the affection they had for their own kinsmen; for not only the order of the priests but, in short, all the inhabitants of Egypt were less concerned for their wives and children and their other cherished possessions than for the safety of their kings.,5. \xa0Consequently, during most of the time covered by the reigns of the kings of whom we have a record, they maintained an orderly civil government and continued to enjoy a most felicitous life, so long as the system of laws described was in force; and, more than that, they conquered more nations and achieved greater wealth than any other people, and adorned their lands with monuments and buildings never to be surpassed, and their cities with costly dedications of every description.
1.75. 1. \xa0In their administration of justice the Egyptians also showed no merely casual interest, holding that the decisions of the courts exercise the greatest influence upon community life, and this in each of their two aspects.,2. \xa0For it was evident to them that if the offenders against the law should be punished and the injured parties should be afforded succour there would be an ideal correction of wrongdoing; but if, on the other hand, the fear which wrongdoers have of the judgments of the courts should be brought to naught by bribery or favour, they saw that the break-up of community life would follow.,3. \xa0Consequently, by appointing the best men from the most important cities as judges over the whole land they did not fall short of the end which they had in mind. For from Heliopolis and Thebes and Memphis they used to choose ten judges from each, and this court was regarded as in no way inferior to that composed of the Areopagites at Athens or of the Elders at Sparta.,4. \xa0And when the thirty assembled they chose the best one of their number and made him chief justice, and in his stead the city sent another judge. Allowances to provide for their needs were supplied by the king, to the judges sufficient for their maintece, and many times as much to the chief justice.,5. \xa0The latter regularly wore suspended from his neck by a golden chain a small image made of precious stones, which they called Truth; the hearings of the pleas commenced whenever the chief justice put on the image of Truth.,6. \xa0The entire body of the laws was written down in eight volumes which lay before the judges, and the custom was that the accuser should present in writing the particulars of his complaint, namely, the charge, how the thing happened, and the amount of injury or damage done, whereupon the defendant would take the document submitted by his opponents in the suit and reply in writing to each charge, to the effect either that he did not commit the deed, or, if he did, that he was not guilty of wrongdoing, or, if he was guilty of wrongdoing, that he should receive a lighter penalty.,7. \xa0After that, the law required that the accuser should reply to this in writing and that the defendant should offer a rebuttal. And after both parties had twice presented their statements in writing to the judges, it was the duty of the thirty at once to declare their opinions among themselves and of the chief justice to place the image of Truth upon one or the other of the two pleas which had been presented.
1.86. 1. \xa0Since all the practices of the Egyptians in their worship of animals are astonishing and beyond belief, they occasion much difficulty for those who would seek out their origins and causes.,2. \xa0Now their priests have on this subject a teaching which may not be divulged, as we have already stated in connection with their accounts of the gods, but the majority of the Egyptians give the following three causes, the first of which belongs entirely to the realm of fable and is in keeping with the simplicity of primitive times.,3. \xa0They say, namely, that the gods who came into existence in the beginning, being few in number and overpowered by the multitude and the lawlessness of earth-born men, took on the forms of certain animals, and in this way saved themselves from the savagery and violence of mankind; but afterwards, when they had established their power over all things in the universe, out of gratitude to the animals which had been responsible for their salvation at the outset, they made sacred those kinds whose form they had assumed, and instructed mankind to maintain them in a costly fashion while living and to bury them at death.,4. \xa0The second cause which they give is this â\x80\x94 that the early Egyptians, after having been defeated by their neighbours in many battles because of the lack of order in their army, conceived the idea of carrying standards before the several divisions.,5. \xa0Consequently, they say, the commanders fashioned figures of the animals which they now worship and carried them fixed on lances, and by this device every man knew where his place was in the array. And since the good order resulting therefrom greatly contributed to victory, they thought that the animals had been responsible for their deliverance; and so the people, wishing to show their gratitude to them, established the custom of not killing any one of the animals whose likeness had been fashioned at that time, but of rendering to them, as objects of worship, the care and honour which we have previously described.' "1.87. 1. \xa0The third cause which they adduce in connection with the dispute in question is the service which each one of these animals renders for the benefit of community life and of mankind.,2. \xa0The cow, for example, bears workers and ploughs the lighter soil; the sheep lamb twice in the year and provide by their wool both protection for the body and its decorous covering, while by their milk and cheese they furnish food that is both appetizing and abundant. Again, the dog is useful both for the hunt and for man's protection, and this is why they represent the god whom they call Anubis with a dog's head, showing in this way that he was the bodyguard of Osiris and Isis.,3. \xa0There are some, however, who explain that dogs guided Isis during her search for Osiris and protected her from wild beasts and wayfarers, and that they helped her in her search, because of the affection they bore for her, by baying; and this is the reason why at the Festival of Isis the procession is led by dogs, those who introduced the rite showing forth in this way the kindly service rendered by this animal of old.,4. \xa0The cat is likewise useful against asps with their deadly bite and the other reptiles that sting, while the ichneumon keeps a look-out for the newly-laid seed of the crocodile and crushes the eggs left by the female, doing this carefully and zealously even though it receives no benefit from the act.,5. \xa0Were this not done, the river would have become impassable because of the multitude of beasts that would be born. And the crocodiles themselves are also killed by this animal in an astonishing and quite incredible manner; for the ichneumons roll themselves over and over in the mud, and when the crocodiles go to sleep on the land with their mouths open they jump down their mouths into the centre of their body; then, rapidly gnawing through the bowels, they get out unscathed themselves and at the same time kill their victims instantly.,6. \xa0And of the sacred birds the ibis is useful as a protector against the snakes, the locusts, and the caterpillars, and the hawk against the scorpions, horned serpents, and the small animals of noxious bite which cause the greatest destruction of men.,7. \xa0But some maintain that the hawk is honoured because it is used as a bird of omen by the soothsayers in predicting to the Egyptians events which are to come.,8. \xa0Others, however, say that in primitive times a hawk brought to the priests in Thebes a book wrapped about with a purple band, which contained written directions concerning the worship of gods and the honours due to them; and it is for this reason, they add, that the sacred scribes wear on their heads a purple band and the wing of a hawk.,9. \xa0The eagle also is honoured by the Thebans because it is believed to be a royal animal and worthy of Zeus. " "1.88. 1. \xa0They have deified the goat, just as the Greeks are said to have honoured Priapus, because of the generative member; for this animal has a very great propensity for copulation, and it is fitting that honour be shown to that member of the body which is the cause of generation, being, as it were, the primal author of all animal life.,2. \xa0And, in general, not only the Egyptians but not a\xa0few other peoples as well have in the rites they observe treated the male member as sacred, on the ground that it is the cause of the generation of all creatures; and the priests in Egypt who have inherited their priestly offices from their fathers are initiated first into the mysteries of this god.,3. \xa0And both the Pans and the Satyrs, they say, are worshipped by men for the same reason; and this is why most peoples set up in their sacred places statues of them showing the phallus erect and resembling a goat's in nature, since according to tradition this animal is most efficient in copulation; consequently, by representing these creatures in such fashion, the dedicants are returning thanks to them for their own numerous offspring.,4. \xa0The sacred bulls â\x80\x94 I\xa0refer to the Apis and the Mnevis â\x80\x94 are honoured like the gods, as Osiris commanded, both because of their use in farming and also because the fame of those who discovered the fruits of the earth is handed down by the labours of these animals to succeeding generations for all time. Red oxen, however, may be sacrificed, because it is thought that this was the colour of Typhon, who plotted against Osiris and was then punished by Isis for the death of her husband.,5. \xa0Men also, if they were of the same colour as Typhon, were sacrificed, they say, in ancient times by the kings at the tomb of Osiris; however, only a\xa0few Egyptians are now found red in colour, and but the majority of such are non-Egyptians, and this is why the story spread among the Greeks of the slaying of foreigners by Busiris, although Busiris was not the name of the king but of the tomb of Osiris, which is called that in the language of the land.,6. \xa0The wolves are honoured, they say, because their nature is so much like that of dogs, for the natures of these two animals are little different from each other and hence offspring is produced by their interbreeding. But the Egyptians offer another explanation for the honour accorded this animal, although it pertains more to the realm of myth; for they say that in early times when Isis, aided by her son Horus, was about to commence her struggle with Typhon, Osiris came from Hades to help his son and his wife, having taken on the guise of wolf; and so, upon the death of Typhon, his conquerors commanded men to honour the animal upon whose appearance victory followed.,7. \xa0But some say that once, when the Ethiopians had marched against Egypt, a great number of bands of wolves (lykoi) gathered together and drove the invaders out of the country, pursuing them beyond the city named Elephantine; and therefore that nome was given the name Lycopolite and these animals were granted the honour in question." '1.89. 1. \xa0It remains for us to speak of the deification of crocodiles, a subject regarding which most men are entirely at a loss to explain how, when these beasts eat the flesh of men, it ever became the law to honour like the gods creatures of the most revolting habits.,2. \xa0Their reply is, that the security of the country is ensured, not only by the river, but to a much greater degree by the crocodiles in it; that for this reason the robbers that infest both Arabia and Libya do not dare to swim across the Nile, because they fear the beasts, whose number is very great; and that this would never have been the case if war were continually being waged against the animals and they had been utterly destroyed by hunters dragging the river with nets.,3. \xa0But still another account is given of these beasts. For some say that once one of the early kings whose name was Menas, being pursued by his own dogs, came in his flight to the Lake of Moeris, as it is called, where, strange as it may seem, a crocodile took him on his back and carried him to the other side. Wishing to show his gratitude to the beast for saving him, he founded a city near the place and named it City of the Crocodiles; and he commanded the natives of the region to worship these animals as gods and dedicated the lake to them for their sustece; and in that place he also constructed his own tomb, erecting a pyramid with four sides, and built the Labyrinth which is admired by many.,4. \xa0A\xa0similar diversity of customs exists, according to their accounts, with regard to everything else, but it would be a long task to set forth the details concerning them. That they have adopted these customs for themselves because of the advantage accruing therefrom to their life is clear to all from the fact that there are those among them who will not touch many particular kinds of food. Some, for instance, abstain entirely from lentils, others from beans, and some from cheese or onions or certain other foods, there being many kinds of food in Egypt, showing in this way that men must be taught to deny themselves things that are useful, and that if all ate of everything the supply of no article of consumption would hold out.,5. \xa0But some adduce other causes and say that, since under the early kings the multitude were often revolting and conspiring against their rulers, one of the kings who was especially wise divided the land into a\xa0number of parts and commanded the inhabitants of each to revere a certain animal or else not to eat a certain food, his thought being that, with each group of people revering what was honoured among themselves but despising what was sacred to all the rest, all the inhabitants of Egypt would never be able to be of one mind.,6. \xa0And this purpose, they declare, is clear from the results; for every group of people is at odds with its neighbours, being offended at their violations of the customs mentioned above. 1.90. 1. \xa0Some advance some such reason as the following for their deification of the animals. When men, they say, first ceased living like the beasts and gathered into groups, at the outset they kept devouring each other and warring among themselves, the more powerful ever prevailing over the weaker; but later those who were deficient in strength, taught by expediency, grouped together and took for the device upon their standard one of the animals which was later made sacred; then, when those who were from time to time in fear flocked to this symbol, an organized body was formed which was not to be despised by any who attacked it.,2. \xa0And when everybody else did the same thing, the whole people came to be divided into organized bodies, and in the case of each the animal which had been responsible for its safety was accorded honours like those belonging to the gods, as having rendered to them the greatest service possible; and this is why to this day the several groups of the Egyptians differ from each other in that each group honours the animals which it originally made sacred. In general, they say, the Egyptians surpass all other peoples in showing gratitude for every benefaction, since they hold that the return of gratitude to benefactors is a very great resource in life; for it is clear that all men will want to bestow their benefactions preferably upon those who they see will most honourably treasure up the favours they bestow.,3. \xa0And it is apparently on these grounds that the Egyptians prostrate themselves before their kings and honour them as being in truth very gods, holding, on the one hand, that it was not without the influence of some divine providence that these men have attained to the supreme power, and feeling, also, that such as have the will and the strength to confer the greatest benefactions share in the divine nature.,4. \xa0Now if we have dwelt over-long on the topic of the sacred animals, we have at least thoroughly considered those customs of the Egyptians that men most marvel at.
1.96. 1. \xa0But now that we have examined these matters, we must enumerate what Greeks, who have won fame for their wisdom and learning, visited Egypt in ancient times, in order to become acquainted with its customs and learning.,2. \xa0For the priests of Egypt recount from the records of their sacred books that they were visited in early times by Orpheus, Musaeus, Melampus, and Daedalus, also by the poet Homer and Lycurgus of Sparta, later by Solon of Athens and the philosopher Plato, and that there also came Pythagoras of Samos and the mathematician Eudoxus, as well as Democritus of Abdera and Oenopides of Chios.,3. \xa0As evidence for the visits of all these men they point in some cases to their statues and in others to places or buildings which bear their names, and they offer proofs from the branch of learning which each one of these men pursued, arguing that all the things for which they were admired among the Greeks were transferred from Egypt.,4. \xa0Orpheus, for instance, brought from Egypt most of his mystic ceremonies, the orgiastic rites that accompanied his wanderings, and his fabulous account of his experiences in Hades.,5. \xa0For the rite of Osiris is the same as that of Dionysus and that of Isis very similar to that of Demeter, the names alone having been interchanged; and the punishments in Hades of the unrighteous, the Fields of the Righteous, and the fantastic conceptions, current among the many, which are figments of the imagination â\x80\x94 all these were introduced by Orpheus in imitation of the Egyptian funeral customs.,6. \xa0Hermes, for instance, the Conductor of Souls, according to the ancient Egyptian custom, brings up the body of the Apis to a certain point and then gives it over to one who wears the mask of Cerberus. And after Orpheus had introduced this notion among the Greeks, Homer followed it when he wrote: Cyllenian Hermes then did summon forth The suitors\'s souls, holding his wand in hand. And again a little further on he says: They passed Oceanus\' streams, the Gleaming Rock, The Portals of the Sun, the Land of Dreams; And now they reached the Meadow of Asphodel, Where dwell the Souls, the shades of men outworn.,7. \xa0Now he calls the river "Oceanus" because in their language the Egyptians speak of the Nile as Oceanus; the "Portals of the Sun" (Heliopulai) is his name for the city of Heliopolis; and "Meadows," the mythical dwelling of the dead, is his term for the place near the lake which is called Acherousia, which is near Memphis, and around it are fairest meadows, of a marsh-land and lotus and reeds. The same explanation also serves for the statement that the dwelling of the dead is in these regions, since the most and the largest tombs of the Egyptians are situated there, the dead being ferried across both the river and Lake Acherousia and their bodies laid in the vaults situated there.,8. \xa0The other myths about Hades, current among the Greeks, also agree with the customs which are practised even now in Egypt. For the boat which receives the bodies is called baris, and the passenger\'s fee is given to the boatman, who in the Egyptian tongue is called charon.,9. \xa0And near these regions, they say, are also the "Shades," which is a temple of Hecate, and "portals" of Cocytus and Lethe, which are covered at intervals with bands of bronze. There are, moreover, other portals, namely, those of Truth, and near them stands a headless statue of Justice.
5.4. 1. \xa0Like the two goddesses whom we have mentioned Corê, we are told, received as her portion the meadows round about Enna; but a great fountain was made sacred to her in the territory of Syracuse and given the name Cyanê or "Azure Fount.",2. \xa0For the myth relates that it was near Syracuse that Pluton effected the Rape of Corê and took her away in his chariot, and that after cleaving the earth asunder he himself descended into Hades, taking along with him the bride whom he had seized, and that he caused the fountain named Cyanê to gush forth, near which the Syracusans each year hold a notable festive gathering; and private individuals offer the lesser victims, but when the ceremony is on behalf of the community, bulls are plunged in the pool, this manner of sacrifice having been commanded by Heracles on the occasion when he made the circuit of all Sicily, while driving off the cattle of Geryones.,3. \xa0After the Rape of Corê, the myth does on to recount, Demeter, being unable to find her daughter, kindled torches in the craters of Mt.\xa0Aetna and visited many parts of the inhabited world, and upon the men who received her with the greatest favour she conferred briefs, rewarding them with the gift of the fruit of the wheat.,4. \xa0And since a more kindly welcome was extended the goddess by the Athenians than by any other people, they were the first after the Siceliotae to be given the fruit of the wheat; and in return for this gift the citizens of that city in assembly honoured the goddess above all others with the establishment both of most notable sacrifices and of the mysteries of Eleusis, which, by reason of their very great antiquity and sanctity, have come to be famous among all mankind. From the Athenians many peoples received a portion of the gracious gift of the corn, and they in turn, sharing the gift of the seed with their neighbours, in this way caused all the inhabited world to abound with it.,5. \xa0And the inhabitants of Sicily, since by reason of the intimate relationship of Demeter and Corê with them they were the first to share in the corn after its discovery, instituted to each one of the goddesses sacrifices and festive gatherings, which they named after them, and by the time chosen for these made acknowledgement of the gifts which had been conferred upon them.,6. \xa0In the case of Corê, for instance, they established the celebration of her return at about the time when the fruit of the corn was found to come to maturity, and they celebrate this sacrifice and festive gathering with such strictness of observance and such zeal as we should reasonably expect those men to show who are returning thanks for having been selected before all mankind for the greatest possible gift;,7. \xa0but in the case of Demeter they preferred that time for the sacrifice when the sowing of the corn is first begun, and for a period of ten days they hold a festive gathering which bears the name of this goddess and is most magnificent by reason of the brilliance of their preparation for it, while in the observance of it they imitate the ancient manner of life. And it is their custom during these days to indulge in coarse language as they associate one with another, the reason being that by such coarseness the goddess, grieved though she was at the Rape of Corê, burst into laughter.''. None
23. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 6.1-6.7, 6.14, 6.17-6.24, 6.40, 6.44-6.51, 6.53-6.66, 6.68-6.69, 6.83-6.85, 6.100-6.116, 6.118-6.126, 6.128, 6.144, 10.243-10.284, 10.286-10.297, 15.871-15.879 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Audience • Calliope, audience for song of • Minerva (Athena), as audience • Orpheus,, audience awareness and artistic strategies of • audience, Minerva as • audience, Ovid’s direct addressesto • audience, Perilla as • audience, confrontation of • audience, critical reputation of Ovid’s works • audience, disclaimers to exclude inappropriate • audience, flattery of the • audience, for weaving contest • audience, in Theocritus Idylls • audience, miscalculation of • audience, nymphs as judges and • audience, publication and distribution to wider • audience, sexual subjects as offensive to • audiences, power of • nymphs, as audience and judges • power, of audiences • sexual subjects in art, audience and

 Found in books: Johnson (2008) 10, 37, 42, 74, 76, 77, 79, 85, 87, 88, 92, 112, 123; Pandey (2018) 21, 22, 205; Pinheiro et al (2018) 232

6.1. Praebuerat dictis Tritonia talibus aures 6.2. carminaque Aonidum iustamque probaverat iram. 6.3. Tum secum “laudare parum est; laudemur et ipsae 6.4. numina nec sperni sine poena nostra sinamus” 6.5. Maeoniaeque animum fatis intendit Arachnes, 6.6. quam sibi lanificae non cedere laudibus artis 6.7. audierat. Non illa loco neque origine gentis

6.14. Huius ut adspicerent opus admirabile, saepe

6.17. Nec factas solum vestes spectare iuvabat;
6.18. tum quoque, cum fierent: tantus decor adfuit arti.
6.19. Sive rudem primos lanam glomerabat in orbes, 6.20. seu digitis subigebat opus repetitaque longo 6.21. vellera mollibat nebulas aequantia tractu, 6.22. sive levi teretem versabat pollice fusum, 6.23. seu pingebat acu, scires a Pallade doctam. 6.24. Quod tamen ipsa negat, tantaque offensa magistra
6.40. Consilii satis est in me mihi. Neve monendo
6.44. Palladaque exhibuit. Venerantur numina nymphae 6.45. Mygdonidesque nurus: sola est non territa virgo. 6.46. Sed tamen erubuit, subitusque invita notavit 6.47. ora rubor rursusque evanuit, ut solet aer 6.48. purpureus fieri, cum primum aurora movetur, 6.49. et breve post tempus candescere solis ab ortu. 6.50. Perstat in incepto stolidaeque cupidine palmae
6.53. Haud mora, constituunt diversis partibus ambae 6.54. et gracili geminas intendunt stamine telas 6.55. (tela iugo iuncta est, stamen secernit harundo); 6.57. quod digiti expediunt, atque inter stamina ductum 6.58. percusso paviunt insecti pectine dentes. 6.59. Utraque festit cinctaeque ad pectora vestes 6.60. bracchia docta movent, studio fallente laborem. 6.61. Illic et Tyrium quae purpura sensit aenum 6.62. texitur et tenues parvi discriminis umbrae, 6.63. qualis ab imbre solet percussis solibus arcus 6.64. inficere ingenti longum curvamine caelum: 6.65. in quo diversi niteant cum mille colores, 6.66. transitus ipse tamen spectantia lumina fallit;
6.68. Illic et lentum filis inmittitur aurum 6.69. et vetus in tela deducitur argumentum.
6.83. Ut tamen exemplis intellegat aemula laudis, 6.84. quod pretium speret pro tam furialibus ausis, 6.85. quattuor in partes certamina quattuor addit,

6.100. amplectens saxoque iacens lacrimare videtur.
6.101. Circuit extremas oleis pacalibus oras:
6.102. is modus est, operisque sua facit arbore finem.
6.103. Maeonis elusam designat imagine tauri
6.104. Europam: verum taurum, freta vera putares.
6.105. Ipsa videbatur terras spectare relictas
6.106. et comites clamare suas tactumque vereri
6.107. adsilientis aquae timidasque reducere plantas.
6.108. Fecit et Asterien aquila luctante teneri,
6.110. addidit, ut satyri celatus imagine pulchram
6.111. Iuppiter implerit gemino Nycteida fetu,
6.112. Amphitryon fuerit, cum te, Tirynthia, cepit,
6.113. aureus ut Danaen, Asopida luserit ignis,
6.114. Mnemosynen pastor, varius Deoida serpens.
6.115. Te quoque mutatum torvo, Neptune, iuvenco
6.116. virgine in Aeolia posuit. Tu visus Enipeus

6.118. et te flava comas frugum mitissima mater
6.119. sensit equum, sensit volucrem crinita colubris
6.120. mater equi volucris, sensit delphina Melantho.
6.121. Omnibus his faciemque suam faciemque locorum
6.123. utque modo accipitris pennas, modo terga leonis
6.124. gesserit, ut pastor Macareida luserit Issen;
6.125. Liber ut Erigonen falsa deceperit uva,
6.126. ut Saturnus equo geminum Chirona crearit.

6.128. nexilibus flores hederis habet intertextos.

6.144. cetera venter habet: de quo tamen illa remittit
10.243. Quas quia Pygmalion aevum per crimen agentes 10.244. viderat, offensus vitiis, quae plurima menti 10.245. femineae natura dedit, sine coniuge caelebs 10.246. vivebat thalamique diu consorte carebat. 10.247. Interea niveum mira feliciter arte 10.248. sculpsit ebur formamque dedit, qua femina nasci 10.249. nulla potest: operisque sui concepit amorem. 10.250. Virginis est verae facies, quam vivere credas, 10.251. et, si non obstet reverentia, velle moveri: 10.252. ars adeo latet arte sua. Miratur et haurit 10.253. pectore Pygmalion simulati corporis ignes. 10.254. Saepe manus operi temptantes admovet, an sit 10.255. corpus an illud ebur: nec adhuc ebur esse fatetur. 10.256. Oscula dat reddique putat loquiturque tenetque, 10.257. et credit tactis digitos insidere membris, 10.258. et metuit, pressos veniat ne livor in artus. 10.259. Et modo blanditias adhibet, modo grata puellis 10.260. munera fert illi conchas teretesque lapillos 10.261. et parvas volucres et flores mille colorum 10.262. liliaque pictasque pilas et ab arbore lapsas 10.263. Heliadum lacrimas; ornat quoque vestibus artus, 10.264. dat digitis gemmas, dat longa monilia collo: 10.265. aure leves bacae, redimicula pectore pendent. 10.266. Cuncta decent: nec nuda minus formosa videtur. 10.267. Conlocat hanc stratis concha Sidonide tinctis 10.269. mollibus in plumis, tamquam sensura, reponit. 10.270. Festa dies Veneris tota celeberrima Cypro 10.271. venerat, et pandis inductae cornibus aurum 10.272. conciderant ictae nivea cervice iuvencae, 10.273. turaque fumabant: cum munere functus ad aras 10.274. constitit et timide, “si di dare cuncta potestis, 10.275. sit coniunx, opto” (non ausus “eburnea virgo” 10.276. dicere) Pygmalion “similis mea” dixit “eburnae.” 10.277. Sensit, ut ipsa suis aderat Venus aurea festis, 10.278. vota quid illa velint; et, amici numinis omen, 10.279. flamma ter accensa est apicemque per aera duxit. 10.280. Ut rediit, simulacra suae petit ille puellae 10.281. incumbensque toro dedit oscula: visa tepere est. 10.282. Admovet os iterum, manibus quoque pectora temptat: 10.283. temptatum mollescit ebur positoque rigore 10.284. subsidit digitis ceditque, ut Hymettia sole
10.286. flectitur in facies ipsoque fit utilis usu. 10.287. Dum stupet et dubie gaudet fallique veretur, 10.288. rursus amans rursusque manu sua vota retractat. 10.289. Corpus erat: saliunt temptatae pollice venae. 10.290. Tum vero Paphius plenissima concipit heros 10.291. verba, quibus Veneri grates agat, oraque tandem 10.292. ore suo non falsa premit: dataque oscula virgo 10.293. sensit et erubuit timidumque ad lumina lumen 10.294. attollens pariter cum caelo vidit amantem. 10.295. Coniugio, quod fecit, adest dea. Iamque coactis 10.296. cornibus in plenum noviens lunaribus orbem 10.297. illa Paphon genuit, de qua tenet insula nomen.
15.871. Iamque opus exegi, quod nec Iovis ira nec ignis 15.872. nec poterit ferrum nec edax abolere vetustas. 15.874. ius habet, incerti spatium mihi finiat aevi: 15.875. parte tamen meliore mei super alta perennis 15.876. astra ferar, nomenque erit indelebile nostrum, 15.877. quaque patet domitis Romana potentia terris, 15.878. ore legar populi, perque omnia saecula fama, 15.879. siquid habent veri vatum praesagia, vivam.' '. None
6.1. All this Minerva heard; and she approved 6.2. their songs and their resentment; but her heart 6.3. was brooding thus, “It is an easy thing 6.4. to praise another, I should do as they: 6.5. no creature of the earth should ever slight 6.6. the majesty that dwells in me,—without 6.7. just retribution.”—So her thought was turned

6.14. in Colophon ; where, at his humble trade,

6.17. had died. Arachne in a mountain town
6.18. by skill had grown so famous in the Land
6.19. of Lydia , that unnumbered curious nymph 6.20. eager to witness her dexterity, 6.21. deserted the lush vineyards of Timolus; 6.22. or even left the cool and flowing stream 6.23. of bright Pactolus, to admire the cloth, 6.24. or to observe her deftly spinning wool.
6.40. and with a staff to steady her weak limbs.
6.44. with lengthened years; and, therefore, you should not 6.45. despise my words. It is no harm in you 6.46. to long for praise of mortals, when 6.47. your nimble hands are spinning the soft wool,—' "6.48. but you should not deny Minerva's art—" '6.49. and you should pray that she may pardon you, 6.50. for she will grant you pardon if you ask.”
6.53. She hardly could restrain her threatening hand, 6.54. and, trembling in her anger, she replied 6.55. to you, disguised Minerva: 6.57. worn out and witless in your palsied age, 6.58. a great age is your great misfortune!— Let' "6.59. your daughter and your son's wife—if the God" '6.60. have blessed you—let them profit by your words; 6.61. within myself, my knowledge is contained 6.62. ufficient; you need not believe that your 6.63. advice does any good; for I am quite 6.64. unchanged in my opinion. Get you gone,— 6.65. advise your goddess to come here herself, 6.66. and not avoid the contest!”
6.68. the goddess said, “Minerva comes to you!” 6.69. And with those brief words, put aside the shape
6.83. Nor did the daughter of almighty Jove 6.84. decline: disdaining to delay with words, 6.85. he hesitated not.

6.100. that spans new glory in the curving sky,
6.101. its glittering rays reflected in the rain,
6.102. preads out a multitude of blended tints,
6.103. in scintillating beauty to the sight
6.104. of all who gaze upon it; — so the threads,
6.105. inwoven, mingled in a thousand tints,
6.106. harmonious and contrasting; shot with gold:
6.107. and there, depicted in those shining webs,
6.108. were shown the histories of ancient days:—
6.110. where ancient Cecrops built his citadel,
6.111. and showed the old contention for the name
6.112. it should be given.—Twelve celestial God
6.113. urrounded Jupiter , on lofty thrones;
6.114. and all their features were so nicely drawn,
6.115. that each could be distinguished.— Jupiter
6.116. appeared as monarch of those judging Gods.

6.118. contending with Minerva. As he struck
6.119. the Rock with his long trident, a wild horse
6.120. prang forth which he bequeathed to man. He claimed
6.121. his right to name the city for that gift.
6.123. bearing a shield, and in her hand a lance,
6.124. harp-pointed, and a helmet on her head—
6.125. her breast well-guarded by her Aegis: there
6.126. he struck her spear into the fertile earth,

6.128. pale with new clustered fruits.—And those twelve Gods,

6.144. that Pygmy, whom the angry Juno changed
10.243. delay, Jove on fictitious eagle wings, 10.244. tole and flew off with that loved Trojan boy: 10.245. who even to this day, against the will 10.246. of Juno, mingles nectar in the cup 10.247. of his protector, mighty Jupiter . 10.248. You also, Hyacinthus, would have been 10.249. et in the sky! if Phoebus had been given 10.250. time which the cruel fates denied for you. 10.251. But in a way you are immortal too. 10.252. Though you have died. Always when warm spring 10.253. drives winter out, and Aries (the Ram) 10.254. ucceeds to Pisces (watery Fish), you rise 10.255. and blossom on the green turf. And the love 10.256. my father had for you was deeper than he felt 10.257. for others. Delphi center of the world, 10.258. had no presiding guardian, while the God 10.259. frequented the Eurotas and the land 10.260. of Sparta , never fortified with walls. 10.261. His zither and his bow no longer fill 10.262. his eager mind and now without a thought 10.263. of dignity, he carried nets and held 10.264. the dogs in leash, and did not hesitate 10.265. to go with Hyacinthus on the rough, 10.266. teep mountain ridges; and by all of such 10.267. associations, his love was increased. 10.269. the coming and the banished night, and stood 10.270. at equal distance from those two extremes. 10.271. Then, when the youth and Phoebus were well stripped, 10.272. and gleaming with rich olive oil, they tried 10.273. a friendly contest with the discus. First 10.274. Phoebus, well-poised, sent it awhirl through air, 10.275. and cleft the clouds beyond with its broad weight; 10.276. from which at length it fell down to the earth, 10.277. a certain evidence of strength and skill. 10.278. Heedless of danger Hyacinthus rushed 10.279. for eager glory of the game, resolved 10.280. to get the discus. But it bounded back 10.281. from off the hard earth, and struck full against 10.282. your face, O Hyacinthus! Deadly pale' "10.283. the God's face went — as pallid as the boy's." '10.284. With care he lifted the sad huddled form.
10.286. and next endeavors to attend your wound, 10.287. and stay your parting soul with healing herbs. 10.288. His skill is no advantage, for the wound 10.289. is past all art of cure. As if someone, 10.290. when in a garden, breaks off violets, 10.291. poppies, or lilies hung from golden stems, 10.292. then drooping they must hang their withered heads, 10.293. and gaze down towards the earth beneath them; so,' "10.294. the dying boy's face droops, and his bent neck," '10.295. a burden to itself, falls back upon 10.296. his shoulder: “You are fallen in your prime 10.297. defrauded of your youth, O Hyacinthus!”
15.871. that I should pass my life in exile than 15.872. be seen a king throned in the capitol.” 15.874. the people and the grave and honored Senate. 15.875. But first he veiled his horns with laurel, which 15.876. betokens peace. Then, standing on a mound 15.877. raised by the valiant troops, he made a prayer 15.878. after the ancient mode, and then he said, 15.879. “There is one here who will be king, if you' '. None
24. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus, as audience • Mark, audience and purpose of gospel • Minerva (Athena), as audience • audience, Augustus as • audience, Minerva as • audience, confrontation of • audience, of Roman Odes • audiences, power of • power, of audiences

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 709; Bowditch (2001) 112; Johnson (2008) 42, 61, 102, 103; Pandey (2018) 183

25. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus, as audience • Augustus, as audience of poetry • Horace,, Augustus as audience for • Orpheus,, as silenced by audience • Orpheus,, audience awareness and artistic strategies of • audience, Augustus as • audience, Ovid’s direct addressesto • audience, as hostile and dangerous • audience, disclaimers to exclude inappropriate • audience, miscalculation of • audience, of panegyric • audience, publication and distribution to wider • audience, sexual subjects as offensive to • audiences

 Found in books: Bowditch (2001) 38, 228; Csapo (2022) 92; Johnson (2008) 3, 4, 5, 113, 114, 123, 124

26. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • audience, of Livy • judging audience • judging audience, expanded moral perspective of

 Found in books: Davies (2004) 46; Roller (2018) 187

27. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus, as audience • audience, Augustus as • audience, the transformed as • audiences, popular • transformations, audience as composed of the transformed

 Found in books: Johnson (2008) 110; Pandey (2018) 234

28. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ars Amatoria (Ovid),, audience disclaimer and • Augustus, as audience • audience, Augustus as • audience, as hostile and dangerous • audience, critical reputation of Ovid’s works • audience, disclaimers to exclude inappropriate • audience, sexual subjects as offensive to • audiences, power of • power, of audiences

 Found in books: Johnson (2008) 12, 120; Pandey (2018) 22, 23

29. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ignatius, Audience • audience

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 197; Bird and Harrower (2021) 214

1.1. This your bishop I have found to hold the ministry which pertaineth to the common weal, not of himself or through men, nor yet for vain glory, but in the love of God the Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. And I am amazed at his forbearance; whose silence is more powerful than others' speech. "". None
30. Ignatius, To The Ephesians, 1.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Ignatius, Audience • audience

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 196; Bird and Harrower (2021) 214

1.3. eeing then that in God's name I have received your whole multitude in the person of Onesimus, whose love passeth utterance and who is moreover your bishop in the flesh -- and I pray that ye may love him according to Jesus Christ and that ye all may be like him; for blessed is He that granted unto you according to your deserving to have such a bishop: -- "". None
31. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.18, 15.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Mark, audience and purpose of gospel • audience • author’s relationship with audience, theological questions

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 213; Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 711; deSilva (2022) 8, 23

1.18. Ὁ λόγος γὰρ ὁ τοῦ σταυροῦ τοῖς μὲν ἀπολλυμένοις μωρία ἐστίν, τοῖς δὲ σωζομένοις ἡμῖν δύναμις θεοῦ ἐστίν.
15.32. εἰ κατὰ ἄνθρωπον ἐθηριομάχησα ἐν Ἐφέσῳ, τί μοι τὸ ὄφελος; εἰ νεκροὶ οὐκ ἐγείρονται,φάγωμεν καὶ πίωμεν, αὔριον γὰρ ἀποθνήσκομεν.''. None
1.18. For the word of the cross isfoolishness to those who are dying, but to us who are saved it is thepower of God.
15.32. If I fought withanimals at Ephesus for human purposes, what does it profit me? If thedead are not raised, then "let us eat and drink, for tomorrow we die."''. None
32. New Testament, Acts, 2.23 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Mark, audience and purpose of gospel • audience

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 114, 115, 116, 122; Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 711

2.23. τοῦτον τῇ ὡρισμένῃ βουλῇ καὶ προγνώσει τοῦ θεοῦ ἔκδοτον διὰ χειρὸς ἀνόμων προσπήξαντες ἀνείλατε,''. None
2.23. him, being delivered up by the determined counsel and foreknowledge of God, you have taken by the hand of lawless men, crucified and killed; ''. None
33. New Testament, Apocalypse, 4.1, 5.9-5.10, 6.17, 7.4-7.17, 11.5, 17.10, 22.3-22.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Audience, internal • audience

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 138, 144, 146, 148, 149; Gray (2021) 216; Maier and Waldner (2022) 51, 53, 54, 55

4.1. Μετὰ ταῦτα εἶδον, καὶ ἰδοὺ θύρα ἠνεῳγμένη ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ, καὶ ἡ φωνὴ ἡ πρώτη ἣν ἤκουσα ὡςσάλπιγγοςλαλούσης μετʼ ἐμοῦ, λέγωνἈνάβαὧδε, καὶ δείξω σοιἃ δεῖ γενέσθαι.
5.9. καὶᾁδουσιν ᾠδὴν καινὴνλέγοντες Ἄξιος εἶ λαβεῖν τὸ βιβλίον καὶ ἀνοῖξαι τὰς σφραγῖδας αὐτοῦ, ὅτι ἐσφάγης καὶ ἠγόρασας τῷ θεῷ ἐν τῷ αἵματί σου ἐκ πάσης φυλῆς καὶ γλώσσης καὶ λαοῦ καὶ ἔθνους, 5.10. καὶ ἐποίησας αὐτοὺς τῷ θεῷ ἡμῶν βασιλείαν καὶ ἱερεῖς, καὶ βασιλεύουσιν ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς·
6.17. ὅτι ἦλθενἡ ἡμέρα ἡ μεγάλη τῆς ὀργῆςαὐτῶν,καὶ τίς δύναται σταθῆναι;
7.4. Καὶ ἤκουσα τὸν ἀριθμὸν τῶν ἐσφραγισμένων, ἑκατὸν τεσσεράκοντα τέσσαρες χιλιάδες, ἐσφραγισμένοι ἐκ πάσης φυλῆς υἱῶν Ἰσραήλ· 7.5. 7.8. 7.9. Μετὰ ταῦτα εἶδον, καὶ ἰδοὺ ὄχλος πολύς, ὃν ἀριθμῆσαι αὐτὸν οὐδεὶς ἐδύνατο, ἐκ παντὸς ἔθνους καὶ φυλῶν καὶ λαῶν καὶ γλωσσῶν, ἑστῶτες ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου καὶ ἐνώπιον τοῦ ἀρνίου, περιβεβλημένους στολὰς λευκάς, καὶ φοίνικες ἐν ταῖς χερσὶν αὐτῶν· 7.10. καὶ κράζουσι φωνῇ μεγάλῃ λέγοντες Ἡ σωτηρία τῷ θεῷ ἡμῶν τῷ καθημένῳ ἐπὶ τῷ θρόνῳ καὶ τῷ ἀρνίῳ. 7.11. καὶ πάντες οἱ ἄγγελοι ἱστήκεισαν κύκλῳ τοῦ θρόνου καὶ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων καὶ τῶν τεσσάρων ζῴων, καὶ ἔπεσαν ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου ἐπὶ τὰ πρόσωπα αὐτῶν καὶ προσεκύνησαν τῷ θεῷ, 7.12. λέγοντες Ἀμήν· ἡ εὐλογία καὶ ἡ δόξα καὶ ἡ σοφία καὶ ἡ εὐχαριστία καὶ ἡ τιμὴ καὶ ἡ δύναμις καὶ ἡ ἰσχὺς τῷ θεῷ ἡμῶν εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων · ἀμήν. 7.13. Καὶ ἀπεκρίθη εἷς ἐκ τῶν πρεσβυτέρων λέγων μοι Οὗτοι οἱ περιβεβλημένοι τὰς στολὰς τὰς λευκὰς τίνες εἰσὶν καὶ πόθεν ἦλθον; 7.14. καὶ εἴρηκα αὐτῷ Κύριέ μου, σὺ οἶδας. καὶ εἶπέν μοι Οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ ἐρχόμενοι ἐκ τῆςθλίψεωςτῆς μεγάλης, καὶἔπλυναν τὰς στολὰς αὐτῶνκαὶ ἐλεύκαναν αὐτὰςἐν τῷ αἵματιτοῦ ἀρνίου. 7.15. διὰ τοῦτό εἰσιν ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου τοῦ θεοῦ, καὶ λατρεύουσιν αὐτῷ ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτὸς ἐν τῷ ναῷ αὐτοῦ, καὶ ὁκαθήμενος ἐπὶ τοῦ θρόνουσκηνώσει ἐπʼ αὐτούς. 7.16. οὐ πεινάσουσινἔτιοὐδὲ διψήσουσινἔτι, οὐδὲ μὴ πέσῃ ἐπʼ αὐτοὺς ὁ 7.17. ἥλιος οὐδὲ πᾶνκαῦμα,ὅτι τὸ ἀρνίον τὸ ἀνὰ μέσον τοῦ θρόνουποιμανεῖ αὐτούς, καὶ ὁδηγήσει αὐτοὺςἐπὶζωῆς πηγὰς ὑδάτων· καὶ ἐξαλείψει ὁ θεὸς πᾶν δάκρυον ἐκ τῶν ὀφθαλμῶναὐτῶν.
11.5. καὶ εἴ τις αὐτοὺς θέλει ἀδικῆσαι,πῦρ ἐκπορεύεται ἐκ τοῦ στόματοςαὐτῶν καὶκατεσθίει τοὺς ἐχθροὺςαὐτῶν· καὶ εἴ τις θελήσῃ αὐτοὺς ἀδικῆσαι, οὕτως δεῖ αὐτὸν ἀποκτανθῆναι.
17.10. οἱ πέντε ἔπεσαν, ὁ εἷς ἔστιν, ὁ ἄλλος οὔπω ἦλθεν, καὶ ὅταν ἔλθῃ ὀλίγον αὐτὸν δεῖ μεῖναι,
22.3. καὶ πᾶν κατάθεμα οὐκ ἔσται ἔτι.καὶ ὁ θρόνος τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τοῦ ἀρνίου ἐν αὐτῇ ἔσται, καὶ οἱ δοῦλοι αὐτοῦ λατρεύσουσιν αὐτῷ, 22.4. καὶὄψονται τὸ πρόσωπον αὐτοῦ,καὶ τὸ ὄνομα ὰὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τῶν μετώπων αὐτῶν. 22.5. καὶ νὺξ οὐκ ἔσται ἔτι,καὶ οὐκἔχουσιν χρείαν φωτὸς λύχνου καὶφῶς ἡλίου,ὅτιΚύριος ὁ θεὸς φωτίσειἐπ̓ αὐτούς, καὶ βασιλεύσουσιν εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων.' '. None
4.1. After these things I looked and saw a door opened in heaven, and the first voice that I heard, like a trumpet speaking with me, was one saying, "Come up here, and I will show you the things which must happen after this."
5.9. They sang a new song, saying, "You are worthy to take the book, And to open its seals: For you were killed, And bought us for God with your blood, Out of every tribe, language, people, and nation, 5.10. And made them kings and priests to our God, And they reign on earth."
6.17. for the great day of his wrath has come; and who is able to stand?"
7.4. I heard the number of those who were sealed, one hundred forty-four thousand, sealed out of every tribe of the children of Israel: 7.5. of the tribe of Judah were sealed twelve thousand, of the tribe of Reuben twelve thousand, of the tribe of Gad twelve thousand, 7.6. of the tribe of Asher twelve thousand, of the tribe of Naphtali twelve thousand, of the tribe of Manasseh twelve thousand, 7.7. of the tribe of Simeon twelve thousand, of the tribe of Levi twelve thousand, of the tribe of Issachar twelve thousand, 7.8. of the tribe of Zebulun twelve thousand, of the tribe of Joseph twelve thousand, of the tribe of Benjamin were sealed twelve thousand. 7.9. After these things I looked, and behold, a great multitude, which no man could number, out of every nation and of all tribes, peoples, and languages, standing before the throne and before the Lamb, dressed in white robes, with palm branches in their hands. 7.10. They cried with a loud voice, saying, "Salvation be to our God, who sits on the throne, and to the Lamb!" 7.11. All the angels were standing around the throne, the elders, and the four living creatures; and they fell before his throne on their faces, and worshiped God, 7.12. saying, "Amen! Blessing, glory, wisdom, thanksgiving, honor, power, and might, be to our God forever and ever! Amen." 7.13. One of the elders answered, saying to me, "These who are arrayed in white robes, who are they, and where did they come from?" 7.14. I told him, "My lord, you know."He said to me, "These are those who came out of the great tribulation. They washed their robes, and made them white in the Lamb\'s blood. 7.15. Therefore they are before the throne of God, they serve him day and night in his temple. He who sits on the throne will spread his tent over them. 7.16. They will never be hungry, neither thirsty any more; neither will the sun beat on them, nor any heat; 7.17. for the Lamb who is in the midst of the throne shepherds them, and leads them to living springs of waters. God will wipe away every tear from their eyes."
11.5. If anyone desires to harm them, fire proceeds out of their mouth and devours their enemies. If anyone desires to harm them, he must be killed in this way.
17.10. They are seven kings. Five have fallen, the one is, the other has not yet come. When he comes, he must continue a little while.
22.3. There will be no curse any more. The throne of God and of the Lamb will be in it, and his servants serve him. 22.4. They will see his face, and his name will be on their foreheads. 22.5. There will be no night, and they need no lamp light; for the Lord God will illuminate them. They will reign forever and ever.' '. None
34. New Testament, Colossians, 1.18, 4.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Audience • audience • audience (of letters) • author’s relationship with audience • author’s relationship with audience, relationship to Colossians • author’s relationship with audience, theological questions

 Found in books: Conybeare (2000) 43; Fraade (2011) 88; deSilva (2022) 11, 26, 28, 37

1.18. καὶ αὐτός ἐστιν ἡ κεφαλὴ τοῦ σώματος, τῆς ἐκκλησίας· ὅς ἐστιν ἡ ἀρχή, πρωτότοκος ἐκ τῶν νεκρῶν, ἵνα γένηται ἐν πᾶσιν αὐτὸς πρωτεύων,
4.16. καὶ ὅταν ἀναγνωσθῇ παρʼ ὑμῖν ἡ ἐπιστολή, ποιήσατε ἵνα καὶ ἐν τῇ Λαοδικέων ἐκκλησίᾳ ἀναγνωσθῇ, καὶ τὴν ἐκ Λαοδικίας ἵνα καὶ ὑμεῖς ἀναγνῶτε.''. None
1.18. He is the head of the body, the assembly, who is the beginning, the firstborn from the dead; that in all things he might have the preeminence.
4.16. When this letter has been read among you, cause it to be read also in the assembly of the Laodiceans; and that you also read the letter from Laodicea. ''. None
35. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.14-2.18, 5.21-5.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Audience, internal • audience • author’s relationship with audience, portrayal of Paul and apostles • author’s relationship with audience, relationship to Colossians • author’s relationship with audience, style and vocabulary • author’s relationship with audience, theological questions

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 193, 194; Gray (2021) 216; Maier and Waldner (2022) 47; deSilva (2022) 19, 24, 26, 27, 28, 94, 150, 151, 161, 166, 289, 290, 295

2.14. Αὐτὸς γάρ ἐστιν ἡ εἰρήνη ἡμῶν, ὁ ποιήσας τὰ ἀμφότερα ἓν καὶ τὸ μεσότοιχον τοῦ φραγμοῦ λύσας, τὴν ἔχθραν 2.15. ἐν τῇ σαρκὶ αὐτοῦ, τὸν νόμον τῶν ἐντολῶν ἐν δόγμασιν καταργήσας, ἵνα τοὺς δύο κτίσῃ ἐν αὑτῷ εἰς ἕνα καινὸν ἄνθρωπον ποιῶν εἰρήνην, 2.16. καὶ ἀποκαταλλάξῃ τοὺς ἀμφοτέρους ἐν ἑνὶ σώματι τῷ θεῷ διὰ τοῦ σταυροῦ ἀποκτείνας τὴν ἔχθραν ἐν αὐτῷ· 2.17. καὶ ἐλθὼν εὐηγγελίσατο εἰρήνην ὑμῖν τοῖς μακρὰν καὶ εἰρήνην τοῖς ἐγγύς· 2.18. ὅτι διʼ αὐτοῦ ἔχομεν τὴν προσαγωγὴν οἱ ἀμφότεροι ἐν ἑνὶ πνεύματι πρὸς τὸν πατέρα.
5.21. ὑποτασσόμενοι ἀλλήλοις ἐν φόβῳ Χριστοῦ. 5.22. Αἱ γυναῖκες τοῖς ἰδίοις ἀνδράσιν ὡς τῷ κυρίῳ, 5.23. ὅτι ἀνήρ ἐστιν κεφαλὴ τῆς γυναικὸς ὡς καὶ ὁ χριστὸς κεφαλὴ τῆς ἐκκλησίας, αὐτὸς σωτὴρ τοῦ σώματος. 5.24. ἀλλὰ ὡς ἡ ἐκκλησία ὑποτάσσεται τῷ χριστῷ, οὕτως καὶ αἱ γυναῖκες τοῖς ἀνδράσιν ἐν παντί. 5.25. Οἱ ἄνδρες, ἀγαπᾶτε τὰς γυναῖκας, καθὼς καὶ ὁ χριστὸς ἠγάπησεν τὴν ἐκκλησίαν καὶ ἑαυτὸν παρέδωκεν ὑπὲρ αὐτῆς, 5.26. ἵνα αὐτὴν ἁγιάσῃ καθαρίσας τῷ λουτρῷ τοῦ ὕδατος ἐν ῥήματι, 5.27. ἵνα παραστήσῃ αὐτὸς ἑαυτῷ ἔνδοξον τὴν ἐκκλησίαν, μὴ ἔχουσαν σπίλον ἢ ῥυτίδα ἤ τι τῶν τοιούτων, ἀλλʼ ἵνα ᾖ ἁγία καὶ ἄμωμος. 5.28. οὕτως ὀφείλουσιν καὶ οἱ ἄνδρες ἀγαπᾷν τὰς ἑαυτῶν γυναῖκας ὡς τὰ ἑαυτῶν σώματα· ὁ ἀγαπῶν τὴν ἑαυτοῦ γυναῖκα ἑαυτὸν ἀγαπᾷ, 5.29. οὐδεὶς γάρ ποτε τὴν ἑαυτοῦ σάρκα ἐμίσησεν, ἀλλὰ ἐκτρέφει καὶ θάλπει αὐτήν, καθὼς καὶ ὁ χριστὸς τὴν ἐκκλησίαν, 5.30. ὅτι μέλη ἐσμὲν τοῦ σώματος αὐτοῦ. 5.31. ἀντὶ τούτου καταλείψει ἄνθρωπος τὸν πατέρα καὶ τὴν μητέρα καὶ προσκολληθήσεται πρὸς τὴν γυναῖκα αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἔσονται οἱ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν. 5.32. τὸ μυστήριον τοῦτο μέγα ἐστίν, ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω εἰς Χριστὸν καὶ εἰς τὴν ἐκκλησίαν. 5.33. πλὴν καὶ ὑμεῖς οἱ καθʼ ἕνα ἕκαστος τὴν ἑαυτοῦ γυναῖκα οὕτως ἀγαπάτω ὡς ἑαυτόν, ἡ δὲ γυνὴ ἵνα φοβῆται τὸν ἄνδρα.''. None
2.14. For he is our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition, 2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace; 2.16. and might reconcile them both in one body to God through the cross, having killed the hostility thereby. 2.17. He came and preached peace to you who were far off and to those who were near. 2.18. For through him we both have our access in one Spirit to the Father.
5.21. subjecting yourselves one to another in the fear of Christ. 5.22. Wives, be subject to your own husbands, as to the Lord. 5.23. For the husband is the head of the wife, and Christ also is the head of the assembly, being himself the savior of the body. 5.24. But as the assembly is subject to Christ, so let the wives also be to their own husbands in everything. 5.25. Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the assembly, and gave himself up for it; 5.26. that he might sanctify it, having cleansed it by the washing of water with the word, 5.27. that he might present the assembly to himself gloriously, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that it should be holy and without blemish. 5.28. Even so ought husbands also to love their own wives as their own bodies. He who loves his own wife loves himself. 5.29. For no man ever hated his own flesh; but nourishes and cherishes it, even as the Lord also does the assembly; 5.30. because we are members of his body, of his flesh and bones. 5.31. "For this cause a man will leave his father and mother, and will be joined to his wife. The two will become one flesh." 5.32. This mystery is great, but I speak concerning Christ and of the assembly. 5.33. Nevertheless each of you must also love his own wife even as himself; and let the wife see that she respects her husband. ''. None
36. New Testament, Galatians, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Audience, captatio benevolentiae • author’s relationship with audience, portrayal of Paul and apostles

 Found in books: Gray (2021) 43; deSilva (2022) 161

2.2. καὶ ἀνεθέμην αὐτοῖς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ὃ κηρύσσω ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, κατʼ ἰδίαν δὲ τοῖς δοκοῦσιν, μή πως εἰς κενὸν τρέχω ἢ ἔδραμον.''. None
2.2. I went up byrevelation, and I laid before them the gospel which I preach among theGentiles, but privately before those who were respected, for fear thatI might be running, or had run, in vain. ''. None
37. New Testament, Philippians, 3.8-3.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Audience, internal • author’s relationship with audience, style and vocabulary • author’s relationship with audience, theological questions

 Found in books: Gray (2021) 142, 216; deSilva (2022) 18, 24, 26

3.8. ἀλλὰ μὲν οὖν γε καὶ ἡγοῦμαι πάντα ζημίαν εἶναι διὰ τὸ ὑπερέχον τῆς γνώσεως Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ τοῦ κυρίου μου διʼ ὃν τὰ πάντα ἐζημιώθην, καὶ ἡγοῦμαι σκύβαλα ἵνα Χριστὸν κερδήσω καὶ εὑρεθῶ ἐν αὐτῷ, 3.9. μὴ ἔχων ἐμὴν δικαιοσύνην τὴν ἐκ νόμου ἀλλὰ τὴν διὰ πίστεως Χριστοῦ, τὴν ἐκ θεοῦ δικαιοσύνην ἐπὶ τῇ πίστει, 3.10. τοῦ γνῶναι αὐτὸν καὶ τὴν δύναμιν τῆς ἀναστάσεως αὐτοῦ καὶ κοινωνίαν παθημάτων αὐτοῦ, συμμορφιζόμενος τῷ θανάτῳ αὐτοῦ, 3.11. εἴ πως καταντήσω εἰς τὴν ἐξανάστασιν τὴν ἐκ νεκρῶν. οὐχ ὅτι ἤδη ἔλαβον ἢ ἤδη τετελείωμαι, 3.12. διώκω δὲ εἰ καὶ καταλάβω, ἐφʼ ᾧ καὶ κατελήμφθην ὑπὸ Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ. ἀδελφοί, ἐγὼ ἐμαυτὸν οὔπω λογίζομαι κατειληφέναι·''. None
3.8. Yes most assuredly, and I count all things to be loss for the excellency of the knowledge of Christ Jesus, my Lord, for whom I suffered the loss of all things, and count them nothing but refuse, that I may gain Christ 3.9. and be found in him, not having a righteousness of my own, that which is of the law, but that which is through faith in Christ, the righteousness which is from God by faith; 3.10. that I may know him, and the power of his resurrection, and the fellowship of his sufferings, becoming conformed to his death; 3.11. if by any means I may attain to the resurrection from the dead. 3.12. Not that I have already obtained, or am already made perfect; but I press on, if it is so that I may take hold of that for which also I was taken hold of by Christ Jesus. ''. None
38. New Testament, Romans, 8.13, 8.17, 8.21, 8.24, 8.29 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Luke, Gospel of audience for • author’s relationship with audience, style and vocabulary • author’s relationship with audience, theological questions

 Found in books: Peppard (2011) 135; deSilva (2022) 18, 23, 24

8.13. εἰ γὰρ κατὰ σάρκα ζῆτε μέλλετε ἀποθνήσκειν, εἰ δὲ πνεύματι τὰς πράξεις τοῦ σώματος θανατοῦτε ζήσεσθε.
8.17. εἰ δὲ τέκνα, καὶ κληρονόμοι· κληρονόμοι μὲν θεοῦ, συνκληρονόμοι δὲ Χριστοῦ, εἴπερ συνπάσχομεν ἵνα καὶ συνδοξασθῶμεν.
8.21. ὅτι καὶ αὐτὴ ἡ κτίσις ἐλευθερωθήσεται ἀπὸ τῆς δουλείας τῆς φθορᾶς εἰς τὴν ἐλευθερίαν τῆς δόξης τῶν τέκνων τοῦ θεοῦ.
8.24. τῇ γὰρ ἐλπίδι ἐσώθημεν· ἐλπὶς δὲ βλεπομένη οὐκ ἔστιν ἐλπίς, ὃ γὰρ βλέπει τίς ἐλπίζει;
8.29. ὅτι οὓς προέγνω, καὶ προώρισεν συμμόρφους τῆς εἰκόνος τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ, εἰς τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν πρωτότοκον ἐν πολλοῖς ἀδελφοῖς·''. None
8.13. For if you live after the flesh, you must die; but if by the Spirit you put to death the deeds of the body, you will live.
8.17. and if children, then heirs; heirs of God, and joint-heirs with Christ; if indeed we suffer with him, that we may also be glorified with him.
8.21. that the creation itself also will be delivered from the bondage of decay into the liberty of the glory of the children of God.
8.24. For we were saved in hope, but hope that is seen is not hope. For who hopes for that which he sees?
8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. ''. None
39. New Testament, John, 1.18 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Priests, audience • audience

 Found in books: Gray (2021) 213; Werline et al. (2008) 122

1.18. θεὸν οὐδεὶς ἑώρακεν πώποτε· μονογενὴς θεὸς ὁ ὢν εἰς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ πατρὸς ἐκεῖνος ἐξηγήσατο.''. None
1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. ''. None
40. New Testament, Luke, 1.35, 18.32, 24.25-24.27, 24.47 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Luke, Gospel of audience for • Luke/Acts\n, audience of • audience • author’s relationship with audience, portrayal of Paul and apostles

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 114, 118, 120, 122, 449; Crabb (2020) 316; Peppard (2011) 135; deSilva (2022) 165

1.35. καὶ ἀποκριθεὶς ὁ ἄγγελος εἶπεν αὐτῇ Πνεῦμα ἅγιον ἐπελεύσεται ἐπὶ σέ, καὶ δύναμις Ὑψίστου ἐπισκιάσει σοι· διὸ καὶ τὸ γεννώμενον ἅγιον κληθήσεται, υἱὸς θεοῦ·
18.32. παραδοθήσεται γὰρ τοῖς ἔθνεσιν καὶ ἐμπαιχθήσεται καὶ ὑβρισθήσεται καὶ ἐμπτυσθήσεται,
24.25. καὶ αὐτὸς εἶπεν πρὸς αὐτούς Ὦ ἀνόητοι καὶ βραδεῖς τῇ καρδίᾳ τοῦ πιστεύειν ἐπὶ πᾶσιν οἷς ἐλάλησαν οἱ προφῆται· 24.26. οὐχὶ ταῦτα ἔδει παθεῖν τὸν χριστὸν καὶ εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ; 24.27. καὶ ἀρξάμενος ἀπὸ Μωυσέως καὶ ἀπὸ πάντων τῶν προφητῶν διερμήνευσεν αὐτοῖς ἐν πάσαις ταῖς γραφαῖς τὰ περὶ ἑαυτοῦ.
24.47. καὶ κηρυχθῆναι ἐπὶ τῷ ὀνόματι αὐτοῦ μετάνοιαν εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν εἰς πάντα τὰ ἔθνὴ, — ἀρξάμενοι ἀπὸ Ἰερουσαλήμ·''. None
1.35. The angel answered her, "The Holy Spirit will come on you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you. Therefore also the holy one who is born from you will be called the Son of God.
18.32. For he will be delivered up to the Gentiles, will be mocked, treated shamefully, and spit on.
24.25. He said to them, "Foolish men, and slow of heart to believe in all that the prophets have spoken! 24.26. Didn\'t the Christ have to suffer these things and to enter into his glory?" 24.27. Beginning from Moses and from all the prophets, he explained to them in all the Scriptures the things concerning himself.
24.47. and that repentance and remission of sins should be preached in his name to all the nations, beginning at Jerusalem. ''. None
41. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 3.7.6-3.7.10, 3.7.12, 8.3.62, 8.3.71 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Audience • Orosius, audience • Sermones, Audience • audience • audience, in Theocritus Idylls • audience, nymphs as judges and • nymphs, as audience and judges

 Found in books: Clay and Vergados (2022) 1; Glowalsky (2020) 98, 99; Johnson (2008) 34, 37; Michalopoulos et al. (2021) 218; Van Nuffelen (2012) 132; deSilva (2022) 7

3.7.6. \xa0Some arguments will even wear a certain semblance of defence: for example, if the orator is speaking in praise of Hercules, he will find excuses for his hero having changed raiment with the Queen of Lydia and submitted to the tasks which legend tells us she imposed upon him. The proper function however of panegyric is to amplify and embellish its themes. This form of oratory is directed in the main to the praise of gods and men, but may occasionally be applied to the praise of animals or even of iimate objects. 3.7.7. \xa0In praising the gods our first step will be to express our veneration of the majesty of their nature in general terms: next we shall proceed to praise the special power of the individual god and the discoveries whereby he has benefited the human race.' "3.7.8. \xa0For example, in the case of Jupiter, we shall extol his power as manifested in the goverce of all things, with Mars we shall praise his power in war, with Neptune his power over the sea; as regards inventions we shall celebrate Minerva's discovery of the arts, Mercury's discovery of letters, Apollo's of medicine, Ceres' of the fruits of the earth, Bacchus' of wine. Next we must record their exploits as handed down from antiquity. Even gods may derive honour from their descent, as for instance is the case with the sons of Jupiter, or from their antiquity, as in the case of the children of Chaos, or from their offspring, as in the case of Latona, the mother of Apollo and Diana." '3.7.9. \xa0Some again may be praised because they were born immortal, others because they won immortality by their valour, a theme which the piety of our sovereign has made the glory even of these present times.' "3.7.10. \xa0There is greater variety required in the praise of men. In the first place there is a distinction to be made as regards time between the period in which the objects of our praise lived and the time preceding their birth; and further, in the case of the dead, we must also distinguish the period following their death. With regard to things preceding a man's birth, there are his country, his parents and his ancestors, a theme which may be handled in two ways. For either it will be creditable to the objects of our praise not to have fallen short of the fair fame of their country and of their sires or to have ennobled a humble origin by the glory of their achievements." '
3.7.12. \xa0The praise of the individual himself will be based on his character, his physical endowments and external circumstances. Physical and accidental advantages provide a comparatively unimportant theme, which requires variety of treatment. At time for instance we extol beauty and strength in honorific terms, as Homer does in the case of Agamemnon and Achilles; at times again weakness may contribute largely to our admiration, as when Homer says that Tydeus was small of stature but a good fighter.
8.3.62. \xa0It is a great gift to be able to set forth the facts on which we are speaking clearly and vividly. For oratory fails of its full effect, and does not assert itself as it should, if its appeal is merely to the hearing, and if the judge merely feels that the facts on which he has to give his decision are being narrated to him, and not displayed in their living truth to the eyes of the mind.
8.3.71. Though the attainment of such effects is, in my opinion, the highest of all oratorical gifts, it is far from difficult of attainment. Fix your eyes on nature and follow her. All eloquence is concerned with the activities of life, while every man applies to himself what he hears from others, and the mind is always readiest to accept what it recognises to be true to nature.''. None
42. Tacitus, Annals, 13.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Tacitus, audience of • audience

 Found in books: Fertik (2019) 51; Tuori (2016) 167

13.4. At Tiridates pudore et metu, ne, si concessisset obsidioni, nihil opis in ipso videretur, si prohiberet, impeditis locis seque et equestris copias inligaret, statuit postremo ostendere aciem et dato die proelium incipere vel simulatione fugae locum fraudi parare. igitur repente agmen Romanum circumfundit, non ignaro duce nostro, qui viae pariter et pugnae composuerat exercitum. latere dextro tertia legio, sinistro sexta incedebat, mediis decimanorum delectis; recepta inter ordines impedimenta, et tergum mille equites tuebantur, quibus iusserat ut instantibus comminus resisterent, refugos non sequerentur. in cornibus pedes sagittarius et cetera manus equitum ibat, productiore cornu sinistro per ima collium, ut, si hostis intravisset, fronte simul et sinu exciperetur. adsultare ex diverso Tiridates, non usque ad ictum teli, sed tum minitans, tum specie trepidantis, si laxare ordines et diversos consectari posset. ubi nihil temeritate solutum, nec amplius quam decurio equitum audentius progressus et sagittis confixus ceteros ad obsequium exemplo firmaverat, propinquis iam tenebris abscessit.'
13.4. Ceterum peractis tristitiae imitamentis curiam ingressus et de auctoritate patrum et consensu militum praefatus, consilia sibi et exempla capessendi egregie imperii memora- vit, neque iuventam armis civilibus aut domesticis discordiis imbutam; nulla odia, nullas iniurias nec cupidinem ultionis adferre. tum formam futuri principatus praescripsit, ea maxime declis quorum recens flagrabat invidia. non enim se negotiorum omnium iudicem fore, ut clausis unam intra domum accusatoribus et reis paucorum potentia grassaretur; nihil in penatibus suis venale aut ambitioni pervium; discretam domum et rem publicam. teneret antiqua munia senatus, consulum tribunalibus Italia et publicae provinciae adsisterent: illi patrum aditum praeberent, se mandatis exercitibus consulturum. '. None
13.4. \xa0However, when the mockeries of sorrow had been carried to their close, he entered the curia; and, after an opening reference to the authority of the Fathers and the uimity of the army, stated that "he had before him advice and examples pointing him to an admirable system of government. Nor had his youth been poisoned by civil war or family strife: he brought to his task no hatreds, no wrongs, no desire for vengeance. He then outlined the character of the coming principate, the points which had provoked recent and intense dissatisfaction being specially discounteced:â\x80\x94 "He would not constitute himself a judge of all cases, secluding accusers and defendants within the same four walls and allowing the influence of a\xa0few individuals to run riot. Under his roof would be no venality, no loophole for intrigue: the palace and the state would be things separate. Let the senate retain its old prerogatives! Let Italy and the public provinces take their stand before the judgement-seats of the consuls, and let the consuls grant them access to the Fathers: for the armies delegated to his charge he would himself be responsible." <''. None
43. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aeschylus, internal and external audiences • Seneca, audience of • audiences, in Senecas Agamemnon • audiences, internal vs. external

 Found in books: Fertik (2019) 100; Pillinger (2019) 213, 218, 219, 220

44. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Seneca, audience of • audience, and Thyestes • audience, and metatheatre

 Found in books: Bexley (2022) 62, 63, 64, 65, 66; Fertik (2019) 99

45. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Audience, internal • audience • author’s relationship with audience

 Found in books: Gray (2021) 216; Werline et al. (2008) 198; deSilva (2022) 37

46. Aeschines, Or., 1.26, 1.131
 Tagged with subjects: • Audience • internal audiences

 Found in books: Michalopoulos et al. (2021) 56, 59; Spatharas (2019) 20

1.26. See now, fellow citizens, how unlike to Timarchus were Solon and those men of old whom I mentioned a moment ago. They were too modest to speak with the arm outside the cloak, but this man not long ago, yes, only the other day, in an assembly of the people threw off his cloak and leaped about like a gymnast, half naked, his body so reduced and befouled through drunkenness and lewdness that right-minded men, at least, covered their eyes, being ashamed for the city, that we should let such men as he be our advisers.
1.131. in the case of Demosthenes, too, it was common report, and not his nurse, that gave him his nickname; and well did common report name him Batalus, for his effeminacy and lewdness! For, Demosthenes, if anyone should strip off those exquisite, pretty mantle of yours, and the soft, pretty shirts that you wear while you are writing your speeches against your friends,Writing speeches against his former friends is as brave an act as Demosthenes is capable of, and the only armor that he knows or needs is his soft shirt! Aeschines is smarting under the fact that Demosthenes, who, in the beginning of the negotiations with Philip for peace, had been on good terms with himself, has now caused his indictment for treason, and will shortly conduct the prosecution in court. and should pass them around among the jurors, I think, unless they were informed beforehand, they would be quite at a loss to say whether they had in their hands the clothing of a man or of a woman! ''. None
47. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 129-169, 182
 Tagged with subjects: • Pseudo-Aristeas, audience of • audience

 Found in books: Bar Kochba (1997) 287, 288; Stavrianopoulou (2013) 208, 216, 217, 220, 221

129. especially those about meats and drinks and animals recognized as unclean. When we asked why, since there is but one form of creation, some animals are regarded as unclean for eating, and others unclean even to the touch (for though the law is scrupulous on most points, it is specially scrupulous on such'130. matters as these) he began his reply as follows: 'You observe,' he said, 'what an effect our modes of life and our associations produce upon us; by associating with the bad, men catch their depravities and become miserable throughout their life; but if they live with the wise and prudent, they find" '131. the means of escaping from ignorance and amending their lives. Our Lawgiver first of all laid down the principles of piety and righteousness and inculcated them point by point, not merely by prohibitions but by the use of examples as well, demonstrating the injurious effects of sin and the 132. punishments inflicted by God upon the guilty. For he proved first of all that there is only one God and that his power is manifested throughout the universe, since every place is filled with his sovereignty and none of the things which are wrought in secret by men upon the earth escapes His knowledge. For all that a man does and all that is to come to pass in the future are manifest to 133. Him. Working out these truths carefully and having made them plain he showed that even if a man should think of doing evil - to say nothing of actually effecting it - 134. he would not escape detection, for he made it clear that the power of God pervaded the whole of the law. 135. Beginning from this starting point he went on to show that all mankind except ourselves believe in the existence of many gods, though they themselves are much more powerful than the beings whom they vainly worship. For when they have made statues of stone and wood, they say that they are the images of those who have invented something useful for life and they worship them, though 136. they have clear proof that they possess no feeling. For it would be utterly foolish to suppose that any one became a god in virtue of his inventions. For the inventors simply took certain objects already created and by combining them together, showed that they possessed a fresh utility: they 137. did not themselves create the substance of the thing, and so it is a vain and foolish thing for people to make gods of men like themselves. For in our times there are many who are much more inventive and much more learned than the men of former days who have been deified, and yet they would never come to worship them. The makers and authors of these myths think that they are' "138. the wisest of the Greeks. Why need we speak of other infatuated people, Egyptians and the like, who place their reliance upon wild beasts and most kinds of creeping things and cattle, and worship them, and offer sacrifices to them both while living and when dead?'" "139. 'Now our Lawgiver being a wise man and specially endowed by God to understand all things, took a comprehensive view of each particular detail, and fenced us round with impregnable ramparts and walls of iron, that we might not mingle at all with any of the other nations, but remain pure in body and soul, free from all vain imaginations, worshiping the one Almighty God above the whole" "140. creation. Hence the leading Egyptian priests having looked carefully into many matters, and being cognizant with (our) affairs, call us' men of God'. This is a title which does not belong to the rest of mankind but only to those who worship the true God. The rest are men not of God but of meats and drinks and clothing. For their whole disposition leads them to find solace in these things." '141. Among our people such things are reckoned of no account. but throughout their whole life their 142. main consideration is the sovereignty of God. Therefore lest we should be corrupted by any abomination, or our lives be perverted by evil communications, he hedged us round on all sides by 143. rules of purity, affecting alike what we eat, or drink, or touch, or hear, or see. For though, speaking generally, all things are alike in their natural constitution, since they are all governed by one and the same power, yet there is a deep reason in each individual case why we abstain from the use of certain things and enjoy the common use of others. For the sake of illustration I will run over one or two 144. points and explain them to you. For you must not fall into the degrading idea that it was out of regard to mice and weasels and other such things that Moses drew up his laws with such exceeding care. All these ordices were made for the sake of righteousness to aid the quest for virtue and 145. the perfecting of character. For all the birds that we use are tame and distinguished by their cleanliness, feeding on various kinds of grain and pulse, such as for instance pigeons, turtle-doves, 146. locusts, partridges, geese also, and all other birds of this class. But the birds which are forbidden you will find to be wild and carnivorous, tyrannizing over the others by the strength which they possess, and cruelly obtaining food by preying on the tame birds enumerated above and not only so, but 147. they seize lambs and kids, and injure human beings too, whether dead or alive, and so by naming them unclean, he gave a sign by means of them that those, for whom the legislation was ordained, must practice righteousness in their hearts and not tyrannize over any one in reliance upon their own strength nor rob them of anything, but steer their course of life in accordance with justice, just as the tame birds, already mentioned, consume the different kinds of pulse that grow upon the earth 148. and do not tyrannize to the destruction of their own kindred. Our legislator taught us therefore that it is by such methods as these that indications are given to the wise, that they must be just and effect nothing by violence, and refrain from tyrannizing over others in reliance upon their own 149. trength. For since it is considered unseemly even to touch such unclean animals, as have been mentioned, on account of their particular habits, ought we not to take every precaution lest our own 150. characters should be destroyed to the same extent? Wherefore all the rules which he has laid down with regard to what is permitted in the case of these birds and other animals, he has enacted with the object of teaching us a moral lesson. For the division of the hoof and the separation of the claws are intended to teach us that we must discriminate between our individual actions with a view 151. to the practice of virtue. For the strength of our whole body and its activity depend upon our shoulders and limbs. Therefore he compels us to recognize that we must perform all our actions with discrimination according to the standard of righteousness - more especially because we have 152. been distinctly separated from the rest of mankind. For most other men defile themselves by promiscuous intercourse, thereby working great iniquity, and whole countries and cities pride themselves upon such vices. For they not only have intercourse with men but they defile their own' "153. mothers and even their daughters. But we have been kept separate from such sins. And the people who have been separated in the aforementioned way are also characterized by the Lawgiver as possessing the gift of memory. For all animals' which are cloven-footed and chew the cud'" '154. represent to the initiated the symbol of memory. For the act of chewing the cud is nothing else than the reminiscence of life and existence. For life is wont to be sustained by means of food' "155. wherefore he exhorts us in the Scripture also in these words: 'Thou shalt surely remember the Lord that wrought in thee those great and wonderful things'. For when they are properly conceived, they are manifestly great and glorious; first the construction of the body and the disposition of the" '156. food and the separation of each individual limb and, far more, the organization of the senses, the operation and invisible movement of the mind, the rapidity of its particular actions and its discovery of the 157. arts, display an infinite resourcefulness. Wherefore he exhorts us to remember that the aforesaid parts are kept together by the divine power with consummate skill. For he has marked out every 158. time and place that we may continually remember the God who rules and preserves (us). For in the matter of meats and drinks he bids us first of all offer part as a sacrifice and then forthwith enjoy our meal. Moreover, upon our garments he has given us a symbol of remembrance, and in like manner he has ordered us to put the divine oracles upon our gates and doors as a remembrance of 159. God. And upon our hands, too, he expressly orders the symbol to be fastened, clearly showing that we ought to perform every act in righteousness, remembering (our own creation), and above all the 160. fear of God. He bids men also, when lying down to sleep and rising up again, to meditate upon the works of God, not only in word, but by observing distinctly the change and impression produced upon them, when they are going to sleep, and also their waking, how divine and incomprehensible' "161. the change from one of these states to the other is. The excellency of the analogy in regard to discrimination and memory has now been pointed out to you, according to our interpretation of' the cloven hoof and the chewing of the cud'. For our laws have not been drawn up at random or in accordance with the first casual thought that occurred to the mind, but with a view to truth and the" '162. indication of right reason. For by means of the directions which he gives with regard to meats and drinks and particular cases of touching, he bids us neither to do nor listen to anything, thoughtlessly 163. nor to resort to injustice by the abuse of the power of reason. In the case of the wild animals, too, the same principle may be discovered. For the character of the weasel and of mice and such 164. animals as these, which are expressly mentioned, is destructive. Mice defile and damage everything, not only for their own food but even to the extent of rendering absolutely useless to man whatever 165. it falls in their way to damage. The weasel class, too, is peculiar: for besides what has been said, it has a characteristic which is defiling: It conceives through the ears and brings forth through the' "166. mouth. And it is for this reason that a like practice is declared unclean in men. For by embodying in speech all that they receive through the ears, they involve others in evils and work no ordinary impurity, being themselves altogether defiled by the pollution of impiety. And your king, as we are informed, does quite right in destroying such men.'" "167. Then I said 'I suppose you mean the informers, for he constantly exposes them to tortures and to" "168. painful forms of death'. 'Yes,' he replied, 'these are the men I mean, for to watch for men's destruction is an unholy thing. And our law forbids us to injure any one either by word or deed. My brief account of these matters ought to have convinced you, that all our regulations have been drawn up with a view to righteousness, and that nothing has been enacted in the Scripture thoughtlessly or without due reason, but its purpose is to enable us throughout our whole life and in all our action" "169. to practice righteousness before all men, being mindful of Almighty God. And so concerning meats and things unclean, creeping things, and wild beasts, the whole system aims at righteousness and righteous relationships between man and man.'" '
182. And Nicanor summoned the lord high steward, Dorotheus, who was the special officer appointed to look after the Jews, and commanded him to make the necessary preparation for each one. For this arrangement had been made by the king and it is an arrangement which you see maintained to-day. For as many cities (as) have (special) customs in the matter of drinking, eating, and reclining, have special officers appointed to look after their requirements. And whenever they come to visit the kings, preparations are made in accordance with their own customs, in order that there may be no discomfort to disturb the enjoyment of their visit. The same precaution was taken in the case of the Jewish envoys. Now Dorotheus who was the patron appointed to look after Jewish guests wa ". None
48. Vergil, Aeneis, 6.823
 Tagged with subjects: • audience, power dynamic between artist and • audiences, heterogeneity of • audiences, power of • power, artist /audience relationship and • power, of audiences

 Found in books: Johnson (2008) 151; Pandey (2018) 156, 160, 200

6.823. vincet amor patriae laudumque immensa cupido.''. None
6.823. Their journey lay, through pleasurable bowers ''. None
49. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • audience

 Found in books: Beck (2021) 248; Álvarez (2019) 101

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