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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
art/artists, kingdom of pontos Marek (2019) 267
art/artists, pergamon Marek (2019) 181, 240, 242, 243
art/artists, persian age Marek (2019) 164, 170
artist Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 2, 85, 290, 291
artist, art Stavrianopoulou (2013) 236
artist, as critics Rutledge (2012) 83
artist, babis kritikos, of to the kyklades by tripods, to apollo ismenios Kowalzig (2007) 382
artist, babis kritikos, sacrificial, ?choral, to apollo pythaieus to the kyklades by, asine Kowalzig (2007) 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 153, 154
artist, babis to the kyklades by kritikos, and territory Kowalzig (2007) 148, 336
artist, babis to the kyklades by kritikos, marking membership in cult community Kowalzig (2007) 69, 70, 71, 72, 79, 101, 117, 154, 336, 341, 395
artist, babis to the kyklades by kritikos, of thebes to poseidon at onkhestos Kowalzig (2007) 366
artist, babis to the kyklades by kritikos, panionion Kowalzig (2007) 82
artist, babis to the kyklades by kritikos, vocabulary of Kowalzig (2007) 69, 70, 71, 90
artist, bathyllus, pantomime Csapo (2022) 105
artist, billaros of sinope Marek (2019) 268
artist, canonization of Rutledge (2012) 90, 91
artist, divine Osborne (2001) 198
artist, epigonos Marek (2019) 215, 244
artist, gaze, of Steiner (2001) 51, 52
artist, hadrian, as Rutledge (2012) 84
artist, lucian, as self-conscious reception Kirkland (2022) 187, 188, 189, 190, 191, 192, 193, 195, 196, 197, 198, 199, 200
artist, nikeratos Marek (2019) 244
artist, onatas of aigina Marek (2019) 243
artist, phyromachos Marek (2019) 244
artist, praxiteles Marek (2019) 35
artist, pylades, pantomime Csapo (2022) 107, 108, 113
artist, silanion of athens Marek (2019) 243
artist, sophist, as Steiner (2001) 63, 64, 65, 66
artist, stephanion, pantomime Csapo (2022) 107, 108
artist, sthennis Marek (2019) 268
artist, styles of Rutledge (2012) 90, 91
artist, theron of boiotia Marek (2019) 243
artist, treatises by Rutledge (2012) 83
artist, works of art Lampe (2003) 62, 136, 137, 140, 142, 179, 426
artist, zeuxis Marek (2019) 204
artistic Martin and Whitlark (2018) 89, 108, 184
artistic, aspirations, nero Rutledge (2012) 84
artistic, effect Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 204
artistic, environment Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 1
artistic, incubation, greek, ram skins in reliefs an convention, ? Renberg (2017) 287, 314
artistic, metaphor, for training in virtue Gray (2021) 1, 208, 209, 210, 211, 212, 213
artistic, motifs Secunda (2014) 123, 155, 156, 157
artistic, motifs, basilica-type synagogue, plan, mosaic, mosaic Levine (2005) 216, 218
artistic, motifs, discovery, frescoes Levine (2005) 111, 254, 599
artistic, motifs, sepphoris synagogue Levine (2005) 599
artistic, objects, artefactual versus Rutledge (2012) 10, 11
artistic, originality, greece and orient Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 867, 868, 869, 871
artistic, performance Borg (2008) 204
artistic, representation, art Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 331, 332, 339
artistic, representations of women Kraemer (2010) 40
artistic, representations, women Kraemer (2010) 40
artistic, treatment drapery, of ribbon drapery Steiner (2001) 241
artistic, treatment of drapery Steiner (2001) 231, 235, 236, 241
artistic, voice versus epic male voice, young womens rituals, in statius achilleid, female Panoussi(2019) 261
artists Clackson et al. (2020) 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 87, 88, 90, 91, 92, 93, 95, 96, 290
Hachlili (2005) 161
artists, and authors, power, of Pandey (2018) 4, 5, 20, 80, 187, 216, 221, 222, 223, 227, 228
artists, and gods Pandey (2018) 21, 22, 78, 96, 99, 185, 195, 221
artists, and styles, pliny the elder, on Rutledge (2012) 91
artists, apelles, place among ancient Rutledge (2012) 90, 91
artists, artisans Levine (2005) 23, 216, 218, 336, 337, 467, 484
artists, association of dionysiac Bruun and Edmondson (2015) 289, 360
artists, dionysiac Dignas (2002) 133
Gabrielsen and Paganini (2021) 46, 55, 81, 82, 146
Henderson (2020) 276, 280
artists, granted exemption from war contributions and military service, dionysiac Udoh (2006) 79, 80, 81
artists, greek Mueller (2002) 94, 95, 98, 99
Papadodima (2022) 26
artists, his realism, place among ancient Rutledge (2012) 99, 100
artists, letter of l. mummius to, dionysiac Udoh (2006) 77, 78
artists, letter of sulla to, dionysiac Udoh (2006) 36, 77, 78
artists, lysippus, place among ancient Rutledge (2012) 90, 91
artists, myron, his place among ancient Rutledge (2012) 90, 91
artists, of dionysus Cosgrove (2022) 134, 135, 160, 161, 164, 165, 166, 167, 231
Thonemann (2020) 160, 163, 164
artists, of dionysus, benefactors of technitai, φιλοτεχνῖται Csapo (2022) 49, 50, 51
artists, of dionysus, cyprian association technitai, paphos Csapo (2022) 40, 42, 43, 45, 46, 50, 78, 129
artists, of dionysus, egyptian association, alexandria, ptolemais, technitai cyprus Csapo (2022) 38, 39, 40, 42, 43, 45, 46, 52, 78
artists, of dionysus, guilds Cosgrove (2022) 134, 135, 160, 161, 164, 165
artists, of dionysus, ionian-hellespontine association, pergamum, technitai teos Csapo (2022) 35, 39, 52, 79, 80
artists, of dionysus, isthmian-nemean association, argos, chalcis, corinth, opus, technitai thebes Csapo (2022) 39
artists, of dionysus, polybius, on the Cosgrove (2022) 164
artists, of dionysus/dionysiac guilds, dionysiakoi technitai Liapis and Petrides (2019) 7, 93, 165, 166, 171, 175, 178, 179, 195, 219
artists, of ionia and the hellespont, dionysiac Hallmannsecker (2022) 37, 38
artists, of technitai dionysou dionysus Gorain (2019) 144
artists, of technitai dionysus Csapo (2022) 11, 33, 35, 81, 82, 89, 96, 102, 114, 117, 118, 125, 164
artists, of technitai dionysus, at rome Csapo (2022) 119, 120
artists, of technitai dionysus, at syracuse Csapo (2022) 58, 129
artists, of technitai dionysus, athenian association Csapo (2022) 39, 52, 102, 164
artists, of technitai dionysus, supporting royal ideology Csapo (2022) 30, 35, 49, 52
artists, phidias, his place among ancient Rutledge (2012) 90, 91
artists, place among ancient Rutledge (2012) 90
artists, pliny the younger, on Rutledge (2012) 83
artists, polyclitus, his place among ancient Rutledge (2012) 90, 91
artists, praxiteles, his place among ancient Rutledge (2012) 90, 91
artists, quintilian, judgment on Rutledge (2012) 90, 91
artists, satyrplay/satyr drama, and egyptian, technitai Csapo (2022) 78
artists, tullius cicero, m., on Rutledge (2012) 83
artists, vespasian, patronizes Rutledge (2012) 299
artists, women, occupations/functions/titles Marek (2019) 464, 465
artists, zeuxis, place among ancient Rutledge (2012) 90
artists’, dionysostechnitai, dionysian association Marek (2019) 238

List of validated texts:
69 validated results for "artist"
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.15-4.19, 31.9, 32.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, idol vs. image • Art, official character • Moses, art • art, Qumran • art, pagan • art, priests • catacombs, Bet Shearim, figural art • church fathers, figural art • figural art

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 897, 920, 930; Brooke et al (2008) 53, 247, 248, 252; Levine (2005) 236, 481

4.15. וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּם מְאֹד לְנַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי לֹא רְאִיתֶם כָּל־תְּמוּנָה בְּיוֹם דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם בְּחֹרֵב מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃ 4.16. פֶּן־תַּשְׁחִתוּן וַעֲשִׂיתֶם לָכֶם פֶּסֶל תְּמוּנַת כָּל־סָמֶל תַּבְנִית זָכָר אוֹ נְקֵבָה׃ 4.17. תַּבְנִית כָּל־בְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ תַּבְנִית כָּל־צִפּוֹר כָּנָף אֲשֶׁר תָּעוּף בַּשָּׁמָיִם׃ 4.18. תַּבְנִית כָּל־רֹמֵשׂ בָּאֲדָמָה תַּבְנִית כָּל־דָּגָה אֲשֶׁר־בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ׃ 4.19. וּפֶן־תִּשָּׂא עֵינֶיךָ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְאֶת־הַיָּרֵחַ וְאֶת־הַכּוֹכָבִים כֹּל צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וְנִדַּחְתָּ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לָהֶם וַעֲבַדְתָּם אֲשֶׁר חָלַק יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֹתָם לְכֹל הָעַמִּים תַּחַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃
31.9. וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וַיִּתְּנָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי לֵוִי הַנֹּשְׂאִים אֶת־אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהוָה וְאֶל־כָּל־זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
32.11. כְּנֶשֶׁר יָעִיר קִנּוֹ עַל־גּוֹזָלָיו יְרַחֵף יִפְרֹשׂ כְּנָפָיו יִקָּחֵהוּ יִשָּׂאֵהוּ עַל־אֶבְרָתוֹ׃''. None
4.15. Take ye therefore good heed unto yourselves—for ye saw no manner of form on the day that the LORD spoke unto you in Horeb out of the midst of the fire— 4.16. lest ye deal corruptly, and make you a graven image, even the form of any figure, the likeness of male or female, 4.17. the likeness of any beast that is on the earth, the likeness of any winged fowl that flieth in the heaven, 4.18. the likeness of any thing that creepeth on the ground, the likeness of any fish that is in the water under the earth; . 4.19. and lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun and the moon and the stars, even all the host of heaven, thou be drawn away and worship them, and serve them, which the LORD thy God hath allotted unto all the peoples under the whole heaven.
31.9. And Moses wrote this law, and delivered it unto the priests the sons of Levi, that bore the ark of the covet of the LORD, and unto all the elders of Israel.
32.11. As an eagle that stirreth up her nest, Hovereth over her young, Spreadeth abroad her wings, taketh them, Beareth them on her pinions—''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 14.19, 16.7-16.10, 17.6, 20.4, 21.28 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, funerary • Art, idol vs. image • Art, official character • Jews, as blind to identity of Christ, depicted in art • Moses, art • art and architecture • art, • art, Qumran • art, early Christian • art, medieval Christian, depiction of Jews • art, origins anddevelopment • art, priests • clothing, signification of, in medieval Christian art • pallium, signification in medieval Christian art • priests, Jewish, depiction in medieval Jewish art • synagogues, art

 Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 94, 97; Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 897, 920, 934; Brooke et al (2008) 31, 40, 63, 122, 274, 322; Esler (2000) 95, 747; Rubenstein(1995) 247

14.19. וַיִּסַּע מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים הַהֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵי מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֵּלֶךְ מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם וַיִּסַּע עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן מִפְּנֵיהֶם וַיַּעֲמֹד מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם׃
16.7. וּבֹקֶר וּרְאִיתֶם אֶת־כְּבוֹד יְהוָה בְּשָׁמְעוֹ אֶת־תְּלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם עַל־יְהוָה וְנַחְנוּ מָה כִּי תלונו תַלִּינוּ עָלֵינוּ׃ 16.8. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה בְּתֵת יְהוָה לָכֶם בָּעֶרֶב בָּשָׂר לֶאֱכֹל וְלֶחֶם בַּבֹּקֶר לִשְׂבֹּעַ בִּשְׁמֹעַ יְהוָה אֶת־תְּלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם מַלִּינִם עָלָיו וְנַחְנוּ מָה לֹא־עָלֵינוּ תְלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם כִּי עַל־יְהוָה׃ 16.9. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן אֱמֹר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל קִרְבוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה כִּי שָׁמַע אֵת תְּלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם׃' '
17.6. הִנְנִי עֹמֵד לְפָנֶיךָ שָּׁם עַל־הַצּוּר בְּחֹרֵב וְהִכִּיתָ בַצּוּר וְיָצְאוּ מִמֶּנּוּ מַיִם וְשָׁתָה הָעָם וַיַּעַשׂ כֵּן מֹשֶׁה לְעֵינֵי זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
20.4. לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל וְכָל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתַָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ
21.28. וְכִי־יִגַּח שׁוֹר אֶת־אִישׁ אוֹ אֶת־אִשָּׁה וָמֵת סָקוֹל יִסָּקֵל הַשּׁוֹר וְלֹא יֵאָכֵל אֶת־בְּשָׂרוֹ וּבַעַל הַשּׁוֹר נָקִי׃''. None
14.19. And the angel of God, who went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud removed from before them, and stood behind them;
16.7. and in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of the LORD; for that He hath heard your murmurings against the LORD; and what are we, that ye murmur against us?’ 16.8. And Moses said: ‘This shall be, when the LORD shall give you in the evening flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to the full; for that the LORD heareth your murmurings which ye murmur against Him; and what are we? your murmurings are not against us, but against the LORD.’ 16.9. And Moses said unto Aaron: ‘Say unto all the congregation of the children of Israel: Come near before the LORD; for He hath heard your murmurings.’ 16.10. And it came to pass, as Aaron spoke unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and, behold, the glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud.
17.6. Behold, I will stand before thee there upon the rock in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink.’ And Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel.
20.4. Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;
21.28. And if an ox gore a man or a woman, that they die, the ox shall be surely stoned, and its flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall be quit.' '. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 23.40, 23.43 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Samaritans, art • art, • artisans, artists • basilica-type synagogue, plan, mosaic, mosaic, artistic motifs • lulav, in synagogue art

 Found in books: Levine (2005) 216; Rubenstein(1995) 247, 308

23.43. לְמַעַן יֵדְעוּ דֹרֹתֵיכֶם כִּי בַסֻּכּוֹת הוֹשַׁבְתִּי אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהוֹצִיאִי אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃' '. None
23.40. And ye shall take you on the first day the fruit of goodly trees, branches of palm-trees, and boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook, and ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God seven days.
23.43. that your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths, when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God.''. None
4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 21.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • art and architecture • seals, figural art

 Found in books: Brooke et al (2008) 321; Levine (2005) 225

21.9. וַיַּעַשׂ מֹשֶׁה נְחַשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת וַיְשִׂמֵהוּ עַל־הַנֵּס וְהָיָה אִם־נָשַׁךְ הַנָּחָשׁ אֶת־אִישׁ וְהִבִּיט אֶל־נְחַשׁ הַנְּחֹשֶׁת וָחָי׃''. None
21.9. And Moses made a serpent of brass, and set it upon the pole; and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he looked unto the serpent of brass, he lived.''. None
5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 24.7, 24.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • art, Qumran • art, pagan • art, priests

 Found in books: Brooke et al (2008) 66; Levine (2005) 32

24.7. שְׂאוּ שְׁעָרִים רָאשֵׁיכֶם וְהִנָּשְׂאוּ פִּתְחֵי עוֹלָם וְיָבוֹא מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד׃
24.9. שְׂאוּ שְׁעָרִים רָאשֵׁיכֶם וּשְׂאוּ פִּתְחֵי עוֹלָם וְיָבֹא מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד׃''. None
24.7. Lift up your heads, O ye gates, and be ye lifted up, ye everlasting doors; that the King of glory may come in.
24.9. Lift up your heads, O ye gates, Yea, lift them up, ye everlasting doors; That the King of glory may come in.''. None
6. None, None, nan (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • art, Qumran • art, priests • popular culture See reception history, and art

 Found in books: Brooke et al (2008) 51, 55; Sneed (2022) 239

7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, funerary • Art, loss of pagan meaning for Christians and Jews • Moses, art • art, Qumran • art, priests

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 935; Brooke et al (2008) 34, 49, 50, 52, 250

6.3. וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃''. None
6.3. And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory.''. None
8. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Minoan-Mycenaean religion and art, Aphrodite in • art work, as object of gaze • audience, artistic strategies as reaction to • gaze, focused on work of art • response, emotional, to work of art, in Virgil’s Aeneid • wonder, inspired by gazing at work of art

 Found in books: Elsner (2007) 80; Johnson (2008) 36; Simon (2021) 265

9. Herodotus, Histories, 3.17-3.25, 3.131, 9.27.4 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Amazons, in the figurative arts • Egyptian, art • Hippocrates, works,, Art of Medicine • Lucian, as self-conscious reception artist • to the Kyklades by artist Babis Kritikos, sacrificial (?choral), to Apollo Pythaieus (Asine)

 Found in books: Barbato (2020) 146; Jouanna (2012) 52; Kirkland (2022) 187, 196; Kowalzig (2007) 153; Papadodima (2022) 21

3.17. μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ὁ Καμβύσης ἐβουλεύσατο τριφασίας στρατηίας, ἐπί τε Καρχηδονίους καὶ ἐπὶ Ἀμμωνίους καὶ ἐπὶ τοὺς μακροβίους Αἰθίοπας, οἰκημένους δὲ Λιβύης ἐπὶ τῇ νοτίῃ θαλάσσῃ· βουλευομένῳ δέ οἱ ἔδοξε ἐπὶ μὲν Καρχηδονίους τὸν ναυτικὸν στρατὸν ἀποστέλλειν, ἐπὶ δὲ Ἀμμωνίους τοῦ πεζοῦ ἀποκρίναντα, ἐπὶ δὲ τοὺς Αἰθίοπας κατόπτας πρῶτον, ὀψομένους τε τὴν ἐν τούτοισι τοῖσι Αἰθίοψι λεγομένην εἶναι ἡλίου τράπεζαν εἰ ἔστι ἀληθέως, καὶ πρὸς ταύτῃ τὰ ἄλλα κατοψομένους, δῶρα δὲ τῷ λόγῳ φέροντας τῷ βασιλέι αὐτῶν. 3.18. ἡ δὲ τράπεζα τοῦ ἡλίου τοιήδε τις λέγεται εἶναι, λειμὼν ἐστὶ ἐν τῷ προαστείῳ ἐπίπλεος κρεῶν ἑφθῶν πάντων τῶν τετραπόδων, ἐς τὸν τὰς μὲν νύκτας ἐπιτηδεύοντας τιθέναι τὰ κρέα τοὺς ἐν τέλεϊ ἑκάστοτε ἐόντας τῶν ἀστῶν, τὰς δὲ ἡμέρας δαίνυσθαι προσιόντα τὸν βουλόμενον. φάναι δὲ τοὺς ἐπιχωρίους ταῦτα τὴν γῆν αὐτὴν ἀναδιδόναι ἑκάστοτε. 3.19. ἡ μὲν δὴ τράπεζα τοῦ ἡλίου καλεομένη λέγεται εἶναι τοιήδε. Καμβύσῃ δὲ ὡς ἔδοξε πέμπειν τοὺς κατασκόπους, αὐτίκα μετεπέμπετο ἐξ Ἐλεφαντίνης πόλιος τῶν Ἰχθυοφάγων ἀνδρῶν τοὺς ἐπισταμένους τὴν Αἰθιοπίδα γλῶσσαν. ἐν ᾧ δὲ τούτους μετήισαν, ἐν τούτῳ ἐκέλευε ἐπὶ τὴν Καρχηδόνα πλέειν τὸν ναυτικὸν στρατόν. Φοίνικες δὲ οὐκ ἔφασαν ποιήσειν ταῦτα· ὁρκίοισι γὰρ μεγάλοισι ἐνδεδέσθαι, καὶ οὐκ ἂν ποιέειν ὅσια ἐπὶ τοὺς παῖδας τοὺς ἑωυτῶν στρατευόμενοι. Φοινίκων δὲ οὐ βουλομένων οἱ λοιποὶ οὐκ ἀξιόμαχοι ἐγίνοντο. Καρχηδόνιοι μέν νυν οὕτω δουλοσύνην διέφυγον πρὸς Περσέων· Καμβύσης γὰρ βίην οὐκ ἐδικαίου προσφέρειν Φοίνιξι, ὅτι σφέας τε αὐτοὺς ἐδεδώκεσαν Πέρσῃσι καὶ πᾶς ἐκ Φοινίκων ἤρτητο ὁ ναυτικὸς στρατός. δόντες δὲ καὶ Κύπριοι σφέας αὐτοὺς Πέρσῃσι ἐστρατεύοντο ἐπʼ Αἴγυπτον. 3.20. ἐπείτε δὲ τῷ Καμβύσῃ ἐκ τῆς Ἐλεφαντίνης ἀπίκοντο οἱ Ἰχθυοφάγοι, ἔπεμπε αὐτοὺς ἐς τοὺς Αἰθίοπας ἐντειλάμενος τὰ λέγειν χρῆν καὶ δῶρα φέροντας πορφύρεόν τε εἷμα καὶ χρύσεον στρεπτὸν περιαυχένιον καὶ ψέλια καὶ μύρου ἀλάβαστρον καὶ φοινικηίου οἴνου κάδον. οἱ δὲ Αἰθίοπες οὗτοι, ἐς τοὺς ἀπέπεμπε ὁ Καμβύσης, λέγονται εἶναι μέγιστοι καὶ κάλλιστοι ἀνθρώπων πάντων. νόμοισι δὲ καὶ ἄλλοισι χρᾶσθαι αὐτοὺς κεχωρισμένοισι τῶν ἄλλων ἀνθρώπων καὶ δὴ καὶ κατὰ τὴν βασιληίην τοιῷδε· τὸν ἂν τῶν ἀστῶν κρίνωσι μέγιστόν τε εἶναι καὶ κατὰ τὸ μέγαθος ἔχειν τὴν ἰσχύν, τοῦτον ἀξιοῦσι βασιλεύειν. 3.21. ἐς τούτους δὴ ὦν τοὺς ἄνδρας ὡς ἀπίκοντο οἱ Ἰχθυοφάγοι, διδόντες τὰ δῶρα τῷ, βασιλέι αὐτῶν ἔλεγον τάδε. “βασιλεὺς ὁ Περσέων Καμβύσης, βουλόμενος φίλος καὶ ξεῖνός τοι γενέσθαι, ἡμέας τε ἀπέπεμψε ἐς λόγους τοι ἐλθεῖν κελεύων, καὶ δῶρα ταῦτά τοι διδοῖ τοῖσι καὶ αὐτὸς μάλιστα ἥδεται χρεώμενος.” ὁ δὲ Αἰθίοψ μαθὼν ὅτι κατόπται ἥκοιεν, λέγει πρὸς αὐτοὺς τοιάδε. “οὔτε ὁ Περσέων βασιλεὺς δῶρα ὑμέας ἔπεμψε φέροντας προτιμῶν πολλοῦ ἐμοὶ ξεῖνος γενέσθαι, οὔτε ὑμεῖς λέγετε ἀληθέα ʽἥκετε γὰρ κατόπται τῆς ἐμῆς ἀρχῆσ̓, οὔτε ἐκεῖνος ἀνήρ δίκαιος. εἰ γὰρ ἦν δίκαιος, οὔτʼ ἂν ἐπεθύμησε χώρης ἄλλης ἢ τῆς ἑωυτοῦ, οὔτʼ ἂν ἐς δουλοσύνην ἀνθρώπους ἦγε ὑπʼ ὧν μηδὲν ἠδίκηται. νῦν δὲ αὐτῷ τόξον τόδε διδόντες τάδε ἔπεα λέγετε.” “βασιλεὺς ὁ Αἰθιόπων συμβουλεύει τῷ Περσέων βασιλέι, ἐπεὰν οὕτω εὐπετέως ἕλκωσι τὰ τόξα Πέρσαι ἐόντα μεγάθεϊ τοσαῦτα, τότε ἐπʼ Αἰθίοπας τοὺς μακροβίους πλήθεϊ ὑπερβαλλόμενον στρατεύεσθαι· μέχρι δὲ τούτου θεοῖσι εἰδέναι χάριν, οἳ οὐκ ἐπὶ νόον τρέπουσι Αἰθιόπων παισὶ γῆν ἄλλην προσκτᾶσθαι τῇ ἑωυτῶν.” 3.22. ταῦτα δὲ εἴπας καὶ ἀνεὶς τὸ τόξον παρέδωκε τοῖσι ἥκουσι. λαβὼν δὲ τὸ εἷμα τὸ πορφύρεον εἰρώτα ὅ τι εἴη καὶ ὅκως πεποιημένον· εἰπόντων δὲ τῶν Ἰχθυοφάγων τὴν ἀληθείην περὶ τῆς πορφύρης καὶ τῆς βαφῆς, δολεροὺς μὲν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἔφη εἶναι, δολερὰ δὲ αὐτῶν τὰ εἵματα. δεύτερα δὲ τὸν χρυσὸν εἰρώτα τὸν στρεπτὸν τὸν περιαυχένιον καὶ τὰ ψέλια· ἐξηγεομένων δὲ τῶν Ἰχθυοφάγων τὸν κόσμον αὐτοῦ, γελάσας ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ νομίσας εἶναι σφέα πέδας εἶπε ὡς παρʼ ἑωυτοῖσι εἰσὶ ῥωμαλεώτεραι τουτέων πέδαι. τρίτον δὲ εἰρώτα τὸ μύρον· εἰπόντων δὲ τῆς ποιήσιος πέρι καὶ ἀλείψιος, τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον τὸν καὶ περὶ τοῦ εἵματος εἶπε. ὡς δὲ ἐς τὸν οἶνον ἀπίκετο καὶ ἐπύθετο αὐτοῦ τὴν ποίησιν, ὑπερησθεὶς τῷ πόματι ἐπείρετο ὅ τι τε σιτέεται ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ χρόνον ὁκόσον μακρότατον ἀνὴρ Πέρσης ζώει. οἳ δὲ σιτέεσθαι μὲν τὸν ἄρτον εἶπον, ἐξηγησάμενοι τῶν πυρῶν τὴν φύσιν, ὀγδώκοντα δὲ ἔτεα ζόης πλήρωμα ἀνδρὶ μακρότατον προκεῖσθαι. πρὸς ταῦτα ὁ Αἰθίοψ ἔφη οὐδὲν θωμάζειν εἰ σιτεόμενοι κόπρον ἔτεα ὀλίγα ζώουσι· οὐδὲ γὰρ ἂν τοσαῦτα δύνασθαι ζώειν σφέας, εἰ μὴ τῷ πόματι ἀνέφερον, φράζων τοῖσι Ἰχθυοφάγοισι τὸν οἶνον· τούτῳ γὰρ ἑωυτοὺς ὑπὸ Περσέων ἑσσοῦσθαι. 3.23. ἀντειρομένων δὲ τὸν βασιλέα τῶν Ἰχθυοφάγων τῆς ζόης καὶ διαίτης πέρι, ἔτεα μὲν ἐς εἴκοσι καὶ ἑκατὸν τοὺς πολλοὺς αὐτῶν ἀπικνέεσθαι, ὑπερβάλλειν δὲ τινὰς καὶ ταῦτα, σίτησιν δὲ εἶναι κρέα τε ἑφθὰ καὶ πόμα γάλα. θῶμα δὲ ποιευμένων τῶν κατασκόπων περὶ τῶν ἐτέων, ἐπὶ κρήνην σφι ἡγήσασθαι, ἀπʼ ἧς λουόμενοι λιπαρώτεροι ἐγίνοντο, κατά περ εἰ ἐλαίου εἴη· ὄζειν δὲ ἀπʼ αὐτῆς ὡς εἰ ἴων. ἀσθενὲς δὲ τὸ ὕδωρ τῆς κρήνης ταύτης οὕτω δή τι ἔλεγον εἶναι οἱ κατάσκοποι ὥστε μηδὲν οἷόν τʼ εἶναι ἐπʼ αὐτοῦ ἐπιπλέειν, μήτε ξύλον μήτε τῶν ὅσα ξύλου ἐστὶ ἐλαφρότερα, ἀλλὰ πάντα σφέα χωρέειν ἐς βυσσόν. τὸ δὲ ὕδωρ τοῦτο εἴ σφι ἐστὶ ἀληθέως οἷόν τι λέγεται, διὰ τοῦτο ἂν εἶεν, τούτῳ τὰ πάντα χρεώμενοι, μακρόβιοι. ἀπὸ τῆς κρήνης δὲ ἀπαλλασσομένων, ἀγαγεῖν σφεας ἐς δεσμωτήριον ἀνδρῶν, ἔνθα τοὺς πάντας ἐν πέδῃσι χρυσέῃσι δεδέσθαι. ἔστι δὲ ἐν τούτοισι τοῖσι Αἰθίοψι πάντων ὁ χαλκὸς σπανιώτατον καὶ τιμιώτατον. θεησάμενοι δὲ καὶ τὸ δεσμωτήριον, ἐθεήσαντο καὶ τὴν τοῦ ἡλίου λεγομένην τράπεζαν. 3.24. μετὰ δὲ ταύτην τελευταίας ἐθεήσαντο τὰς θήκας αὐτῶν, αἳ λέγονται σκευάζεσθαι ἐξ ὑέλου τρόπῳ τοιῷδε· ἐπεὰν τὸν νεκρὸν ἰσχνήνωσι, εἴτε δὴ κατά περ Αἰγύπτιοι εἴτε ἄλλως κως, γυψώσαντες ἅπαντα αὐτὸν γραφῇ κοσμέουσι, ἐξομοιεῦντες τὸ εἶδος ἐς τὸ δυνατόν, ἔπειτα δέ οἱ περιιστᾶσι στήλην ἐξ ὑέλου πεποιημένην κοίλην· ἣ δέ σφι πολλὴ καὶ εὐεργὸς ὀρύσσεται. ἐν μέσῃ δὲ τῇ στήλῃ ἐνεὼν διαφαίνεται ὁ νέκυς, οὔτε ὀδμὴν οὐδεμίαν ἄχαριν παρεχόμενος οὔτε ἄλλο ἀεικὲς οὐδέν, καὶ ἔχει πάντα φανερὰ ὁμοίως αὐτῷ τῷ νέκυϊ. ἐνιαυτὸν μὲν δὴ ἔχουσι τὴν στήλην ἐν τοῖσι οἰκίοισι οἱ μάλιστα προσήκοντες, πάντων ἀπαρχόμενοι καὶ θυσίας οἱ προσάγοντες· μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ἐκκομίσαντες ἱστᾶσι περὶ τὴν πόλιν. 3.25. θεησάμενοι δὲ τὰ πάντα οἱ κατάσκοποι ἀπαλλάσσοντο ὀπίσω. ἀπαγγειλάντων δὲ ταῦτα τούτων, αὐτίκα ὁ Καμβύσης ὀργὴν ποιησάμενος ἐστρατεύετο ἐπὶ τοὺς Αἰθίοπας, οὔτε παρασκευὴν σίτου οὐδεμίαν παραγγείλας, οὔτε λόγον ἑωυτῷ δοὺς ὅτι ἐς τὰ ἔσχατα γῆς ἔμελλε στρατεύεσθαι· οἷα δὲ ἐμμανής τε ἐὼν καὶ οὐ φρενήρης, ὡς ἤκουε τῶν Ἰχθυοφάγων, ἐστρατεύετο, Ἑλλήνων μὲν τοὺς παρεόντας αὐτοῦ τάξας ὑπομένειν, τὸν δὲ πεζὸν πάντα ἅμα ἀγόμενος. ἐπείτε δὲ στρατευόμενος ἐγένετο ἐν Θήβῃσι, ἀπέκρινε τοῦ στρατοῦ ὡς πέντε μυριάδας, καὶ τούτοισι μὲν ἐνετέλλετο Ἀμμωνίους ἐξανδραποδισαμένους τὸ χρηστήριον τὸ τοῦ Διὸς ἐμπρῆσαι, αὐτὸς δὲ τὸν λοιπὸν ἄγων στρατὸν ἤιε ἐπὶ τοὺς Αἰθίοπας. πρὶν δὲ τῆς ὁδοῦ τὸ πέμπτον μέρος διεληλυθέναι τὴν στρατιήν, αὐτίκα πάντα αὐτοὺς τὰ εἶχον σιτίων ἐχόμενα ἐπελελοίπεε, μετὰ δὲ τὰ σιτία καὶ τὰ ὑποζύγια ἐπέλιπε κατεσθιόμενα. εἰ μέν νυν μαθὼν ταῦτα ὁ Καμβύσης ἐγνωσιμάχεε καὶ ἀπῆγε ὀπίσω τὸν στρατόν, ἐπὶ τῇ ἀρχῆθεν γενομένῃ ἁμαρτάδι ἦν ἂν ἀνὴρ σοφός· νῦν δὲ οὐδένα λόγον ποιεύμενος ἤιε αἰεὶ ἐς τὸ πρόσω. οἱ δὲ στρατιῶται ἕως μέν τι εἶχον ἐκ τῆς γῆς λαμβάνειν, ποιηφαγέοντες διέζωον, ἐπεὶ δὲ ἐς τὴν ψάμμον ἀπίκοντο, δεινὸν ἔργον αὐτῶν τινες ἐργάσαντο· ἐκ δεκάδος γὰρ ἕνα σφέων αὐτῶν ἀποκληρώσαντες κατέφαγον. πυθόμενος δὲ ταῦτα ὁ Καμβύσης, δείσας τὴν ἀλληλοφαγίην, ἀπεὶς τὸν ἐπʼ Αἰθίοπας στόλον ὀπίσω ἐπορεύετο καὶ ἀπικνέεται ἐς Θήβας πολλοὺς ἀπολέσας τοῦ στρατοῦ· ἐκ Θηβέων δὲ καταβὰς ἐς Μέμφιν τοὺς Ἕλληνας ἀπῆκε ἀποπλέειν.
3.131. ὁ δὲ Δημοκήδης οὗτος ὧδε ἐκ Κρότωνος ἀπιγμένος Πολυκράτεϊ ὡμίλησε· πατρὶ συνείχετο ἐν τῇ Κρότωνι ὀργὴν χαλεπῷ· τοῦτον ἐπείτε οὐκ ἐδύνατο φέρειν, ἀπολιπὼν οἴχετο ἐς Αἴγιναν. καταστὰς δὲ ἐς ταύτην πρώτῳ ἔτεϊ ὑπερεβάλετο τοὺς ἄλλους ἰητρούς, ἀσκευής περ ἐὼν καὶ ἔχων οὐδὲν τῶν ὅσα περὶ τὴν τέχνην ἐστὶ ἐργαλήια. καί μιν δευτέρῳ ἔτεϊ ταλάντου Αἰγινῆται δημοσίῃ μισθοῦνται, τρίτῳ δὲ ἔτεϊ Ἀθηναῖοι ἑκατὸν μνέων, τετάρτῳ δὲ ἔτεϊ Πολυκράτης δυῶν ταλάντων. οὕτω μὲν ἀπίκετο ἐς τὴν Σάμον, καὶ ἀπὸ τούτου τοῦ ἀνδρὸς οὐκ ἥκιστα Κροτωνιῆται ἰητροὶ εὐδοκίμησαν. ἐγένετο γὰρ ὦν τοῦτο ὅτε πρῶτοι μὲν Κροτωνιῆται ἰητροὶ ἐλέγοντο ἀνὰ τὴν Ἑλλάδα εἶναι, δεύτεροι δὲ Κυρηναῖοι. κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν δὲ τοῦτον χρόνον καὶ Ἀργεῖοι ἤκουον μουσικὴν εἶναι Ἑλλήνων πρῶτοι. 1' '. None
3.17. After this Cambyses planned three expeditions, against the Carchedonians, against the Ammonians, and against the “long-lived” Ethiopians, who inhabit that part of Libya that is on the southern sea. ,He decided after consideration to send his fleet against the Carthaginians and a part of his land army against the Ammonians; to Ethiopia he would first send spies, to see what truth there was in the story of a Table of the Sun in that country, and to spy out all else besides, under the pretext of bringing gifts for the Ethiopian king. ' "3.18. Now the Table of the Sun is said to be something of this kind: there is a meadow outside the city, filled with the boiled flesh of all four-footed things; here during the night the men of authority among the townsmen are careful to set out the meat, and all day whoever wishes comes and feasts on it. These meats, say the people of the country, are ever produced by the earth of itself. Such is the story of the Sun's Table. " '3.19. When Cambyses determined to send the spies, he sent for those Fish-eaters from the city of Elephantine who understood the Ethiopian language. ,While they were fetching them, he ordered his fleet to sail against Carthage . But the Phoenicians said they would not do it; for they were bound, they said, by strong oaths, and if they sailed against their own progeny they would be doing an impious thing; and the Phoenicians being unwilling, the rest were inadequate fighters. ,Thus the Carthaginians escaped being enslaved by the Persians; for Cambyses would not use force with the Phoenicians, seeing that they had willingly surrendered to the Persians, and the whole fleet drew its strength from them. The Cyprians too had come of their own accord to aid the Persians against Egypt . ' "3.20. When the Fish-eaters arrived from Elephantine at Cambyses' summons, he sent them to Ethiopia, with orders what to say, and bearing as gifts a red cloak and a twisted gold necklace and bracelets and an alabaster box of incense and an earthenware jar of palm wine. These Ethiopians, to whom Cambyses sent them, are said to be the tallest and most handsome of all men. ,Their way of choosing kings is different from that of all others, as (it is said) are all their laws; they consider that man worthy to be their king whom they judge to be tallest and to have strength proportional to his stature. " '3.21. When the Fish-eaters arrived among these men, they gave the gifts to their king and said: “Cambyses, the king of the Persians, wishing to become your friend and ally, sent us with orders to address ourselves to you; and he offers you as gifts these things which he enjoys using himself.” ,But the Ethiopian, perceiving that they had come as spies, spoke thus to them: “It is not because he values my friendship that the Persian King sends you with gifts, nor do you speak the truth (for you have come to spy on my realm), nor is that man just; for were he just, he would not have coveted a land other than his own, nor would he try to lead into slavery men by whom he has not been injured. Now, give him this bow, and this message: ,‘The King of the Ethiopians advises the King of the Persians to bring overwhelming odds to attack the long-lived Ethiopians when the Persians can draw a bow of this length as easily as I do; but until then, to thank the gods who do not incite the sons of the Ethiopians to add other land to their own.’” 3.22. So speaking he unstrung the bow and gave it to the men who had come. Then, taking the red cloak, he asked what it was and how it was made; and when the Fish-eaters told him the truth about the color and the process of dyeing, he said that both the men and their garments were full of deceit. ,Next he inquired about the twisted gold necklace and the bracelets; and when the Fish-eaters told him how they were made, the king smiled, and, thinking them to be fetters, said: “We have stronger chains than these.” ,Thirdly he inquired about the incense; and when they described making and applying it, he made the same reply as about the cloak. But when he came to the wine and asked about its making, he was vastly pleased with the drink, and asked further what food their king ate, and what was the greatest age to which a Persian lived. ,They told him their king ate bread, showing him how wheat grew; and said that the full age to which a man might hope to live was eighty years. Then, said the Ethiopian, it was no wonder that they lived so few years, if they ate dung; they would not even have been able to live that many unless they were refreshed by the drink—signifying to the Fish-eaters the wine—for in this, he said, the Persians excelled the Ethiopians. 3.23. The Fish-eaters then in turn asking of the Ethiopian length of life and diet, he said that most of them attained to a hundred and twenty years, and some even to more; their food was boiled meat and their drink milk. ,The spies showed wonder at the tale of years; whereupon he led them, it is said, to a spring, by washing in which they grew sleeker, as though it were of oil; and it smelled of violets. ,So light, the spies said, was this water, that nothing would float on it, neither wood nor anything lighter than wood, but all sank to the bottom. If this water is truly such as they say, it is likely that their constant use of it makes the people long-lived. ,When they left the spring, the king led them to a prison where all the men were bound with fetters of gold. Among these Ethiopians there is nothing so scarce and so precious as bronze. Then, having seen the prison, they saw what is called the Table of the Sun. 3.24. Last after this they viewed the Ethiopian coffins; these are said to be made of alabaster, as I shall describe: ,they cause the dead body to shrink, either as the Egyptians do or in some other way, then cover it with gypsum and paint it all as far as possible in the likeness of the living man; ,then they set it within a hollow pillar of alabaster, which they dig in abundance from the ground, and it is easily worked; the body can be seen in the pillar through the alabaster, no evil stench nor anything unpleasant proceeding from it, and showing clearly all its parts, as if it were the man himself. ,The nearest of kin keep the pillar in their house for a year, giving it of the first-fruits and offering it sacrifices; after which they bring the pillars out and set them round about the city. 3.25. Having seen everything, the spies departed again. When they reported all this, Cambyses was angry, and marched at once against the Ethiopians, neither giving directions for any provision of food nor considering that he was about to lead his army to the ends of the earth; ,being not in his right mind but mad, however, he marched at once on hearing from the Fish-eaters, ordering the Greeks who were with him to await him where they were, and taking with him all his land army. ,When he came in his march to Thebes , he detached about fifty thousand men from his army, and directed them to enslave the Ammonians and burn the oracle of Zeus; and he himself went on towards Ethiopia with the rest of his host. ,But before his army had accomplished the fifth part of their journey they had come to an end of all there was in the way of provision, and after the food was gone, they ate the beasts of burden until there was none of these left either. ,Now had Cambyses, when he perceived this, changed his mind and led his army back again, he would have been a wise man at last after his first fault; but as it was, he went ever forward, taking account of nothing. ,While his soldiers could get anything from the earth, they kept themselves alive by eating grass; but when they came to the sandy desert, some did a terrible thing, taking by lot one man out of ten and eating him. ,Hearing this, Cambyses feared their becoming cannibals, and so gave up his expedition against the Ethiopians and marched back to Thebes , with the loss of many of his army; from Thebes he came down to Memphis, and sent the Greeks to sail away.
3.131. Now this is how Democedes had come from Croton to live with Polycrates: he was oppressed by a harsh-tempered father at Croton ; since he could not stand him, he left him and went to Aegina . Within the first year after settling there, he excelled the rest of the physicians, although he had no equipment nor any medical implements. ,In his second year the Aeginetans paid him a talent to be their public physician; in the third year the Athenians hired him for a hundred minae, and Polycrates in the fourth year for two talents. Thus he came to Samos, and not least because of this man the physicians of Croton were well-respected ,for at this time the best physicians in Greek countries were those of Croton, and next to them those of Cyrene . About the same time the Argives had the name of being the best musicians.
9.27.4. We also have on record our great victory against the Amazons, who once came from the river Thermodon and broke into Attica, and in the hard days of Troy we were second to none. But since it is useless to recall these matters—for those who were previously valiant may now be of lesser mettle, and those who lacked mettle then may be better men now— ''. None
10. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art, artistic representation • Paradigm and art • theurgy (hieratic art)

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 332; Dillon and Timotin (2015) 127, 172; d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 284

28a. ἀεί, ὂν δὲ οὐδέποτε; τὸ μὲν δὴ νοήσει μετὰ λόγου περιληπτόν, ἀεὶ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ὄν, τὸ δʼ αὖ δόξῃ μετʼ αἰσθήσεως ἀλόγου δοξαστόν, γιγνόμενον καὶ ἀπολλύμενον, ὄντως δὲ οὐδέποτε ὄν. πᾶν δὲ αὖ τὸ γιγνόμενον ὑπʼ αἰτίου τινὸς ἐξ ἀνάγκης γίγνεσθαι· παντὶ γὰρ ἀδύνατον χωρὶς αἰτίου γένεσιν σχεῖν. ὅτου μὲν οὖν ἂν ὁ δημιουργὸς πρὸς τὸ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἔχον βλέπων ἀεί, τοιούτῳ τινὶ προσχρώμενος παραδείγματι, τὴν ἰδέαν καὶ δύναμιν αὐτοῦ ἀπεργάζηται, καλὸν ἐξ ἀνάγκης'29a. ἀπηργάζετο, πότερον πρὸς τὸ κατὰ ταὐτὰ καὶ ὡσαύτως ἔχον ἢ πρὸς τὸ γεγονός. εἰ μὲν δὴ καλός ἐστιν ὅδε ὁ κόσμος ὅ τε δημιουργὸς ἀγαθός, δῆλον ὡς πρὸς τὸ ἀίδιον ἔβλεπεν· εἰ δὲ ὃ μηδʼ εἰπεῖν τινι θέμις, πρὸς γεγονός. παντὶ δὴ σαφὲς ὅτι πρὸς τὸ ἀίδιον· ὁ μὲν γὰρ κάλλιστος τῶν γεγονότων, ὁ δʼ ἄριστος τῶν αἰτίων. οὕτω δὴ γεγενημένος πρὸς τὸ λόγῳ καὶ φρονήσει περιληπτὸν καὶ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἔχον δεδημιούργηται· '. None
28a. and has no Becoming? And what is that which is Becoming always and never is Existent? Now the one of these is apprehensible by thought with the aid of reasoning, since it is ever uniformly existent; whereas the other is an object of opinion with the aid of unreasoning sensation, since it becomes and perishes and is never really existent. Again, everything which becomes must of necessity become owing to some Cause; for without a cause it is impossible for anything to attain becoming. But when the artificer of any object, in forming its shape and quality, keeps his gaze fixed on that which is uniform, using a model of this kind, that object, executed in this way, must of necessity'29a. Was it after that which is self-identical and uniform, or after that which has come into existence; Now if so be that this Cosmos is beautiful and its Constructor good, it is plain that he fixed his gaze on the Eternal; but if otherwise (which is an impious supposition), his gaze was on that which has come into existence. But it is clear to everyone that his gaze was on the Eternal; for the Cosmos is the fairest of all that has come into existence, and He the best of all the Causes. So having in this wise come into existence, it has been constructed after the pattern of that which is apprehensible by reason and thought and is self-identical. '. None
11. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Artists of Dionysus • Dionysus, Artists of • guilds, Artists of Dionysus • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), benefactors of (φιλοτεχνῖται)

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022) 134; Csapo (2022) 51

12. Anon., 1 Enoch, 1 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • art • art, Metatron • art, interpreters • art, stars

 Found in books: Brooke et al (2008) 112, 189, 191, 197; Harkins and Maier (2022) 161

1. The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, And appear from His camp And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him."". None
13. Anon., Jubilees, 2.2-2.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • art, Qumran • art, priests • healing and medicines, exorcism as healing art

 Found in books: Brooke et al (2008) 51; Taylor (2012) 332

2.2. Write the complete history of the creation, how in six days the Lord God finished all His works and all that He created, and kept Sabbath on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages, and appointed it as a sign for all His works. 2.3. For on the first day He created the heavens which are above and the earth and the waters and all the spirits which serve before Him''. None
14. Cicero, On Divination, 1.88 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • artists, Greek • history of divinatory arts

 Found in books: Mueller (2002) 95; Wynne (2019) 208

1.88. Amphilochus et Mopsus Argivorum reges fuerunt, sed iidem augures, iique urbis in ora marituma Ciliciae Graecas condiderunt; atque etiam ante hos Amphiaraus et Tiresias non humiles et obscuri neque eorum similes, ut apud Ennium est, Quí sui quaestus caúsa fictas súscitant senténtias, sed clari et praestantes viri, qui avibus et signis admoniti futura dicebant; quorum de altero etiam apud inferos Homerus ait solum sapere, ceteros umbrarum vagari modo ; Amphiaraum autem sic honoravit fama Graeciae, deus ut haberetur, atque ut ab eius solo, in quo est humatus, oracla peterentur.''. None
1.88. Amphilochus and Mopsus were kings of Argos, but they were augurs too, and they founded Greek cities on the coasts of Cilicia. And even before them were Amphiaraus and Tiresias. They were no lowly and unknown men, nor were they like the person described by Ennius,Who, for their own gain, uphold opinions that are false,but they were eminent men of the noblest type and foretold the future by means of augural signs. In speaking of Tiresias, even when in the infernal regions, Homer says that he alone was wise, that the rest were mere wandering shadows. As for Amphiaraus, his reputation in Greece was such that he was honoured as a god, and oracular responses were sought in the place where he was buried.''. None
15. Polybius, Histories, 4.20.12, 16.21.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Artists of Dionysus • Dionysus, Artists of • Polybius, on the Artists of Dionysus • civic values and art,, public discussion • guilds, Artists of Dionysus • political life, public discussion of art • technitai (Artists of Dionysus) • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), benefactors of (φιλοτεχνῖται)

 Found in books: Cosgrove (2022) 164; Csapo (2022) 11, 51; Rutter and Sparkes (2012) 194

4.20.12. καὶ μὴν ἐμβατήρια μετʼ αὐλοῦ καὶ τάξεως ἀσκοῦντες, ἔτι δʼ ὀρχήσεις ἐκπονοῦντες μετὰ κοινῆς ἐπιστροφῆς καὶ δαπάνης κατʼ ἐνιαυτὸν ἐν τοῖς θεάτροις ἐπιδείκνυνται τοῖς αὑτῶν πολίταις
16.21.8. ὃν δέ ποτε χρόνον τῆς ἡμέρας ἀπεμέριζε πρὸς ἐντεύξεις, ἐν τούτῳ διεδίδου, μᾶλλον δʼ, εἰ δεῖ τὸ φαινόμενον εἰπεῖν, διερρίπτει τὰ βασιλικὰ χρήματα τοῖς ἀπὸ τῆς Ἑλλάδος παραγεγονόσι πρεσβευταῖς καὶ τοῖς περὶ τὸν Διόνυσον τεχνίταις, μάλιστα δὲ τοῖς περὶ τὴν αὐλὴν ἡγεμόσι καὶ στρατιώταις.''. None
4.20.12. \xa0Besides this the young men practise military parades to the music of the flute and perfect themselves in dances and give annual performances in the theatres, all under state supervision and at the public expense. <
16.21.8. \xa0During that portion of the day that he set apart for audiences he used to distribute, or rather, if one must speak the truth, scatter the royal funds among the envoys who had come from Greece and the actors of the theatre of Dionysus and chiefly among the generals and soldiers present at court. <''. None
16. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Verres, C., appropriates art works in Syracuse • liberal arts • proprietas properties of individual arts

 Found in books: Keeline (2018) 219, 220; Oksanish (2019) 142; Rutledge (2012) 118

17. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Verres, C., appropriates art works in Syracuse • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • art and architecture, Roman appreciation

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013) 242, 262; Rutledge (2012) 49

18. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • artes liberales • liberal arts

 Found in books: Keeline (2018) 218, 219; Oksanish (2019) 38

19. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 6.1-6.8, 6.10-6.14, 6.17-6.24, 6.40, 6.44-6.51, 6.53-6.66, 6.68-6.69, 6.80, 6.83-6.85, 6.100-6.126, 6.128, 6.133-6.134, 6.144, 10.149-10.154, 10.241-10.297, 15.871-15.879 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Arachne, as arrogant artist • Augustus, artistic freedom suppressed by • Metamorphoses (Ovid), as commemorative of art • Orpheus,, as artist • Orpheus,, audience awareness and artistic strategies of • Pygmalion, as artist • allusion, to artistic and singing contests • anxiety, artistic • artist • artist, Pygmalion as • artists and gods • contests, artistic hubris and entry into • death, triumph of art over • drapery, artistic treatment of • ekphrasis,, artistic process and • ekphrasis,, nonvisual arts and • hubris,, artistic arrogance • ivory, as artistic medium • nature, transgressed by art • patrons of the arts • power as motif,, vulnerability of artist • power, of artists and authors • punishment, erasure of artistic works as • sexual subjects in art, Orpheus and • sexual subjects in art, as customary entertainment • sexual subjects in art, audience and • sexual subjects in art, eroticdidacticism • sexual subjects in art, incest • sexual subjects in art, on Arachne’s tapestry • sexual subjects in art, pederasty • sexual subjects in art, realism and • sexual subjects in art, selfcensorship and • sexual subjects in art, tone and explicit discussion of

 Found in books: Elsner (2007) 113, 114, 121, 122, 125, 126, 127, 128; Johnson (2008) 10, 37, 42, 74, 76, 77, 79, 80, 85, 86, 87, 92, 93, 103, 111, 112, 122, 123; Pandey (2018) 4, 21, 22, 227; Steiner (2001) 231

6.1. Praebuerat dictis Tritonia talibus aures 6.2. carminaque Aonidum iustamque probaverat iram. 6.3. Tum secum “laudare parum est; laudemur et ipsae 6.4. numina nec sperni sine poena nostra sinamus” 6.5. Maeoniaeque animum fatis intendit Arachnes, 6.6. quam sibi lanificae non cedere laudibus artis 6.7. audierat. Non illa loco neque origine gentis 6.8. clara, sed arte fuit. Pater huic Colophonius Idmon

6.10. Occiderat mater; sed et haec de plebe suoque
6.11. aequa viro fuerat. Lydas tamen illa per urbes
6.12. quaesierat studio nomen memorabile, quamvis
6.14. Huius ut adspicerent opus admirabile, saepe

6.17. Nec factas solum vestes spectare iuvabat;
6.18. tum quoque, cum fierent: tantus decor adfuit arti.
6.19. Sive rudem primos lanam glomerabat in orbes, 6.20. seu digitis subigebat opus repetitaque longo 6.21. vellera mollibat nebulas aequantia tractu, 6.22. sive levi teretem versabat pollice fusum, 6.23. seu pingebat acu, scires a Pallade doctam. 6.24. Quod tamen ipsa negat, tantaque offensa magistra
6.40. Consilii satis est in me mihi. Neve monendo
6.44. Palladaque exhibuit. Venerantur numina nymphae 6.45. Mygdonidesque nurus: sola est non territa virgo. 6.46. Sed tamen erubuit, subitusque invita notavit 6.47. ora rubor rursusque evanuit, ut solet aer 6.48. purpureus fieri, cum primum aurora movetur, 6.49. et breve post tempus candescere solis ab ortu. 6.50. Perstat in incepto stolidaeque cupidine palmae
6.53. Haud mora, constituunt diversis partibus ambae 6.54. et gracili geminas intendunt stamine telas 6.55. (tela iugo iuncta est, stamen secernit harundo); 6.57. quod digiti expediunt, atque inter stamina ductum 6.58. percusso paviunt insecti pectine dentes. 6.59. Utraque festit cinctaeque ad pectora vestes 6.60. bracchia docta movent, studio fallente laborem. 6.61. Illic et Tyrium quae purpura sensit aenum 6.62. texitur et tenues parvi discriminis umbrae, 6.63. qualis ab imbre solet percussis solibus arcus 6.64. inficere ingenti longum curvamine caelum: 6.65. in quo diversi niteant cum mille colores, 6.66. transitus ipse tamen spectantia lumina fallit;
6.68. Illic et lentum filis inmittitur aurum 6.69. et vetus in tela deducitur argumentum.
6.83. Ut tamen exemplis intellegat aemula laudis, 6.84. quod pretium speret pro tam furialibus ausis, 6.85. quattuor in partes certamina quattuor addit,

6.100. amplectens saxoque iacens lacrimare videtur.

6.101. Circuit extremas oleis pacalibus oras:

6.102. is modus est, operisque sua facit arbore finem.

6.103. Maeonis elusam designat imagine tauri

6.104. Europam: verum taurum, freta vera putares.

6.105. Ipsa videbatur terras spectare relictas

6.106. et comites clamare suas tactumque vereri

6.107. adsilientis aquae timidasque reducere plantas.

6.108. Fecit et Asterien aquila luctante teneri,
6.110. addidit, ut satyri celatus imagine pulchram
6.111. Iuppiter implerit gemino Nycteida fetu,
6.112. Amphitryon fuerit, cum te, Tirynthia, cepit,
6.113. aureus ut Danaen, Asopida luserit ignis,
6.114. Mnemosynen pastor, varius Deoida serpens.
6.115. Te quoque mutatum torvo, Neptune, iuvenco
6.116. virgine in Aeolia posuit. Tu visus Enipeus
6.118. et te flava comas frugum mitissima mater
6.119. sensit equum, sensit volucrem crinita colubris
6.120. mater equi volucris, sensit delphina Melantho.
6.121. Omnibus his faciemque suam faciemque locorum
6.123. utque modo accipitris pennas, modo terga leonis
6.124. gesserit, ut pastor Macareida luserit Issen;
6.125. Liber ut Erigonen falsa deceperit uva,
6.126. ut Saturnus equo geminum Chirona crearit.

6.128. nexilibus flores hederis habet intertextos.

6.133. ter quater Idmoniae frontem percussit Arachnes.
6.134. Non tulit infelix laqueoque animosa ligavit

6.144. cetera venter habet: de quo tamen illa remittit
10.149. carmina nostra move! Iovis est mihi saepe potestas 10.150. dicta prius: cecini plectro graviore Gigantas 10.151. sparsaque Phlegraeis victricia fulmina campis: 10.152. nunc opus est leviore lyra, puerosque canamus 10.153. dilectos superis, inconcessisque puellas 10.154. ignibus attonitas meruisse libidine poenam.
10.241. utque pudor cessit sanguisque induruit oris, 10.242. in rigidum parvo silicem discrimine versae. 10.243. Quas quia Pygmalion aevum per crimen agentes 10.244. viderat, offensus vitiis, quae plurima menti 10.245. femineae natura dedit, sine coniuge caelebs 10.246. vivebat thalamique diu consorte carebat. 10.247. Interea niveum mira feliciter arte 10.248. sculpsit ebur formamque dedit, qua femina nasci 10.249. nulla potest: operisque sui concepit amorem. 10.250. Virginis est verae facies, quam vivere credas, 10.251. et, si non obstet reverentia, velle moveri: 10.252. ars adeo latet arte sua. Miratur et haurit 10.253. pectore Pygmalion simulati corporis ignes. 10.254. Saepe manus operi temptantes admovet, an sit 10.255. corpus an illud ebur: nec adhuc ebur esse fatetur. 10.256. Oscula dat reddique putat loquiturque tenetque, 10.257. et credit tactis digitos insidere membris, 10.258. et metuit, pressos veniat ne livor in artus. 10.259. Et modo blanditias adhibet, modo grata puellis 10.260. munera fert illi conchas teretesque lapillos 10.261. et parvas volucres et flores mille colorum 10.262. liliaque pictasque pilas et ab arbore lapsas 10.263. Heliadum lacrimas; ornat quoque vestibus artus, 10.264. dat digitis gemmas, dat longa monilia collo: 10.265. aure leves bacae, redimicula pectore pendent. 10.266. Cuncta decent: nec nuda minus formosa videtur. 10.267. Conlocat hanc stratis concha Sidonide tinctis 10.269. mollibus in plumis, tamquam sensura, reponit. 10.270. Festa dies Veneris tota celeberrima Cypro 10.271. venerat, et pandis inductae cornibus aurum 10.272. conciderant ictae nivea cervice iuvencae, 10.273. turaque fumabant: cum munere functus ad aras 10.274. constitit et timide, “si di dare cuncta potestis, 10.275. sit coniunx, opto” (non ausus “eburnea virgo” 10.276. dicere) Pygmalion “similis mea” dixit “eburnae.” 10.277. Sensit, ut ipsa suis aderat Venus aurea festis, 10.278. vota quid illa velint; et, amici numinis omen, 10.279. flamma ter accensa est apicemque per aera duxit. 10.280. Ut rediit, simulacra suae petit ille puellae 10.281. incumbensque toro dedit oscula: visa tepere est. 10.282. Admovet os iterum, manibus quoque pectora temptat: 10.283. temptatum mollescit ebur positoque rigore 10.284. subsidit digitis ceditque, ut Hymettia sole 10.286. flectitur in facies ipsoque fit utilis usu. 10.287. Dum stupet et dubie gaudet fallique veretur, 10.288. rursus amans rursusque manu sua vota retractat. 10.289. Corpus erat: saliunt temptatae pollice venae. 10.290. Tum vero Paphius plenissima concipit heros 10.291. verba, quibus Veneri grates agat, oraque tandem 10.292. ore suo non falsa premit: dataque oscula virgo 10.293. sensit et erubuit timidumque ad lumina lumen 10.294. attollens pariter cum caelo vidit amantem. 10.295. Coniugio, quod fecit, adest dea. Iamque coactis 10.296. cornibus in plenum noviens lunaribus orbem 10.297. illa Paphon genuit, de qua tenet insula nomen.
15.871. Iamque opus exegi, quod nec Iovis ira nec ignis 15.872. nec poterit ferrum nec edax abolere vetustas. 15.874. ius habet, incerti spatium mihi finiat aevi: 15.875. parte tamen meliore mei super alta perennis 15.876. astra ferar, nomenque erit indelebile nostrum, 15.877. quaque patet domitis Romana potentia terris, 15.878. ore legar populi, perque omnia saecula fama, 15.879. siquid habent veri vatum praesagia, vivam.' '. None
6.1. All this Minerva heard; and she approved 6.2. their songs and their resentment; but her heart 6.3. was brooding thus, “It is an easy thing 6.4. to praise another, I should do as they: 6.5. no creature of the earth should ever slight 6.6. the majesty that dwells in me,—without 6.7. just retribution.”—So her thought was turned 6.8. upon the fortune of Arachne — proud,

6.10. won by the art of deftly weaving wool,
6.11. a girl who had not fame for place of birth,
6.12. nor fame for birth, but only fame for skill!
6.14. in Colophon ; where, at his humble trade,

6.17. had died. Arachne in a mountain town
6.18. by skill had grown so famous in the Land
6.19. of Lydia , that unnumbered curious nymph 6.20. eager to witness her dexterity, 6.21. deserted the lush vineyards of Timolus; 6.22. or even left the cool and flowing stream 6.23. of bright Pactolus, to admire the cloth, 6.24. or to observe her deftly spinning wool.
6.40. and with a staff to steady her weak limbs.
6.44. with lengthened years; and, therefore, you should not 6.45. despise my words. It is no harm in you 6.46. to long for praise of mortals, when 6.47. your nimble hands are spinning the soft wool,—' "6.48. but you should not deny Minerva's art—" '6.49. and you should pray that she may pardon you, 6.50. for she will grant you pardon if you ask.”
6.53. She hardly could restrain her threatening hand, 6.54. and, trembling in her anger, she replied 6.55. to you, disguised Minerva: 6.57. worn out and witless in your palsied age, 6.58. a great age is your great misfortune!— Let' "6.59. your daughter and your son's wife—if the God" '6.60. have blessed you—let them profit by your words; 6.61. within myself, my knowledge is contained 6.62. ufficient; you need not believe that your 6.63. advice does any good; for I am quite 6.64. unchanged in my opinion. Get you gone,— 6.65. advise your goddess to come here herself, 6.66. and not avoid the contest!”
6.68. the goddess said, “Minerva comes to you!” 6.69. And with those brief words, put aside the shape
6.83. Nor did the daughter of almighty Jove 6.84. decline: disdaining to delay with words, 6.85. he hesitated not.

6.100. that spans new glory in the curving sky,

6.101. its glittering rays reflected in the rain,

6.102. preads out a multitude of blended tints,

6.103. in scintillating beauty to the sight

6.104. of all who gaze upon it; — so the threads,

6.105. inwoven, mingled in a thousand tints,

6.106. harmonious and contrasting; shot with gold:

6.107. and there, depicted in those shining webs,

6.108. were shown the histories of ancient days:—
6.110. where ancient Cecrops built his citadel,
6.111. and showed the old contention for the name
6.112. it should be given.—Twelve celestial God
6.113. urrounded Jupiter , on lofty thrones;
6.114. and all their features were so nicely drawn,
6.115. that each could be distinguished.— Jupiter
6.116. appeared as monarch of those judging Gods.
6.118. contending with Minerva. As he struck
6.119. the Rock with his long trident, a wild horse
6.120. prang forth which he bequeathed to man. He claimed
6.121. his right to name the city for that gift.
6.123. bearing a shield, and in her hand a lance,
6.124. harp-pointed, and a helmet on her head—
6.125. her breast well-guarded by her Aegis: there
6.126. he struck her spear into the fertile earth,

6.128. pale with new clustered fruits.—And those twelve Gods,

6.133. from the great deeds of ancient histories,
6.134. and what award presumption must expect,

6.144. that Pygmy, whom the angry Juno changed
10.149. the brittle hazel, and the virgin laurel-tree, 10.150. the ash for strong spears, the smooth silver-fir, 10.151. the flex bent with acorns and the plane, 10.152. the various tinted maple and with those, 10.153. the lotus and green willows from their streams, 10.154. evergreen box and slender tamarisks,' "
10.241. except the eagle's, able to sustain" '10.242. the weight of his own thunderbolts. Without 10.243. delay, Jove on fictitious eagle wings, 10.244. tole and flew off with that loved Trojan boy: 10.245. who even to this day, against the will 10.246. of Juno, mingles nectar in the cup 10.247. of his protector, mighty Jupiter . 10.248. You also, Hyacinthus, would have been 10.249. et in the sky! if Phoebus had been given 10.250. time which the cruel fates denied for you. 10.251. But in a way you are immortal too. 10.252. Though you have died. Always when warm spring 10.253. drives winter out, and Aries (the Ram) 10.254. ucceeds to Pisces (watery Fish), you rise 10.255. and blossom on the green turf. And the love 10.256. my father had for you was deeper than he felt 10.257. for others. Delphi center of the world, 10.258. had no presiding guardian, while the God 10.259. frequented the Eurotas and the land 10.260. of Sparta , never fortified with walls. 10.261. His zither and his bow no longer fill 10.262. his eager mind and now without a thought 10.263. of dignity, he carried nets and held 10.264. the dogs in leash, and did not hesitate 10.265. to go with Hyacinthus on the rough, 10.266. teep mountain ridges; and by all of such 10.267. associations, his love was increased. 10.269. the coming and the banished night, and stood 10.270. at equal distance from those two extremes. 10.271. Then, when the youth and Phoebus were well stripped, 10.272. and gleaming with rich olive oil, they tried 10.273. a friendly contest with the discus. First 10.274. Phoebus, well-poised, sent it awhirl through air, 10.275. and cleft the clouds beyond with its broad weight; 10.276. from which at length it fell down to the earth, 10.277. a certain evidence of strength and skill. 10.278. Heedless of danger Hyacinthus rushed 10.279. for eager glory of the game, resolved 10.280. to get the discus. But it bounded back 10.281. from off the hard earth, and struck full against 10.282. your face, O Hyacinthus! Deadly pale' "10.283. the God's face went — as pallid as the boy's." '10.284. With care he lifted the sad huddled form. 10.286. and next endeavors to attend your wound, 10.287. and stay your parting soul with healing herbs. 10.288. His skill is no advantage, for the wound 10.289. is past all art of cure. As if someone, 10.290. when in a garden, breaks off violets, 10.291. poppies, or lilies hung from golden stems, 10.292. then drooping they must hang their withered heads, 10.293. and gaze down towards the earth beneath them; so,' "10.294. the dying boy's face droops, and his bent neck," '10.295. a burden to itself, falls back upon 10.296. his shoulder: “You are fallen in your prime 10.297. defrauded of your youth, O Hyacinthus!”
15.871. that I should pass my life in exile than 15.872. be seen a king throned in the capitol.” 15.874. the people and the grave and honored Senate. 15.875. But first he veiled his horns with laurel, which 15.876. betokens peace. Then, standing on a mound 15.877. raised by the valiant troops, he made a prayer 15.878. after the ancient mode, and then he said, 15.879. “There is one here who will be king, if you' '. None
20. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.2 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • art, medieval Christian, depiction of Jews • clothing, signification of, in medieval Christian art • pallium, signification in medieval Christian art

 Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 94; Brooke et al (2008) 143

2.2. For some persons say, and not without some reason and propriety, that this is the only way by which cities can be expected to advance in improvement, if either the kings cultivate philosophy, or if philosophers exercise the kingly power. But Moses will be seen not only to have displayed all these powers--I mean the genius of the philosopher and of the king--in an extraordinary degree at the same time, but three other powers likewise, one of which is conversant about legislation, the second about the way of discharging the duties of high priest, and the last about the prophetic office; ''. None
21. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • art and architecture, Roman appreciation • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica

 Found in books: Elsner (2007) 187; Jenkyns (2013) 240

22. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Hadrian, as artist • Nero, artistic aspirations • Petronius, and the decline of art • Pliny the Elder, on decline of art • Vitruvius, on decline of art • art expert, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art history, Petronius’ satire of

 Found in books: Elsner (2007) 192; Rutledge (2012) 84

23. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Nile, subject matter of art • ekphrasis,, literary arts excluded from traditional use of • ekphrasis,, nonvisual arts and

 Found in books: Johnson (2008) 32, 33; Manolaraki (2012) 292

24. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Greek, art • Orpheus,, audience awareness and artistic strategies of • sexual subjects in art, Orpheus and • sexual subjects in art, eroticdidacticism • sexual subjects in art, pederasty

 Found in books: Johnson (2008) 113; Rutledge (2012) 38

25. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Greek, art • Porcius Cato the Elder, M., on Greek art and culture • war, art plundering

 Found in books: Rutledge (2012) 36, 45; Rüpke (2011) 88

26. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus, artistic freedom suppressed by • artists and gods • exile (relegation), as artistic disempowerment • freedom, artistic freedom as theme • sexual subjects in art, Orpheus and • sexual subjects in art, eroticdidacticism

 Found in books: Johnson (2008) 120, 121; Pandey (2018) 22

27. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • aesthetic approach to art and architecture • architecture and art, aesthetic approach • art and architecture, aesthetic approach • patrons of the arts,, recusatio and • place among ancient artists, his realism • religions, Roman, religious responses to art and architecture

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013) 236, 316; Johnson (2008) 58; Rutledge (2012) 100

28. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.18-1.26, 3.91, 3.181-3.186, 3.203, 14.231-14.232, 17.150, 18.55 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, idol vs. image • Dionysiac Artists, granted exemption from war contributions and military service • Jews, as blind to identity of Christ, depicted in art • Moses, art • Naaran basilical synagogue, basilical synagogue, mosaic (figural art and Jewish symbols) • Yafia, figural art • art, • art, medieval Christian, depiction of Jews • art, pagan • catacombs, Bet Shearim, figural art • church fathers, figural art • clothing, signification of, in medieval Christian art • discovery, frescoes, artistic motifs • pallium, signification in medieval Christian art • priests, Jewish, depiction in medieval Jewish art

 Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al (2015) 94, 97; Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 920, 937; Brooke et al (2008) 131, 132, 146, 147; Levine (2005) 111, 224, 481; Rubenstein(1995) 247; Udoh (2006) 79, 80

1.18. ̓Επειδὴ δὲ πάντα σχεδὸν ἐκ τῆς τοῦ νομοθέτου σοφίας ἡμῖν ἀνήρτηται Μωυσέος, ἀνάγκη μοι βραχέα περὶ ἐκείνου προειπεῖν, ὅπως μή τινες τῶν ἀναγνωσομένων διαπορῶσι, πόθεν ἡμῖν ὁ λόγος περὶ νόμων καὶ πράξεων ἔχων τὴν ἀναγραφὴν ἐπὶ τοσοῦτον φυσιολογίας κεκοινώνηκεν.
1.18. ἔνθα ὁ τῆς Σολυμᾶ ὑποδέχεται βασιλεὺς αὐτὸν Μελχισεδέκ: σημαίνει δὲ τοῦτο βασιλεὺς δίκαιος: καὶ ἦν δὲ τοιοῦτος ὁμολογουμένως, ὡς διὰ ταύτην αὐτὸν τὴν αἰτίαν καὶ ἱερέα γενέσθαι τοῦ θεοῦ: τὴν μέντοι Σολυμᾶ ὕστερον ἐκάλεσεν ̔Ιεροσόλυμα.' "1.19. ἰστέον οὖν, ὅτι πάντων ἐκεῖνος ἀναγκαιότατον ἡγήσατο τῷ καὶ τὸν ἑαυτοῦ μέλλοντι βίον οἰκονομήσειν καλῶς καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις νομοθετεῖν θεοῦ πρῶτον φύσιν κατανοῆσαι καὶ τῶν ἔργων τῶν ἐκείνου θεατὴν τῷ νῷ γενόμενον οὕτως παράδειγμα τὸ πάντων ἄριστον μιμεῖσθαι καθ' ὅσον οἷόν τε καὶ πειρᾶσθαι κατακολουθεῖν." "1.19. παρακούουσαν μὲν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ προσωτέρω χωροῦσαν ἔλεγεν ἀπολεῖσθαι, νοστήσασαν δὲ αὐτὴν ὀπίσω γενήσεσθαι μητέρα παιδὸς τῆς γῆς ἐκείνης βασιλεύσοντος. τούτοις πείθεται καὶ ἐπανελθοῦσα πρὸς τοὺς δεσπότας συγγνώμης ἔτυχε: τίκτει δὲ μετ' οὐ πολὺ ̓Ισμαῆλον, θεόκλυτον ἄν τις εἴποι, διὰ τὸ εἰσακοῦσαι τὸν θεὸν τῆς ἱκεσίας." "1.21. παρακαλεῖ τε πρᾴως ἔχειν πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ τὸν θεὸν εὐμενῆ ποιεῖν, παρ' αὐτῷ τε μένειν βουλομένῳ πᾶσαν ἀφθονίαν ὑπάρξειν ἀπιέναι τε προαιρούμενον τεύξεσθαι πομπῆς καὶ πάντων ὅσων καὶ χρῄζων πρὸς αὐτὸν ἀφίκοιτο." '1.21. τοῦτο δὴ παιδεῦσαι βουληθεὶς Μωυσῆς τὸ παίδευμα τοὺς ἑαυτοῦ πολίτας τῆς τῶν νόμων θέσεως οὐκ ἀπὸ συμβολαίων καὶ τῶν πρὸς ἀλλήλους δικαίων ἤρξατο τοῖς ἄλλοις παραπλησίως, ἀλλ' ἐπὶ τὸν θεὸν καὶ τὴν τοῦ κόσμου κατασκευὴν τὰς γνώμας αὐτῶν ἀναγαγὼν καὶ πείσας, ὅτι τῶν ἐπὶ γῆς ἔργων τοῦ θεοῦ κάλλιστόν ἐσμεν ἄνθρωποι, ὅτε πρὸς τὴν εὐσέβειαν ἔσχεν ὑπακούοντας, ῥᾳδίως ἤδη περὶ πάντων ἔπειθεν." "1.22. ̓Ανδρωθέντι δὲ τῷ παιδὶ γύναιον ἄγεται τὸ γένος Αἰγύπτιον, ἐνθένδε ἦν καὶ αὐτὴ τὸ ἀρχαῖον, ἐξ οὗ παῖδες ̓Ισμαήλῳ γίνονται δώδεκα πάντες, Ναβαιώθης Κήδαρος ̓Αβδεῆλος Μάσσαμος Μάσμασος ̓Ιδουμᾶς Μάσμησος Χόδαμος Θέμανος ̓Ιετοῦρος Νάφαισος Κάδμασος.' "1.22. οἱ μὲν γὰρ ἄλλοι νομοθέται τοῖς μύθοις ἐξακολουθήσαντες τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων ἁμαρτημάτων εἰς τοὺς θεοὺς τῷ λόγῳ τὴν αἰσχύνην μετέθεσαν καὶ πολλὴν ὑποτίμησιν τοῖς πονηροῖς ἔδωκαν: 1.23. ἐπεὶ δ' ἐγεννήθης * ἀποθάνῃς οὐ τὸν κοινὸν ἐκ τοῦ ζῆν τρόπον, ἀλλ' ὑπὸ πατρὸς ἰδίου θεῷ τῷ πάντων πατρὶ νόμῳ θυσίας προπεμπόμενος, ἄξιον οἶμαί σε κρίναντος αὐτοῦ μήτε νόσῳ μήτε πολέμῳ μήτε ἄλλῳ τινὶ τῶν παθῶν, ἃ συμπίπτειν πέφυκεν ἀνθρώποις, ἀπαλλαγῆναι τοῦ βίου," "1.23. ὁ δ' ἡμέτερος νομοθέτης ἀκραιφνῆ τὴν ἀρετὴν ἔχοντα τὸν θεὸν ἀποφήνας ᾠήθη δεῖν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἐκείνης πειρᾶσθαι μεταλαμβάνειν καὶ τοὺς μὴ ταῦτα φρονοῦντας μηδὲ μὴν πιστεύοντας ἀπαραιτήτως ἐκόλασε." "1.24. μαρτυρεῖ δέ μου τῷ λόγῳ ̓Αλέξανδρος ὁ πολυίστωρ λέγων οὕτως: “Κλεόδημος δέ φησιν ὁ προφήτης ὁ καὶ Μάλχος ἱστορῶν τὰ περὶ ̓Ιουδαίων, καθὼς καὶ Μωυσῆς ἱστόρησεν ὁ νομοθέτης αὐτῶν, ὅτι ἐκ τῆς Κατούρας ̔Αβράμῳ ἐγένοντο παῖδες ἱκανοί.' "1.24. πρὸς ταύτην οὖν τὴν ὑπόθεσιν ποιεῖσθαι τὴν ἐξέτασιν τοὺς ἀναγνωσομένους παρακαλῶ: φανεῖται γὰρ σκοπουμένοις οὕτως οὐδὲν οὔτ' ἄλογον αὐτοῖς οὔτε πρὸς τὴν μεγαλειότητα τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τὴν φιλανθρωπίαν ἀνάρμοστον: πάντα γὰρ τῇ τῶν ὅλων φύσει σύμφωνον ἔχει τὴν διάθεσιν, τὰ μὲν αἰνιττομένου τοῦ νομοθέτου δεξιῶς, τὰ δ' ἀλληγοροῦντος μετὰ σεμνότητος, ὅσα δ' ἐξ εὐθείας λέγεσθαι συνέφερε, ταῦτα ῥητῶς ἐμφανίζοντος." '1.25. ἠξίου τε παρ' αὐτοῖς καταχθῆναι τοῦ προσωτέρω χωρεῖν τῆς νυκτὸς αὐτὸν ἀφαιρουμένης, κόσμον τε φέρων γυναικεῖον πολυτελῆ πιστεύειν αὐτὸν οὐκ ἀσφαλεστέροις ἔφασκεν ἢ τούτοις, οἷς αὐτὸς ἐπειράθη. τεκμαίρεσθαι δὲ καὶ τὴν τῆς μητρὸς καὶ τἀδελφοῦ φιλανθρωπίαν αὐτῆς ἔλεγεν, ὡς οὐ δυσχερανοῦσιν, ἐκ τῆς περὶ αὐτὴν ἀρετῆς: οὐδὲ γὰρ ἔσεσθαι βαρὺς μισθόν τε τῆς φιλοξενίας τελέσας καὶ δαπάναις ἰδίαις χρησάμενος." "1.25. τοῖς μέντοι βουλομένοις καὶ τὰς αἰτίας ἑκάστου σκοπεῖν πολλὴ γένοιτ' ἂν ἡ θεωρία καὶ λίαν φιλόσοφος, ἣν ἐγὼ νῦν μὲν ὑπερβάλλομαι, θεοῦ δὲ διδόντος ἡμῖν χρόνον πειράσομαι μετὰ ταύτην γράψαι τὴν πραγματείαν." "1.26. ὁρῶν γὰρ τὸν θεὸν τῷ ̓Ισάκῳ συμπαρόντα καὶ τοσαύτῃ περὶ αὐτὸν σπουδῇ χρώμενον ἀπώσατο αὐτόν. ὁ δὲ τοιούτου πάλιν ἐκ μεταβολῆς τῆς ἀπὸ τοῦ βασκάνου πειραθεὶς ̓Αβιμελέχου τότε μὲν ἀνεχώρησεν εἰς τὴν λεγομένην Φάραγγα χωρίον οὐ μακρὰν Γεράρων, ὀρύσσοντι δ' αὐτῷ φρέαρ ποιμένες ἐπιπεσόντες εἰς μάχην ἐχώρησαν κωλύοντες τὸ ἔργον, καὶ μὴ βουληθέντος φιλονικεῖν ἔδοξαν κεκρατηκέναι." '1.26. τρέψομαι δὲ ἐπὶ τὴν ἀφήγησιν ἤδη τῶν πραγμάτων μνησθεὶς πρότερον ὧν περὶ τῆς τοῦ κόσμου κατασκευῆς εἶπε Μωυσῆς: ταῦτα δ' ἐν ταῖς ἱεραῖς βίβλοις εὗρον ἀναγεγραμμένα. ἔχει δὲ οὕτως:" "
3.91. Διδάσκει μὲν οὖν ἡμᾶς ὁ πρῶτος λόγος, ὅτι θεός ἐστιν εἷς καὶ τοῦτον δεῖ σέβεσθαι μόνον: ὁ δὲ δεύτερος κελεύει μηδενὸς εἰκόνα ζῴου ποιήσαντας προσκυνεῖν: ὁ τρίτος δὲ ἐπὶ μηδενὶ φαύλῳ τὸν θεὸν ὀμνύναι: ὁ δὲ τέταρτος παρατηρεῖν τὰς ἑβδομάδας ἀναπαυομένους ἀπὸ παντὸς ἔργου:
3.181. τήν τε γὰρ σκηνὴν τριάκοντα πηχῶν οὖσαν νείμας εἰς τρία καὶ δύο μέρη πᾶσιν ἀνεὶς τοῖς ἱερεῦσιν ὥσπερ βέβηλόν τινα καὶ κοινὸν τόπον, τὴν γῆν καὶ τὴν θάλασσαν ἀποσημαίνει: καὶ γὰρ ταῦτα πᾶσίν ἐστιν ἐπιβατά. τὴν δὲ τρίτην μοῖραν μόνῳ περιέγραψε τῷ θεῷ διὰ τὸ καὶ τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀνεπίβατον εἶναι ἀνθρώποις. 3.182. ἐπί τε τῇ τραπέζῃ τοὺς δώδεκα τιθεὶς ἄρτους ἀποσημαίνει τὸν ἐνιαυτὸν εἰς τοσούτους μῆνας διῃρημένον. τὴν δὲ λυχνίαν ἐξ ἑβδομήκοντα μορίων ποιήσας συγκειμένην τὰς τῶν πλανητῶν δεκαμοιρίας ᾐνίξατο: καὶ λύχνους ὑπὲρ αὐτῆς ἑπτά, τῶν πλανητῶν τὴν φοράν: τοσοῦτοι γάρ εἰσι τὸν ἀριθμόν.' "3.183. τά τε φάρση ἐκ τεσσάρων ὑφανθέντα τὴν τῶν στοιχείων φύσιν δηλοῖ: ἥ τε γὰρ βύσσος τὴν γῆν ἀποσημαίνειν ἔοικε διὰ τὸ ἐξ αὐτῆς ἀνεῖσθαι τὸ λίνον, ἥ τε πορφύρα τὴν θάλασσαν τῷ πεφοινῖχθαι τῶν ἰχθύων τῷ αἵματι, τὸν δὲ ἀέρα βούλεται δηλοῦν ὁ ὑάκινθος, καὶ ὁ φοῖνιξ δ' ἂν εἴη τεκμήριον τοῦ πυρός." "3.184. ἀποσημαίνει δὲ καὶ ὁ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως χιτὼν τὴν γῆν λίνεος ὤν, ὁ δὲ ὑάκινθος τὸν πόλον, ἀστραπαῖς μὲν κατὰ τοὺς ῥοί̈σκους ἀπεικασμένος βρονταῖς δὲ κατὰ τὸν τῶν κωδώνων ψόφον. καὶ τὴν ἐφαπτίδα τοῦ παντὸς τὴν φύσιν ἐκ τεσσάρων δοχθεῖσαν γενέσθαι τῷ θεῷ χρυσῷ συνυφασμένην κατ' ἐπίνοιαν οἶμαι τῆς προσούσης ἅπασιν αὐγῆς." '3.185. καὶ τὸν ἐσσῆνα μέσον ὄντα τῆς ἐφαπτίδος ἐν τρόπῳ γῆς ἔταξε: καὶ γὰρ αὕτη τὸν μεσαίτατον τόπον ἔχει: ζώνῃ τε περιοδεύσας τὸν ὠκεανὸν ἀποσημαίνει: καὶ γὰρ οὗτος ἐμπεριείληφε τὰ πάντα. δηλοῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν ἥλιον καὶ τὴν σελήνην τῶν σαρδονύχων ἑκάτερος, οἷς ἐνεπόρπωσε τὸν ἀρχιερέα.' "3.186. τήν τε δωδεκάδα τῶν λίθων εἴτε τοὺς μῆνάς τις θέλοι νοεῖν, εἴτε τὸν οὕτως ἀριθμὸν τῶν ἀστέρων, ὃν ζωδιακὸν κύκλον ̔́Ελληνες καλοῦσι, τῆς κατ' ἐκεῖνο γνώμης οὐκ ἂν ἁμάρτοι: καὶ ὁ πῖλος δέ μοι δοκεῖ τὸν οὐρανὸν τεκμηριοῦν ὑακίνθινος πεποιημένος," "
3.203. ὁ μὲν οὐρανὸς καθαρὸς ἦν, ὑπὲρ δὲ τὴν σκηνὴν μόνην ἤχλυσεν οὔτε βαθεῖ πάνυ νέφει καὶ πυκνῷ περιλαβὼν αὐτήν, ὥστ' εἶναι δόξαι χειμέριον, οὔτε μὴν λεπτὸν οὕτως, ὥστε τὴν ὄψιν ἰσχύσαι τι δι' αὐτοῦ κατανοῆσαι: ἡδεῖα δὲ ἀπ' αὐτοῦ δρόσος ἔρρει καὶ θεοῦ δηλοῦσα παρουσίαν τοῖς τοῦτο καὶ βουλομένοις καὶ πεπιστευκόσι." "
14.231. Ψήφισμα Δηλίων. ἐπ' ἄρχοντος Βοιωτοῦ μηνὸς Θαργηλιῶνος εἰκοστῇ χρηματισμὸς στρατηγῶν. Μᾶρκος Πείσων πρεσβευτὴς ἐνδημῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει ἡμῶν ὁ καὶ τεταγμένος ἐπὶ τῆς στρατολογίας προσκαλεσάμενος ἡμᾶς καὶ ἱκανοὺς τῶν πολιτῶν προσέταξεν," '14.232. ἵνα εἴ τινές εἰσιν ̓Ιουδαῖοι πολῖται ̔Ρωμαίων τούτοις μηδεὶς ἐνοχλῇ περὶ στρατείας, διὰ τὸ τὸν ὕπατον Λούκιον Κορνήλιον Λέντλον δεισιδαιμονίας ἕνεκα ἀπολελυκέναι τοὺς ̓Ιουδαίους τῆς στρατείας. διὸ πείθεσθαι ἡμᾶς δεῖ τῷ στρατηγῷ. ὅμοια δὲ τούτοις καὶ Σαρδιανοὶ περὶ ἡμῶν ἐψηφίσαντο.
18.55. Πιλᾶτος δὲ ὁ τῆς ̓Ιουδαίας ἡγεμὼν στρατιὰν ἐκ Καισαρείας ἀγαγὼν καὶ μεθιδρύσας χειμαδιοῦσαν ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις ἐπὶ καταλύσει τῶν νομίμων τῶν ̓Ιουδαϊκῶν ἐφρόνησε, προτομὰς Καίσαρος, αἳ ταῖς σημαίαις προσῆσαν, εἰσαγόμενος εἰς τὴν πόλιν, εἰκόνων ποίησιν ἀπαγορεύοντος ἡμῖν τοῦ νόμου.' '. None
1.18. 4. But because almost all our constitution depends on the wisdom of Moses, our legislator, I cannot avoid saying somewhat concerning him beforehand, though I shall do it briefly; I mean, because otherwise those that read my book may wonder how it comes to pass, that my discourse, which promises an account of laws and historical facts, contains so much of philosophy.
1.18. where Melchisedec, king of the city Salem, received him. That name signifies, the righteous king: and such he was, without dispute, insomuch that, on this account, he was made the priest of God: however, they afterward called Salem Jerusalem. 1.19. He also told her, that if she disobeyed God, and went on still in her way, she should perish; but if she would return back, she should become the mother of a son who should reign over that country. These admonitions she obeyed, and returned to her master and mistress, and obtained forgiveness. A little while afterwards, she bare Ismael; which may be interpreted Heard of God, because God had heard his mother’s prayer. 1.19. The reader is therefore to know, that Moses deemed it exceeding necessary, that he who would conduct his own life well, and give laws to others, in the first place should consider the divine nature; and, upon the contemplation of God’s operations, should thereby imitate the best of all patterns, so far as it is possible for human nature to do, and to endeavor to follow after it: 1.21. He also entreated him to be at peace with him, and to make God propitious to him; and that if he thought fit to continue with him, he should have what he wanted in abundance; but that if he designed to go away, he should be honorably conducted, and have whatsoever supply he wanted when he came thither. 1.21. Now when Moses was desirous to teach this lesson to his countrymen, he did not begin the establishment of his laws after the same manner that other legislators did; I mean, upon contracts and other rights between one man and another, but by raising their minds upwards to regard God, and his creation of the world; and by persuading them, that we men are the most excellent of the creatures of God upon earth. Now when once he had brought them to submit to religion, he easily persuaded them to submit in all other things: 1.22. 4. When the lad was grown up, he married a wife, by birth an Egyptian, from whence the mother was herself derived originally. of this wife were born to Ismael twelve sons; Nabaioth, Kedar, Abdeel, Mabsam, Idumas, Masmaos, Masaos, Chodad, Theman, Jetur, Naphesus, Cadmas. 1.22. for as to other legislators, they followed fables, and by their discourses transferred the most reproachful of human vices unto the gods, and so afforded wicked men the most plausible excuses for their crimes; 1.23. Accordingly thou, my son, wilt now die, not in any common way of going out of the world, but sent to God, the Father of all men, beforehand, by thy own father, in the nature of a sacrifice. I suppose he thinks thee worthy to get clear of this world neither by disease, neither by war, nor by any other severe way, by which death usually comes upon men, 1.23. but as for our legislator, when he had once demonstrated that God was possessed of perfect virtue, he supposed that men also ought to strive after the participation of it; and on those who did not so think, and so believe, he inflicted the severest punishments. 1.24. And indeed Alexander Polyhistor gives his attestation to what I here say; who speaks thus: “Cleodemus the prophet, who was also called Malchus, who wrote a History of the Jews, in agreement with the History of Moses, their legislator, relates, that there were many sons born to Abraham by Keturah: 1.24. I exhort, therefore, my readers to examine this whole undertaking in that view; for thereby it will appear to them, that there is nothing therein disagreeable either to the majesty of God, or to his love to mankind; for all things have here a reference to the nature of the universe; while our legislator speaks some things wisely, but enigmatically, and others under a decent allegory, but still explains such things as required a direct explication plainly and expressly. 1.25. However, those that have a mind to know the reasons of every thing, may find here a very curious philosophical theory, which I now indeed shall wave the explication of; but if God afford me time for it, I will set about writing it after I have finished the present work. 1.25. She desired also that he would come and lodge with them, since the approach of the night gave him not time to proceed farther. And producing his precious ornaments for women, he said he desired to trust them to none more safely than to such as she had shown herself to be; and that he believed he might guess at the humanity of her mother and brother, that they would not be displeased, from the virtue he found in her; for he would not be burdensome, but would pay the hire for his entertainment, and spend his own money. 1.26. I shall now betake myself to the history before me, after I have first mentioned what Moses says of the creation of the world, which I find described in the sacred books after the manner following. 1.26. for when he saw that God was with Isaac, and took such great care of him, he drove him away from him. But Isaac, when he saw how envy had changed the temper of Abimelech retired to a place called the Valley, not far from Gerar: and as he was digging a well, the shepherds fell upon him, and began to fight, in order to hinder the work; and because he did not desire to contend, the shepherds seemed to get the better of him,
3.91. 5. The first commandment teaches us that there is but one God, and that we ought to worship him only. The second commands us not to make the image of any living creature to worship it. The third, that we must not swear by God in a false matter. The fourth, that we must keep the seventh day, by resting from all sorts of work.
3.181. When Moses distinguished the tabernacle into three parts, and allowed two of them to the priests, as a place accessible and common, he denoted the land and the sea, these being of general access to all; but he set apart the third division for God, because heaven is inaccessible to men. 3.182. And when he ordered twelve loaves to be set on the table, he denoted the year, as distinguished into so many months. By branching out the candlestick into seventy parts, he secretly intimated the Decani, or seventy divisions of the planets; and as to the seven lamps upon the candlesticks, they referred to the course of the planets, of which that is the number. 3.183. The veils, too, which were composed of four things, they declared the four elements; for the fine linen was proper to signify the earth, because the flax grows out of the earth; the purple signified the sea, because that color is dyed by the blood of a sea shell-fish; the blue is fit to signify the air; and the scarlet will naturally be an indication of fire. 3.184. Now the vestment of the high priest being made of linen, signified the earth; the blue denoted the sky, being like lightning in its pomegranates, and in the noise of the bells resembling thunder. And for the ephod, it showed that God had made the universe of four elements; and as for the gold interwoven, I suppose it related to the splendor by which all things are enlightened. 3.185. He also appointed the breastplate to be placed in the middle of the ephod, to resemble the earth, for that has the very middle place of the world. And the girdle which encompassed the high priest round, signified the ocean, for that goes round about and includes the universe. Each of the sardonyxes declares to us the sun and the moon; those, I mean, that were in the nature of buttons on the high priest’s shoulders. 3.186. And for the twelve stones, whether we understand by them the months, or whether we understand the like number of the signs of that circle which the Greeks call the Zodiac, we shall not be mistaken in their meaning. And for the mitre, which was of a blue color, it seems to me to mean heaven;
3.203. The sky was clear, but there was a mist over the tabernacle only, encompassing it, but not with such a very deep and thick cloud as is seen in the winter season, nor yet in so thin a one as men might be able to discern any thing through it, but from it there dropped a sweet dew, and such a one as showed the presence of God to those that desired and believed it.
14.231. 14. The decree of the Delians. “The answer of the praetors, when Beotus was archon, on the twentieth day of the month Thargeleon. While Marcus Piso the lieutet lived in our city, who was also appointed over the choice of the soldiers, he called us, and many other of the citizens, and gave order, 14.232. that if there be here any Jews who are Roman citizens, no one is to give them any disturbance about going into the army, because Cornelius Lentulus, the consul, freed the Jews from going into the army, on account of the superstition they are under;—you are therefore obliged to submit to the praetor.” And the like decree was made by the Sardians about us also.
18.55. 1. But now Pilate, the procurator of Judea, removed the army from Caesarea to Jerusalem, to take their winter quarters there, in order to abolish the Jewish laws. So he introduced Caesar’s effigies, which were upon the ensigns, and brought them into the city; whereas our law forbids us the very making of images;' '. None
29. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.128-2.131, 2.145, 2.154, 3.352, 5.213 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, funerary • Art, interpretation of symbols • Art, need for explanation • Judas the Essene, predictive art of (Josephus) • Moses, art • art, pagan • churches, art • healing and medicines, exorcism as healing art

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 934, 937, 942; Brooke et al (2008) 80, 138, 139, 146; Levine (2005) 65; Taylor (2012) 61, 76, 199

2.128. Πρός γε μὴν τὸ θεῖον εὐσεβεῖς ἰδίως: πρὶν γὰρ ἀνασχεῖν τὸν ἥλιον οὐδὲν φθέγγονται τῶν βεβήλων, πατρίους δέ τινας εἰς αὐτὸν εὐχὰς ὥσπερ ἱκετεύοντες ἀνατεῖλαι. 2.129. καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα πρὸς ἃς ἕκαστοι τέχνας ἴσασιν ὑπὸ τῶν ἐπιμελητῶν διαφίενται, καὶ μέχρι πέμπτης ὥρας ἐργασάμενοι συντόνως πάλιν εἰς ἓν συναθροίζονται χωρίον, ζωσάμενοί τε σκεπάσμασιν λινοῖς οὕτως ἀπολούονται τὸ σῶμα ψυχροῖς ὕδασιν, καὶ μετὰ ταύτην τὴν ἁγνείαν εἰς ἴδιον οἴκημα συνίασιν, ἔνθα μηδενὶ τῶν ἑτεροδόξων ἐπιτέτραπται παρελθεῖν: αὐτοί τε καθαροὶ καθάπερ εἰς ἅγιόν τι τέμενος παραγίνονται τὸ δειπνητήριον.' "2.131. προκατεύχεται δ' ὁ ἱερεὺς τῆς τροφῆς, καὶ γεύσασθαί τινα πρὶν τῆς εὐχῆς ἀθέμιτον: ἀριστοποιησάμενος δ' ἐπεύχεται πάλιν: ἀρχόμενοί τε καὶ παυόμενοι γεραίρουσι θεὸν ὡς χορηγὸν τῆς ζωῆς. ἔπειθ' ὡς ἱερὰς καταθέμενοι τὰς ἐσθῆτας πάλιν ἐπ' ἔργα μέχρι δείλης τρέπονται." "
2.145. Περὶ δὲ τὰς κρίσεις ἀκριβέστατοι καὶ δίκαιοι, καὶ δικάζουσι μὲν οὐκ ἐλάττους τῶν ἑκατὸν συνελθόντες, τὸ δ' ὁρισθὲν ὑπ' αὐτῶν ἀκίνητον. σέβας δὲ μέγα παρ' αὐτοῖς μετὰ τὸν θεὸν τοὔνομα τοῦ νομοθέτου, κἂν βλασφημήσῃ τις εἰς τοῦτον κολάζεται θανάτῳ." "
2.154. Καὶ γὰρ ἔρρωται παρ' αὐτοῖς ἥδε ἡ δόξα, φθαρτὰ μὲν εἶναι τὰ σώματα καὶ τὴν ὕλην οὐ μόνιμον αὐτῶν, τὰς δὲ ψυχὰς ἀθανάτους ἀεὶ διαμένειν, καὶ συμπλέκεσθαι μὲν ἐκ τοῦ λεπτοτάτου φοιτώσας αἰθέρος ὥσπερ εἱρκταῖς τοῖς σώμασιν ἴυγγί τινι φυσικῇ κατασπωμένας," '
3.352. ἦν δὲ καὶ περὶ κρίσεις ὀνείρων ἱκανὸς συμβαλεῖν τὰ ἀμφιβόλως ὑπὸ τοῦ θείου λεγόμενα, τῶν γε μὴν ἱερῶν βίβλων οὐκ ἠγνόει τὰς προφητείας ὡς ἂν αὐτός τε ὢν ἱερεὺς καὶ ἱερέων ἔγγονος:' "
5.213. ἐδόκει γὰρ αἰνίττεσθαι τῇ κόκκῳ μὲν τὸ πῦρ, τῇ βύσσῳ δὲ τὴν γῆν, τῇ δ' ὑακίνθῳ τὸν ἀέρα, καὶ τῇ πορφύρᾳ τὴν θάλασσαν, τῶν μὲν ἐκ τῆς χροίας ὁμοιουμένων, τῆς δὲ βύσσου καὶ τῆς πορφύρας διὰ τὴν γένεσιν, ἐπειδὴ τὴν μὲν ἀναδίδωσιν ἡ γῆ, τὴν δ' ἡ θάλασσα." '. None
2.128. 5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising. 2.129. After this every one of them are sent away by their curators, to exercise some of those arts wherein they are skilled, in which they labor with great diligence till the fifth hour. After which they assemble themselves together again into one place; and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe their bodies in cold water. And after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any of another sect to enter; while they go, after a pure manner, into the dining-room, as into a certain holy temple, 2.131. but a priest says grace before meat; and it is unlawful for anyone to taste of the food before grace be said. The same priest, when he hath dined, says grace again after meat; and when they begin, and when they end, they praise God, as he that bestows their food upon them; after which they lay aside their white garments, and betake themselves to their labors again till the evening;
2.145. 9. But in the judgments they exercise they are most accurate and just, nor do they pass sentence by the votes of a court that is fewer than a hundred. And as to what is once determined by that number, it is unalterable. What they most of all honor, after God himself, is the name of their legislator Moses, whom, if anyone blaspheme, he is punished capitally.
2.154. 11. For their doctrine is this: That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and continue forever; and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement;
3.352. Now Josephus was able to give shrewd conjectures about the interpretation of such dreams as have been ambiguously delivered by God. Moreover, he was not unacquainted with the prophecies contained in the sacred books, as being a priest himself, and of the posterity of priests:
5.213. for by the scarlet there seemed to be enigmatically signified fire, by the fine flax the earth, by the blue the air, and by the purple the sea; two of them having their colors the foundation of this resemblance; but the fine flax and the purple have their own origin for that foundation, the earth producing the one, and the sea the other.' '. None
30. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.37, 1.279, 2.75, 2.168, 2.218 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, funerary • Art, idol vs. image • Artistic Originality, Greece and Orient • Judas the Essene, predictive art of (Josephus) • Moses, art • art, pagan • catacombs, Bet Shearim, figural art • church fathers, figural art • lulav, in synagogue art

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 871, 920, 932; Brooke et al (2008) 133, 138, 175, 178; Levine (2005) 68, 481; Taylor (2012) 92

1.37. εἰκότως οὖν, μᾶλλον δὲ ἀναγκαίως, ἅτε μήτε τὸ ὑπογράφειν αὐτεξουσίου πᾶσιν ὄντος μήτε τινὸς ἐν τοῖς γραφομένοις ἐνούσης διαφωνίας, ἀλλὰ μόνον τῶν προφητῶν τὰ μὲν ἀνωτάτω καὶ παλαιότατα κατὰ τὴν ἐπίπνοιαν τὴν ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ μαθόντων, τὰ δὲ καθ' αὑτοὺς ὡς ἐγένετο σαφῶς συγγραφόντων," '
1.279. Λοιπόν μοι πρὸς αὐτὸν εἰπεῖν περὶ Μωυσέως. τοῦτον δὲ τὸν ἄνδρα θαυμαστὸν μὲν Αἰγύπτιοι καὶ θεῖον νομίζουσι, βούλονται δὲ προσποιεῖν αὐτοῖς μετὰ βλασφημίας ἀπιθάνου, λέγοντες ̔Ηλιοπολίτην εἶναι τῶν ἐκεῖθεν ἱερέων ἕνα διὰ τὴν λέπραν συνεξεληλαμένον.
2.75. ηονορεμ πραεβερε υιδεαντυρ? πορρο νοστερ λεγισλατορ, νον θυασι προπηετανς ρομανορυμ ποτεντιαμ νον ηονορανδαμ, σεδ ταμθυαμ ξαυσαμ νεθυε δεο νεθυε ηομινιβυς υτιλεμ δεσπιξιενς, ετ θυονιαμ τοτιυς ανιματι, μυλτο μαγις δει ινανιματυ προβατυρ ινφεριυς ιντερδιχιτ ιμαγινες φαβριξαρι.' "
2.168. ὁποῖος δὲ κατ' οὐσίαν ἐστὶν ἄγνωστον. ταῦτα περὶ θεοῦ φρονεῖν οἱ σοφώτατοι παρ' ̔́Ελλησιν ὅτι μὲν ἐδιδάχθησαν ἐκείνου τὰς ἀρχὰς παρασχόντος, ἐῶ νῦν λέγειν, ὅτι δ' ἐστὶ καλὰ καὶ πρέποντα τῇ τοῦ θεοῦ φύσει καὶ μεγαλειότητι, σφόδρα μεμαρτυρήκασι: καὶ γὰρ Πυθαγόρας καὶ ̓Αναξαγόρας καὶ Πλάτων οἵ τε μετ' ἐκεῖνον ἀπὸ τῆς στοᾶς φιλόσοφοι καὶ μικροῦ δεῖν ἅπαντες οὕτως" "
2.218. καὶ τοιαύτη τις ἀνακήρυξις, ἀλλ' αὐτὸς ἕκαστος αὑτῷ τὸ συνειδὸς ἔχων μαρτυροῦν πεπίστευκεν, τοῦ μὲν νομοθέτου προφητεύσαντος, τοῦ δὲ θεοῦ τὴν πίστιν ἰσχυρὰν παρεσχηκότος, ὅτι τοῖς τοὺς νόμους διαφυλάξασι κἂν εἰ δέοι θνήσκειν ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν προθύμως ἀποθανεῖν ἔδωκεν ὁ θεὸς γενέσθαι τε πάλιν καὶ βίον ἀμείνω λαβεῖν ἐκ περιτροπῆς."". None
1.37. and this is justly, or rather necessarily done, because every one is not permitted of his own accord to be a writer, nor is there any disagreement in what is written; they being only prophets that have written the original and earliest accounts of things as they learned them of God himself by inspiration; and others have written what hath happened in their own times, and that in a very distinct manner also. 8.
1.279. 31. It now remains that I debate with Manetho about Moses. Now the Egyptians acknowledge him to have been a wonderful, and a divine person; nay they would willingly lay claim to him themselves, though after a most abusive and incredible manner; and pretend that he was of Heliopolis, and one of the priests of that place, and was ejected out of it among the rest, on account of his leprosy;
2.75. But then our legislator hath forbidden us to make images, not by way of denunciation beforehand, that the Roman authority was not to be honored, but as despising a thing that was neither necessary nor useful for either God or man; and he forbade them, as we shall prove hereafter, to make these images for any part of the animal creation,
2.168. I do not now explain how these notions of God are the sentiments of the wisest among the Grecians, and how they were taught them upon the principles that he afforded them. However, they testify, with great assurance, that these notions are just, and agreeable to the nature of God, and to his majesty; for Pythagoras, and Anaxagoras, and Plato, and the Stoic philosophers that succeeded them, and almost all the rest, are of the same sentiments, and had the same notions of the nature of God;
2.218. but every good man hath his own conscience bearing witness to himself, and by virtue of our legislator’s prophetic spirit, and of the firm security God himself affords such a one, he believes that God hath made this grant to those that observe these laws, even though they be obliged readily to die for them, that they shall come into being again, and at a certain revolution of things shall receive a better life than they had enjoyed before. ''. None
31. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, idol vs. image • Art, imitation of models • Art, loss of pagan meaning for Christians and Jews • Art, religious art manufactured by Jews and Christians • art, pagan • seals, figural art

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 907; Levine (2005) 229, 478

3.4. שָׁאַל פְּרוֹקְלוֹס בֶּן פִלוֹסְפוֹס אֶת רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל בְּעַכּוֹ, שֶׁהָיָה רוֹחֵץ בַּמֶּרְחָץ שֶׁל אַפְרוֹדִיטִי, אָמַר לוֹ, כָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַתְכֶם, וְלֹא יִדְבַּק בְּיָדְךָ מְאוּמָה מִן הַחֵרֶם. מִפְּנֵי מָה אַתָּה רוֹחֵץ בַּמֶּרְחָץ שֶׁל אַפְרוֹדִיטִי. אָמַר לוֹ, אֵין מְשִׁיבִין בַּמֶּרְחָץ. וּכְשֶׁיָּצָא אָמַר לוֹ, אֲנִי לֹא בָאתִי בִגְבוּלָהּ, הִיא בָאתָה בִגְבוּלִי, אֵין אוֹמְרִים, נַעֲשֶׂה מֶרְחָץ לְאַפְרוֹדִיטִי נוֹי, אֶלָּא אוֹמְרִים, נַעֲשֶׂה אַפְרוֹדִיטִי נוֹי לַמֶּרְחָץ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אִם נוֹתְנִין לְךָ מָמוֹן הַרְבֵּה, אִי אַתָּה נִכְנָס לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה שֶׁלְּךָ עָרוֹם וּבַעַל קֶרִי וּמַשְׁתִּין בְּפָנֶיהָ, וְזוֹ עוֹמֶדֶת עַל פִּי הַבִּיב וְכָל הָעָם מַשְׁתִּינִין לְפָנֶיהָ. לֹא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא אֱלֹהֵיהֶם. אֶת שֶׁנּוֹהֵג בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם אֱלוֹהַּ, אָסוּר. וְאֶת שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם אֱלוֹהַּ, מֻתָּר:''. None
3.4. Proclos, son of a plosphos, asked Rabban Gamaliel in Acco when the latter was bathing in the bathhouse of aphrodite. He said to him, “It is written in your torah, ‘let nothing that has been proscribed stick to your hand (Deuteronomy 13:18)’; why are you bathing in the bathhouse of Aphrodite?” He replied to him, “We do not answer questions relating to torah in a bathhouse.” When he came out, he said to him, “I did not come into her domain, she has come into mine. People do not say, ‘the bath was made as an adornment for Aphrodite’; rather they say, ‘Aphrodite was made as an adornment for the bath.’ Another reason is, even if you were given a large sum of money, you would not enter the presence of your idol while you were nude or had experienced seminal emission, nor would you urinate before it. But this statue of Aphrodite stands by a sewer and all people urinate before it. In the torah it is only stated, “their gods” (Deuteronomy 12:3) what is treated as a god is prohibited, what is not treated as a deity is permitted.''. None
32. New Testament, 1 Peter, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • art • crown, in Christian art

 Found in books: Brodd and Reed (2011) 165; Harkins and Maier (2022) 161

5.4. καὶ φανερωθέντος τοῦ ἀρχιποίμενος κομιεῖσθε τὸν ἀμαράντινον τῆς δόξης στέφανον.''. None
5.4. When the chief Shepherd is revealed, you will receive the crown of glory that doesn't fade away. "". None
33. New Testament, Apocalypse, 4.6-4.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • Roman art • art, • art, Qumran • art, priests • crown, in Christian art

 Found in books: Brodd and Reed (2011) 166; Brooke et al (2008) 52; Dijkstra (2020) 136; Rubenstein(1995) 9

4.6. καὶ ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου ὡς θάλασσα ὑαλίνηὁμοία κρυστάλλῳ. καὶ ἐν μέσῳ τοῦ θρόνουκαὶκύκλῳ τοῦ θρόνου τέσσερα ζῷα γέμοντα ὀφθαλμῶνἔμπροσθεν καὶ ὄπισθεν· 4.7. καὶ τὸ ζῷοντὸ πρῶτονὅμοιονλέοντι, καὶ τὸ δεύτερονζῷον ὅμοιονμόσχῳ, καὶ τὸ τρίτονζῷον ἔχωντὸ πρόσωπονὡςἀνθρώπου, καὶ τὸ τέταρτονζῷον ὅμοιονἀετῷπετομένῳ· 4.8. καὶ τὰ τέσσερα ζῷα,ἓν καθʼ ἓναὐτῶν ἔχωνἀνὰ πτέρυγας ἕξ, κυκλόθενκαὶ ἔσωθενγέμουσιν ὀφθαλμῶν·καὶ ἀνάπαυσιν οὐκ ἔχουσιν ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτὸς λέγοντες Ἅγιος ἅγιος ἅγιος Κύριος, ὁ θεός, ὁ παντοκράτωρ, ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ὤν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος. 4.9. Καὶ ὅταν δώσουσιν τὰ ζῷα δόξαν καὶ τιμὴν καὶ εὐχαριστίαν τῷκαθημένῳ ἐπὶ τοῦ θρόνου, τῷ ζῶντι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶναςτῶν αἰώνων, 4.10. πεσοῦνται οἱ εἴκοσι τέσσαρες πρεσβύτεροι ἐνώπιον τοῦκαθημένου ἐπὶ τοῦ θρόνου,καὶ προσκυνήσουσιντῷ ζῶντι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶναςτῶν αἰώνων, καὶ βαλοῦσιν τοὺς στεφάνους αὐτῶν ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου, λέγοντες 4.11. ' '. None
4.6. Before the throne was something like a sea of glass, like a crystal. In the midst of the throne, and around the throne were four living creatures full of eyes before and behind. 4.7. The first creature was like a lion, and the second creature like a calf, and the third creature had a face like a man, and the fourth was like a flying eagle. 4.8. The four living creatures, having each one of them six wings, are full of eyes around about and within. They have no rest day and night, saying, "Holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy is the Lord God, the Almighty, who was and who is and who is to come!" 4.9. When the living creatures give glory, honor, and thanks to him who sits on the throne, to him who lives forever and ever, 4.10. the twenty-four elders fall down before him who sits on the throne, and worship him who lives forever and ever, and throw their crowns before the throne, saying, 4.11. "Worthy are you, our Lord and our God, the Holy One, to receive the glory, the honor, and the power, for you created all things, and because of your desire they existed, and were created!" ' '. None
34. New Testament, Mark, 14.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Roman art • music, liberal art of music (musica)

 Found in books: Dijkstra (2020) 121; Esler (2000) 781

14.26. Καὶ ὑμνήσαντες ἐξῆλθον εἰς τὸ Ὄρος τῶν Ἐλαιῶν.''. None
14.26. When they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives. ''. None
35. New Testament, Matthew, 26.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Roman art • art

 Found in books: Dijkstra (2020) 121; Harkins and Maier (2022) 161

26.33. ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ Πέτρος εἶπεν αὐτῷ Εἰ πάντες σκανδαλισθήσονται ἐν σοί, ἐγὼ οὐδέποτε σκανδαλισθήσομαι.''. None
26.33. But Peter answered him, "Even if all will be made to stumble because of you, I will never be made to stumble."''. None
36. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 12.10.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apelles, place among ancient artists • Lysippus, place among ancient artists • Myron, his place among ancient artists • Phidias, his place among ancient artists • Polyclitus, his place among ancient artists • Praxiteles, his place among ancient artists • Quintilian, judgment on artists • Zeuxis, place among ancient artists • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • art and architecture, Roman appreciation • artist, canonization of • artist, styles of • place among ancient artists

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013) 240, 241; Rutledge (2012) 90

12.10.9. \xa0On the other hand, Phidias is regarded as more gifted in his representation of gods station of men, and indeed for chryselephantine statues he is without a peer, as he would in truth be, even if he had produced nothing in this material beyond his Minerva at Athens and his Jupiter at Olympia in Elis, whose beauty is such that it is said to have added something even to the awe with which the god was already regarded: so perfectly did the majesty of the work give the impression of godhead. Lysippus and Praxiteles are asserted to be supreme as regards faithfulness to nature. For Demetrius is blamed for carrying realism too far, and is less concerned about the beauty than the truth of his work.''. None
37. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 12.10.3-12.10.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apelles (artist) • Apelles, place among ancient artists • Lysippus, place among ancient artists • Myron, his place among ancient artists • Phidias, his place among ancient artists • Polyclitus, his place among ancient artists • Praxiteles, his place among ancient artists • Quintilian, judgment on artists • Zeuxis, place among ancient artists • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica • artist, canonization of • artist, styles of • offering, art work as • place among ancient artists

 Found in books: Elsner (2007) 42, 183, 187; Rutledge (2012) 90

12.10.3. \xa0The first great painters, whose works deserve inspection for something more than their mere antiquity, are said to have been Polygnotus and Aglaophon, whose simple colouring has still such enthusiastic admirers that they prefer these almost primitive works, which may be regarded as the first foundations of the art that was to be, over the works of the greatest of their successors, their motive being, in my opinion, an ostentatious desire to seem persons of superior taste. 12.10.4. \xa0Later Zeuxis and Parrhasius contributed much to the progress of painting. These artists were separated by no great distance of time, since both flourished about the period of the Peloponnesian war; for example, Xenophon has preserved a conversation between Socrates and Parrhasius. The first-mentioned seems to have discovered the method of representing light and shade, while the latter is said to have devoted special attention to the treatment of line. 12.10.5. \xa0For Zeuxis emphasised the limbs of the human body, thinking thereby to add dignity and grandeur to his style: it is generally supposed that in this he followed the example of Homer, who likes to represent even his female characters as being of heroic mould. Parrhasius, on the other hand, was so fine a draughtsman that he has been styled the law-giver of his art, on the ground that all other artists take his representations of gods and heroes as models, as though no other course were possible. 12.10.6. \xa0It was, however, from about the period of the reign of Philip down to that of the successors of Alexander that painting flourished more especially, although the different artists are distinguished for different excellences. Proto­genes, for example, was renowned for accuracy, Pamphilus and Melanthius for soundness of taste, Antiphilus for facility, Theon of Samos for his depiction of imaginary scenes, known as Ï\x86ανÏ\x84αÏ\x83ίαι, and Apelles for genius and grace, in the latter of which qualities he took especial pride. Euphranor, on the other hand, was admired on the ground that, while he ranked with the most eminent masters of other arts, he at the same time achieved a marvellous skill in the arts of sculpture and painting.' "12.10.7. \xa0The same differences exist between sculptors. The art of Callon and Hegesias is somewhat rude and recalls the Etruscans, but the work of Calamis has already begun to be less stiff, while Myron's statues show a greater form than had been achieved by the artists just mentioned. Polyclitus surpassed all others for care and grace, but although the majority of critics account him as the greatest of sculptors, to avoid making him faultless they express the opinion that his work is lacking in grandeur." '12.10.8. \xa0For while he gave the human form an ideal grace, he is thought to have been less successful in representing the dignity of the gods. He is further alleged to have shrunken from representing persons of maturer years, and to have ventured on nothing more difficult than a smooth and beardless face. But the qualities lacking in Polyclitus are allowed to have been possessed by Phidias and Alcamenes. 12.10.9. \xa0On the other hand, Phidias is regarded as more gifted in his representation of gods station of men, and indeed for chryselephantine statues he is without a peer, as he would in truth be, even if he had produced nothing in this material beyond his Minerva at Athens and his Jupiter at Olympia in Elis, whose beauty is such that it is said to have added something even to the awe with which the god was already regarded: so perfectly did the majesty of the work give the impression of godhead. Lysippus and Praxiteles are asserted to be supreme as regards faithfulness to nature. For Demetrius is blamed for carrying realism too far, and is less concerned about the beauty than the truth of his work.''. None
38. Tacitus, Annals, 15.37 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, interpretation of symbols • Artist, works of art

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 899; Lampe (2003) 62

15.37. Ipse quo fidem adquireret nihil usquam perinde laetum sibi, publicis locis struere convivia totaque urbe quasi domo uti. et celeberrimae luxu famaque epulae fuere quas a Tigellino paratas ut exemplum referam, ne saepius eadem prodigentia narranda sit. igitur in stagno Agrippae fabricatus est ratem cui superpositum convivium navium aliarum tractu moveretur. naves auro et ebore distinctae, remiges- que exoleti per aetates et scientiam libidinum componebantur. volucris et feras diversis e terris et animalia maris Oceano abusque petiverat. crepidinibus stagni lupanaria adstabant inlustribus feminis completa et contra scorta visebantur nudis corporibus. iam gestus motusque obsceni; et postquam tenebrae incedebant, quantum iuxta nemoris et circumiecta tecta consonare cantu et luminibus clarescere. ipse per licita atque inlicita foedatus nihil flagitii reliquerat quo corruptior ageret, nisi paucos post dies uni ex illo contaminatorum grege (nomen Pythagorae fuit) in modum sollemnium coniugiorum denupsisset. inditum imperatori flammeum, missi auspices, dos et genialis torus et faces nuptiales, cuncta denique spectata quae etiam in femina nox operit.''. None
15.37. \xa0He himself, to create the impression that no place gave him equal pleasure with Rome, began to serve banquets in the public places and to treat the entire city as his palace. In point of extravagance and notoriety, the most celebrated of the feasts was that arranged by Tigellinus; which I\xa0shall describe as a type, instead of narrating time and again the monotonous tale of prodigality. He constructed, then, a raft on the Pool of Agrippa, and superimposed a banquet, to be set in motion by other craft acting as tugs. The vessels were gay with gold and ivory, and the oarsmen were catamites marshalled according to their ages and their libidinous attainments. He had collected birds and wild beasts from the ends of the earth, and marine animals from the ocean itself. On the quays of the lake stood brothels, filled with women of high rank; and, opposite, naked harlots met the view. First came obscene gestures and dances; then, as darkness advanced, the whole of the neighbouring grove, together with the dwelling-houses around, began to echo with song and to glitter with lights. Nero himself, defiled by every natural and unnatural lust had left no abomination in reserve with which to crown his vicious existence; except that, a\xa0few days later, he became, with the full rites of legitimate marriage, the wife of one of that herd of degenerates, who bore the name of Pythagoras. The veil was drawn over the imperial head, witnesses were despatched to the scene; the dowry, the couch of wedded love, the nuptial torches, were there: everything, in fine, which night enshrouds even if a woman is the bride, was left open to the view. <''. None
39. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • technitai (Artists of Dionysus) • young womens rituals, in Statius Achilleid, female artistic voice versus epic male voice

 Found in books: Csapo (2022) 118; Panoussi(2019) 261

40. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, idol vs. image • Art, imitation of models • blessings, figural art • seals, figural art

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 912, 920, 937; Levine (2005) 226, 478

41. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, idol vs. image • blessings, figural art • seals, figural art

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 920; Levine (2005) 226

42. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Artist, works of art • Vipsanius Agrippa, M., on public art • connoisseurship, art historical

 Found in books: Lampe (2003) 62; Rojas(2019) 164; Rutledge (2012) 58

43. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Artistic metaphor, for training in virtue • Moses, art

 Found in books: Brooke et al (2008) 180; Gray (2021) 1

44. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Artist, works of art • Hadrian, as artist • Nero, artistic aspirations • Petronius, and the decline of art • Pliny the Elder, on decline of art • Vitruvius, on decline of art • art expert, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art history, Petronius’ satire of • liberal arts or disciplines, listed or enumerated

 Found in books: Elsner (2007) 188, 192; Lampe (2003) 137; Pollmann and Vessey (2007) 158; Rutledge (2012) 84

45. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Alexander the Great, repatriates Greek art from Persia • Apelles (artist) • Apelles, place among ancient artists • Art • Art, imitation of models • Art, interpretation of symbols • Art, need for explanation • Artist, works of art • Athenaeus, on eroticism in art • Epigonos, artist • Greek, art • Hadrian, as artist • Lysippus, place among ancient artists • Mercury/Hermes, and Cupid in art • Myron, his place among ancient artists • Nero, artistic aspirations • Nikeratos, artist • Nile, subject matter of art • Petronius, and the decline of art • Phidias, his place among ancient artists • Phyromachos, artist • Pliny the Elder, on decline of art • Pliny the Elder, on ignorance of art • Pliny the Elder, on public art • Pliny the Younger, on artists • Polyclitus, his place among ancient artists • Porcius Cato the Elder, M., on Greek art and culture • Praxiteles, his place among ancient artists • Quintilian, judgment on artists • Tullius Cicero, M., on artists • Valerius Maximus, and eroticism in art • Verres, C., appropriates art works in Syracuse • Vipsanius Agrippa, M., on public art • Vitruvius, on decline of art • Zeuxis, place among ancient artists • art • art expert, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art history, Petronius’ satire of • art, Roman • artist • artist, as critics • artist, canonization of • artist, styles of • artist, treatises by • artists and gods • eloquence, art of • liberal arts or disciplines, contrasted or combined with the Bible, biblical culture • liberal arts or disciplines, listed or enumerated • offering, art work as • place among ancient artists • place among ancient artists, his realism • style art history, and rhetoric

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 905; Borg (2008) 106, 111, 114, 299; Elsner (2007) 42, 64, 65, 182, 183, 191, 192, 193, 293; Lampe (2003) 137, 179; Manolaraki (2012) 130; Marek (2019) 244; Miller and Clay (2019) 151; Pandey (2018) 99; Pollmann and Vessey (2007) 143; Rutledge (2012) 31, 32, 33, 37, 38, 43, 49, 58, 83, 84, 90, 99, 100, 104, 113, 226

46. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, idol vs. image • Greeks, and Italian art

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 924; Parkins and Smith (1998) 37

47. Lucian, Essays In Portraiture, 6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Amazons, in art • nudity, art

 Found in books: Hubbard (2014) 35; Sweeney (2013) 140

6. Ly. Well, look; she is at work already. Observe her procedure. She begins with our Cnidian importation, from which she takes only the head; with the rest she is not concerned, as the statue is nude. The hair, the forehead, the exquisite eyebrows, she will keep as Praxiteles has rendered them; the eyes, too, those soft, yet bright glancing eyes, she leaves unaltered. But the cheeks and the front of the face are taken from the ‘Garden’ Goddess; and so are the lines of the hands, the shapely wrists, the delicately tapering fingers. Phidias and the Lemnian Athene will give the outline of the face, and the well proportioned nose, and lend new softness to the cheeks; and the same artist may shape her neck and closed lips, to resemble those of his Amazon. Calamis adorns her with Sosandra’s modesty, Sosandra’s grave half smile; the decent seemly dress is Sosandra’s too, save that the head must not be veiled. For her stature, let it be that ofCnidian Aphrodite; once more we have recourse to Praxiteles.— What think you, Polystratus? Is it a lovely portrait?''. None
48. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 7.18.9, 9.39.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Incubation (Greek), ram skins in reliefs an artistic convention(?) • art discourse, art-historical • art discourse, ritualcentered • ritual, as focus of art discourse • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), at Rome

 Found in books: Csapo (2022) 119; Elsner (2007) 35; Renberg (2017) 287

7.18.9. ὡσαύτως δὲ καὶ ὅσα ἄλλα ἀγάλματα ἔκ τε Αἰτωλίας καὶ παρὰ Ἀκαρνάνων, τὰ μὲν πολλὰ ἐς τὴν Νικόπολιν κομισθῆναι, Πατρεῦσι δὲ ὁ Αὔγουστος ἄλλα τε τῶν ἐκ Καλυδῶνος λαφύρων καὶ δὴ καὶ τῆς Λαφρίας ἔδωκε τὸ ἄγαλμα, ὃ δὴ καὶ ἐς ἐμὲ ἔτι ἐν τῇ ἀκροπόλει τῇ Πατρέων εἶχε τιμάς. γενέσθαι δὲ ἐπίκλησιν τῇ θεῷ Λαφρίαν ἀπὸ ἀνδρὸς Φωκέως φασί· Λάφριον γὰρ τὸν Κασταλίου τοῦ Δελφοῦ Καλυδωνίοις ἱδρύσασθαι τὸ ἄγαλμα τῆς Ἀρτέμιδος τὸ ἀρχαῖον, οἱ δὲ τῆς Ἀρτέμιδος τὸ μήνιμα τὸ
9.39.6. καθʼ ἑκάστην δὲ τῶν θυσιῶν ἀνὴρ μάντις παρὼν ἐς τοῦ ἱερείου τὰ σπλάγχνα ἐνορᾷ, ἐνιδὼν δὲ προθεσπίζει τῷ κατιόντι εἰ δὴ αὐτὸν εὐμενὴς ὁ Τροφώνιος καὶ ἵλεως δέξεται. τῶν μὲν δὴ ἄλλων ἱερείων τὰ σπλάγχνα οὐχ ὁμοίως δηλοῖ τοῦ Τροφωνίου τὴν γνώμην· ἐν δὲ νυκτὶ ᾗ κάτεισιν ἕκαστος, ἐν ταύτῃ κριὸν θύουσιν ἐς βόθρον, ἐπικαλούμενοι τὸν Ἀγαμήδην. θυμάτων δὲ τῶν πρότερον πεφηνότων αἰσίων λόγος ἐστὶν οὐδείς, εἰ μὴ καὶ τοῦδε τοῦ κριοῦ τὰ σπλάγχνα τὸ αὐτὸ θέλοι λέγειν· ὁμολογούντων δὲ καὶ τούτων, τότε ἕκαστος ἤδη κάτεισιν εὔελπις, κάτεισι δὲ οὕτω.''. None
7.18.9. Most of the images out of Aetolia and from Acaria were brought by Augustus' orders to Nicopolis, but to Patrae he gave, with other spoils from Calydon, the image of Laphria, which even in my time was still worshipped on the acropolis of Patrae . It is said that the goddess was surnamed Laphria after a man of Phocis, because the ancient image of Artemis was set up at Calydon by Laphrius, the son of Castalius, the son of Delphus." '
9.39.6. At each sacrifice a diviner is present, who looks into the entrails of the victim, and after an inspection prophesies to the person descending whether Trophonius will give him a kind and gracious reception. The entrails of the other victims do not declare the mind of Trophonius so much as a ram, which each inquirer sacrifices over a pit on the night he descends, calling upon Agamedes. Even though the previous sacrifices have appeared propitious, no account is taken of them unless the entrails of this ram indicate the same; but if they agree, then the inquirer descends in good hope. The procedure of the descent is this.'". None
49. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 2.22, 4.7, 4.28, 6.4, 6.19 (2nd cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apollonius of Tyana, views on religious art • Art • Art theory • Art, funerary • Art, idol vs. image • Art, imitation of models • Art, interpretation of symbols • Art, loss of pagan meaning for Christians and Jews • Art, need for explanation • Art, religious art manufactured by Jews and Christians • Greek, art • Nile, subject matter of art • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • art and architecture, Roman appreciation • art discourse, art-historical • art discourse, ritualcentered • ritual, as focus of art discourse

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 895, 905, 909, 935; Demoen and Praet (2009) 147, 150, 154, 155; Elsner (2007) 37; Jenkyns (2013) 240; Manolaraki (2012) 293, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306; Rutledge (2012) 31

2.22. ὃν δὲ διέτριβεν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ χρόνον, πολὺς δὲ οὗτος ἐγένετο, ἔστ' ἂν ἀγγελθῇ τῷ βασιλεῖ ξένους ἥκειν, “ὦ Δάμι” ἔφη ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος, “ἔστι τι γραφική;” “εἴ γε” εἶπε “καὶ ἀλήθεια.” “πράττει δὲ τί ἡ τέχνη αὕτη;” “τὰ χρώματα” ἔφη “ξυγκεράννυσιν, ὁπόσα ἐστί, τὰ κυανᾶ τοῖς βατραχείοις καὶ τὰ λευκὰ τοῖς μέλασι καὶ τὰ πυρσὰ τοῖς ὠχροῖς.” “ταυτὶ δὲ” ἦ δ' ὃς “ὑπὲρ τίνος μίγνυσιν; οὐ γὰρ ὑπὲρ μόνου τοῦ ἄνθους, ὥσπερ αἱ κήριναι.” “ὑπὲρ μιμήσεως” ἔφη “καὶ τοῦ κύνα τε ἐξεικάσαι καὶ ἵππον καὶ ἄνθρωπον καὶ ναῦν καὶ ὁπόσα ὁρᾷ ὁ ἥλιος: ἤδη δὲ καὶ τὸν ἥλιον αὐτὸν ἐξεικάζει τοτὲ μὲν ἐπὶ τεττάρων ἵππων, οἷος ἐνταῦθα λέγεται φαίνεσθαι, τοτὲ δ' αὖ καὶ διαπυρσεύοντα τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, ἐπειδὰν αἰθέρα ὑπογράφῃ καὶ θεῶν οἶκον.” “μίμησις οὖν ἡ γραφική, ὦ Δάμι;” “τί δὲ ἄλλο;” εἶπεν “εἰ γὰρ μὴ τοῦτο πράττοι, γελοία δόξει χρώματα ποιοῦσα εὐήθως.” “τὰ δ' ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ” ἔφη “βλεπόμενα, ἐπειδὰν αἱ νεφέλαι διασπασθῶσιν ἀπ' ἀλλήλων, τοὺς κενταύρους καὶ τραγελάφους καὶ, νὴ Δί', οἱ λύκοι τε καὶ οἱ ἵπποι, τί φήσεις; ἆρ' οὐ μιμητικῆς εἶναι ἔργα;” “ἔοικεν,” ἔφη. “ζωγράφος οὖν ὁ θεός, ὦ Δάμι, καὶ καταλιπὼν τὸ πτηνὸν ἅρμα, ἐφ' οὗ πορεύεται διακοσμῶν τὰ θεῖά τε καὶ ἀνθρώπεια, κάθηται τότε ἀθύρων τε καὶ γράφων ταῦτα, ὥσπερ οἱ παῖδες ἐν τῇ ψάμμῳ;” ἠρυθρίασεν ὁ Δάμις ἐς οὕτως ἄτοπον ἐκπεσεῖν δόξαντος τοῦ λόγου. οὐχ ὑπεριδὼν οὖν αὐτὸν ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος, οὐδὲ γὰρ πικρὸς πρὸς τὰς ἐλέγξεις ἦν, “ἀλλὰ μὴ τοῦτο” ἔφη “βούλει λέγειν, ὦ Δάμι, τὸ ταῦτα μὲν ἄσημά τε καὶ ὡς ἔτυχε διὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ φέρεσθαι τόγε ἐπὶ τῷ θεῷ, ἡμᾶς δὲ φύσει τὸ μιμητικὸν ἔχοντας ἀναρρυθμίζειν τε αὐτὰ καὶ ποιεῖν;” “μᾶλλον” ἔφη “τοῦτο ἡγώμεθα, ὦ ̓Απολλώνιε, πιθανώτερον γὰρ καὶ πολλῷ βέλτιον.” “διττὴ ἄρα ἡ μιμητική, ὦ Δάμι, καὶ τὴν μὲν ἡγώμεθα οἵαν τῇ χειρὶ ἀπομιμεῖσθαι καὶ τῷ νῷ, γραφικὴν δὲ εἶναι ταύτην, τὴν δ' αὖ μόνῳ τῷ νῷ εἰκάζειν.” “οὐ διττήν,” ἔφη ὁ Δάμις “ἀλλὰ τὴν μὲν τελεωτέραν ἡγεῖσθαι προσήκει γραφικήν γε οὖσαν, ἣ δύναται καὶ τῷ νῷ καὶ τῇ χειρὶ ἐξεικάσαι, τὴν δὲ ἑτέραν ἐκείνης μόριον, ἐπειδὴ ξυνίησι μὲν καὶ μιμεῖται τῷ νῷ καὶ μὴ γραφικός τις ὤν, τῇ χειρὶ δὲ οὐκ ἂν ἐς τὸ γράφειν αὐτὰ χρήσαιτο.” “ἆρα,” ἔφη “ὦ Δάμι, πεπηρωμένος τὴν χεῖρα ὑπὸ πληγῆς τινος ἢ νόσου;” “μὰ Δί'” εἶπεν “ἀλλ' ὑπὸ τοῦ μήτε γραφίδος τινὸς ἧφθαι, μήτε ὀργάνου τινὸς ἢ χρώματος, ἀλλ' ἀμαθῶς ἔχειν τοῦ γράφειν.” “οὐκοῦν,” ἔφη “ὦ Δάμι, ἄμφω ὁμολογοῦμεν μιμητικὴν μὲν ἐκ φύσεως τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ἥκειν, τὴν γραφικὴν δὲ ἐκ τέχνης. τουτὶ δ' ἂν καὶ περὶ τὴν πλαστικὴν φαίνοιτο. τὴν δὲ δὴ ζωγραφίαν αὐτὴν οὔ μοι δοκεῖς μόνον τὴν διὰ τῶν χρωμάτων ἡγεῖσθαι, καὶ γὰρ ἓν χρῶμα ἐς αὐτὴν ἤρκεσε τοῖς γε ἀρχαιοτέροις τῶν γραφέων καὶ προϊοῦσα τεττάρων εἶτα πλειόνων ἥψατο, ἀλλὰ καὶ γραμμὴν καὶ τὸ ἄνευ χρώματος, ὃ δὴ σκιᾶς τε ξύγκειται καὶ φωτός, ζωγραφίαν προσήκει καλεῖν: καὶ γὰρ ἐν αὐτοῖς ὁμοιότης τε ὁρᾶται εἶδός τε καὶ νοῦς καὶ αἰδὼς καὶ θρασύτης, καίτοι χηρεύει χρωμάτων ταῦτα, καὶ οὔτε αἷμα ἐνσημαίνει οὔτε κόμης τινὸς ἢ ὑπήνης ἄνθος, ἀλλὰ μονοτρόπως ξυντιθέμενα τῷ τε ξανθῷ ἀνθρώπῳ ἔοικε καὶ τῷ λευκῷ, κἂν τούτων τινὰ τῶν ̓Ινδῶν λευκῇ τῇ γραμμῇ γράψωμεν, μέλας δήπου δόξει, τὸ γὰρ ὑπόσιμον τῆς ῥινὸς καὶ οἱ ὀρθοὶ βόστρυχοι καὶ ἡ περιττὴ γένυς καὶ ἡ περὶ τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς οἷον ἔκπληξις μελαίνει τὰ ὁρώμενα καὶ ̓Ινδὸν ὑπογράφει τοῖς γε μὴ ἀνοήτως ὁρῶσιν. ὅθεν εἴποιμ' ἂν καὶ τοὺς ὁρῶντας τὰ τῆς γραφικῆς ἔργα μιμητικῆς δεῖσθαι: οὐ γὰρ ἂν ἐπαινέσειέ τις τὸν γεγραμμένον ἵππον ἢ ταῦρον μὴ τὸ ζῷον ἐνθυμηθείς, ᾧ εἴκασται, οὐδ' ἂν τὸν Αἴαντά τις τὸν Τιμομάχου ἀγασθείη, ὃς δὴ ἀναγέγραπται αὐτῷ μεμηνώς, εἰ μὴ ἀναλάβοι τι ἐς τὸν νοῦν Αἴαντος εἴδωλον καὶ ὡς εἰκὸς αὐτὸν ἀπεκτονότα τὰ ἐν τῇ Τροίᾳ βουκόλια καθῆσθαι ἀπειρηκότα, βουλὴν ποιούμενον καὶ ἑαυτὸν κτεῖναι. ταυτὶ δέ, ὦ Δάμι, τὰ τοῦ Πώρου δαίδαλα μήτε χαλκευτικῆς μόνον ἀποφαινώμεθα, γεγραμμένοις γὰρ εἴκασται, μήτε γραφικῆς, ἐπειδὴ ἐχαλκεύθη, ἀλλ' ἡγώμεθα σοφίσασθαι αὐτὰ γραφικόν τε καὶ χαλκευτικὸν ἕνα ἄνδρα, οἷον δή τι παρ' ̔Ομήρῳ τὸ τοῦ ̔Ηφαίστου περὶ τὴν τοῦ ̓Αχιλλέως ἀσπίδα ἀναφαίνεται. μεστὰ γὰρ καὶ ταῦτα ὀλλύντων τε καὶ ὀλλυμένων, καὶ τὴν γῆν ᾑματῶσθαι φήσεις χαλκῆν οὖσαν.”" "
4.7. σπουδῇ δὲ ὁρῶν τοὺς Σμυρναίους ἁπάντων ἁπτομένους λόγων ἐπερρώννυε καὶ σπουδαιοτέρους ἐποίει, φρονεῖν τε ἐκέλευεν ἐφ' ἑαυτοῖς μᾶλλον ἢ τῷ τῆς πόλεως εἴδει, καὶ γάρ, εἰ καὶ καλλίστη πόλεων, ὁπόσαι ὑπὸ ἡλίῳ εἰσί, καὶ τὸ πέλαγος οἰκειοῦται, ζεφύρου τε πηγὰς ἔχει, ἀλλ' ἀνδράσιν ἐστεφανῶσθαι αὐτὴν ἥδιον ἢ στοαῖς τε καὶ γραφαῖς καὶ χρυσῷ πλείονι τοῦ ὄντος. τὰ μὲν γὰρ οἰκοδομήματα ἐπὶ ταὐτοῦ μένειν οὐδαμοῦ ὁρώμενα πλὴν ἐκείνου τοῦ μέρους τῆς γῆς, ἐν ᾧ ἐστιν, ἄνδρας δὲ ἀγαθοὺς πανταχοῦ μὲν ὁρᾶσθαι, πανταχοῦ δὲ φθέγγεσθαι, τὴν δὲ πόλιν, ἧς γεγόνασιν, ἀποφαίνειν τοσαύτην, ὅσοι περ αὐτοὶ γῆν ἐπελθεῖν δύνανται. ἔλεγε δὲ τὰς μὲν πόλεις τὰς οὕτω καλὰς ἐοικέναι τῷ τοῦ Διὸς ἀγάλματι, ὃς ἐν ̓Ολυμπίᾳ τῷ Φειδίᾳ ἐκπεποίηται, καθῆσθαι γὰρ αὐτὸ — οὕτως τῷ δημιουργῷ ἔδοξε — τοὺς δὲ ἄνδρας ἐπὶ πάντα ἥκοντας μηδὲν ἀπεοικέναι τοῦ ̔Ομηρείου Διός, ὃς ἐν πολλαῖς ἰδέαις ̔Ομήρῳ πεποίηται θαυμασιώτερον ξυγκείμενος τοῦ ἐλεφαντίνου: τὸν μὲν γὰρ ἐν γῇ φαίνεσθαι, τὸν δὲ ἐς πάντα ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ ὑπονοεῖσθαι." "
4.28. ἰδὼν δὲ ἐς τὸ ἕδος τὸ ἐν ̓Ολυμπίᾳ “χαῖρε,” εἶπεν “ἀγαθὲ Ζεῦ, σὺ γὰρ οὕτω τι ἀγαθός, ὡς καὶ σαυτοῦ κοινωνῆσαι τοῖς ἀνθρώποις.” ἐξηγήσατο δὲ καὶ τὸν χαλκοῦν Μίλωνα καὶ τὸν λόγον τοῦ περὶ αὐτὸν σχήματος. ὁ γὰρ Μίλων ἑστάναι μὲν ἐπὶ δίσκου δοκεῖ τὼ πόδε ἄμφω συμβεβηκώς, ῥόαν δὲ ξυνέχει τῇ ἀριστερᾷ, ἡ δεξιὰ δέ, ὀρθοὶ τῆς χειρὸς ἐκείνης οἱ δάκτυλοι καὶ οἷον διείροντες. οἱ μὲν δὴ κατ' ̓Ολυμπίαν τε καὶ ̓Αρκαδίαν λόγοι τὸν ἀθλητὴν ἱστοροῦσι τοῦτον ἄτρεπτον γενέσθαι καὶ μὴ ἐκβιβασθῆναί ποτε τοῦ χώρου, ἐν ᾧ ἔστη, δηλοῦσθαι δὲ τὸ μὲν ἀπρὶξ τῶν δακτύλων ἐν τῇ ξυνοχῇ τῆς ῥόας, τὸ δὲ μηδ' ἂν σχισθῆναί ποτ' ἀπ' ἀλλήλων αὐτούς, εἴ τις πρὸς ἕνα αὐτῶν ἁμιλλῷτο, τῷ τὰς διαφυὰς ἐν ὀρθοῖς τοῖς δακτύλοις εὖ ξυνηρμόσθαι, τὴν ταινίαν δέ, ἣν ἀναδεῖται, σωφροσύνης ἡγοῦνται ξύμβολον. ὁ δὲ ̓Απολλώνιος σοφῶς μὲν εἶπεν ἐπινενοῆσθαι ταῦτα, σοφώτερα δὲ εἶναι τὰ ἀληθέστερα. “ὡς δὲ γιγνώσκοιτε τὸν νοῦν τοῦ Μίλωνος, Κροτωνιᾶται τὸν ἀθλητὴν τοῦτον ἱερέα ἐστήσαντο τῆς ̔́Ηρας. τὴν μὲν δὴ μίτραν ὅ τι χρὴ νοεῖν, τί ἂν ἐξηγοίμην ἔτι, μνημονεύσας ἱερέως ἀνδρός; ἡ ῥόα δὲ μόνη φυτῶν τῇ ̔́Ηρᾳ φύεται, ὁ δὲ ὑπὸ τοῖς ποσὶ δίσκος, ἐπὶ ἀσπιδίου βεβηκὼς ὁ ἱερεὺς τῇ ̔́Ηρᾳ εὔχεται, τουτὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ δεξιὰ σημαίνει, τὸ δὲ ἔργον τῶν δακτύλων καὶ τὸ μήπω διεστὼς τῇ ἀρχαίᾳ ἀγαλματοποιίᾳ προσκείσθω.”" "
6.4. κἀκεῖνα ἀξιομνημόνευτα εὗρον τοῦ ἀνδρός: ἐρᾶν τις ἐδόκει τοῦ τῆς ̓Αφροδίτης ἕδους, ὃ ἐν Κνίδῳ γυμνὸν ἵδρυται, καὶ τὰ μὲν ἀνετίθει, τὰ δ' ἀναθήσειν ἔφασκεν ὑπὲρ τοῦ γάμου, ̓Απολλωνίῳ δὲ καὶ ἄλλως μὲν ἄτοπα ἐδόκει ταῦτα, ἐπεὶ δὲ μὴ παρῃτεῖτο ἡ Κνίδος, ἀλλ' ἐναργεστέραν ἔφασαν τὴν θεὸν δόξειν, εἰ ἐρῷτο, ἔδοξε τῷ ἀνδρὶ καθῆραι τὸ ἱερὸν τῆς ἀνοίας ταύτης, καὶ ἐρομένων τῶν Κνιδίων αὐτόν, εἴ τι βούλοιτο τῶν θυτικῶν ἢ εὐκτικῶν διορθοῦσθαι “ὀφθαλμοὺς” ἔφη “διορθώσομαι, τὰ δὲ τοῦ ἱεροῦ πάτρια ἐχέτω, ὡς ἔχει.” καλέσας οὖν τὸν θρυπτόμενον ἤρετο αὐτόν, εἰ θεοὺς νενόμικε, τοῦ δ' οὕτω νομίζειν θεοὺς φήσαντος, ὡς καὶ ἐρᾶν αὐτῶν, καὶ τῶν γάμων μνημονεύσαντος, οὓς θύσειν ἡγεῖτο, “σὲ μὲν ποιηταὶ” ἔφη “ἐπαίρουσι τοὺς ̓Αγχίσας τε καὶ τοὺς Πηλέας θεαῖς ξυζυγῆναι εἰπόντες, ἐγὼ δὲ περὶ τοῦ ἐρᾶν καὶ ἐρᾶσθαι τόδε γιγνώσκω: θεοὶ θεῶν ἄνθρωποι ἀνθρώπων θηρία θηρίων καὶ καθάπαξ ὅμοια ὁμοίων ἐρᾷ ἐπὶ τῷ ἔτυμα καὶ ξυγγενῆ τίκτειν, τὸ δὲ ἑτερογενὲς τῷ μὴ ὁμοίῳ ξυνελθὸν οὔτε ζυγὸς οὔτε ἔρως. εἰ δὲ ἐνεθυμοῦ τὰ ̓Ιξίονος, οὐδ' ἂν ἐς ἔννοιαν καθίστασο τοῦ μὴ ὁμοίων ἐρᾶν. ἀλλ' ἐκεῖνος μὲν τροχῷ εἰκασμένος δι' οὐρανοῦ κνάμπτεται, σὺ δ', εἰ μὴ ἄπει τοῦ ἱεροῦ, ἀπολεῖ ἐν ἁπάσῃ τῇ γῇ οὐδ' ἀντειπεῖν ἔχων τὸ μὴ οὐ δίκαια τοὺς θεοὺς ἐπὶ σοὶ γνῶναι.” ὧδε ἡ παροινία ἐσβέσθη καὶ ἀπῆλθεν ὁ φάσκων ἐρᾶν ὑπὲρ ξυγγνώμης θύσας." "
6.4. ὑπὸ τούτῳ ἡγεμόνι παρελθεῖν φασιν ἐς τὸ τέμενος τοῦ Μέμνονος. περὶ δὲ τοῦ Μέμνονος τάδε ἀναγράφει Δάμις: ̓Ηοῦς μὲν παῖδα γενέσθαι αὐτόν, ἀποθανεῖν δὲ οὐκ ἐν Τροίᾳ, ὅτι μηδὲ ἀφικέσθαι ἐς Τροίαν, ἀλλ' ἐν Αἰθιοπίᾳ τελευτῆσαι βασιλεύσαντα Αἰθιόπων γενεὰς πέντε. οἱ δ', ἐπειδὴ μακροβιώτατοι ἀνθρώπων εἰσίν, ὀλοφύρονται τὸν Μέμνονα ὡς κομιδῇ νέον καὶ ὅσα ἐπὶ ἀώρῳ κλαίουσι, τὸ δὲ χωρίον, ἐν ᾧ ἵδρυται, φασὶ μὲν προσεοικέναι ἀγορᾷ ἀρχαίᾳ, οἷαι τῶν ἀγορῶν ἐν πόλεσί ποτε οἰκηθείσαις λείπονται στηλῶν παρεχόμεναι τρύφη καὶ τειχῶν ἴχνη καὶ θάκους καὶ φλιὰς ἑρμῶν τε ἀγάλματα, τὰ μὲν ὑπὸ χειρῶν διεφθορότα, τὰ δὲ ὑπὸ χρόνου. τὸ δὲ ἄγαλμα τετράφθαι πρὸς ἀκτῖνα μήπω γενειάσκον, λίθου δὲ εἶναι μέλανος, ξυμβεβηκέναι δὲ τὼ πόδε ἄμφω κατὰ τὴν ἀγαλματοποιίαν τὴν ἐπὶ Δαιδάλου καὶ τὰς χεῖρας ἀπερείδειν ὀρθὰς ἐς τὸν θᾶκον, καθῆσθαι γὰρ ἐν ὁρμῇ τοῦ ὑπανίστασθαι. τὸ δὲ σχῆμα τοῦτο καὶ τὸν τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν νοῦν καὶ ὁπόσα τοῦ στόματος ὡς φθεγξομένου ᾅδουσι, τὸν μὲν ἄλλον χρόνον ἧττον θαυμάσαι φασίν, οὔπω γὰρ ἐνεργὰ φαίνεσθαι, προσβαλούσης δὲ τὸ ἄγαλμα τῆς ἀκτῖνος, τουτὶ δὲ γίγνεσθαι περὶ ἡλίου ἐπιτολάς, μὴ κατασχεῖν τὸ θαῦμα, φθέγξασθαι μὲν γὰρ παραχρῆμα τῆς ἀκτῖνος ἐλθούσης αὐτῷ ἐπὶ στόμα, φαιδροὺς δὲ ἱστάναι τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς δόξαι πρὸς τὸ φῶς, οἷα τῶν ἀνθρώπων οἱ εὐήλιοι. τότε ξυνεῖναι λέγουσιν, ὅτι τῷ ̔Ηλίῳ δοκεῖ ὑπανίστασθαι, καθάπερ οἱ τὸ κρεῖττον ὀρθοὶ θεραπεύοντες. θύσαντες οὖν ̔Ηλίῳ τε Αἰθίοπι καὶ ̓Ηῴῳ Μέμνονι, τουτὶ γὰρ ἔφραζον οἱ ἱερεῖς, τὸν μὲν ἀπὸ τοῦ αἴθειν τε καὶ θάλπειν, τὸν δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς μητρὸς ἐπονομάζοντες, ἐπορεύοντο ἐπὶ καμήλων ἐς τὰ τῶν Γυμνῶν ἤθη." "
6.19. “ἐρώτα,” ἔφασαν “ἕπεται γάρ που ἐρωτήσει λόγος.” καὶ ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος “περὶ θεῶν” εἶπεν “ὑμᾶς ἐρήσομαι πρῶτον, τί μαθόντες ἄτοπα καὶ γελοῖα θεῶν εἴδη παραδεδώκατε τοῖς δεῦρο ἀνθρώποις πλὴν ὀλίγων: ὀλίγων γάρ; πάνυ μέντοι ὀλίγων, ἃ σοφῶς καὶ θεοειδῶς ἵδρυται, τὰ λοιπὰ δ' ὑμῶν ἱερὰ ζῴων ἀλόγων καὶ ἀδόξων τιμαὶ μᾶλλον ἢ θεῶν φαίνονται.” δυσχεράνας δὲ ὁ Θεσπεσίων “τὰ δὲ παρ' ὑμῖν” εἶπεν “ἀγάλματα πῶς ἱδρῦσθαι φήσεις;” “ὥς γε” ἔφη “κάλλιστόν τε καὶ θεοφιλέστατον δημιουργεῖν θεούς.” “τὸν Δία που λέγεις” εἶπε “τὸν ἐν τῇ ̓Ολυμπίᾳ καὶ τὸ τῆς ̓Αθηνᾶς ἕδος καὶ τὸ τῆς Κνιδίας τε καὶ τὸ τῆς ̓Αργείας καὶ ὁπόσα ὧδε καλὰ καὶ μεστὰ ὥρας.” “οὐ μόνον” ἔφη “ταῦτα, ἀλλὰ καὶ καθάπαξ τὴν μὲν παρὰ τοῖς ἄλλοις ἀγαλματοποιίαν ἅπτεσθαί φημι τοῦ προσήκοντος, ὑμᾶς δὲ καταγελᾶν τοῦ θείου μᾶλλον ἢ νομίζειν αὐτό.” “οἱ Φειδίαι δὲ” εἶπε:“καὶ οἱ Πραξιτέλεις μῶν ἀνελθόντες ἐς οὐρανὸν καὶ ἀπομαξάμενοι τὰ τῶν θεῶν εἴδη τέχνην αὐτὰ ἐποιοῦντο, ἢ ἕτερόν τι ἦν, ὃ ἐφίστη αὐτοὺς τῷ πλάττειν;” “ἕτερον” ἔφη “καὶ μεστόν γε σοφίας πρᾶγμα.” “ποῖον;” εἶπεν “οὐ γὰρ ἄν τι παρὰ τὴν μίμησιν εἴποις.” “φαντασία” ἔφη “ταῦτα εἰργάσατο σοφωτέρα μιμήσεως δημιουργός: μίμησις μὲν γὰρ δημιουργήσει, ὃ εἶδεν, φαντασία δὲ καὶ ὃ μὴ εἶδεν, ὑποθήσεται γὰρ αὐτὸ πρὸς τὴν ἀναφορὰν τοῦ ὄντος, καὶ μίμησιν μὲν πολλάκις ἐκκρούει ἔκπληξις, φαντασίαν δὲ οὐδέν, χωρεῖ γὰρ ἀνέκπληκτος πρὸς ὃ αὐτὴ ὑπέθετο. δεῖ δέ που Διὸς μὲν ἐνθυμηθέντα εἶδος ὁρᾶν αὐτὸν ξὺν οὐρανῷ καὶ ὥραις καὶ ἄστροις, ὥσπερ ὁ Φειδίας τότε ὥρμησεν, ̓Αθηνᾶν δὲ δημιουργήσειν μέλλοντα στρατόπεδα ἐννοεῖν καὶ μῆτιν καὶ τέχνας καὶ ὡς Διὸς αὐτοῦ ἀνέθορεν. εἰ δὲ ἱέρακα ἢ γλαῦκα ἢ λύκον ἢ κύνα ἐργασάμενος ἐς τὰ ἱερὰ φέροις ἀντὶ ̔Ερμοῦ τε καὶ ̓Αθηνᾶς καὶ ̓Απόλλωνος, τὰ μὲν θηρία καὶ τὰ ὄρνεα ζηλωτὰ δόξει τῶν εἰκόνων, οἱ δὲ θεοὶ παραπολὺ τῆς αὑτῶν δόξης ἑστήξουσιν.” “ἔοικας” εἶπεν “ἀβασανίστως ἐξετάζειν τὰ ἡμέτερα: σοφὸν γάρ, εἴπερ τι Αἰγυπτίων, καὶ τὸ μὴ θρασύνεσθαι ἐς τὰ τῶν θεῶν εἴδη, ξυμβολικὰ δὲ αὐτὰ ποιεῖσθαι καὶ ὑπονοούμενα, καὶ γὰρ ἂν καὶ σεμνότερα οὕτω φαίνοιτο.” γελάσας οὖν ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος “ὦ ἄνθρωποι,” ἔφη “μεγάλα ὑμῖν ἀπολέλαυται τῆς Αἰγυπτίων τε καὶ Αἰθιόπων σοφίας, εἰ σεμνότερον ὑμῶν καὶ θεοειδέστερον κύων δόξει καὶ ἶβις καὶ τράγος, ταῦτα γὰρ Θεσπεσίωνος ἀκούω τοῦ σοφοῦ. σεμνὸν δὲ δὴ ἢ ἔμφοβον τί ἐν τούτοις; τοὺς γὰρ ἐπιόρκους καὶ τοὺς ἱεροσύλους καὶ τὰ βωμολόχα ἔθνη καταφρονεῖν τῶν τοιούτων ἱερῶν εἰκὸς μᾶλλον ἢ δεδιέναι αὐτά, εἰ δὲ σεμνότερα ταῦτα ὑπονοούμενα, πολλῷ σεμνότερον ἂν ἔπραττον οἱ θεοὶ κατ' Αἴγυπτον, εἰ μὴ ἵδρυτό τι αὐτῶν ἄγαλμα, ἀλλ' ἕτερον τρόπον σοφώτερόν τε καὶ ἀπορρητότερον τῇ θεολογίᾳ ἐχρῆσθε: ἦν γάρ που νεὼς μὲν αὐτοῖς ἐξοικοδομῆσαι καὶ βωμοὺς ὁρίζειν καὶ ἃ χρὴ θύειν καὶ ἃ μὴ χρὴ καὶ ὁπηνίκα καὶ ἐφ' ὅσον καὶ ὅ τι λέγοντας ἢ δρῶντας, ἄγαλμα δὲ μὴ ἐσφέρειν, ἀλλὰ τὰ εἴδη τῶν θεῶν καταλείπειν τοῖς τὰ ἱερὰ ἐσφοιτῶσιν, ἀναγράφει γάρ τι ἡ γνώμη καὶ ἀνατυποῦται δημιουργίας κρεῖττον, ὑμεῖς δὲ ἀφῄρησθε τοὺς θεοὺς καὶ τὸ ὁρᾶσθαι καλῶς καὶ τὸ ὑπονοεῖσθαι.” πρὸς ταῦτα ὁ Θεσπεσίων, “ἐγένετό τις” ἔφη “Σωκράτης ̓Αθηναῖος ἀνόητος, ὥσπερ ἡμεῖς, γέρων, ὃς τὸν κύνα καὶ τὸν χῆνα καὶ τὴν πλάτανον θεούς τε ἡγεῖτο καὶ ὤμνυ.” “οὐκ ἀνόητος,” εἶπεν “ἀλλὰ θεῖος καὶ ἀτεχνῶς σοφός, ὤμνυ γὰρ ταῦτα οὐχ' ὡς θεούς, ἀλλ' ἵνα μὴ θεοὺς ὀμνύοι.”"". None
2.22. While he was waiting in the Temple, — and it took a long time for the king to be informed that strangers had arrived, — Apollonius said: O Damis, is there such a thing as painting? Why yes, he answered, if there be any such thing as truth. And what does this art do? It mixes together, replied Damis, all the colors there are, blue with green, and white with black, and red with yellow. And for what reason, said the other, does it mix these? For it isn't merely to get a color, like dyed wax. It is, said Damis, for the sake of imitation, and to get a likeness of a dog, or a horse, or a man, or a ship, or of anything else under the sun; and what is more, you see the sun himself represented, sometimes borne upon a four horse car, as he is said to be seen here, and sometimes again traversing the heaven with his torch, in case you are depicting the ether and the home of the gods. Then, O Damis, painting is imitation? And what else could it be? said he: for if it did not effect that, it would voted to be an idle playing with colors. And, said the other, the things which are seen in heaven, whenever the clouds are torn away from one another, I mean the centaurs and stag-antelopes, yes, and the wolves too, and the horses, what have you got to say about them? Are we not to regard them as works of imitation? It would seem so, he replied. Then, Damis, God is a painter, and has left his winged chariot, upon which he travels, as he disposes of affairs human and divine, and he sits down on these occasions to amuse himself by drawing these pictures, as children make figures in the sand. Damis blushed, for he felt that his argument was reduced to such an absurdity. But Apollonius, on his side, had no wish to humiliate him, for he was not unfeeling in his refutations of people, and said: But I am sure, Damis, you did not mean that; rather that these figures flit through the heaven not only without meaning, but, so far as providence is concerned, by mere chance; while we who by nature are prone to imitation rearrange and create them in these regular figures. We may, he said, rather consider this to be the case, O Apollonius, for it is more probable, and a much sounder idea. Then, O Damis, the mimetic art is twofold, and we may regard the one kind as an employment of the hands and mind in producing imitations, and declare that this is painting, whereas the other kind consists in making likenesses with the mind alone. Not twofold, replied Damis, for we ought to regard the former as the more perfect and more complete kind, being anyhow painting and a faculty of making likenesses with the help both of mind and hand; but we must regard the other kind as a department that, since its possessor perceives and imitates with the mind, without having the delineative faculty, and would never use his hand in depicting its objects. Then, said Apollonius, you mean, Damis, that the hand may be disabled by a blow or by disease? No, he answered, but it is disabled, because it has never handled pencil nor any instrument or color, and has never learned to draw. Then, said the other, we are both of us, Damis, agreed that man owes his mimetic faculty to nature, but his power of painting to art. And the same would appear to be true of plastic art. But, methinks, you would not confine painting itself to the mere use of colors, for a single color was often found sufficient for this purpose by our older painters; and as the art advanced, it employed four, and later, yet more; but we must also concede the name of a painting to an outline drawn without any color at all, and composed merely of shadow and light. For in such designs we see a resemblance, we see form and expression, and modesty and bravery, although they are altogether devoid of color; and neither blood is represented, nor the color of a man's hair or beard; nevertheless these compositions in monochrome are likenesses of people either tawny or white, and if we drew one of these Indians with a pencil without color, yet he would be known for a negro, for his flat nose, and his stiff curling locks and prominent jaw, and a certain gleam about his eyes, would give a black look to the picture and depict an Indian to the eyes of all those who have intelligence. And for this reason I should say that those who look at works of painting and drawing require a mimetic faculty; for no one could appreciate or admire a picture of a horse or of a bull, unless he had formed an idea of the picture represented. Nor again could one admire a picture of Ajax, by the painter Timomachus, which represents him in a state of madness, unless one had conceived in one's mind first an idea or notion of Ajax, and had entertained the probability that after killing the flocks in Troy he would sit down exhausted and even meditate suicide. But these elaborate works of Porus we cannot, Damis, regard as works of brass founding alone, for they are cast in brass; so let us regard them as the chefs d'oeuvre of a man who is both painter and brass-founder at once, and as similar to the work of Hephaestus upon the shield of Achilles, as revealed in Homer. For they are crowded together in that work too men slaying and slain, and you would say that the earth was stained with gore, though it is made of brass." '
4.7. And remarking the zeal with which the people of Smyrna devoted themselves to all sorts of compositions, he encouraged them and increased their zeal, and urged them to take pride rather in themselves than in the beauty of their city; for although they had the most beautiful of cities under the sun, and although they had a friendly sea at their doors, which held the springs of the zephyr, nevertheless, it was more pleasing for the city to be crowned with men than with porticos and pictures, or even with gold in excess of what they needed. For, he said, public edifices remain where they are, and are nowhere seen except in that particular part of the earth where they exist, but good men are conspicuous everywhere, and everywhere they utter their thoughts; and so they can magnify the city more to which they belong, in proportion to the numbers in which they are able to visit any part of the earth.And he said that cities which are beautiful in the same way as Smyrna was, resemble the statue of Zeus wrought in Olympia by Phidias; for there Zeus sits, just as it pleased the artist that he should, whereas men who visit all regions of the earth may be well compared with the Homeric Zeus, who is represented by Homer under many shapes, and is a more wonderful creation than the image made of ivory; for the latter is only to be seen upon earth, but the former is an ideal presence imagined everywhere in heaven.' "
4.28. And looking at the statue set up at Olympia, he said: Hail, O thou good Zeus, for thou art so good that thou dost impart thine own nature unto mankind. And he also gave them an account of the brazen statue of Milo and explained the attitude of this figure. For this Milo is seen standing on a disk with his two feet close together, and in his left hand he grasps a pomegranate, whole of his right hand the fingers are extended and pressed together as if to pass through a chink. Now among the people of Olympia and Arcadia the story told about this athlete is, that he was so inflexible that he could never be induced to leave the spot on which he stood; and they infer the grip of the clenched fingers from the way he grasps the pomegranate, and that they could never be separated from another, however much you struggled with any one of them, because the intervals between the extended fingers are very close; and they say that the fillet with which his head is bound is a symbol of temperance and sobriety. Apollonius while admitting that this account was wisely conceived, said that the truth was still wiser. In order that you may know, said he, the meaning of the statue of Milo, the people of Croton made this athlete a priest of Hera. As to the meaning then of this mitre, I need not explain it further than by reminding you that the hero was a priest. But the pomegranate is the only fruit which is grown in honor of Hera; and the disk beneath his feet means that the priest is standing on a small shield to offer his prayer to Hera; and this is also indicated by his right hand. As for the artist's rendering the fingers and feet, between which he has left no interval, that you may ascribe to the antique style of the sculpture." "
6.4. Under his guidance, they say, they went on to the sacred enclosure of Memnon, of whom Damis gives the following account. He says that he was the son of the Dawn, and that he did not meet his death in Troy, where indeed he never went; but that he died in Ethiopia after ruling the land for five generations. But his countrymen being the longest lived of men, still mourn him as a mere youth and deplore his untimely death. But the place in which his statue is set up resembles, they tell us, an ancient market-place, such as remain in cities that were long ago inhabited, and where we come on broken stumps and fragments of columns, and find traces of walls as well as seats and jambs of doors, and images of Hermes, some destroyed by the hand of man, others by that of time. Now this statue, says Damis, was turned towards the sunrise, and was that of a youth still unbearded; and it was made of a black stone, and the two feet were joined together after the style in which statues were made in the time of Daedalus; and the arms of the figure were perpendicular to the seat pressing upon it, for though the figure was still sitting it was represented in the very act of rising up. We hear much of this attitude of the statue, and of the expression of its eyes, and of how the lips seem about to speak; but they say that they had no opportunity of admiring these effects until they saw them realized; for when the sun's rays fell upon the statue, and this happened exactly at dawn, they could not restrain their admiration; for the lips spoke immediately the sun's ray touched them, and the eyes seemed to stand out and gleam against the light as do those of men who love to bask in the sun. Then they say they understood that the figure was of one in the act of rising and making obeisance to the sun, in the way those do who worship the powers above standing erect. They accordingly offered a sacrifice to the Sun of Ethiopia and to Memnon of the Dawn, for this the priests recommended them to do, explaining that one name was derived from the words signifying to burn and be warm 1 and the other from his mother. Having done this they set out upon camels for the home of the naked philosophers." "
6.19. Ask, they said, for you know question comes first and argument follows on it. It is about the gods that I would like to ask you a question first, namely, what induced you to impart, as your tradition, to the people of this country forms of the gods that are absurd and grotesque in all but a few cases? In a few cases, do I say? I would rather say that in very few are the gods' images fashioned in a wise and god-like manner, for the mass of your shrines seem to have been erected in honor rather of irrational and ignoble animals than of gods. Thespesion, resenting these remarks, said: And your own images in Greece, how are they fashioned? In the way, he replied, in which it is best and most reverent to construct images of the gods. I suppose you allude, said the other, to the statue of Zeus in Olympia, and to the image of Athena and to that of the Cnidian goddess and to that of the Argive goddess and to other images equally beautiful and full of charm? Not only to these, replied Apollonius, but without exception I maintain, that whereas in other lands statuary has scrupulously observed decency and fitness, you rather make ridicule of the gods than really believe in them. Your artists, then, like Phidias, said the other, and like Praxiteles, went up, I suppose, to heaven and took a copy of the forms of the gods, and then reproduced these by their art or was there any other influence which presided over and guided their molding? There was, said Apollonius, and an influence pregt with wisdom and genius. What was that? said the other, for I do not think you can adduce any except imitation. Imagination, said Apollonius, wrought these works, a wiser and subtler artist by far than imitation; for imitation can only create as its handiwork what it has seen, but imagination equally what it has not seen; for it will conceive of its ideal with reference to the reality, and imitation is often baffled by terror, but imagination by nothing; for it marches undismayed to the goal which it has itself laid down. When you entertain a notion of Zeus you must, I suppose, envisage him along with heaven and seasons and stars, as Phidias in his day endeavoured to do, and if you would fashion an image of Athena you must imagine in your mind armies and cunning, and handicrafts, and how she leapt out of Zeus himself. But if you make a hawk or an owl or a wolf or a dog, and put it in your temples instead of Hermes or Athena or Apollo, your animals and your birds may be esteemed and of much price as likenesses, but the gods will be very much lowered in their dignity. I think, said the other, that you criticize our religion very superficially; for if the Egyptians have any wisdom, they show it by their deep respect and reverence in the representation of the gods, and by the circumstance that they fashion their forms as symbols of a profound inner meaning, so as to enhance their solemnity and august character. Apollonius thereon merely laughed and said: My good friends, you have indeed greatly profited by the wisdom of Egypt and Ethiopia, if your dog and your ibis and your goat seem particularly august and god-like, for this is what I learn from Thespesion the sage.But what is there that is august or awe-inspiring in these images? Is it not likely that perjurers and temple-thieves and all the rabble of low jesters will despise such holy objects rather than dread them; and if they are to be held for the hidden meanings which they convey, surely the gods in Egypt would have met with much greater reverence, if no images of them had ever been set up at all, and if you had planned your theology along other lines wiser and more mysterious. For I imagine you might have built temples for them, and have fixed the altars and laid down rules about what to sacrifice and what not, and when and on what scale, and with what liturgies and rites, without introducing any image at all, but leaving it to those who frequented the temples to imagine the images of the gods; for the mind can more or less delineate and figure them to itself better than can any artist; but you have denied to the gods the privilege of beauty both of the outer eye and of an inner suggestion. Thespesion replied and said: There was a certain Athenian, called Socrates, a foolish old man like ourselves, who thought that the dog and the goose and the plane tree were gods and used to swear by them. He was not foolish, said Apollonius, but a divine and unfeignedly wise man; for he did not swear by these objects on the understanding that they were gods, but to save himself from swearing by the gods."". None
50. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Artist, works of art • art

 Found in books: Harkins and Maier (2022) 167; Lampe (2003) 426

51. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apelles (artist) • art, Roman

 Found in books: Borg (2008) 114, 122; Elsner (2007) 293

52. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • art • art and architecture, Roman appreciation

 Found in books: Harkins and Maier (2022) 164; Jenkyns (2013) 240

53. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, as aphrodisiac • Art, idol vs. image • Art, loss of pagan meaning for Christians and Jews • Art, nudity • Art, religious art manufactured by Jews and Christians • art • art expert, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica • lover, as viewer of erotic art • nature and art, in the Greek novels • visual arts

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 908; Cueva et al. (2018a) 133; Elsner (2007) 185, 189; Pinheiro et al (2015) 116; Repath and Whitmarsh (2022) 11

54. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Athenaeus, on eroticism in art • Lucian, and erotic response to art • Valerius Maximus, and eroticism in art • drapery, artistic treatment of

 Found in books: Rutledge (2012) 113, 114; Steiner (2001) 231

55. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • art, • art, Qumran • art, priests

 Found in books: Brooke et al (2008) 30, 31; Rubenstein(1995) 247

5a. ותניא ר\' יוסי אומר מעולם לא ירדה שכינה למטה ולא עלו משה ואליהו למרום שנאמר (תהלים קטו, טז) השמים שמים לה\' והארץ נתן לבני אדם,ולא ירדה שכינה למטה והכתיב (שמות יט, כ) וירד ה\' על הר סיני למעלה מעשרה טפחים והכתיב (זכריה יד, ד) ועמדו רגליו ביום ההוא על הר הזיתים למעלה מעשרה טפחים,ולא עלו משה ואליהו למרום והכתיב (שמות יט, ג) ומשה עלה אל האלהים למטה מעשרה והכתיב (מלכים ב ב, יא) ויעל אליהו בסערה השמים למטה מעשרה והכתיב (איוב כו, ט) מאחז פני כסא פרשז עליו עננו ואמר ר\' תנחום מלמד שפירש שדי מזיו שכינתו ועננו עליו למטה מעשרה,מכל מקום מאחז פני כסא כתיב אישתרבובי אישתרבב ליה כסא עד עשרה ונקט ביה,בשלמא ארון תשעה דכתיב (שמות כה, י) ועשו ארון עצי שטים אמתים וחצי ארכו ואמה וחצי רחבו ואמה וחצי קומתו אלא כפורת טפח מנלן דתני רבי חנינא כל הכלים שעשה משה נתנה בהן תורה מדת ארכן ומדת רחבן ומדת קומתן כפורת מדת ארכה ומדת רחבה נתנה מדת קומתה לא נתנה,צא ולמד מפחות שבכלים שנאמר (שמות כה, כה) ועשית לו מסגרת טפח סביב מה להלן טפח אף כאן טפח ונילף מכלים גופייהו תפשת מרובה לא תפשת תפשת מועט תפשת,ונילף מציץ דתניא ציץ דומה כמין טס של זהב ורחב ב\' אצבעות ומוקף מאזן לאזן וכתוב עליו ב\' שיטין יו"ד ה"א מלמעלה וקדש למ"ד מלמטה וא"ר אליעזר בר\' יוסי אני ראיתיו ברומי וכתוב עליו קדש לה\' בשיטה אחת,דנין כלי מכלי ואין דנין כלי מתכשיט,ונילף מזר דאמר מר זר משהו דנין כלי מכלי ואין דנין כלי מהכשר כלי אי הכי מסגרת נמי הכשר כלי הוא מסגרתו למטה היתה,הניחא למאן דאמר מסגרתו למטה היתה אלא למאן דאמר מסגרתו למעלה היתה מאי איכא למימר האי הכשר כלי הוא,אלא דנין דבר שנתנה בו תורה מדה מדבר שנתנה בו תורה מדה ואל יוכיחו ציץ וזר שלא נתנה בהן תורה מדה כלל,רב הונא אמר מהכא (ויקרא טז, יד) על פני הכפורת קדמה ואין פנים פחות מטפח,ואימא כאפי''. None
5a. and it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: The Divine Presence never actually descended below, and Moses and Elijah never actually ascended to heaven on high, as it is stated: “The heavens are the heavens of the Lord, and the earth He gave to the children of man” (Psalms 115:16), indicating that these are two distinct domains. Apparently, from ten handbreadths upward is considered a separate domain. Consequently, any sukka that is not at least ten handbreadths high is not considered an independent domain and is unfit.,The Gemara asks: And did the Divine Presence never descend below ten handbreadths? But isn’t it written: “And God descended onto Mount Sinai” (Exodus 19:20)? rThe Gemara answers: Although God descended below, He always remained ten handbreadths above the ground. Since from ten handbreadths and above it is a separate domain, in fact, the Divine Presence never descended to the domain of this world. rThe Gemara asks: But isn’t it written: “And on that day His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives” (Zechariah 14:4)? The Gemara answers: Here, too, He will remain ten handbreadths above the ground.,The Gemara asks: And did Moses and Elijah never ascend to the heavens on high? But isn’t it written: “And Moses went up to God” (Exodus 19:3)? rThe Gemara answers: Nevertheless, he remained below ten handbreadths adjacent to the ground. rThe Gemara asks: But isn’t it written: “And Elijah went up by a whirlwind heavenward” (II Kings 2:11)? rThe Gemara answers: Here, too, it was below ten handbreadths. rThe Gemara asks: But isn’t it written: “He grasps the face of the throne, and spreads His cloud upon him” (Job 26:9)? And Rabbi Tanḥum said: This teaches that the Almighty spread of the radiance of His Divine Presence and of His cloud upon him. Apparently, Moses was in the cloud with God. rThe Gemara answers: Here, too, it was below ten handbreadths.,The Gemara asks: In any case: “He grasps the face of the throne,” is written, indicating that Moses took hold of the Throne of Glory. The Gemara rejects this: The throne was extended for him down to ten handbreadths and Moses grasped it; however, he remained below ten handbreadths. And since the Divine Presence speaks to Moses from above the Ark cover ten handbreadths above the ground, clearly a height of ten handbreadths is a distinct domain.,The Gemara wonders about the proof offered: Granted, the height of the Ark was nine handbreadths, as it is written: “And they shall make an Ark of acacia wood; two cubits and a half shall be its length, and a cubit and a half its breadth, and a cubit and a half its height” (Exodus 25:10), and one and a half cubits equal nine handbreadths. However, from where do we derive the fact that the thickness of the Ark cover was one handbreadth? The Torah never states its dimensions explicitly, as Rabbi Ḥanina taught: For all the vessels that Moses crafted for the Tabernacle, the Torah provided in their regard the dimension of their length, the dimension of their width, and the dimension of their height. However, for the Ark cover, the Torah provided the dimension of its length and the dimension of its width; but the Torah did not provide the dimension of its height.,The Gemara answers: Go out and learn from the smallest dimension mentioned in connection with any of the Tabernacle vessels, as it is stated with regard to the shewbread table: “And you shall make unto it a border of a handbreadth around” (Exodus 25:25). Just as there, the frame measures one handbreadth, so too, here, the thickness of the Ark cover measures a single handbreadth. The Gemara asks: And let us derive the thickness of the Ark cover from the vessels themselves, the smallest of which measures a cubit. The Gemara answers: If you grasped many, you did not grasp anything; if you grasped few, you grasped something. If there are two possible sources from which to derive the dimension of the Ark cover, then without conclusive proof one may not presume that the Torah intended to teach the larger dimension. Rather, the presumption is that the Torah is teaching the smaller dimension, which is included in the larger measure.,The Gemara asks: If so, let us derive the thickness of the Ark cover from the frontplate, which is even smaller than a handbreadth, as it is taught in a baraita: The frontplate is a type of plate made of gold that is two fingerbreadths wide and stretches from ear to ear. And written upon it are two lines: The letters yod, heh, vav, heh, the name of God, above; and the word kodesh, spelled kuf, dalet, shin, followed by the letter lamed, below. Together it spelled kodesh laHashem, meaning: Sacred to the Lord, with yod, heh, vav, heh written on the upper line in deference to the name of God. Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, said: I saw the frontplate in the emperor’s treasury in Rome, where it was taken together with the other Temple vessels when the Temple was destroyed, and upon it was written: Sacred to the Lord, on one line. Why not derive the thickness of the Ark cover from the frontplate and say that it was only two fingerbreadths?,The Gemara answers: One derives the dimension of a vessel from the dimension of a vessel, and one does not derive the dimension of a vessel from the dimension of an ornament. The frontplate is not one of the Tabernacle vessels but one of the ornaments of the High Priest.,The Gemara suggests: Let us derive the thickness of the Ark cover from the crown featured atop several of the Tabernacle vessels, as the Master said: This crown, with regard to which the Torah did not specify its dimensions, could be any size. The Gemara answers: One derives the dimension of a vessel from the dimension of a vessel, and one does not derive the dimension of a vessel from the dimension of the finish of a vessel that serves decorative purposes. The Gemara asks: If it is so that one does not derive the dimensions of a vessel from the dimensions of the finish of a vessel, then how can dimensions be derived from the border of the table, which is also the finish of a vessel and not an integral part of the table? The Gemara answers: The border of the table was below, between the legs of the table, and the tabletop rested upon it. As it supports the table, it is an integral part of the table and not merely decoration.,The Gemara asks: This works out well according to the one who said that its border was below the tabletop; however, according to the one who said that its border was above the tabletop, what can be said? According to that opinion, this border is indeed the finish of a vessel.,Rather, the thickness of the Ark cover must be derived from a different source. One derives the missing dimensions of an object for which the Torah provided part of its dimension, e.g., the Ark cover, for which the Torah provided the dimensions of length and width, from an object for which the Torah provided its dimension, e.g., the border of the table. And the frontplate and the crown, for which the Torah did not provide any dimension at all, and their dimensions were determined by the Sages, will not prove anything. It is certainly appropriate to derive the dimension of the thickness of the Ark cover from that which was stated clearly in the Torah.,Rav Huna said that the thickness of the Ark cover is derived from here: “Upon the face of penei the Ark cover on the east” (Leviticus 16:14), and there is no face panim of a person that measures less than one handbreadth.,The Gemara asks: And why say that the face in the verse is specifically the face of a person? Say that the Ark cover is like the face''. None
56. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, idol vs. image • Art, imitation of models • Art, loss of pagan meaning for Christians and Jews • Art, religious art manufactured by Jews and Christians • art, early Christian • art, mosaics and ivory carving • art, sculpture in the round

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 907, 911, 924; Esler (2000) 762

57. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • theurgy (hieratic art) • theurgy and hieratic art (ἱερατικὴ τέχνη‎)

 Found in books: Dillon and Timotin (2015) 15, 16, 152, 170, 171, 176, 181; d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 237

58. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Art, artistic representation • Artistic metaphor, for training in virtue • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 331; Elsner (2007) 187; Gray (2021) 209

59. Ammianus Marcellinus, History, 16.10.13-16.10.15 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Pliny the Elder, on ignorance of art • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • art and architecture, Roman appreciation • art, Roman imperial

 Found in books: Esler (2000) 35; Jenkyns (2013) 263; Rutledge (2012) 104

16.10.13. So then he entered Rome, the home of empire and of every virtue, and when he had come to the Rostra, the most renowned forum of ancient dominion, he stood amazed; and on every side on which his eyes rested he was dazzled by the array of marvellous sights. He addressed the nobles in the senate-house and the populace from the tribunal, and being welcomed to the palace with manifold attentions, he enjoyed a longed-for pleasure; and on several occasions, when holding equestrian games, he took delight in the sallies of the commons, who were neither presumptuous nor regardless of their old-time freedom, while he himself also respectfully observed the due mean. 16.10.14. For he did not (as in the case of other cities) permit the contests to be terminated at his own discretion, but left them (as the custom is) to various chances. Then, as he surveyed the sections of the city and its suburbs, lying within the summits of the seven hills, along their slopes, or on level ground, he thought that whatever first met his gaze towered above all the rest: the sanctuaries of Tarpeian Jove so far surpassing as things divine excel those of earth; the baths built up to the measure of provinces; the huge bulk of the amphitheatre, strengthened by its framework of Tiburtine stone, Travertine. to whose top human eyesight barely ascends; the Pantheon like a rounded city-district, Regio here refers to one of the regions, or districts, into which the city was divided. vaulted over in lofty beauty; and the exalted heights which rise with platforms to which one may mount, and bear the likenesses of former emperors; The columns of Trajan, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. The platform at the top was reached by a stairway within the column. the Temple of the City, The double temple of Venus and Roma, built by Hadriian and dedicated in A.D. 135 the Forum of Peace, The Forum Pacis, or Vespasiani, was begun by Vespasian in A.D. 71, after the taking of Jerusalem, and dedicated in 75. It lay behind the basilica Aemilia. the Theatre of Pompey, Built in 55 B.C. in the Campus Martius. the Oleum, A building for musical performances, erected by Domitian, probably near his Stadium. the Stadium, The Stadium of Domitian in the Campus Martius, the shape and size of which is almost exactly preserved by the modern Piazza Navona. and amongst these the other adornments of the Eternal City. 16.10.15. But when he came to the Forum of Trajan, a construction unique under the heavens, as we believe, and admirable even in the uimous opinion of the gods, he stood fast in amazement, turning his attention to the gigantic complex about him, beggaring description and never again to be imitated by mortal men. Therefore abandoning all hope of attempting anything like it, he said that he would and could copy Trajan’s steed alone, which stands in the centre of the vestibule, carrying the emperor himself.''. None
60. Augustine, On Christian Doctrine, 2.16.26, 2.18.28 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustine, survey of ‘liberal arts’ in Book • music, liberal art of music (musica)

 Found in books: Esler (2000) 780; Pollmann and Vessey (2007) 129, 130

2.16.26. 23. In the case of figurative signs, again, if ignorance of any of them should chance to bring the reader to a stand-still, their meaning is to be traced partly by the knowledge of languages, partly by the knowledge of things. The pool of Siloam, for example, where the man whose eyes our Lord had anointed with clay made out of spittle was commanded to wash, has a figurative significance, and undoubtedly conveys a secret sense; but yet if the evangelist had not interpreted that name, John 9:7 a meaning so important would lie unnoticed. And we cannot doubt that, in the same way, many Hebrew names which have not been interpreted by the writers of those books, would, if any one could interpret them, be of great value and service in solving the enigmas of Scripture. And a number of men skilled in that language have conferred no small benefit on posterity by explaining all these words without reference to their place in Scripture, and telling us what Adam means, what Eve, what Abraham, what Moses, and also the names of places, what Jerusalem signifies, or Sion, or Sinai, or Lebanon, or Jordan, and whatever other names in that language we are not acquainted with. And when these names have been investigated and explained, many figurative expressions in Scripture become clear. 24. Ignorance of things, too, renders figurative expressions obscure, as when we do not know the nature of the animals, or minerals, or plants, which are frequently referred to in Scripture by way of comparison. The fact so well known about the serpent, for example, that to protect its head it will present its whole body to its assailants - how much light it throws upon the meaning of our Lord's command, that we should be wise as serpents; Matthew 10:16 that is to say, that for the sake of our head, which is Christ, we should willingly offer our body to the persecutors, lest the Christian faith should, as it were, be destroyed in us, if to save the body we deny our God! Or again, the statement that the serpent gets rid of its old skin by squeezing itself through a narrow hole, and thus acquires new strength - how appropriately it fits in with the direction to imitate the wisdom of the serpent, and to put off the old man, as the apostle says, that we may put on the new; Ephesians 4:22 and to put it off, too, by coming through a narrow place, according to the saying of our Lord, Enter ye in at the strait gate! Matthew 7:13 As, then, knowledge of the nature of the serpent throws light upon many metaphors which Scripture is accustomed to draw from that animal, so ignorance of other animals, which are no less frequently mentioned by way of comparison, is a very great drawback to the reader. And so in regard to minerals and plants: knowledge of the carbuncle, for instance, which shines in the dark, throws light upon many of the dark places in books too, where it is used metaphorically; and ignorance of the beryl or the adamant often shuts the doors of knowledge. And the only reason why we find it easy to understand that perpetual peace is indicated by the olive branch which the dove brought with it when it returned to the ark, Genesis 8:11 is that we know both that the smooth touch of olive oil is not easily spoiled by a fluid of another kind, and that the tree itself is an evergreen. Many, again, by reason of their ignorance of hyssop, not knowing the virtue it has in cleansing the lungs, nor the power it is said to have of piercing rocks with its roots, although it is a small and insignificant plant, cannot make out why it is said, Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean. 25. Ignorance of numbers, too, prevents us from understanding things that are set down in Scripture in a figurative and mystical way. A candid mind, if I may so speak, cannot but be anxious, for example, to ascertain what is meant by the fact that Moses and Elijah, and our Lord Himself, all fasted for forty days. And except by knowledge of and reflection upon the number, the difficulty of explaining the figure involved in this action cannot be got over. For the number contains ten four times, indicating the knowledge of all things, and that knowledge interwoven with time. For both the diurnal and the annual revolutions are accomplished in periods numbering four each; the diurnal in the hours of the morning, the noontide, the evening, and the night; the annual in the spring, summer, autumn, and winter months. Now while we live in time, we must abstain and fast from all joy in time, for the sake of that eternity in which we wish to live; al though by the passage of time we are taught this very lesson of despising time and seeking eternity. Further, the number ten signifies the knowledge of the Creator and the creature, for there is a trinity in the Creator; and the number seven indicates the creature, because of the life and the body. For the life consists of three parts, whence also God is to be loved with the whole heart, the whole soul, and the whole mind; and it is very clear that in the body there are four elements of which it is made up. In this number ten, therefore, when it is placed before us in connection with time, that is, when it is taken four times we are admonished to live unstained by, and not partaking of, any delight in time, that is, to fast for forty days. of this we are admonished by the law personified in Moses, by prophecy personified in Elijah, and by our Lord Himself, who, as if receiving the witness both of the law and the prophets, appeared on the mount between the other two, while His three disciples looked on in amazement. Next, we have to inquire in the same way, how out of the number forty springs the number fifty, which in our religion has no ordinary sacredness attached to it on account of the Pentecost, and how this number taken thrice on account of the three divisions of time, before the law, under the law, and under grace, or perhaps on account of the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and the Trinity itself being added over and above, has reference to the mystery of the most Holy Church, and reaches to the number of the one hundred and fifty-three fishes which were taken after the resurrection of our Lord, when the nets were cast out on the right-hand side of the boat. John 21:11 And in the same way, many other numbers and combinations of numbers are used in the sacred writings, to convey instruction under a figurative guise, and ignorance of numbers often shuts out the reader from this instruction. 26. Not a few things, too, are closed against us and obscured by ignorance of music. One man, for example, has not unskillfully explained some metaphors from the difference between the psaltery and the harp. And it is a question which it is not out of place for learned men to discuss, whether there is any musical law that compels the psaltery of ten chords to have just so many strings; or whether, if there be no such law, the number itself is not on that very account the more to be considered as of sacred significance, either with reference to the ten commandments of the law (and if again any question is raised about that number, we can only refer it to the Creator and the creature), or with reference to the number ten itself as interpreted above. And the number of years the temple was in building, which is mentioned in the gospel John 2:20 - viz., forty-six - has a certain undefinable musical sound, and when referred to the structure of our Lord's body, in relation to which the temple was mentioned, compels many heretics to confess that our Lord put on, not a false, but a true and human body. And in several places in the Holy Scriptures we find both numbers and music mentioned with honor. " '
2.18.28. 28. But whether the fact is as Varro has related, or is not so, still we ought not to give up music because of the superstition of the heathen, if we can derive anything from it that is of use for the understanding of Holy Scripture; nor does it follow that we must busy ourselves with their theatrical trumpery because we enter upon an investigation about harps and other instruments, that may help us to lay hold upon spiritual things. For we ought not to refuse to learn letters because they say that Mercury discovered them; nor because they have dedicated temples to Justice and Virtue, and prefer to worship in the form of stones things that ought to have their place in the heart, ought we on that account to forsake justice and virtue. Nay, but let every good and true Christian understand that wherever truth may be found, it belongs to his Master; and while he recognizes and acknowledges the truth, even in their religious literature, let him reject the figments of superstition, and let him grieve over and avoid men who, when they knew God, glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools, and changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and four-footed beasts, and creeping things. Romans 1:21-23 '". None
61. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None
 Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, idol vs. image • Art, religious art manufactured by Jews and Christians • art, pagan

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 923; Levine (2005) 483

43a. הני אין צורת דרקון לא,אלא פשיטא במוצא וכדתנן המוצא כלים ועליהם צורת חמה,רישא וסיפא במוצא ומציעתא בעושה,אמר אביי אין רישא וסיפא במוצא ומציעתא בעושה,רבא אמר כולה במוצא ומציעתא רבי יהודה היא דתניא רבי יהודה מוסיף אף דמות מניקה וסר אפיס מניקה על שם חוה שמניקה כל העולם כולו סר אפיס על שם יוסף שסר ומפיס את כל העולם כולו והוא דנקיט גריוא וקא כייל והיא דנקטא בן וקא מניקה:,תנו רבנן איזהו צורת דרקון פירש רשב"א כל שיש לו ציצין בין פרקיו מחוי רבי אסי בין פרקי צואר אמר ר\' חמא ברבי חנינא הלכה כר"ש בן אלעזר,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי פעם אחת הייתי מהלך אחר ר\' אלעזר הקפר בריבי בדרך ומצא שם טבעת ועליה צורת דרקון ומצא עובד כוכבים קטן ולא אמר לו כלום מצא עובד כוכבים גדול ואמר לו בטלה ולא בטלה סטרו ובטלה,ש"מ תלת ש"מ עובד כוכבים מבטל עבודת כוכבים שלו ושל חבירו וש"מ יודע בטיב של עבודת כוכבים ומשמשיה מבטל ושאינו יודע בטיב עבודת כוכבים ומשמשיה אינו מבטל וש"מ עובד כוכבים מבטל בעל כרחו,מגדף בה רבי חנינא ולית ליה לרבי אלעזר הקפר בריבי הא דתנן המציל מן הארי ומן הדוב ומן הנמר ומן הגייס ומן הנהר ומזוטו של ים ומשלוליתו של נהר והמוצא בסרטיא ופלטיא גדולה ובכל מקום שהרבים מצוין שם הרי אלו שלו מפני שהבעלים מתייאשין מהן,אמר אביי נהי דמינה מייאש מאיסורא מי מייאש מימר אמר אי עובד כוכבים משכח לה מפלח פלח לה אי ישראל משכח לה איידי דדמיה יקרין מזבין לה לעובד כוכבים ופלח לה:,תנן התם דמות צורות לבנות היה לו לר"ג בעלייתו בטבלא בכותל שבהן מראה את ההדיוטות ואומר להן כזה ראיתם או כזה ראיתם,ומי שרי והכתיב (שמות כ, כג) לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשי המשמשים לפני,אמר אביי לא אסרה תורה אלא שמשין שאפשר לעשות כמותן,כדתניא לא יעשה אדם בית תבנית היכל אכסדרה תבנית אולם חצר תבנית עזרה שולחן תבנית שולחן מנורה תבנית מנורה אבל הוא עושה של ה\' ושל ו\' ושל ח\' ושל ז\' לא יעשה אפילו של שאר מיני מתכות,רבי יוסי בר יהודה אומר אף של עץ לא יעשה כדרך שעשו בית חשמונאי,אמרו לו משם ראיה שפודין של ברזל היו וחופין בבעץ העשירו עשאום של כסף חזרו והעשירו עשאום של זהב,ושמשין שאי אפשר לעשות כמותן מי שרי והתניא לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשי המשמשים לפני במרום,אמר אביי'43b. לא אסרה תורה אלא בדמות ד\' פנים בהדי הדדי,אלא מעתה פרצוף אדם לחודיה תשתרי אלמה תניא כל הפרצופות מותרין חוץ מפרצוף אדם,אמר רב יהודה בריה דרב יהושע מפרקיה דרבי יהושע שמיע לי לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון אותי אבל שאר שמשין שרי,ושאר שמשין מי שרי והתניא (שמות כ, כג) לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשי המשמשין לפני במרום כגון אופנים ושרפים וחיות הקדש ומלאכי השרת,אמר אביי לא אסרה תורה אלא שמשין שבמדור העליון,ושבמדור התחתון מי שרי והתניא אשר בשמים לרבות חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות ממעל לרבות מלאכי השרת,כי תניא ההיא לעובדם,אי לעובדם אפילו שילשול קטן נמי אין הכי נמי ומסיפיה דקרא נפקא דתניא אשר בארץ לרבות ימים ונהרות הרים וגבעות מתחת לרבות שילשול קטן,ועשייה גרידתא מי שרי והתניא לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשי המשמשין לפני במרום כגון חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות,שאני ר"ג דאחרים עשו לו,והא רב יהודה דאחרים עשו לו וא"ל שמואל לרב יהודה שיננא סמי עיניה דדין,התם בחותמו בולט ומשום חשדא דתניא טבעת שחותמה בולט אסור להניחה ומותר לחתום בה חותמה שוקע מותר להניחה ואסור לחתום בה,ומי חיישינן לחשדא והא בי כנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעא דאוקמי ביה אנדרטא והוו עיילי ביה אבוה דשמואל ולוי ומצלו בגויה ולא חיישי לחשדא רבים שאני,והא רבן גמליאל דיחיד הוה כיון דנשיא הוא שכיחי רבים גביה ואיבעית אימא דפרקים הואי,ואיבעית אימא להתלמד שאני דתניא (דברים יח, ט) לא תלמד לעשות אבל אתה למד להבין ולהורות:,רשב"ג אומר וכו\': איזו הן מכובדין ואיזו הן מבוזין,אמר רב מכובדין למעלה מן המים מבוזין למטה מן המים ושמואל אמר אלו ואלו מבוזין הן אלא אלו הן מכובדין שעל השירין ועל הנזמים ועל הטבעות,תניא כוותיה דשמואל מכובדין שעל השירין ועל הנזמים ועל הטבעות מבוזין שעל היורות ועל הקומקמסין ועל מחמי חמים ושעל הסדינין ועל המטפחות:,
43a. The Sages interpret this verse as referring to the heavenly constellations, which indicates that it is prohibited to form only these figures, but it is not prohibited to form a figure of a dragon.,Rather, the Gemara concludes, it is obvious that this halakha is referring to a case where one finds a vessel with the figure of a dragon, and this is as we learned in the mishna: In the case of one who finds vessels, and upon them is a figure of the sun, a figure of the moon, or a figure of a dragon, he must take them and cast them into the Dead Sea.,The Gemara asks about the lack of consistency between the clauses of Rav Sheshet’s statement: Can it be that the first clause and the last clause are referring to a case where one finds vessels with the specified figures, and the middle clause is referring to a case where one forms these figures?,Abaye said: Indeed, the first clause and the last clause are referring to cases where one finds vessels with figures, and the middle clause is referring to a case where one forms figures.,Rava said: The entire statement of Rav Sheshet is referring to a case where one finds vessels with these figures, and the middle clause is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda adds to the list of forbidden figures even a figure of a nursing woman and Sar Apis. The figure of a nursing woman is worshipped as it symbolizes Eve, who nurses the entire world. The figure of Sar Apis is worshipped as it symbolizes Joseph, who ruled over sar and appeased mefis the entire world by distributing food during the seven years of famine (see Genesis, chapter 41). But the figure of Sar Apis is forbidden only when it is holding a dry measure and measuring with it; and the figure of a nursing woman is forbidden only when she is holding a child and nursing it.,§ The Sages taught: What is a figure of a dragon? Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar explained: It is any figure that has scales between its joints. Rabbi Asi motioned with his hands to depict scales between the joints of the neck. Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar.,Rabba bar bar Ḥana says that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Once, I was following Rabbi Elazar HaKappar the Distinguished on the road, and he found a ring there, and there was a figure of a dragon on it. And he then encountered a minor gentile boy, but did not say anything to him. He then encountered an adult gentile, and said to him: Revoke the ring’s idolatrous status. But the gentile did not revoke it. Rabbi Elazar HaKappar then slapped him across his face, whereupon the gentile succumbed and revoked its idolatrous status.,The Gemara comments: Learn from this incident the following three halakhot: Learn from it that a gentile can revoke the idolatrous status of both his object of idol worship and that of another gentile. And learn from the fact that Rabbi Elazar HaKappar waited to find an adult gentile, that only one who is aware of the nature of idol worship and its accessories can revoke the idol’s status, but one who is not aware of the nature of idol worship and its accessories, such as a minor, cannot revoke the idol’s status. And finally, learn from it that a gentile can revoke the status of an idol even against his will.,Rabbi Ḥanina ridiculed this ruling and asked: But why was it necessary to have a gentile actively revoke the idolatrous status of the ring? Doesn’t Rabbi Elazar HaKappar the Distinguished maintain in accordance with that which we learned in a baraita: In the case of one who saves an object from a lion, or from a bear, or from a cheetah, or from a troop of soldiers, or from a river, or from the tide of the sea, or from the flooding of a river, or similarly one who finds an object in a main thoroughfare or in a large plaza, or for that matter, anywhere frequented by the public, in all these cases, the objects belong to him, because the owners despair of recovering them? Therefore, in the case of a lost ring with an idolatrous figure on it, its idolatrous status is automatically revoked, as its owner despairs of recovering it.,Abaye said: Granted, the owner despairs of recovering the object itself, but does he despair of its forbidden me’issura idolatrous status? The owner does not assume that the object will never be worshipped again; rather, he says to himself: If a gentile finds it, he will worship it. If a Jew finds it, since it is valuable, he will sell it to a gentile who will then worship it. Therefore, Rabbi Elazar HaKappar had to have the ring’s idolatrous status revoked.,§ We learned in a mishna there (Rosh HaShana 24a): Rabban Gamliel had diagrams of the different figures of moons drawn on a tablet that hung on the wall of his attic, which he would show to the ordinary people hahedyotot who came to testify about sighting the new moon but who were unable to adequately describe what they had seen. And he would say to them: Did you see an image like this, or did you see an image like that?,The Gemara asks: And is it permitted to form these figures? But isn’t it written: “You shall not make with Me gods of silver, or gods of gold” (Exodus 20:20), which is interpreted to mean: You shall not make figures of My attendants who serve before Me, i.e., those celestial bodies that were created to serve God, including the sun and the moon.,In answering, Abaye said: The Torah prohibited only the figures of those attendants that one can possibly reproduce something that is truly in their likeness. Since it is impossible to reproduce the sun and the moon, the prohibition does not apply to these entities.,As it is taught in a baraita: A person may not construct a house in the exact image of the Sanctuary, nor a portico in the exact image of the Entrance Hall of the Sanctuary, nor a courtyard corresponding to the Temple courtyard, nor a table corresponding to the Table in the Temple, nor a candelabrum corresponding to the Candelabrum in the Temple. But one may fashion a candelabrum of five or of six or of eight lamps. And one may not fashion a candelabrum of seven lamps even if he constructs it from other kinds of metal rather than gold, as in extenuating circumstances the Candelabrum in the Temple may be fashioned from other metals.,The baraita continues: Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: One may not fashion a candelabrum of wood either, in the manner that the kings of the Hasmonean monarchy fashioned it. When they first purified the Temple they had to fashion the Candelabrum out of wood as no other material was available. Since a wooden candelabrum is fit for the Temple, it is prohibited to fashion one of this kind for oneself.,The Rabbis said to Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda: Do you seek to cite a proof from there, i.e., from the Hasmonean era, that a candelabrum fashioned of wood is fit for the Temple? During that era the branches of the Candelabrum were fashioned from spits shappudin of iron, and they covered them with tin beva’atz. Later, when they grew richer and could afford a Candelabrum of higher-quality material, they fashioned the Candelabrum from silver. When they grew even richer, they fashioned the Candelabrum from gold. In any event, Abaye proves from this baraita that the prohibition against forming a figure applies only to items that can be reconstructed in an accurate manner. Since this is not possible in the case of the moon, Rabban Gamliel’s figures were permitted.,The Gemara asks: And is it actually permitted to fashion figures of those attendants of God concerning which it is impossible to reproduce their likeness? But isn’t it taught in a baraita that the verse: “You shall not make with Me gods of silver” (Exodus 20:20), is interpreted to mean: You shall not make figures of My attendants who serve before Me on high? Apparently, this includes the sun and the moon.,Abaye said:'43b. This does not include the sun and the moon, as the Torah prohibits the fashioning only of a figure of all four faces of the creatures of the Divine Chariot together (see Ezekiel 1:10). All other figures, which are not in the likeness of the ministering angels, are permitted.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: If that is so, let the fashioning of a figure of a human face alone be permitted. Why then is it taught in a baraita: Figures of all faces are permitted, except for the human face?,Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: I heard in a lecture of Rabbi Yehoshua that there is a different reason why one may not fashion a figure of a human face; the verse states: “You shall not make with Me iti (Exodus 20:20). This can be read as: You shall not make Me oti. Since the human being was created in the image of God (see Genesis 1:27), it is prohibited to fashion an image of a human being. But fashioning figures of other attendants of God is permitted.,The Gemara asks: And is it permitted to fashion figures of other attendants of God? But isn’t it taught in another baraita that the verse: “You shall not make with Me gods of silver” (Exodus 20:20), is interpreted to mean that you shall not make figures of My attendants who serve before Me on high, for example, ofanim, and seraphim, and the sacred ḥayyot, and the ministering angels?,Abaye said: The Torah prohibits fashioning figures of only those attendants that are in the upper heaven, i.e., the supreme angels in the highest firmament, but it does not prohibit fashioning the celestial bodies, e.g., the sun and the moon, despite the fact that they too are located in heaven.,The Gemara asks: And is it permitted to fashion figures of those bodies that are in the lower heaven? But isn’t it taught in a baraita with regard to the verse: “You shall not make for yourself any graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth” (Exodus 20:4): The phrase “that is in heaven” serves to include the sun, and the moon, the stars, and the constellations. The term “above” serves to include the ministering angels. Apparently, it is prohibited to fashion a figure even of the celestial bodies that are in the lower heaven.,The Gemara answers: When that baraita is taught, it is in reference to the prohibition against worshipping them. There is no prohibition against forming a figure in their likeness.,The Gemara asks: If that baraita is referring to the prohibition against worshipping them, then why does it mention only celestial bodies? It is prohibited to worship even a tiny worm. The Gemara answers: Yes, it is indeed so; and this prohibition is derived from the latter clause of that verse, as it is taught in a baraita: “That is in the earth” serves to include seas, and rivers, mountains, and hills. The word “beneath” serves to include a tiny worm.,The Gemara asks: And is the mere fashioning of figures of the celestial bodies permitted? But isn’t it taught in another baraita that the verse: “You shall not make with Me gods of silver” (Exodus 20:20), is interpreted to mean that you shall not make figures of My attendants who serve before Me on high, for example: The sun, and the moon, the stars, and the constellations. This is proof that it is prohibited to fashion figures of the sun and the moon. Consequently, the solution proposed by Abaye is rejected, leaving the difficulty of Rabban Gamliel’s diagram unresolved.,The Gemara proposes an alternative resolution: The case of Rabban Gamliel is different, as others, i.e., gentiles, fashioned those figures for him, and it is prohibited for a Jew only to fashion such figures; there is no prohibition against having them in one’s possession.,The Gemara asks: But there is the case of Rav Yehuda, where others fashioned for him a seal with a figure of a person on it, and Shmuel said to Rav Yehuda, who was his student: Sharp-witted one shina, destroy this one’s eyes, i.e., disfigure it, as it is prohibited even to have a figure of a human being in one’s possession.,The Gemara answers: There, in the case of Rav Yehuda, his was a protruding seal, i.e., the figure projected from the ring, and Shmuel prohibited it due to the potential suspicion that he had an object of idol worship in his possession. As it is taught in a baraita: In the case of a ring whose seal protrudes, it is prohibited to place it on one’s finger due to suspicion of idol worship, but it is permitted to seal objects with it. In this case, the act of sealing forms a figure that is sunken below the surface of the object upon which the seal was impressed, which is not prohibited. If its seal is sunken, it is permitted to place it on one’s finger, but it is prohibited to seal objects with it, as that forms a protruding figure.,The Gemara asks: And are we concerned about arousing suspicion due to the use of a human figure? But what about that synagogue that had been destroyed in Eretz Yisrael and was reestablished in Neharde’a, and they erected a statue of the king in it? And nevertheless, Shmuel’s father and Levi would enter and pray in it, and they were not concerned about arousing suspicion. The Gemara answers: A public institution is different; the public is not suspected of having idolatrous intentions. Rather, it is assumed that the statue is there exclusively for ornamental purposes.,The Gemara asks: But wasn’t Rabban Gamliel an individual? According to this reasoning, his figures of the moon should have been forbidden as they would have aroused suspicion. The Gemara answers: Since he was the Nasi, the head of the Sanhedrin, members of the public would often be found with him, and therefore there was no room for suspicion. And if you wish, say there is an alternative answer, namely, that these figures were not whole; rather, they were formed from pieces of figures that had to be assembled. Only complete figures are forbidden.,And if you wish, say there is yet another answer: Fashioning figures in order to teach oneself is different, as it is taught in a baraita with regard to the verse: “You shall not learn to do like the abominations of those nations” (Deuteronomy 18:9): But you may learn in order to understand the matter yourself and teach it to others. In other words, it is permitted to perform certain acts for the sake of Torah study that would otherwise be prohibited.,§ The mishna (42b) teaches that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Those figures that are upon respectable vessels are forbidden. Those that are upon disgraceful vessels are permitted. The Gemara asks: Which vessels are considered respectable and which are considered disgraceful?,Rav says: These terms do not represent different types of vessels, but rather the location of the figure upon the vessel. A respectable location for an idolatrous figure is on the side of the vessel above the level of the water or food contents; a disgraceful location is below the water level. And Shmuel says: Both these and those locations on eating utensils are disgraceful. Rather, these are respectable locations: Upon bracelets, or upon nose rings, or upon rings.,The Gemara comments: It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel (Tosefta 5:1): Respectable locations for idolatrous figures are upon bracelets, or upon nose rings, or upon rings. Disgraceful locations are upon large pots, or upon small kettles hakumkemasin, or upon samovars, or upon sheets, or upon towels.,Rabbi Yosei says: When one encounters an idol, he should grind the idol and throw the dust to the wind or cast it into the sea. The Rabbis said to him: What is the good of that? That also gives a Jew benefit from the idol, as it becomes fertilizer for his crops, and deriving any kind of benefit is prohibited, as it is stated: “And nothing of the proscribed items shall cleave to your hand” (Deuteronomy 13:18).,It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 3:16): Rabbi Yosei said to them: But isn’t it already stated: “And your sin, '. None
62. Strabo, Geography, 7.7.6, 8.6.23
 Tagged with subjects: • Epigonos, artist • Greek, art • Nikeratos, artist • Nile, subject matter of art • Phyromachos, artist • technitai (Artists of Dionysus) • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), at Rome

 Found in books: Csapo (2022) 118, 119; Manolaraki (2012) 32; Marek (2019) 244; Rutledge (2012) 37

7.7.6. Next comes the mouth of the Ambracian Gulf. Although the mouth of this gulf is but slightly more than four stadia wide, the circumference is as much as three hundred stadia; and it has good harbors everywhere. That part of the country which is on the right as one sails in is inhabited by the Greek Acarians. Here too, near the mouth, is the sacred precinct of the Actian Apollo — a hill on which the sanctuary stands; and at the foot of the hill is a plain which contains a sacred grove and a naval station, the naval station where Caesar dedicated as first fruits of his victory the squadron of ten ships — from vessel with single bank of oars to vessel with ten; however, not only the boats, it is said, but also the boat-houses have been wiped out by fire. On the left of the mouth are Nicopolis and the country of the Epeirote Cassopaeans, which extends as far as the recess of the gulf near Ambracia. Ambracia lies only a short distance above the recess; it was founded by Gorgus, the son of Cypselus. The River Aracthus flows past Ambracia; it is navigable inland for only a few stadia, from the sea to Ambracia, although it rises in Mount Tymphe and the Paroraea. Now this city enjoyed an exceptional prosperity in earlier times (at any rate the gulf was named after it), and it was adorned most of all by Pyrrhus, who made the place his royal residence. In later times, however, the Macedonians and the Romans, by their continuous wars, so completely reduced both this and the other Epeirote cities because of their disobedience that finally Augustus, seeing that the cities had utterly failed, settled what inhabitants were left in one city together the city on this gulf which was called by him Nicopolis; and he so named it after the victory which he won in the naval battle before the mouth of the gulf over Antonius and Cleopatra the queen of the Egyptians, who was also present at the fight. Nicopolis is populous, and its numbers are increasing daily, since it has not only a considerable territory and the adornment taken from the spoils of the battle, but also, in its suburbs, the thoroughly equipped sacred precinct — one part of it being in a sacred grove that contains a gymnasium and a stadium for the celebration of the quinquennial games, the other part being on the hill that is sacred to Apollo and lies above the grove. These games — the Actia, sacred to Actian Apollo — have been designated as Olympian, and they are superintended by the Lacedemonians. The other settlements are dependencies of Nicopolis. In earlier times also the Actian Games were wont to be celebrated in honor of the god by the inhabitants of the surrounding country — games in which the prize was a wreath — but at the present time they have been set in greater honor by Caesar.' "
8.6.23. The Corinthians, when they were subject to Philip, not only sided with him in his quarrel with the Romans, but individually behaved so contemptuously towards the Romans that certain persons ventured to pour down filth upon the Roman ambassadors when passing by their house. For this and other offences, however, they soon paid the penalty, for a considerable army was sent thither, and the city itself was razed to the ground by Leucius Mummius; and the other countries as far as Macedonia became subject to the Romans, different commanders being sent into different countries; but the Sikyonians obtained most of the Corinthian country. Polybius, who speaks in a tone of pity of the events connected with the capture of Corinth, goes on to speak of the disregard shown by the army for the works of art and votive offerings; for he says that he was present and saw paintings that had been flung to the ground and saw the soldiers playing dice on these. Among the paintings he names that of Dionysus by Aristeides, to which, according to some writers, the saying, Nothing in comparison with the Dionysus, referred; and also the painting of Heracles in torture in the robe of Deianeira. Now I have not seen the latter, but I saw the Dionysus, a most beautiful work, on the walls of the sanctuary of Ceres in Rome; but when recently the temple was burned, the painting perished with it. And I may almost say that the most and best of the other dedicatory offerings at Rome came from there; and the cities in the neighborhood of Rome also obtained some; for Mummius, being magimous rather than fond of art, as they say, readily shared with those who asked. And when Lucullus built the sanctuary of Good Fortune and a portico, he asked Mummius for the use of the statues which he had, saying that he would adorn the sanctuary with them until the dedication and then give them back. However, he did not give them back, but dedicated them to the goddess, and then bade Mummius to take them away if he wished. But Mummius took it lightly, for he cared nothing about them, so that he gained more repute than the man who dedicated them. Now after Corinth had remained deserted for a long time, it was restored again, because of its favorable position, by the deified Caesar, who colonized it with people that belonged for the most part to the freedmen class. And when these were removing the ruins and at the same time digging open the graves, they found numbers of terra-cotta reliefs, and also many bronze vessels. And since they admired the workmanship they left no grave unransacked; so that, well supplied with such things and disposing of them at a high price, they filled Rome with Corinthian mortuaries, for thus they called the things taken from the graves, and in particular the earthenware. Now at the outset the earthenware was very highly prized, like the bronzes of Corinthian workmanship, but later they ceased to care much for them, since the supply of earthen vessels failed and most of them were not even well executed. The city of the Corinthians, then, was always great and wealthy, and it was well equipped with men skilled both in the affairs of state and in the craftsman's arts; for both here and in Sikyon the arts of painting and modelling and all such arts of the craftsman flourished most. The city had territory, however, that was not very fertile, but rifted and rough; and from this fact all have called Corinth beetling, and use the proverb, Corinth is both beetle-browed and full of hollows."'. None
63. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.464, 6.847-6.853, 8.608-8.625, 8.678-8.681
 Tagged with subjects: • Orpheus,, as symbol of failure of art • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • art and architecture, Roman appreciation • art expert, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art history, Petronius’ satire of • art work, as object of gaze • arts, Roman anxiety about Greek • arts, mimetic • city, as locus of art • gaze, focused on work of art • power, of artists and authors • response, emotional, to work of art, in Virgil’s Aeneid • sexual subjects in art, as customary entertainment • sexual subjects in art, in Vergil’s Aeneid • wonder, inspired by gazing at work of art

 Found in books: Elsner (2007) 79, 81, 195; Jenkyns (2013) 262; Johnson (2008) 31; Oksanish (2019) 60; Pandey (2018) 80; Perkell (1989) 43, 83

1.464. Sic ait, atque animum pictura pascit ii,
6.847. Excudent alii spirantia mollius aera, 6.848. credo equidem, vivos ducent de marmore voltus, 6.849. orabunt causas melius, caelique meatus 6.850. describent radio, et surgentia sidera dicent: 6.851. tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento; 6.852. hae tibi erunt artes; pacisque imponere morem, 6.853. parcere subiectis, et debellare superbos.
8.608. At Venus aetherios inter dea candida nimbos 8.609. dona ferens aderat; natumque in valle reducta 8.610. ut procul egelido secretum flumine vidit, 8.611. talibus adfata est dictis seque obtulit ultro: 8.612. En perfecta mei promissa coniugis arte 8.613. munera, ne mox aut Laurentis, nate, superbos 8.614. aut acrem dubites in proelia poscere Turnum. 8.615. Dixit et amplexus nati Cytherea petivit, 8.616. arma sub adversa posuit radiantia quercu. 8.617. Ille, deae donis et tanto laetus honore, 8.618. expleri nequit atque oculos per singula volvit 8.619. miraturque interque manus et bracchia versat 8.620. terribilem cristis galeam flammasque vomentem 8.621. fatiferumque ensem, loricam ex aere rigentem 8.622. sanguineam ingentem, qualis cum caerula nubes 8.623. solis inardescit radiis longeque refulget; 8.625. hastamque et clipei non enarrabile textum.
8.678. Hinc Augustus agens Italos in proelia Caesar 8.679. cum patribus populoque, penatibus et magnis dis, 8.680. stans celsa in puppi; geminas cui tempora flammas 8.681. laeta vomunt patriumque aperitur vertice sidus.' '. None
1.464. lace up in purple buskin. Yonder lies
6.847. Lo! on the left and right at feast reclined 6.848. Are other blessed souls, whose chorus sings 6.849. Victorious paeans on the fragrant air 6.850. of laurel groves; and hence to earth outpours 6.851. Eridanus, through forests rolling free. 6.852. Here dwell the brave who for their native land 6.853. Fell wounded on the field; here holy priests
8.608. ummoned Evander. From his couch arose ' "8.609. the royal sire, and o'er his aged frame " '8.610. a tunic threw, tying beneath his feet 8.611. the Tuscan sandals: an Arcadian sword, 8.612. girt at his left, was over one shoulder slung, 8.613. his cloak of panther trailing from behind. 8.614. A pair of watch-dogs from the lofty door 8.615. ran close, their lord attending, as he sought 8.616. his guest Aeneas; for his princely soul 8.617. remembered faithfully his former word, 8.618. and promised gift. Aeneas with like mind ' "8.619. was stirring early. King Evander's son " '8.620. Pallas was at his side; Achates too 8.621. accompanied his friend. All these conjoin 8.622. in hand-clasp and good-morrow, taking seats 8.623. in midcourt of the house, and give the hour 8.625. “Great leader of the Teucrians, while thy life
8.678. cold, sluggish age, now barren and outworn, 8.679. denies new kingdoms, and my slow-paced powers 8.680. run to brave deeds no more. Nor could I urge ' "8.681. my son, who by his Sabine mother's line " '. None
64. Vergil, Georgics, 3.7, 3.11-3.36, 4.464-4.466, 4.469-4.472, 4.475-4.477, 4.481-4.484, 4.488, 4.490-4.493, 4.495, 4.507-4.520, 4.523-4.527
 Tagged with subjects: • Muses, artistic presentation of works of the • Orpheus,, as symbol of failure of art • anxiety, artistic • artists and gods • city, as locus of art • hubris,, artistic arrogance • ivory, as artistic medium • nature, transgressed by art • power, of artists and authors • sexual subjects in art, Orpheus and • sexual subjects in art, eroticdidacticism

 Found in books: Elsner (2007) 127; Johnson (2008) 35, 100, 101; Pandey (2018) 216, 221, 222, 223, 227, 228; Perkell (1989) 42, 81, 82, 83

3.7. Hippodameque umeroque Pelops insignis eburno,
3.11. Aonio rediens deducam vertice Musas; 3.12. primus Idumaeas referam tibi, Mantua, palmas, 3.13. et viridi in campo templum de marmore ponam 3.14. propter aquam. Tardis ingens ubi flexibus errat 3.15. Mincius et tenera praetexit arundine ripas. 3.16. In medio mihi Caesar erit templumque tenebit: 3.17. illi victor ego et Tyrio conspectus in ostro 3.18. centum quadriiugos agitabo ad flumina currus. 3.19. Cuncta mihi Alpheum linquens lucosque Molorchi 3.20. cursibus et crudo decernet Graecia caestu. 3.21. Ipse caput tonsae foliis ornatus olivae 3.22. dona feram. Iam nunc sollemnis ducere pompas 3.23. ad delubra iuvat caesosque videre iuvencos, 3.24. vel scaena ut versis discedat frontibus utque 3.25. purpurea intexti tollant aulaea Britanni. 3.26. In foribus pugnam ex auro solidoque elephanto 3.27. Gangaridum faciam victorisque arma Quirini, 3.28. atque hic undantem bello magnumque fluentem 3.29. Nilum ac navali surgentis aere columnas. 3.30. Addam urbes Asiae domitas pulsumque Niphaten 3.31. fidentemque fuga Parthum versisque sagittis, 3.32. et duo rapta manu diverso ex hoste tropaea 3.33. bisque triumphatas utroque ab litore gentes. 3.34. Stabunt et Parii lapides, spirantia signa, 3.35. Assaraci proles demissaeque ab Iove gentis 3.36. nomina, Trosque parens et Troiae Cynthius auctor.
4.464. Ipse cava solans aegrum testudine amorem 4.465. te, dulcis coniunx, te solo in litore secum, 4.466. te veniente die, te decedente canebat.
4.469. ingressus manesque adiit regemque tremendum 4.470. nesciaque humanis precibus mansuescere corda. 4.471. At cantu commotae Erebi de sedibus imis 4.472. umbrae ibant tenues simulacraque luce carentum,
4.475. matres atque viri defunctaque corpora vita 4.476. magimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae, 4.477. impositique rogis iuvenes ante ora parentum,
4.481. Quin ipsae stupuere domus atque intima Leti 4.482. tartara caeruleosque implexae crinibus angues 4.483. Eumenides, tenuitque inhians tria Cerberus ora 4.484. atque Ixionii vento rota constitit orbis.
4.488. cum subita incautum dementia cepit amantem,
4.490. Restitit Eurydicenque suam iam luce sub ipsa 4.491. immemor heu! victusque animi respexit. Ibi omnis 4.492. effusus labor atque immitis rupta tyranni 4.493. foedera, terque fragor stagnis auditus Avernis.
4.495. quis tantus furor? En iterum crudelia retro
4.507. Septem illum totos perhibent ex ordine menses 4.508. rupe sub aeria deserti ad Strymonis undam 4.509. flesse sibi et gelidis haec evolvisse sub antris 4.510. mulcentem tigres et agentem carmine quercus; 4.511. qualis populea maerens philomela sub umbra 4.512. amissos queritur fetus, quos durus arator 4.513. observans nido implumes detraxit; at illa 4.514. flet noctem ramoque sedens miserabile carmen 4.515. integrat et maestis late loca questibus implet. 4.516. Nulla Venus, non ulli animum flexere hymenaei. 4.517. Solus Hyperboreas glacies Tanaimque nivalem 4.518. arvaque Rhipaeis numquam viduata pruinis 4.519. lustrabat raptam Eurydicen atque inrita Ditis 4.520. dona querens; spretae Ciconum quo munere matres
4.523. Tum quoque marmorea caput a cervice revulsum 4.524. gurgite cum medio portans Oeagrius Hebrus 4.525. volveret, Eurydicen vox ipsa et frigida lingua 4.526. “ah miseram Eurydicen!” anima fugiente vocabat: 4.527. “Eurydicen” toto referebant flumine ripae.”''. None
3.7. Busiris, and his altars? or by whom
3.11. Keen charioteer? Needs must a path be tried, 3.12. By which I too may lift me from the dust, 3.13. And float triumphant through the mouths of men. 3.14. Yea, I shall be the first, so life endure, 3.15. To lead the Muses with me, as I pa 3.16. To mine own country from the Aonian height; 3.17. I, 4.464. Arched mountain-wise closed round him, and within 4.465. Its mighty bosom welcomed, and let speed 4.466. To the deep river-bed. And now, with eye
4.469. And echoing groves, he went, and, stunned by that 4.470. Stupendous whirl of waters, separate saw 4.471. All streams beneath the mighty earth that glide, 4.472. Phasis and Lycus, and that fountain-head
4.475. And Hypanis that roars amid his rocks, 4.476. And Mysian Caicus, and, bull-browed' "4.477. 'Twixt either gilded horn, 4.495. “In Neptune's gulf Carpathian dwells a seer," '
4.507. And grant a prosperous end. For save by force 4.508. No rede will he vouchsafe, nor shalt thou bend 4.509. His soul by praying; whom once made captive, ply 4.510. With rigorous force and fetters; against these 4.511. His wiles will break and spend themselves in vain. 4.512. I, when the sun has lit his noontide fires, 4.513. When the blades thirst, and cattle love the shade,' "4.514. Myself will guide thee to the old man's haunt," '4.515. Whither he hies him weary from the waves, 4.516. That thou mayst safelier steal upon his sleep. 4.517. But when thou hast gripped him fast with hand and gyve, 4.518. Then divers forms and bestial semblance 4.519. Shall mock thy grasp; for sudden he will change 4.520. To bristly boar, fell tigress, dragon scaled,
4.523. The fetters, or in showery drops anon 4.524. Dissolve and vanish. But the more he shift 4.525. His endless transformations, thou, my son, 4.526. More straitlier clench the clinging bands, until' "4.527. His body's shape return to that thou sawest,"'. None
65. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • anxiety, artistic • ideology, as function of art

 Found in books: Bowditch (2001) 122, 128, 129; Johnson (2008) 5

66. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Artists • women, occupations/functions/titles, artists

 Found in books: Eckhardt (2019) 171; Marek (2019) 465

67. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Artists • Dionysiac artists,

 Found in books: Eckhardt (2019) 134; Gabrielsen and Paganini (2021) 146

68. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Artists • Artists of Dionysus/Dionysiac Guilds (Dionysiakoi Technitai) • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), Athenian association • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), Cyprian association (Paphos) • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), Egyptian association (Alexandria, Ptolemais, Cyprus) • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), Ionian-Hellespontine association (Pergamum, Teos) • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), Isthmian-Nemean association (Argos, Chalcis, Corinth, Opus, Thebes) • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), benefactors of (φιλοτεχνῖται) • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), supporting royal ideology

 Found in books: Csapo (2022) 39, 43, 45, 46, 49, 50; Eckhardt (2019) 134; Liapis and Petrides (2019) 165, 166

69. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Artists • Dionysiac artists,

 Found in books: Eckhardt (2019) 132, 142; Gabrielsen and Paganini (2021) 55

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