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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
athlete Borg (2008) 137, 243, 374
Maier and Waldner (2022) 148
athlete, demetrius Kalinowski (2021) 195, 200
athlete, epicharinus, athenian Gygax (2016) 127, 137
athlete, jacob, as an Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 201
athlete, kleitomachos, theban Stavrianopoulou (2013) 354
athlete, melankomas Stavrianopoulou (2013) 321
athlete, metaphor for christian Sider (2001) 141
athlete, sogenes of attica, winning Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 354
athlete, theagenes Kalinowski (2021) 36
athlete, xenophon of corinth, winning Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 353
athlete/athletics van , t Westeinde (2021) 156, 173
athletes Ekroth (2013) 252
Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 124, 247, 249, 256
Hallmannsecker (2022) 49, 52, 53, 63
Jouanna (2012) 76, 178, 276
Oksanish (2019) 29, 30, 38, 39, 40, 154, 155, 175, 176, 177, 178, 179, 180
Steiner (2001) 223, 224, 229
Taylor and Hay (2020) 182, 183, 231, 232
athletes, and tyranny Gygax (2016) 66, 90, 94, 134, 135
athletes, as benefactors Gygax (2016) 44, 63, 65, 66, 87, 133
athletes, as members of the elite Gygax (2016) 66
athletes, athletics, Thonemann (2020) 58, 80, 81, 100, 112, 113, 151, 159, 160, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 176, 179, 202
athletes, blessing, Sider (2001) 141
athletes, body, bodies Cadwallader (2016) 110, 113, 115, 116, 117, 118, 122, 123, 124, 209, 210, 227
athletes, criticism of honors for Gygax (2016) 66, 84, 135
athletes, dôreai, for Gygax (2016) 66, 84
athletes, egyptians/ethiopians Bremmer (2017) 382
athletes, epinikia, as gifts by Gygax (2016) 69, 70, 90, 123, 134
athletes, hero cult, for Eisenfeld (2022) 19, 25
athletes, honored in archaic poleis Gygax (2016) 55, 63, 66, 90
athletes, honored in classical athens Gygax (2016) 131, 161
athletes, nudity, of Steiner (2001) 224
athletes, oaths Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 139, 210, 211
athletes, oaths, athlothetai, oaths of Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 137, 236
athletes, proedria, for Gygax (2016) 66, 69, 71, 84, 119, 123, 132, 136
athletes, sitêsis, for Gygax (2016) 66, 69, 71, 84, 119, 123, 129, 132, 136
athletes, solon, and Gygax (2016) 67, 89, 133
athletes, solon’s legislation on Gygax (2016) 89
athletes, statues, earliest for Gygax (2016) 68
athletes, statues, of Gygax (2016) 66, 67, 68, 69, 70, 90, 91, 114, 118, 119, 120, 126, 127
athletes, their rewards in sparta Gygax (2016) 69
athletes, tyrants, as victorious Gygax (2016) 94
athletes, virginity, of Hubbard (2014) 260, 261
athletes, worshipped Gygax (2016) 121
athletes, worshipped as heroes Ekroth (2013) 21
athletes, xenophanes, on honors for Wolfsdorf (2020) 32, 33
athletic, agon Borg (2008) 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220
athletic, astylos of kroton victor Steiner (2001) 8
athletic, body Oksanish (2019) 40
athletic, competitions, panathenaea Barbato (2020) 36, 37
athletic, contest Stavrianopoulou (2013) 85, 178, 327, 331, 354
athletic, contests Ekroth (2013) 83, 197, 199, 221, 333
Kirichenko (2022) 5, 25, 37, 38, 39, 40, 45, 46, 53, 54, 61, 64, 176, 177, 184
Taylor and Hay (2020) 232, 233
athletic, contests, at pellana Eisenfeld (2022) 112
athletic, contests, at sikyon Eisenfeld (2022) 112, 158, 159, 160, 161, 197
athletic, contests, in palestine Feldman (2006) 17
athletic, contests/games Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 182, 391, 527, 553
athletic, dramatic or cultural, festivals Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 243
athletic, dyrrhachium, education Borg (2008) 203, 204, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 223, 224
athletic, euthykles victor Steiner (2001) 8
athletic, excellence Eisenfeld (2022) 92, 93, 116, 118, 131, 138, 139, 140, 144, 145, 184, 230
athletic, festivals, pythagoras and pythagoreans, on Mikalson (2010) 86
athletic, games Thonemann (2020) 9, 58, 98, 126, 159, 160, 163, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 183, 199, 209
athletic, image Tite (2009) 154, 208, 247, 293, 294
athletic, imagery Geljon and Runia (2019) 33, 132, 195, 265, 266, 277, 294
König (2012) 171, 173
athletic, images Steiner (2001) 8, 9, 17, 19, 223, 224, 228, 229, 231, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 270
athletic, images, inscriptions, of Steiner (2001) 17, 19, 228, 229, 270
athletic, images, nudity, of Steiner (2001) 228
athletic, images, pose, of Steiner (2001) 231
athletic, metaphor, and martyrdom Gray (2021) 81, 82
athletic, metaphor, biblical application Gray (2021) 82, 83
athletic, metaphor, for training in virtue Gray (2021) 78, 80, 87, 89, 90, 105, 110, 243
athletic, metaphor, in philosophical literature Gray (2021) 80, 81
athletic, metaphors for, ascetics, asceticism Konig (2022) 291
athletic, metaphors for, tension, between communal and solitary Konig (2022) 285, 293, 294, 295, 301, 302, 303
athletic, nudity Edmondson (2008) 78, 79, 84, 120, 130
athletic, oibotas of dyme victor Steiner (2001) 8, 9
athletic, patrons, dioskouroi Eisenfeld (2022) 90, 92, 113, 114, 143, 146
athletic, tips in dreams, asklepios, provides Renberg (2017) 9, 116, 117, 175
athletic, tradition, in greece Griffiths (1975) 136
athletic, training Stavrianopoulou (2013) 319
athletic, victories Wolfsdorf (2020) 32, 33
athletic, victories as, dôreai Gygax (2016) 64
athletic, victories, as benefactions Gygax (2016) 63, 85, 86, 89, 153, 162
athletic, victories, as dôreai Gygax (2016) 64
athletic, victors Steiner (2001) 223, 224, 229, 231, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265
athletics Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 602, 603
Borg (2008) 203, 204, 206, 207, 208, 209, 210, 211, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 223, 224, 262
Gaifman (2012) 142, 154, 244, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250, 251, 252
Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 172, 173, 174, 175, 176, 182, 195, 196, 197, 198
Ruffini (2018) 185
Shannon-Henderson (2019) 304
Wilson (2010) 103, 364, 403
athletics, aleaia Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 198
athletics, antigoneia Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 172, 175
athletics, basileia Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 172, 173
athletics, biography, and greek Hubbard (2014) 252, 253, 257
athletics, eleusinia Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 172
athletics, eleutheria Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 172, 173
athletics, femininity Hubbard (2014) 257, 258, 259, 260
athletics, heraia Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 172, 173
athletics, imagery Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 98, 175, 181, 182, 183, 191, 201, 254, 269, 386, 388, 389
Geljon and Runia (2013) 205, 236, 262
athletics, isthmia Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 172, 175, 176, 196, 198
athletics, lykaia Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 172, 173, 196, 198
athletics, naia Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 172, 174
athletics, nemea Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 172, 175, 176, 198
athletics, nudity Hubbard (2014) 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 252, 253
athletics, olympia, athens Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 159
athletics, olympic games Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 172, 175, 176, 198
athletics, pederasty, and Hubbard (2014) 244, 245, 246
athletics, philo on Geljon and Runia (2013) 198
athletics, pythia Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 172, 175, 176, 198
athletics, pythia, megara Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 176
athletics, social imaginary, and Stavrianopoulou (2013) 317, 318, 319, 320, 321, 322
athletics, sparta, female Hubbard (2014) 258, 259
athletics/training Wilson (2022) 56, 57, 72, 84, 95, 96, 98, 99, 101, 109, 167, 168, 211

List of validated texts:
27 validated results for "athletes"
1. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 9.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • athletics, Philo on • imagery athletic • imagery, athletics

 Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2013) 198, 205, 236, 262; Geljon and Runia (2019) 33

9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard.''. None
2. Homer, Iliad, 3.292 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • athletes • athletes oaths

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 252; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 139

3.292. ἦ, καὶ ἀπὸ στομάχους ἀρνῶν τάμε νηλέϊ χαλκῷ·''. None
3.292. then will I fight on even thereafter, to get me recompense, and will abide here until I find an end of war. He spake, and cut the lambs' throats with the pitiless bronze; and laid them down upon the ground gasping and failing of breath, for the bronze had robbed them of their strength. "". None
3. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • athletes • athletic images • athletic victors • nudity, athletics • pederasty, and athletics

 Found in books: Hubbard (2014) 244; Steiner (2001) 223

4. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • athletes • athletes oaths

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 252; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 139

5. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sogenes of Attica (winning athlete) • athletic images • inscriptions, of athletic images • nudity, of athletic images

 Found in books: Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 354; Steiner (2001) 228

6. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • athletic images • athletic victors • contests, athletic • games, athletic • statues, of athletes

 Found in books: Gygax (2016) 120; Kirichenko (2022) 25; Steiner (2001) 265; Thonemann (2020) 126

7. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Xenophon of Corinth (winning athlete) • athletes • athletic images • athletic victors • excellence, athletic • nudity, athletics

 Found in books: Eisenfeld (2022) 230; Hubbard (2014) 247; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 353; Steiner (2001) 223

8. Euripides, Suppliant Women, 1201 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • athletes • athletes oaths

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 252; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 139

1201. ἐν τῷδε λαιμοὺς τρεῖς τριῶν μήλων τεμὼν''. None
1201. enjoined thee to set up at the Pythian shrine. O’er it cut the throats of three sheep; then grave within the tripod’s hollow belly the oath; this done, deliver it to the god who watches over Delphi to keep, a witness and memorial unto Hellas of the oath.''. None
9. Herodotus, Histories, 5.67 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • athletic contests • athletic contests, at Sikyon

 Found in books: Eisenfeld (2022) 160, 161; Ekroth (2013) 197

5.67. ταῦτα δέ, δοκέειν ἐμοί, ἐμιμέετο ὁ Κλεισθένης οὗτος τὸν ἑωυτοῦ μητροπάτορα Κλεισθένεα τὸν Σικυῶνος τύραννον. Κλεισθένης γὰρ Ἀργείοισι πολεμήσας τοῦτο μὲν ῥαψῳδοὺς ἔπαυσε ἐν Σικυῶνι ἀγωνίζεσθαι τῶν Ὁμηρείων ἐπέων εἵνεκα, ὅτι Ἀργεῖοί τε καὶ Ἄργος τὰ πολλὰ πάντα ὑμνέαται· τοῦτο δέ, ἡρώιον γὰρ ἦν καὶ ἔστι ἐν αὐτῇ τῇ ἀγορῇ τῶν Σικυωνίων Ἀδρήστου τοῦ Ταλαοῦ, τοῦτον ἐπεθύμησε ὁ Κλεισθένης ἐόντα Ἀργεῖον ἐκβαλεῖν ἐκ τῆς χώρης. ἐλθὼν δὲ ἐς Δελφοὺς ἐχρηστηριάζετο εἰ ἐκβάλοι τὸν Ἄδρηστον· ἡ δὲ Πυθίη οἱ χρᾷ φᾶσα Ἄδρηστον μὲν εἶναι Σικυωνίων βασιλέα, κεῖνον δὲ λευστῆρα. ἐπεὶ δὲ ὁ θεὸς τοῦτό γε οὐ παρεδίδου, ἀπελθὼν ὀπίσω ἐφρόντιζε μηχανὴν τῇ αὐτὸς ὁ Ἄδρηστος ἀπαλλάξεται. ὡς δέ οἱ ἐξευρῆσθαι ἐδόκεε, πέμψας ἐς Θήβας τὰς Βοιωτίας ἔφη θέλειν ἐπαγαγέσθαι Μελάνιππον τὸν Ἀστακοῦ· οἱ δὲ Θηβαῖοι ἔδοσαν. ἐπαγαγόμενος δὲ ὁ Κλεισθένης τὸν Μελάνιππον τέμενός οἱ ἀπέδεξε ἐν αὐτῷ τῷ πρυτανηίῳ καί μιν ἵδρυσε ἐνθαῦτα ἐν τῷ ἰσχυροτάτῳ. ἐπηγάγετο δὲ τὸν Μελάνιππον ὁ Κλεισθένης ʽ καὶ γὰρ τοῦτο δεῖ ἀπηγήσασθαἰ ὡς ἔχθιστον ἐόντα Ἀδρήστῳ, ὃς τόν τε ἀδελφεόν οἱ Μηκιστέα ἀπεκτόνεε καὶ τὸν γαμβρὸν Τυδέα. ἐπείτε δέ οἱ τὸ τέμενος ἀπέδεξε, θυσίας τε καὶ ὁρτὰς Ἀδρήστου ἀπελόμενος ἔδωκε τῷ Μελανίππῳ. οἱ δὲ Σικυώνιοι ἐώθεσαν μεγαλωστὶ κάρτα τιμᾶν τὸν Ἄδρηστον· ἡ γὰρ χώρη ἦν αὕτη Πολύβου, ὁ δὲ Ἄδρηστος ἦν Πολύβου θυγατριδέος, ἄπαις δὲ Πόλυβος τελευτῶν διδοῖ Ἀδρήστῳ τὴν ἀρχήν. τά τε δὴ ἄλλα οἱ Σικυώνιοι ἐτίμων τὸν Ἄδρηστον καὶ δὴ πρὸς τὰ πάθεα αὐτοῦ τραγικοῖσι χοροῖσι ἐγέραιρον, τὸν μὲν Διόνυσον οὐ τιμῶντες, τὸν δὲ Ἄδρηστον. Κλεισθένης δὲ χοροὺς μὲν τῷ Διονύσῳ ἀπέδωκε, τὴν δὲ ἄλλην θυσίην Μελανίππῳ.''. None
5.67. In doing this, to my thinking, this Cleisthenes was imitating his own mother's father, Cleisthenes the tyrant of Sicyon, for Cleisthenes, after going to war with the Argives, made an end of minstrels' contests at Sicyon by reason of the Homeric poems, in which it is the Argives and Argos which are primarily the theme of the songs. Furthermore, he conceived the desire to cast out from the land Adrastus son of Talaus, the hero whose shrine stood then as now in the very marketplace of Sicyon because he was an Argive. ,He went then to Delphi, and asked the oracle if he should cast Adrastus out, but the priestess said in response: “Adrastus is king of Sicyon, and you but a stone thrower.” When the god would not permit him to do as he wished in this matter, he returned home and attempted to devise some plan which might rid him of Adrastus. When he thought he had found one, he sent to Boeotian Thebes saying that he would gladly bring Melanippus son of Astacus into his country, and the Thebans handed him over. ,When Cleisthenes had brought him in, he consecrated a sanctuary for him in the government house itself, where he was established in the greatest possible security. Now the reason why Cleisthenes brought in Melanippus, a thing which I must relate, was that Melanippus was Adrastus' deadliest enemy, for Adrastus had slain his brother Mecisteus and his son-in-law Tydeus. ,Having then designated the precinct for him, Cleisthenes took away all Adrastus' sacrifices and festivals and gave them to Melanippus. The Sicyonians had been accustomed to pay very great honor to Adrastus because the country had once belonged to Polybus, his maternal grandfather, who died without an heir and bequeathed the kingship to him. ,Besides other honors paid to Adrastus by the Sicyonians, they celebrated his lamentable fate with tragic choruses in honor not of Dionysus but of Adrastus. Cleisthenes, however, gave the choruses back to Dionysus and the rest of the worship to Melanippus. "". None
10. Xenophon, The Persian Expedition, 2.2.9 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • athletes • athletes oaths

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 252; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 139

2.2.9. ταῦτα δʼ ὤμοσαν, σφάξαντες ταῦρον καὶ κάπρον καὶ κριὸν εἰς ἀσπίδα, οἱ μὲν Ἕλληνες βάπτοντες ξίφος, οἱ δὲ βάρβαροι λόγχην.''. None
2.2.9. These oaths they sealed by sacrificing a bull, a boar, and a ram over a shield, the Greeks dipping a sword in the blood and the barbarians a lance. ''. None
11. Xenophon, Symposium, 1.8 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • athletes • athletic images • athletic victors • nudity, athletics • nudity, of athletes

 Found in books: Hubbard (2014) 247, 248; Steiner (2001) 224

1.8. Autolycus took a seat by his father’s side; the others, of course, reclined. Attic reliefs depicting banquet scenes show that it was customary for the men to recline at table, but for the women and children, if present, to sit. A person who took note of the course of events would have come at once to the conclusion that beauty is in its essence something regal, especially when, as in the present case of Autolycus, its possessor joins with it modesty and sobriety.''. None
12. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • athletes • athletes oaths, athlothetai,oaths of

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 252; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 137

13. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Asklepios, provides athletic tips in dreams • athletes oaths, athlothetai,oaths of

 Found in books: Renberg (2017) 9; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 236

14. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 119-121 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • athletics imagery • imagery athletic

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 181, 182, 191, 388; Geljon and Runia (2019) 132

119. Therefore the Olympian contest is the only one that justly deserves to be called sacred; meaning by this, not that which the inhabitants of Elis celebrate, but that which is instituted for the acquisition of the divine, and Olympian, and genuine virtues. Now, as competitors in this contest, all those have their names inscribed who are very weak in their bodies, but very vigorous in their souls; and then, having stripped off their clothes, and smeared themselves in the dust, they do all those actions which belong to skill and to power, omitting nothing which may conduce to their gaining the victory. '120. These men, therefore, get the better of their adversaries: and then, again, they have a competition with one another for the prize of pre-eminence, for they are not all victorious in the same manner, but all are worthy of honour, having routed and overthrown most grievous and formidable enemies; 121. and he who shows himself superior to all the rest of these is most admirable, and we must not envy him, when he gets the first prize of all the wrestlers. And those who are thought worthy of the second or of the third place, must not be cast down; for these prizes are proposed for the acquisition of virtue. But to those who are unable to attain to the very highest eminence, even the acquisition of a moderate prize is serviceable. And it is even said that such is more stable, since it avoids the envy which always sticks to those who are excessively eminent. '. None
15. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • imagery athletic • imagery, athletics

 Found in books: Geljon and Runia (2013) 262; Geljon and Runia (2019) 132

16. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 9.24-9.27 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Athletic image • Athletic metaphor, and martyrdom • Athletic metaphor, biblical application • athletics/training • body, bodies athletes

 Found in books: Cadwallader (2016) 210; Gray (2021) 82; Tite (2009) 293; Wilson (2022) 101, 167, 168

9.24. Οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι οἱ ἐν σταδίῳ τρέχοντες πάντες μὲν τρέχουσιν, εἷς δὲ λαμβάνει τὸ βραβεῖον; οὕτως τρέχετε ἵνα καταλάβητε. 9.25. πᾶς δὲ ὁ ἀγωνιζόμενος πάντα ἐγκρατεύεται, ἐκεῖνοι μὲν οὖν ἵνα φθαρτὸν στέφανον λάβωσιν, ἡμεῖς δὲ ἄφθαρτον. 9.26. ἐγὼ τοίνυν οὕτως τρέχω ὡς οὐκ ἀδήλως, οὕτως πυκτεύω ὡς οὐκ ἀέρα δέρων· 9.27. ἀλλὰ ὑπωπιάζω μου τὸ σῶμα καὶ δουλαγωγῶ, μή πως ἄλλοις κηρύξας αὐτὸς ἀδόκιμος γένωμαι.''. None
9.24. Don't youknow that those who run in a race all run, but one receives the prize?Run like that, that you may win." '9.25. Every man who strives in thegames exercises self-control in all things. Now they do it to receive acorruptible crown, but we an incorruptible. 9.26. I therefore run likethat, as not uncertainly. I fight like that, as not beating the air, 9.27. but I beat my body and bring it into submission, lest by anymeans, after I have preached to others, I myself should be rejected.'". None
17. New Testament, Galatians, 2.2, 5.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Athletic metaphor, and martyrdom • Athletic metaphor, biblical application • athletics/training

 Found in books: Gray (2021) 82; Wilson (2022) 99, 101

2.2. καὶ ἀνεθέμην αὐτοῖς τὸ εὐαγγέλιον ὃ κηρύσσω ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, κατʼ ἰδίαν δὲ τοῖς δοκοῦσιν, μή πως εἰς κενὸν τρέχω ἢ ἔδραμον.
5.7. Ἐτρέχετε καλῶς· τίς ὑμᾶς ἐνέκοψεν ἀληθείᾳ μὴ πείθεσθαι;''. None
2.2. I went up byrevelation, and I laid before them the gospel which I preach among theGentiles, but privately before those who were respected, for fear thatI might be running, or had run, in vain.
5.7. You were running well! Who interfered withyou that you should not obey the truth? ''. None
18. New Testament, Philippians, 2.16, 3.12-3.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Athletic image • Athletic metaphor, and martyrdom • Athletic metaphor, biblical application • athletics/training

 Found in books: Gray (2021) 82; Tite (2009) 293; Wilson (2022) 95, 101

2.16. λόγον ζωῆς ἐπέχοντες, εἰς καύχημα ἐμοὶ εἰς ἡμέραν Χριστοῦ, ὅτι οὐκ εἰς κενὸν ἔδραμον οὐδὲεἰς κενὸν ἐκοπίασα.
3.12. διώκω δὲ εἰ καὶ καταλάβω, ἐφʼ ᾧ καὶ κατελήμφθην ὑπὸ Χριστοῦ Ἰησοῦ. ἀδελφοί, ἐγὼ ἐμαυτὸν οὔπω λογίζομαι κατειληφέναι· 3.13. ἓν δέ, τὰ μὲν ὀπίσω ἐπιλανθανόμενος τοῖς δὲ ἔμπροσθεν ἐπεκτεινόμενος, 3.14. κατὰ σκοπὸν διώκω εἰς τὸ βραβεῖον τῆς ἄνω κλήσεως τοῦ θεοῦ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ.''. None
2.16. holding up the word of life; that I may have something to boast in the day of Christ, that I didn't run in vain nor labor in vain. " '
3.12. Not that I have already obtained, or am already made perfect; but I press on, if it is so that I may take hold of that for which also I was taken hold of by Christ Jesus. ' "3.13. Brothers, I don't regard myself as yet having taken hold, but one thing I do. Forgetting the things which are behind, and stretching forward to the things which are before, " '3.14. I press on toward the goal for the prize of the high calling of God in Christ Jesus. '". None
19. New Testament, Romans, 9.16 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Athletic metaphor, and martyrdom • Athletic metaphor, biblical application • athletics/training

 Found in books: Gray (2021) 82; Wilson (2022) 101

9.16. ἄρα οὖν οὐ τοῦ θέλοντος οὐδὲ τοῦ τρέχοντος, ἀλλὰ τοῦ ἐλεῶντος θεοῦ.''. None
9.16. So then it is not of him who wills, nor of him who runs, but of God who has mercy. ''. None
20. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • athletes, athletics • games, athletic • nudity, athletic

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 130; Thonemann (2020) 174, 176

21. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • nudity, athletic • sitêsis, for athletes

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 78, 79; Gygax (2016) 129

22. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.15.3, 1.44.1, 5.24.11, 6.11.2-6.11.9, 7.17.13-7.17.14 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Astylos of Kroton (athletic victor) • Euthykles (athletic victor) • Oibotas of Dyme (athletic victor) • athletes • athletes oaths • athletes, and tyranny • athletes, worshipped • athletes, worshipped as heroes • athletic images • athletic victors • epinikia, as gifts by athletes • hero cult, for athletes • nudity, athletics • pederasty, and athletics • proedria, for athletes • sitêsis, for athletes • statues, of athletes

 Found in books: Eisenfeld (2022) 19; Ekroth (2013) 21, 252; Gygax (2016) 71, 114, 121, 126, 134; Hubbard (2014) 245; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 139; Steiner (2001) 8, 9, 261

1.15.3. τελευταῖον δὲ τῆς γραφῆς εἰσιν οἱ μαχεσάμενοι Μαραθῶνι· Βοιωτῶν δὲ οἱ Πλάταιαν ἔχοντες καὶ ὅσον ἦν Ἀττικὸν ἴασιν ἐς χεῖρας τοῖς βαρβάροις. καὶ ταύτῃ μέν ἐστιν ἴσα τὰ παρʼ ἀμφοτέρων ἐς τὸ ἔργον· τὸ δὲ ἔσω τῆς μάχης φεύγοντές εἰσιν οἱ βάρβαροι καὶ ἐς τὸ ἕλος ὠθοῦντες ἀλλήλους, ἔσχαται δὲ τῆς γραφῆς νῆές τε αἱ Φοίνισσαι καὶ τῶν βαρβάρων τοὺς ἐσπίπτοντας ἐς ταύτας φονεύοντες οἱ Ἕλληνες. ἐνταῦθα καὶ Μαραθὼν γεγραμμένος ἐστὶν ἥρως, ἀφʼ οὗ τὸ πεδίον ὠνόμασται, καὶ Θησεὺς ἀνιόντι ἐκ γῆς εἰκασμένος Ἀθηνᾶ τε καὶ Ἡρακλῆς· Μαραθωνίοις γάρ, ὡς αὐτοὶ λέγουσιν, Ἡρακλῆς ἐνομίσθη θεὸς πρώτοις. τῶν μαχομένων δὲ δῆλοι μάλιστά εἰσιν ἐν τῇ γραφῇ Καλλίμαχός τε, ὃς Ἀθηναίοις πολεμαρχεῖν ᾕρητο, καὶ Μιλτιάδης τῶν στρατηγούντων, ἥρως τε Ἔχετλος καλούμενος, οὗ καὶ ὕστερον ποιήσομαι μνήμην.
1.44.1. Κοροίβου δὲ τέθαπται πλησίον Ὄρσιππος, ὃς περιεζωσμένων ἐν τοῖς ἀγῶσι κατὰ δὴ παλαιὸν ἔθος τῶν ἀθλητῶν Ὀλύμπια ἐνίκα στάδιον δραμὼν γυμνός, φασὶ δὲ καὶ στρατηγοῦντα ὕστερον τὸν Ὄρσιππον ἀποτεμέσθαι χώραν τῶν προσοίκων· δοκῶ δέ οἱ καὶ ἐν Ὀλυμπίᾳ τὸ περίζωμα ἑκόντι περιρρυῆναι, γνόντι ὡς ἀνδρὸς περιεζωσμένου δραμεῖν ῥᾴων ἐστὶν ἀνὴρ γυμνὸς.
5.24.11. τὸν γοῦν κάπρον καθʼ ὅτου τῶν τομίων Ἀγαμέμνων ἐπώμοσεν ἦ μὴν εἶναι τὴν Βρισηίδα ἑαυτοῦ τῆς εὐνῆς ἀπείρατον, τοῦτον τὸν κάπρον ἀφιέμενον ὑπὸ τοῦ κήρυκος ἐποίησεν ἐς θάλασσαν· ἦ, καὶ ἀπὸ σφάραγον κάπρου τάμε νηλέι χαλκῷ. τὸν μὲν Ταλθύβιος πολιῆς ἁλὸς ἐς μέγα λαῖτμα ῥῖψʼ ἐπιδινήσας, βόσιν ἰχθύσιν. Hom. Il. 19.266-268 οὕτω μὲν τὸ ἀρχαῖον τὰ τοιαῦτα ἐνόμιζον· ἔστι δὲ πρὸ τῶν ποδῶν τοῦ Ὁρκίου πινάκιον χαλκοῦν, ἐπιγέγραπται δὲ ἐλεγεῖα ἐπʼ αὐτοῦ, δεῖμα ἐθέλοντα τοῖς ἐπιορκοῦσι παριστάναι.
6.11.2. τῶν δὲ βασιλέων τῶν εἰρημένων ἕστηκεν οὐ πόρρω Θεαγένης ὁ Τιμοσθένους Θάσιος· Θάσιοι δὲ οὐ Τιμοσθένους παῖδα εἶναι Θεαγένην φασίν, ἀλλὰ ἱερᾶσθαι μὲν Ἡρακλεῖ τὸν Τιμοσθένην Θασίῳ, τοῦ Θεαγένους δὲ τῇ μητρὶ Ἡρακλέους συγγενέσθαι φάσμα ἐοικὸς Τιμοσθένει. ἔνατόν τε δὴ ἔτος εἶναι τῷ παιδὶ καὶ αὐτὸν ἀπὸ τῶν διδασκάλων φασὶν ἐς τὴν οἰκίαν ἐρχόμενον ἄγαλμα ὅτου δὴ θεῶν ἀνακείμενον ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ χαλκοῦν—χαίρειν γὰρ τῷ ἀγάλματι αὐτόν—, ἀνασπάσαι τε δὴ τὸ ἄγαλμα καὶ ἐπὶ τὸν ἕτερον τῶν ὤμων ἀναθέμενον ἐνεγκεῖν παρʼ αὑτόν. 6.11.3. ἐχόντων δὲ ὀργὴν ἐς αὐτὸν ἐπὶ τῷ πεποιημένῳ τῶν πολιτῶν, ἀνήρ τις αὐτῶν δόκιμος καὶ ἡλικίᾳ προήκων ἀποκτεῖναι μὲν σφᾶς τὸν παῖδα οὐκ ἐᾷ, ἐκεῖνον δὲ ἐκέλευσεν ἐκ τῆς οἰκίας αὖθις κομίσαι τὸ ἄγαλμα ἐς τὴν ἀγοράν· ὡς δὲ ἤνεγκε, μέγα αὐτίκα ἦν κλέος τοῦ παιδὸς ἐπὶ ἰσχύι, καὶ τὸ ἔργον ἀνὰ πᾶσαν ἐβεβόητο τὴν Ἑλλάδα. 6.11.4. ὅσα μὲν δὴ ἔργων τῶν Θεαγένους ἐς τὸν ἀγῶνα ἥκει τὸν Ὀλυμπικόν, προεδήλωσεν ὁ λόγος ἤδη μοι τὰ δοκιμώτατα ἐξ αὐτῶν, Εὔθυμόν τε ὡς κατεμαχέσατο τὸν πύκτην καὶ ὡς ὑπὸ Ἠλείων ἐπεβλήθη τῷ Θεαγένει ζημία. τότε μὲν δὴ τοῦ παγκρατίου τὴν νίκην ἀνὴρ ἐκ Μαντινείας Δρομεὺς ὄνομα πρῶτος ὧν ἴσμεν ἀκονιτὶ λέγεται λαβεῖν· τὴν δὲ Ὀλυμπιάδα τὴν ἐπὶ ταύτῃ παγκρατιάζων ὁ Θεαγένης ἐκράτει. 6.11.5. γεγόνασι δὲ αὐτῷ καὶ Πυθοῖ νῖκαι τρεῖς, αὗται μὲν ἐπὶ πυγμῇ, Νεμείων δὲ ἐννέα καὶ Ἰσθμίων δέκα παγκρατίου τε ἀναμὶξ καὶ πυγμῆς. ἐν Φθίᾳ δὲ τῇ Θεσσαλῶν πυγμῆς μὲν ἢ παγκρατίου παρῆκε τὴν σπουδήν, ἐφρόντιζε δὲ ὅπως καὶ ἐπὶ δρόμῳ ἐμφανὴς ἐν Ἕλλησιν εἴη, καὶ τοὺς ἐσελθόντας ἐς τὸν δόλιχον ἐκράτησεν· ἦν δέ οἱ πρὸς Ἀχιλλέα ἐμοὶ δοκεῖν τὸ φιλοτίμημα, ἐν πατρίδι τοῦ ὠκίστου τῶν καλουμένων ἡρώων ἀνελέσθαι δρόμου νίκην. τοὺς δὲ σύμπαντας στεφάνους τετρακοσίους τε ἔσχε καὶ χιλίους. 6.11.6. ὡς δὲ ἀπῆλθεν ἐξ ἀνθρώπων, ἀνὴρ τῶν τις ἀπηχθημένων ζῶντι αὐτῷ παρεγίνετο ἀνὰ πᾶσαν νύκτα ἐπὶ τοῦ Θεαγένους τὴν εἰκόνα καὶ ἐμαστίγου τὸν χαλκὸν ἅτε αὐτῷ Θεαγένει λυμαινόμενος· καὶ τὸν μὲν ὁ ἀνδριὰς ἐμπεσὼν ὕβρεως παύει, τοῦ ἀνθρώπου δὲ τοῦ ἀποθανόντος οἱ παῖδες τῇ εἰκόνι ἐπεξῄεσαν φόνου. καὶ οἱ Θάσιοι καταποντοῦσι τὴν εἰκόνα ἐπακολουθήσαντες γνώμῃ τῇ Δράκοντος, ὃς Ἀθηναίοις θεσμοὺς γράψας φονικοὺς ὑπερώρισε καὶ τὰ ἄψυχα, εἴγε ἐμπεσόν τι ἐξ αὐτῶν ἀποκτείνειεν ἄνθρωπον. 6.11.7. ἀνὰ χρόνον δέ, ὡς τοῖς Θασίοις οὐδένα ἀπεδίδου καρπὸν ἡ γῆ, θεωροὺς ἀποστέλλουσιν ἐς Δελφούς, καὶ αὐτοῖς ἔχρησεν ὁ θεὸς καταδέχεσθαι τοὺς δεδιωγμένους. καὶ οἱ μὲν ἐπὶ τῷ λόγῳ τούτῳ καταδεχθέντες οὐδὲν τῆς ἀκαρπίας παρείχοντο ἴαμα· δεύτερα οὖν ἐπὶ τὴν Πυθίαν ἔρχονται, λέγοντες ὡς καὶ ποιήσασιν αὐτοῖς τὰ χρησθέντα διαμένοι τὸ ἐκ τῶν θεῶν μήνιμα. 6.11.8. ἐνταῦθα ἀπεκρίνατό σφισιν ἡ Πυθία· Θεαγένην δʼ ἄμνηστον ἀφήκατε τὸν μέγαν ὑμέων. ἀπορούντων δὲ αὐτῶν ὁποίᾳ μηχανῇ τοῦ Θεαγένους τὴν εἰκόνα ἀνασώσωνται, φασὶν ἁλιέας ἀναχθέντας ἐς τὸ πέλαγος ἐπὶ ἰχθύων θήραν περισχεῖν τῷ δικτύῳ τὴν εἰκόνα καὶ ἀνενεγκεῖν αὖθις ἐς τὴν γῆν· Θάσιοι δὲ ἀναθέντες, ἔνθα καὶ ἐξ ἀρχῆς ἔκειτο, νομίζουσιν ἅτε θεῷ θύειν. 6.11.9. πολλαχοῦ δὲ καὶ ἑτέρωθι ἔν τε Ἕλλησιν οἶδα καὶ παρὰ βαρβάροις ἀγάλματα ἱδρυμένα Θεαγένους καὶ νοσήματά τε αὐτὸν ἰώμενον καὶ ἔχοντα παρὰ τῶν ἐπιχωρίων τιμάς. ὁ δὲ ἀνδριὰς τοῦ Θεαγένους ἐστὶν ἐν τῇ Ἄλτει, τέχνη τοῦ Αἰγινήτου Γλαυκίου .
7.17.13. ἐν δὲ τῇ χώρᾳ τῇ Δυμαίᾳ καὶ τοῦ δρομέως Οἰβώτα τάφος ἐστί· τούτῳ τῷ Οἰβώτα νικήσαντι Ὀλύμπια Ἀχαιῶν πρώτῳ γέρας οὐδὲν ἐξαίρετον παρʼ αὐτῶν ἐγένετο εὕρασθαι· καὶ ἐπὶ τούτῳ κατάρας ὁ Οἰβώτας ἐποιήσατο μηδενὶ Ὀλυμπικὴν νίκην ἔτι Ἀχαιῶν γενέσθαι. καὶ—ἦν γάρ τις θεῶν ᾧ τοῦ Οἰβώτα τελεῖσθαι τὰς κατάρας οὐκ ἀμελὲς ἦν—διδάσκονταί ποτε οἱ Ἀχαιοὶ καθʼ ἥντινα αἰτίαν στεφάνου τοῦ Ὀλυμπίασιν ἡμάρτανον, διδάσκονται δὲ ἀποστείλαντες ἐς Δελφούς· 7.17.14. οὕτω καὶ ἄλλα ἐς τιμήν σφισι τοῦ Οἰβώτα ποιήσασι καὶ τὴν εἰκόνα ἀναθεῖσιν ἐς Ὀλυμπίαν Σώστρατος Πελληνεὺς σταδίου νίκην ἔσχεν ἐν παισί. διαμένει δὲ ἐς ἐμὲ ἔτι Ἀχαιῶν τοῖς ἀγωνίζεσθαι μέλλουσι τὰ Ὀλύμπια ἐναγίζειν τῷ Οἰβώτᾳ, καὶ ἢν κρατήσωσιν, ἐν Ὀλυμπίᾳ στεφανοῦν τοῦ Οἰβώτα τὴν εἰκόνα.''. None
1.15.3. At the end of the painting are those who fought at Marathon; the Boeotians of Plataea and the Attic contingent are coming to blows with the foreigners. In this place neither side has the better, but the center of the fighting shows the foreigners in flight and pushing one another into the morass, while at the end of the painting are the Phoenician ships, and the Greeks killing the foreigners who are scrambling into them. Here is also a portrait of the hero Marathon, after whom the plain is named, of Theseus represented as coming up from the under-world, of Athena and of Heracles. The Marathonians, according to their own account, were the first to regard Heracles as a god. of the fighters the most conspicuous figures in the painting are Callimachus, who had been elected commander-in-chief by the Athenians, Miltiades, one of the generals, and a hero called Echetlus, of whom I shall make mention later.
1.44.1. Near Coroebus is buried Orsippus who won the footrace at Olympia by running naked when all his competitors wore girdles according to ancient custom. 720 B.C. They say also that Orsippus when general afterwards annexed some of the neighboring territory. My own opinion is that at Olympia he intentionally let the girdle slip off him, realizing that a naked man can run more easily than one girt.' "
5.24.11. Homer proves this point clearly. For the boar, on the slices of which Agamemnon swore that verily Briseis had not lain with him, Homer says was thrown by the herald into the sea. He spake, and cut the boar's throat with ruthless bronze; And the boar Talthybius swung and cast into the great depth of the grey sea, to feed the fishes. Hom. Il. 19.266-268 Such was the ancient custom. Before the feet of the Oath-god is a bronze plate, with elegiac verses inscribed upon it, the object of which is to strike fear into those who forswear themselves. " '
6.11.2. Not far from the kings mentioned stands a Thasian, Theagenes the son of Timosthenes. The Thasians say that Timosthenes was not the father of Theagenes, but a priest of the Thasian Heracles, a phantom of whom in the likeness of Timosthenes had intercourse with the mother of Theagenes. In his ninth year, they say, as he was going home from school, he was attracted by a bronze image of some god or other in the marketplace; so he caught up the image, placed it on one of his shoulders and carried it home. 6.11.3. The citizens were enraged at what he had done, but one of them, a respected man of advanced years, bade them not to kill the lad, and ordered him to carry the image from his home back again to the market-place. This he did, and at once became famous for his strength, his feat being noised abroad through-out Greece . 6.11.4. The achievements of Theagenes at the Olympian games have already—the most famous of them—been described Paus. 6.6.5 in my story, how he beat Euthymus the boxer, and how he was fined by the Eleans. On this occasion the pancratium, it is said, was for the first time on record won without a contest, the victor being Dromeus of Mantineia . At the Festival following this, Theagenes was the winner in the pancratium. 6.11.5. He also won three victories at Pytho . These were for boxing, while nine prizes at Nemea and ten at the Isthmus were won in some cases for the pancratium and in others for boxing. At Phthia in Thessaly he gave up training for boxing and the pancratium. He devoted himself to winning fame among the Greeks for his running also, and beat those who entered for the long race. His ambition was, I think, to rival Achilles by winning a prize for running in the fatherland of the swiftest of those who are called heroes. The total number of crowns that he won was one thousand four hundred. 6.11.6. When he departed this life, one of those who were his enemies while he lived came every night to the statue of Theagenes and flogged the bronze as though he were ill-treating Theagenes himself. The statue put an end to the outrage by falling on him, but the sons of the dead man prosecuted the statue for murder. So the Thasians dropped the statue to the bottom of the sea, adopting the principle of Draco, who, when he framed for the Athenians laws to deal with homicide, inflicted banishment even on lifeless things, should one of them fall and kill a man. 6.11.7. But in course of time, when the earth yielded no crop to the Thasians, they sent envoys to Delphi, and the god instructed them to receive back the exiles. At this command they received them back, but their restoration brought no remedy of the famine. So for the second time they went to the Pythian priestess, saying that although they had obeyed her instructions the wrath of the gods still abode with them. 6.11.8. Whereupon the Pythian priestess replied to them :— But you have forgotten your great Theagenes. And when they could not think of a contrivance to recover the statue of Theagenes, fishermen, they say, after putting out to sea for a catch of fish caught the statue in their net and brought it back to land. The Thasians set it up in its original position, and are wont to sacrifice to him as to a god. 6.11.9. There are many other places that I know of, both among Greeks and among barbarians, where images of Theagenes have been set up, who cures diseases and receives honors from the natives. The statue of Theagenes is in the Altis, being the work of Glaucias of Aegina .
7.17.13. These are the most popular forms of the legend of Attis. In the territory of Dyme is also the grave of Oebotas the runner. Although this Oebotas was the first Achaean to win an Olympic victory, he yet received from them no special prize. Wherefore Oebotas pronounced a curse that no Achaean in future should win an Olympic victory. There must have been some god who was careful that the curse of Oebotas should be fulfilled, but the Achaeans by sending to Delphi at last learned why it was that they had been failing to win the Olympic crown. 7.17.14. So they dedicated the statue of Oebotas at Olympia and honored him in other ways, and then Sostratus of Pellene won the footrace for boys. It is still to-day a custom for the Achaeans who are going to compete at Olympia to sacrifice to Oebotas as to a hero, and, if they are successful, to place a wreath on the statue of Oebotas at Olympia . ''. None
23. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Asklepios, provides athletic tips in dreams • athletes

 Found in books: Hallmannsecker (2022) 49; Renberg (2017) 117

24. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • athletes, athletics • femininity, athletics • games, athletic • virginity, of athletes

 Found in books: Hubbard (2014) 260, 261; Thonemann (2020) 173, 174

25. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.55 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Solon, and athletes • athletes • athletes, Solon’s legislation on • athletic victories, as benefactions • statues, of athletes

 Found in books: Gygax (2016) 67, 89; Oksanish (2019) 175, 176

1.55. So far Pisistratus. To return to Solon: one of his sayings is that 70 years are the term of man's life.He seems to have enacted some admirable laws; for instance, if any man neglects to provide for his parents, he shall be disfranchised; moreover there is a similar penalty for the spendthrift who runs through his patrimony. Again, not to have a settled occupation is made a crime for which any one may, if he pleases, impeach the offender. Lysias, however, in his speech against Nicias ascribes this law to Draco, and to Solon another depriving open profligates of the right to speak in the Assembly. He curtailed the honours of athletes who took part in the games, fixing the allowance for an Olympic victor at 500 drachmae, for an Isthmian victor at 100 drachmae, and proportionately in all other cases. It was in bad taste, he urged, to increase the rewards of these victors, and to ignore the exclusive claims of those who had fallen in battle, whose sons ought, moreover, to be maintained and educated by the State."". None
26. Vergil, Aeneis, 8.276-8.277
 Tagged with subjects: • athletes • athletes, athletics

 Found in books: Oksanish (2019) 175, 176; Thonemann (2020) 100

8.276. Dixerat, Herculea bicolor cum populus umbra 8.277. velavitque comas foliisque innexa pependit''. None
8.276. the herd of monster bulls, which pastured free 8.277. along our river-valley. Cacus gazed ''. None
27. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • athletes • athletics

 Found in books: Hallmannsecker (2022) 63; Mackil and Papazarkadas (2020) 197

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