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53 results for "art"
1. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 24.7-24.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 32
24.7. "שְׂאוּ שְׁעָרִים רָאשֵׁיכֶם וְהִנָּשְׂאוּ פִּתְחֵי עוֹלָם וְיָבוֹא מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד׃", 24.8. "מִי זֶה מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד יְהוָה עִזּוּז וְגִבּוֹר יְהוָה גִּבּוֹר מִלְחָמָה׃", 24.9. "שְׂאוּ שְׁעָרִים רָאשֵׁיכֶם וּשְׂאוּ פִּתְחֵי עוֹלָם וְיָבֹא מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד׃", 24.7. "Lift up your heads, O ye gates, and be ye lifted up, ye everlasting doors; that the King of glory may come in.", 24.8. "'Who is the King of glory?' 'The LORD strong and mighty, The LORD mighty in battle.'", 24.9. "Lift up your heads, O ye gates, Yea, lift them up, ye everlasting doors; That the King of glory may come in.",
2. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 218
3. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.15-4.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 481
4.15. "וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּם מְאֹד לְנַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי לֹא רְאִיתֶם כָּל־תְּמוּנָה בְּיוֹם דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם בְּחֹרֵב מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃", 4.16. "פֶּן־תַּשְׁחִתוּן וַעֲשִׂיתֶם לָכֶם פֶּסֶל תְּמוּנַת כָּל־סָמֶל תַּבְנִית זָכָר אוֹ נְקֵבָה׃", 4.17. "תַּבְנִית כָּל־בְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ תַּבְנִית כָּל־צִפּוֹר כָּנָף אֲשֶׁר תָּעוּף בַּשָּׁמָיִם׃", 4.18. "תַּבְנִית כָּל־רֹמֵשׂ בָּאֲדָמָה תַּבְנִית כָּל־דָּגָה אֲשֶׁר־בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ׃", 4.19. "וּפֶן־תִּשָּׂא עֵינֶיךָ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְאֶת־הַיָּרֵחַ וְאֶת־הַכּוֹכָבִים כֹּל צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וְנִדַּחְתָּ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לָהֶם וַעֲבַדְתָּם אֲשֶׁר חָלַק יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֹתָם לְכֹל הָעַמִּים תַּחַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃", 4.15. "Take ye therefore good heed unto yourselves—for ye saw no manner of form on the day that the LORD spoke unto you in Horeb out of the midst of the fire—", 4.16. "lest ye deal corruptly, and make you a graven image, even the form of any figure, the likeness of male or female,", 4.17. "the likeness of any beast that is on the earth, the likeness of any winged fowl that flieth in the heaven,", 4.18. "the likeness of any thing that creepeth on the ground, the likeness of any fish that is in the water under the earth; .", 4.19. "and lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun and the moon and the stars, even all the host of heaven, thou be drawn away and worship them, and serve them, which the LORD thy God hath allotted unto all the peoples under the whole heaven.",
4. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, loss of pagan meaning for christians and jews Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 935
6.3. "וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃", 6.3. "And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory.",
5. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 26.2, 38.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 32, 65
26.2. "וְגַם־אִישׁ הָיָה מִתְנַבֵּא בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה אוּרִיָּהוּ בֶּן־שְׁמַעְיָהוּ מִקִּרְיַת הַיְּעָרִים וַיִּנָּבֵא עַל־הָעִיר הַזֹּאת וְעַל־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת כְּכֹל דִּבְרֵי יִרְמְיָהוּ׃", 26.2. "כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה עֲמֹד בַּחֲצַר בֵּית־יְהוָה וְדִבַּרְתָּ עַל־כָּל־עָרֵי יְהוּדָה הַבָּאִים לְהִשְׁתַּחֲוֺת בֵּית־יְהוָה אֵת כָּל־הַדְּבָרִים אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִיךָ לְדַבֵּר אֲלֵיהֶם אַל־תִּגְרַע דָּבָר׃", 38.7. "וַיִּשְׁמַע עֶבֶד־מֶלֶךְ הַכּוּשִׁי אִישׁ סָרִיס וְהוּא בְּבֵית הַמֶּלֶךְ כִּי־נָתְנוּ אֶת־יִרְמְיָהוּ אֶל־הַבּוֹר וְהַמֶּלֶךְ יוֹשֵׁב בְּשַׁעַר בִּנְיָמִן׃", 26.2. "’Thus saith the LORD: Stand in the court of the LORD’S house, and speak unto all the cities of Judah, which come to worship in the LORD’S house, all the words that I command thee to speak unto them; diminish not a word.", 38.7. "Now when Ebed-melech the Ethiopian, an officer, who was in the king’s house, heard that they had put Jeremiah in the pit; the king then sitting in the gate of Benjamin;",
6. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 12.20, 19.8-19.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 32, 65
19.8. "וְעַתָּה קוּם צֵא וְדַבֵּר עַל־לֵב עֲבָדֶיךָ כִּי בַיהוָה נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי כִּי־אֵינְךָ יוֹצֵא אִם־יָלִין אִישׁ אִתְּךָ הַלַּיְלָה וְרָעָה לְךָ זֹאת מִכָּל־הָרָעָה אֲשֶׁר־בָּאָה עָלֶיךָ מִנְּעֻרֶיךָ עַד־עָתָּה׃", 19.9. "וַיָּקָם הַמֶּלֶךְ וַיֵּשֶׁב בַּשָּׁעַר וּלְכָל־הָעָם הִגִּידוּ לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה הַמֶּלֶךְ יוֹשֵׁב בַּשַּׁעַר וַיָּבֹא כָל־הָעָם לִפְנֵי הַמֶּלֶךְ וְיִשְׂרָאֵל נָס אִישׁ לְאֹהָלָיו׃", 12.20. "Then David arose from the ground, and washed, and anointed himself, and changed his apparel, and came into the house of the Lord, and bowed down: then he came to his own house, and asked them to set bread before him, and he did eat.", 19.8. "Now therefore arise, go out, and speak comfortably to thy servants: for I swear by the Lord, if thou go not out, not one will lodge with thee this night: and that will be worse to thee than all the evil that befell thee from thy youth until now.", 19.9. "Then the king arose, and sat in the gate. And they told all the people, saying, Behold, the king sits in the gate. And all the people came before the king: for Yisra᾽el had fled every man to his tent.",
7. Hebrew Bible, 2 Kings, 23.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 32
23.8. "וַיָּבֵא אֶת־כָּל־הַכֹּהֲנִים מֵעָרֵי יְהוּדָה וַיְטַמֵּא אֶת־הַבָּמוֹת אֲשֶׁר קִטְּרוּ־שָׁמָּה הַכֹּהֲנִים מִגֶּבַע עַד־בְּאֵר שָׁבַע וְנָתַץ אֶת־בָּמוֹת הַשְּׁעָרִים אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח שַׁעַר יְהוֹשֻׁעַ שַׂר־הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר־עַל־שְׂמֹאול אִישׁ בְּשַׁעַר הָעִיר׃", 23.8. "And he brought all the priests out of the cities of Judah, and defiled the high places where the priests had made offerings, from Geba to Beer-sheba; and he broke down the high places of the gates that were at the entrance of the gate of Joshua the governor of the city, which were on a man’s left hand as he entered the gate of the city.",
8. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 22.10 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 32
22.10. "Now the king of Israel and Jehoshaphat the king of Judah sat each on his throne, arrayed in their robes, in a threshing-floor, at the entrance of the gate of Samaria; and all the prophets prophesied before them.",
9. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 8.1 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005) 23, 32
8.1. "וַיֹּאמֶר לָהֶם לְכוּ אִכְלוּ מַשְׁמַנִּים וּשְׁתוּ מַמְתַקִּים וְשִׁלְחוּ מָנוֹת לְאֵין נָכוֹן לוֹ כִּי־קָדוֹשׁ הַיּוֹם לַאֲדֹנֵינוּ וְאַל־תֵּעָצֵבוּ כִּי־חֶדְוַת יְהוָה הִיא מָעֻזְּכֶם׃", 8.1. "וַיֵּאָסְפוּ כָל־הָעָם כְּאִישׁ אֶחָד אֶל־הָרְחוֹב אֲשֶׁר לִפְנֵי שַׁעַר־הַמָּיִם וַיֹּאמְרוּ לְעֶזְרָא הַסֹּפֵר לְהָבִיא אֶת־סֵפֶר תּוֹרַת מֹשֶׁה אֲשֶׁר־צִוָּה יְהוָה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 8.1. "all the people gathered themselves together as one man into the broad place that was before the water gate; and they spoke unto Ezra the scribe to bring the book of the Law of Moses, which the LORD had commanded to Israel.",
10. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 32.6 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 32
32.6. "וַיִּתֵּן שָׂרֵי מִלְחָמוֹת עַל־הָעָם וַיִּקְבְּצֵם אֵלָיו אֶל־רְחוֹב שַׁעַר הָעִיר וַיְדַבֵּר עַל־לְבָבָם לֵאמֹר׃", 32.6. "And he set captains of war over the people, and gathered them together to him in the broad place at the gate of the city, and spoke encouragingly to them, saying:",
11. Septuagint, 1 Maccabees, 2.42, 7.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 23
2.42. Then there united with them a company of Hasideans, mighty warriors of Israel, every one who offered himself willingly for the law. 7.12. Then a group of scribes appeared in a body before Alcimus and Bacchides to ask for just terms.
12. Terence, The Eunuch, 580 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, loss of pagan meaning for christians and jews Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 908
580. Abducit secum ancillas: paucae quae circum illam essent manent
13. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 2.28 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 128
2.28. "None of those who do not sacrifice shall enter their sanctuaries, and all Jews shall be subjected to a registration involving poll tax and to the status of slaves. Those who object to this are to be taken by force and put to death;
14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 156, 312 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005) 89
312. for that these assemblies were not revels, which from drunkenness and intoxication proceeded to violence, so as to disturb the peaceful condition of the country, but were rather schools of temperance and justice, as the men who met in them were studiers of virtue, and contributed the first fruits every year, sending commissioners to convey the holy things to the temple in Jerusalem.
15. Philo of Alexandria, Hypothetica, 7.13 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 89
7.13. and, in fact, they do constantly assemble together, and they do sit down one with another, the multitude in general in silence, except when it is customary to say any words of good omen, by way of assent to what is being read. And then some priest who is present, or some one of the elders, reads the sacred laws to them, and interprets each of them separately till eventide; and then when separate they depart, having gained some skill in the sacred laws, and having made great advancers towards piety.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.215-2.216 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 89
2.215. for it was invariably the custom, as it was desirable on other days also, but especially on the seventh day, as I have already explained, to discuss matters of philosophy; the ruler of the people beginning the explanation, and teaching the multitude what they ought to do and to say, and the populace listening so as to improve in virtue, and being made better both in their moral character and in their conduct through life; 2.216. in accordance with which custom, even to this day, the Jews hold philosophical discussions on the seventh day, disputing about their national philosophy, and devoting that day to the knowledge and consideration of the subjects of natural philosophy; for as for their houses of prayer in the different cities, what are they, but schools of wisdom, and courage, and temperance, and justice, and piety, and holiness, and every virtue, by which human and divine things are appreciated, and placed upon a proper footing?
17. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 2.62-2.63 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 89, 128
2.62. Accordingly, on the seventh day there are spread before the people in every city innumerable lessons of prudence, and temperance, and courage, and justice, and all other virtues; during the giving of which the common people sit down, keeping silence and pricking up their ears, with all possible attention, from their thirst for wholesome instruction; but some of those who are very learned explain to them what is of great importance and use, lessons by which the whole of their lives may be improved. 2.63. And there are, as we may say, two most especially important heads of all the innumerable particular lessons and doctrines; the regulating of one's conduct towards God by the rules of piety and holiness, and of one's conduct towards men by the rules of humanity and justice; each of which is subdivided into a great number of subordinate ideas, all praiseworthy.
18. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 2.127 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 89
2.127. And would you still sit down in your synagogues, collecting your ordinary assemblies, and reading your sacred volumes in security, and explaining whatever is not quite clear, and devoting all your time and leisure with long discussions to the philosophy of your ancestors?
19. Philo of Alexandria, That Every Good Person Is Free, 13 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •philo, alleged parallel of with pagan art Found in books: Feldman (2006) 3
13. And since, as that sweetest of all writers, Plato, says, envy is removed far from the divine company, but wisdom, that most divine and communicative of all things, never closes its school, but is continually open to receive all who thirst for salutary doctrines, to whom she pours forth the inexhaustible stream of unalloyed instruction and wisdom, and persuades them to yield to the intoxication of the soberest of all drunkenness.
20. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.91, 13.74-13.79, 14.231-14.232, 16.164 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 111, 128, 481
3.91. 5. The first commandment teaches us that there is but one God, and that we ought to worship him only. The second commands us not to make the image of any living creature to worship it. The third, that we must not swear by God in a false matter. The fourth, that we must keep the seventh day, by resting from all sorts of work. 13.74. 4. Now it came to pass that the Alexandrian Jews, and those Samaritans who paid their worship to the temple that was built in the days of Alexander at Mount Gerizzim, did now make a sedition one against another, and disputed about their temples before Ptolemy himself; the Jews saying that, according to the laws of Moses, the temple was to be built at Jerusalem; and the Samaritans saying that it was to be built at Gerizzim. 13.75. They desired therefore the king to sit with his friends, and hear the debates about these matters, and punish those with death who were baffled. Now Sabbeus and Theodosius managed the argument for the Samaritans, and Andronicus, the son of Messalamus, for the people of Jerusalem; 13.76. and they took an oath by God and the king to make their demonstrations according to the law; and they desired of Ptolemy, that whomsoever he should find that transgressed what they had sworn to, he would put him to death. Accordingly, the king took several of his friends into the council, and sat down, in order to hear what the pleaders said. 13.77. Now the Jews that were at Alexandria were in great concern for those men, whose lot it was to contend for the temple at Jerusalem; for they took it very ill that any should take away the reputation of that temple, which was so ancient and so celebrated all over the habitable earth. 13.78. Now when Sabbeus and Tlteodosius had given leave to Andronicus to speak first, he began to demonstrate out of the law, and out of the successions of the high priests, how they every one in succession from his father had received that dignity, and ruled over the temple; and how all the kings of Asia had honored that temple with their donations, and with the most splendid gifts dedicated thereto. But as for that at Gerizzm, he made no account of it, and regarded it as if it had never had a being. 13.79. By this speech, and other arguments, Andronicus persuaded the king to determine that the temple at Jerusalem was built according to the laws of Moses, and to put Sabbeus and Theodosius to death. And these were the events that befell the Jews at Alexandria in the days of Ptolemy Philometor. 14.231. 14. The decree of the Delians. “The answer of the praetors, when Beotus was archon, on the twentieth day of the month Thargeleon. While Marcus Piso the lieutet lived in our city, who was also appointed over the choice of the soldiers, he called us, and many other of the citizens, and gave order, 14.232. that if there be here any Jews who are Roman citizens, no one is to give them any disturbance about going into the army, because Cornelius Lentulus, the consul, freed the Jews from going into the army, on account of the superstition they are under;—you are therefore obliged to submit to the praetor.” And the like decree was made by the Sardians about us also. 16.164. But if any one be caught stealing their holy books, or their sacred money, whether it be out of the synagogue or public school, he shall be deemed a sacrilegious person, and his goods shall be brought into the public treasury of the Romans.
21. Longinus, On The Sublime, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, loss of pagan meaning for christians and jews Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 910, 911
22. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 3.4, 4.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, loss of pagan meaning for christians and jews •art, pagan Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 907; Levine (2005) 229
3.4. "שָׁאַל פְּרוֹקְלוֹס בֶּן פִלוֹסְפוֹס אֶת רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל בְּעַכּוֹ, שֶׁהָיָה רוֹחֵץ בַּמֶּרְחָץ שֶׁל אַפְרוֹדִיטִי, אָמַר לוֹ, כָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַתְכֶם, וְלֹא יִדְבַּק בְּיָדְךָ מְאוּמָה מִן הַחֵרֶם. מִפְּנֵי מָה אַתָּה רוֹחֵץ בַּמֶּרְחָץ שֶׁל אַפְרוֹדִיטִי. אָמַר לוֹ, אֵין מְשִׁיבִין בַּמֶּרְחָץ. וּכְשֶׁיָּצָא אָמַר לוֹ, אֲנִי לֹא בָאתִי בִגְבוּלָהּ, הִיא בָאתָה בִגְבוּלִי, אֵין אוֹמְרִים, נַעֲשֶׂה מֶרְחָץ לְאַפְרוֹדִיטִי נוֹי, אֶלָּא אוֹמְרִים, נַעֲשֶׂה אַפְרוֹדִיטִי נוֹי לַמֶּרְחָץ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אִם נוֹתְנִין לְךָ מָמוֹן הַרְבֵּה, אִי אַתָּה נִכְנָס לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה שֶׁלְּךָ עָרוֹם וּבַעַל קֶרִי וּמַשְׁתִּין בְּפָנֶיהָ, וְזוֹ עוֹמֶדֶת עַל פִּי הַבִּיב וְכָל הָעָם מַשְׁתִּינִין לְפָנֶיהָ. לֹא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא אֱלֹהֵיהֶם. אֶת שֶׁנּוֹהֵג בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם אֱלוֹהַּ, אָסוּר. וְאֶת שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם אֱלוֹהַּ, מֻתָּר:", 4.4. "עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה שֶׁל נָכְרִי, אֲסוּרָה מִיָּד. וְשֶׁל יִשְׂרָאֵל, אֵין אֲסוּרָה עַד שֶׁתֵּעָבֵד. נָכְרִי מְבַטֵּל עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה שֶׁלּוֹ וְשֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ, וְיִשְׂרָאֵל אֵינוֹ מְבַטֵּל עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה שֶׁל נָכְרִי. הַמְבַטֵּל עֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, בִּטֵּל מְשַׁמְּשֶׁיהָ. בִּטֵּל מְשַׁמְּשֶׁיהָ, מְשַׁמְּשֶׁיהָ מֻתָּרִין וְהִיא אֲסוּרָה: \n", 3.4. "Proclos, son of a plosphos, asked Rabban Gamaliel in Acco when the latter was bathing in the bathhouse of aphrodite. He said to him, “It is written in your torah, ‘let nothing that has been proscribed stick to your hand (Deuteronomy 13:18)’; why are you bathing in the bathhouse of Aphrodite?” He replied to him, “We do not answer [questions relating to torah] in a bathhouse.” When he came out, he said to him, “I did not come into her domain, she has come into mine. People do not say, ‘the bath was made as an adornment for Aphrodite’; rather they say, ‘Aphrodite was made as an adornment for the bath.’ Another reason is, even if you were given a large sum of money, you would not enter the presence of your idol while you were nude or had experienced seminal emission, nor would you urinate before it. But this [statue of Aphrodite] stands by a sewer and all people urinate before it. [In the torah] it is only stated, “their gods” (Deuteronomy 12:3) what is treated as a god is prohibited, what is not treated as a deity is permitted.", 4.4. "The idol of an idolater is prohibited immediately; but if it belonged to a Jew it is not prohibited until it is worshipped. An idolater can annul an idol belonging to himself or to another idolater, but a Jew cannot annul the idol of an idolater. He who annuls an idol annuls the things that pertain to it. If he only annulled the things that pertain to it these are permitted but the idol itself is prohibited.",
23. Mishnah, Menachot, 10.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 483
10.8. "קוֹצְרִים בֵּית הַשְּׁלָחִים שֶׁבָּעֲמָקִים, אֲבָל לֹא גוֹדְשִׁין. אַנְשֵׁי יְרִיחוֹ קוֹצְרִין בִּרְצוֹן חֲכָמִים, וְגוֹדְשִׁין שֶׁלֹּא בִרְצוֹן חֲכָמִים, וְלֹא מִחוּ בְיָדָם חֲכָמִים. קוֹצֵר לַשַּׁחַת, וּמַאֲכִיל לַבְּהֵמָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהִתְחִיל עַד שֶׁלֹּא הֵבִיאָה שְׁלִישׁ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אַף יִקְצֹר וְיַאֲכִיל אַף מִשֶּׁהֵבִיאָה שְׁלִישׁ: \n", 10.8. "[Before the omer] one may reap [grain] in irrigated fields in the valley, but one may not stack it. The people of Jericho used to reap [before the omer] with the approval of the sages, and used to stack it without the approval of the sages, but the sages did not protest. One may reap the unripe grain for cattle feed. Rabbi Judah said: When is this so? If one had begun to reap it before it had reached a third of its growth. Rabbi Shimon says: one may reap it and feed [his cattle with it] even after it has reached a third of its growth.",
24. Mishnah, Pesahim, 4.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 483
4.8. "שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים עָשׂוּ אַנְשֵׁי יְרִיחוֹ, עַל שְׁלֹשָׁה מִחוּ בְיָדָם, וְעַל שְׁלֹשָׁה לֹא מִחוּ בְיָדָם. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן שֶׁלֹּא מִחוּ בְיָדָם, מַרְכִּיבִין דְּקָלִים כָּל הַיּוֹם, וְכוֹרְכִין אֶת שְׁמַע, וְקוֹצְרִין וְגוֹדְשִׁין לִפְנֵי הָעֹמֶר, וְלֹא מִחוּ בְיָדָם. וְאֵלּוּ שֶׁמִּחוּ בְיָדָם, מַתִּירִין גִּמְזִיּוֹת שֶׁל הֶקְדֵּשׁ, וְאוֹכְלִין מִתַּחַת הַנְּשָׁרִים בְּשַׁבָּת, וְנוֹתְנִים פֵּאָה לַיָּרָק, וּמִחוּ בְיָדָם חֲכָמִים: \n", 4.8. "Six things the inhabitants of Jericho did: against three they [the sages] protested, and against three [they] did not protest.And these are those against which they did not protest: They grafted palm trees all day [on the eve of Pesah]; They ‘wrapped up’ the Shema; And they harvested and stacked [their produce] before [the bringing of] the ‘omer. And [for these] they did not protest. And these are those against which they did protest: They permitted [for use] the small branches [of sycamore trees] belonging to sacred property, And they ate the fallen fruit from beneath [trees] on Shabbat, and they gave pe’ah from vegetables; And [for these] they did protest.",
25. Tosefta, Megillah, 3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 48
26. Mishnah, Rosh Hashanah, 2.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 229
2.8. "דְּמוּת צוּרוֹת לְבָנוֹת הָיוּ לוֹ לְרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל בַּטַּבְלָא וּבַכֹּתֶל בַּעֲלִיָּתוֹ, שֶׁבָּהֶן מַרְאֶה אֶת הַהֶדְיוֹטוֹת וְאוֹמֵר, הֲכָזֶה רָאִיתָ אוֹ כָזֶה. מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁבָּאוּ שְׁנַיִם וְאָמְרוּ, רְאִינוּהוּ שַׁחֲרִית בַּמִּזְרָח וְעַרְבִית בַּמַּעֲרָב. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי, עֵדֵי שֶׁקֶר הֵם. כְּשֶׁבָּאוּ לְיַבְנֶה קִבְּלָן רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל. וְעוֹד בָּאוּ שְׁנַיִם וְאָמְרוּ, רְאִינוּהוּ בִזְמַנּוֹ, וּבְלֵיל עִבּוּרוֹ לֹא נִרְאָה, וְקִבְּלָן רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל. אָמַר רַבִּי דוֹסָא בֶּן הַרְכִּינָס, עֵדֵי שֶׁקֶר הֵן, הֵיאָךְ מְעִידִין עַל הָאִשָּׁה שֶׁיָּלְדָה, וּלְמָחָר כְּרֵסָהּ בֵּין שִׁנֶּיהָ. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, רוֹאֶה אֲנִי אֶת דְּבָרֶיךָ:", 2.8. "Rabban Gamaliel had diagrams of the moon on a tablet [hung] on the wall of his upper chamber, and he used to show them to the unlearned and say, “Did it look like this or this?” It happened that two witnesses came and said, “We saw it in the morning in the east and in the evening in the west.” Rabbi Yoha ben Nuri said: they are lying witnesses. When they came to Yavneh Rabban Gamaliel accepted them. On another occasion two witnesses came and said, “We saw it at its proper time, but on the night which should have been the new moon it was not seen,” and Rabban Gamaliel accepted their evidence. Rabbi Dosa ben Harkinas said: they are lying witnesses. How can they testify that a woman has given birth when on the next day her belly is between her teeth (swollen)? Rabbi Joshua to him: I see your argument.",
27. Tosefta, Pesahim, 3.19 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 483
28. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.129-2.131, 7.44-7.45 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 65, 128
2.129. After this every one of them are sent away by their curators, to exercise some of those arts wherein they are skilled, in which they labor with great diligence till the fifth hour. After which they assemble themselves together again into one place; and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe their bodies in cold water. And after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any of another sect to enter; while they go, after a pure manner, into the dining-room, as into a certain holy temple, 2.130. and quietly set themselves down; upon which the baker lays them loaves in order; the cook also brings a single plate of one sort of food, and sets it before every one of them; 2.131. but a priest says grace before meat; and it is unlawful for anyone to taste of the food before grace be said. The same priest, when he hath dined, says grace again after meat; and when they begin, and when they end, they praise God, as he that bestows their food upon them; after which they lay aside their [white] garments, and betake themselves to their labors again till the evening; 7.44. for though Antiochus, who was called Epiphanes, laid Jerusalem waste, and spoiled the temple, yet did those that succeeded him in the kingdom restore all the donations that were made of brass to the Jews of Antioch, and dedicated them to their synagogue, and granted them the enjoyment of equal privileges of citizens with the Greeks themselves; 7.45. and as the succeeding kings treated them after the same manner, they both multiplied to a great number, and adorned their temple gloriously by fine ornaments, and with great magnificence, in the use of what had been given them. They also made proselytes of a great many of the Greeks perpetually, and thereby, after a sort, brought them to be a portion of their own body.
29. New Testament, Luke, 1.1-1.4, 13.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005) 47, 48
1.1. ΕΠΕΙΔΗΠΕΡ ΠΟΛΛΟΙ ἐπεχείρησαν ἀνατάξασθαι διήγησιν περὶ τῶν πεπληροφορημένων ἐν ἡμῖν πραγμάτων, 1.2. καθὼς παρέδοσαν ἡμῖν οἱ ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς αὐτόπται καὶ ὑπηρέται γενόμενοι τοῦ λόγου, 1.3. ἔδοξε κἀμοὶ παρηκολουθηκότι ἄνωθεν πᾶσιν ἀκριβῶς καθεξῆς σοι γράψαι, κράτιστε Θεόφιλε, 1.4. ἵνα ἐπιγνῷς περὶ ὧν κατηχήθης λόγων τὴν ἀσφάλειαν. 13.14. ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ ἀρχισυνάγωγος, ἀγανακτῶν ὅτι τῷ σαββάτῳ ἐθεράπευσεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς, ἔλεγεν τῷ ὄχλῳ ὅτι Ἓξ ἡμέραι εἰσὶν ἐν αἷς δεῖ ἐργάζεσθαι· ἐν αὐταῖς οὖν ἐρχόμενοι θεραπεύεσθε καὶ μὴ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τοῦ σαββάτου. 1.1. Since many have undertaken to set in order a narrative concerning those matters which have been fulfilled among us, 1.2. even as those who from the beginning were eyewitnesses and ministers of the word delivered them to us, 1.3. it seemed good to me also, having traced the course of all things accurately from the first, to write to you in order, most excellent Theophilus; 1.4. that you might know the certainty concerning the things in which you were instructed. 13.14. The ruler of the synagogue, being indigt because Jesus had healed on the Sabbath, said to the multitude, "There are six days in which men ought to work. Therefore come on those days and be healed, and not on the Sabbath day!"
30. New Testament, Mark, 6.1-6.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 48
6.1. Καὶ ἐξῆλθεν ἐκεῖθεν, καὶ ἔρχεται εἰς τὴν πατρίδα αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἀκολουθοῦσιν αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ. 6.2. Καὶ γενομένου σαββάτου ἤρξατο διδάσκειν ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ· καὶ οἱ πολλοὶ ἀκούοντες ἐξεπλήσσοντο λέγοντες Πόθεν τούτῳ ταῦτα, καὶ τίς ἡ σοφία ἡ δοθεῖσα τούτῳ, καὶ αἱ δυνάμεις τοιαῦται διὰ τῶν χειρῶν αὐτοῦ γινόμεναι; 6.3. οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ τέκτων, ὁ υἱὸς τῆς Μαρίας καὶ ἀδελφὸς Ἰακώβου καὶ Ἰωσῆτος καὶ Ἰούδα καὶ Σίμωνος; καὶ οὐκ εἰσὶν αἱ ἀδελφαὶ αὐτοῦ ὧδε πρὸς ἡμᾶς; καὶ ἐσκανδαλίζοντο ἐν αὐτῷ. 6.4. καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς ὅτι Οὐκ ἔστιν προφήτης ἄτιμος εἰ μὴ ἐν τῇ πατρίδι αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐν τοῖς συγγενεῦσιν αὐτοῦ καὶ ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ αὐτοῦ. 6.5. Καὶ οὐκ ἐδύνατο ἐκεῖ ποιῆσαι οὐδεμίαν δύναμιν, εἰ μὴ ὀλίγοις ἀρρώστοις ἐπιθεὶς τὰς χεῖρας ἐθεράπευσεν· 6.6. καὶ ἐθαύμασεν διὰ τὴν ἀπιστίαν αὐτῶν. Καὶ περιῆγεν τὰς κώμας κύκλῳ διδάσκων. 6.1. He went out from there. He came into his own country, and his disciples followed him. 6.2. When the Sabbath had come, he began to teach in the synagogue, and many hearing him were astonished, saying, "Where did this man get these things?" and, "What is the wisdom that is given to this man, that such mighty works come about by his hands? 6.3. Isn't this the carpenter, the son of Mary, and brother of James, Joses, Judas, and Simon? Aren't his sisters here with us?" They were offended at him. 6.4. Jesus said to them, "A prophet is not without honor, except in his own country, and among his own relatives, and in his own house." 6.5. He could do no mighty work there, except that he laid his hands on a few sick folk, and healed them. 6.6. He marveled because of their unbelief. He went around the villages teaching.
31. New Testament, Matthew, 12.14, 13.53-13.58 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 47, 48
12.14. Ἐξελθόντες δὲ οἱ Φαρισαῖοι συμβούλιον ἔλαβον κατʼ αὐτοῦ ὅπως αὐτὸν ἀπολέσωσιν. 13.53. Καὶ ἐγένετο ὅτε ἐτέλεσεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τὰς παραβολὰς ταύτας, μετῆρεν ἐκεῖθεν. 13.54. καὶ ἐλθὼν εἰς τὴν πατρίδα αὐτοῦ ἐδίδασκεν αὐτοὺς ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ αὐτῶν, ὥστε ἐκπλήσσεσθαι αὐτοὺς καὶ λέγειν Πόθεν τούτῳ ἡ σοφία αὕτη καὶ αἱ δυνάμεις; 13.55. οὐχ οὗτός ἐστιν ὁ τοῦ τέκτονος υἱός; οὐχ ἡ μήτηρ αὐτοῦ λέγεται Μαριὰμ καὶ οἱ ἀδελφοὶ αὐτοῦ Ἰάκωβος καὶ Ἰωσὴφ καὶ Σίμων καὶ Ἰούδας; 13.56. καὶ αἱ ἀδελφαὶ αὐτοῦ οὐχὶ πᾶσαι πρὸς ἡμᾶς εἰσίν; πόθεν οὖν τούτῳ ταῦτα πάντα; 13.57. καὶ ἐσκανδαλίζοντο ἐν αὐτῷ. ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Οὐκ ἔστιν προφήτης ἄτιμος εἰ μὴ ἐν τῇ πατρίδι καὶ ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ αὐτοῦ. 13.58. Καὶ οὐκ ἐποίησεν ἐκεῖ δυνάμεις πολλὰς διὰ τὴν ἀπιστίαν αὐτῶν. 12.14. But the Pharisees went out, and conspired against him, how they might destroy him. 13.53. It happened that when Jesus had finished these parables, he departed from there. 13.54. Coming into his own country, he taught them in their synagogue, so that they were astonished, and said, "Where did this man get this wisdom, and these mighty works? 13.55. Isn't this the carpenter's son? Isn't his mother called Mary, and his brothers, James, Joses, Simon, and Judas? 13.56. Aren't all of his sisters with us? Where then did this man get all of these things?" 13.57. They were offended by him. But Jesus said to them, "A prophet is not without honor, except in his own country, and in his own house." 13.58. He didn't do many mighty works there because of their unbelief.
32. Tosefta, Moed Qatan, 2.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 229
33. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.75 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 481
2.75. But then our legislator hath forbidden us to make images, not by way of denunciation beforehand, that the Roman authority was not to be honored, but as despising a thing that was neither necessary nor useful for either God or man; and he forbade them, as we shall prove hereafter, to make these images for any part of the animal creation,
34. Palestinian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 907
35. Palestinian Talmud, Sheviit, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
36. Clement of Alexandria, Christ The Educator, 3.11.59 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, loss of pagan meaning for christians and jews Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 909
37. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 2.2.22 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, loss of pagan meaning for christians and jews Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 907
38. Clement of Alexandria, Exhortation To The Greeks, 4.60.1-4.60.2, 12.119 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, loss of pagan meaning for christians and jews Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 908, 909, 910
39. Achilles Tatius, The Adventures of Leucippe And Cleitophon, 3.6.1, 3.7, 4.8 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, loss of pagan meaning for christians and jews Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 908, 909
40. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 2.20, 2.22, 4.28 (2nd cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, loss of pagan meaning for christians and jews Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 909, 910, 935
2.20. πορευθέντας δὲ αὐτοὺς ὑπὲρ τὸν ποταμὸν ἦγεν ὁ παρὰ τοῦ σατράπου ἡγεμὼν εὐθὺ τῶν Ταξίλων, οὗ τὰ βασίλεια ἦν τῷ ̓Ινδῷ. στολὴν δὲ εἶναι τοῖς μετὰ τὸν ̓Ινδὸν λίνου φασὶν ἐγχωρίου καὶ ὑποδήματα βύβλου καὶ κυνῆν, ὅτε ὕοι, καὶ βύσσῳ δὲ τοὺς φανερωτέρους αὐτῶν φασιν ἐστάλθαι, τὴν δὲ βύσσον φύεσθαι δένδρου φασὶν ὁμοίου μὲν τῇ λεύκῃ τὴν βάσιν, παραπλησίου δὲ τῇ ἰτέᾳ τὰ πέταλα. καὶ ἡσθῆναι τῇ βύσσῳ φησὶν ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος, ἐπειδὴ ἔοικε φαιῷ τρίβωνι. καὶ ἐς Αἴγυπτον δὲ ἐξ ̓Ινδῶν ἐς πολλὰ τῶν ἱερῶν φοιτᾷ ἡ βύσσος. τὰ δὲ Τάξιλα μέγεθος μὲν εἶναι κατὰ τὴν Νῖνον, τετειχίσθαι δὲ ξυμμέτρως, ὥσπερ αἱ ̔Ελλάδες, βασίλεια δὲ εἶναι ἀνδρὸς τὴν Πώρου τότε ἀρχὴν ἄρχοντος, νεὼν δὲ πρὸ τοῦ τείχους ἰδεῖν φασιν οὐ παρὰ πολὺ τῶν ἑκατομπόδων λίθου κογχυλιάτου, καὶ κατεσκευάσθαι τι ἱερὸν ἐν αὐτῷ ἧττον μὲν ἢ κατὰ τὸν νεὼν τοσοῦτόν τε ὄντα καὶ περικίονα, θαυμάσαι δὲ ἄξιον: χαλκοῖ γὰρ πίνακες ἐγκεκρότηνται τοίχῳ ἑκάστῳ, γεγραμμένοι τὰ Πώρου τε καὶ ̓Αλεξάνδρου ἔργα: γεγράφαται δὲ ὀρειχάλκῳ καὶ ἀργύρῳ καὶ χρυσῷ καὶ χαλκῷ μέλανι ἐλέφαντες ἵπποι στρατιῶται κράνη ἀσπίδες, λόγχαι δὲ καὶ βέλη καὶ ξίφη σιδήρου πάντα, καὶ ὥσπερ λόγος εὐδοκίμου γραφῆς, οἷον εἰ Ζεύξιδος εἴη τι ἢ Πολυγνώτου τε καὶ Εὐφράνορος, οἳ τὸ εὔσκιον ἠσπάσαντο καὶ τὸ ἔμπνουν καὶ τὸ ἐσέχον τε καὶ ἐξέχον, οὕτως, φασί, κἀκεῖ διαφαίνεται, καὶ ξυντετήκασιν αἱ ὕλαι καθάπερ χρώματα. ἡδὺ δὲ καὶ αὐτὸ τὸ ἦθος τῆς γραφῆς: ἀναθεὶς γὰρ ταῦτα μετὰ τὴν τοῦ Μακεδόνος τελευτὴν ὁ Πῶρος νικᾷ ἐν αὐτοῖς ὁ Μακεδὼν καὶ τὸν Πῶρον ἀνακτᾶται τετρωμένον καὶ δωρεῖται τὴν ̓Ινδικὴν ἑαυτοῦ λοιπὸν οὖσαν. λέγεται δὲ καὶ πενθῆσαι τὸν ̓Αλέξανδρον ἀποθανόντα ὁ Πῶρος ὀλοφύρασθαί τε ὡς γενναῖον καὶ χρηστὸν βασιλέα, ζῶντός τε ̓Αλεξάνδρου μετὰ τὴν ἐκ τῆς ̓Ινδικῆς ἀναχώρησιν μήτε εἰπεῖν τι ὡς βασιλεὺς καίτοι ξυγχωροῦντος, μήτε προστάξαι τοῖς ̓Ινδοῖς, ἀλλ' ὥσπερ σατράπης σωφροσύνης μεστὸς εἶναι καὶ πράττειν ἐς χάριν τὴν ἐκείνου πάντα. 2.22. ὃν δὲ διέτριβεν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ χρόνον, πολὺς δὲ οὗτος ἐγένετο, ἔστ' ἂν ἀγγελθῇ τῷ βασιλεῖ ξένους ἥκειν, “ὦ Δάμι” ἔφη ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος, “ἔστι τι γραφική;” “εἴ γε” εἶπε “καὶ ἀλήθεια.” “πράττει δὲ τί ἡ τέχνη αὕτη;” “τὰ χρώματα” ἔφη “ξυγκεράννυσιν, ὁπόσα ἐστί, τὰ κυανᾶ τοῖς βατραχείοις καὶ τὰ λευκὰ τοῖς μέλασι καὶ τὰ πυρσὰ τοῖς ὠχροῖς.” “ταυτὶ δὲ” ἦ δ' ὃς “ὑπὲρ τίνος μίγνυσιν; οὐ γὰρ ὑπὲρ μόνου τοῦ ἄνθους, ὥσπερ αἱ κήριναι.” “ὑπὲρ μιμήσεως” ἔφη “καὶ τοῦ κύνα τε ἐξεικάσαι καὶ ἵππον καὶ ἄνθρωπον καὶ ναῦν καὶ ὁπόσα ὁρᾷ ὁ ἥλιος: ἤδη δὲ καὶ τὸν ἥλιον αὐτὸν ἐξεικάζει τοτὲ μὲν ἐπὶ τεττάρων ἵππων, οἷος ἐνταῦθα λέγεται φαίνεσθαι, τοτὲ δ' αὖ καὶ διαπυρσεύοντα τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, ἐπειδὰν αἰθέρα ὑπογράφῃ καὶ θεῶν οἶκον.” “μίμησις οὖν ἡ γραφική, ὦ Δάμι;” “τί δὲ ἄλλο;” εἶπεν “εἰ γὰρ μὴ τοῦτο πράττοι, γελοία δόξει χρώματα ποιοῦσα εὐήθως.” “τὰ δ' ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ” ἔφη “βλεπόμενα, ἐπειδὰν αἱ νεφέλαι διασπασθῶσιν ἀπ' ἀλλήλων, τοὺς κενταύρους καὶ τραγελάφους καὶ, νὴ Δί', οἱ λύκοι τε καὶ οἱ ἵπποι, τί φήσεις; ἆρ' οὐ μιμητικῆς εἶναι ἔργα;” “ἔοικεν,” ἔφη. “ζωγράφος οὖν ὁ θεός, ὦ Δάμι, καὶ καταλιπὼν τὸ πτηνὸν ἅρμα, ἐφ' οὗ πορεύεται διακοσμῶν τὰ θεῖά τε καὶ ἀνθρώπεια, κάθηται τότε ἀθύρων τε καὶ γράφων ταῦτα, ὥσπερ οἱ παῖδες ἐν τῇ ψάμμῳ;” ἠρυθρίασεν ὁ Δάμις ἐς οὕτως ἄτοπον ἐκπεσεῖν δόξαντος τοῦ λόγου. οὐχ ὑπεριδὼν οὖν αὐτὸν ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος, οὐδὲ γὰρ πικρὸς πρὸς τὰς ἐλέγξεις ἦν, “ἀλλὰ μὴ τοῦτο” ἔφη “βούλει λέγειν, ὦ Δάμι, τὸ ταῦτα μὲν ἄσημά τε καὶ ὡς ἔτυχε διὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ φέρεσθαι τόγε ἐπὶ τῷ θεῷ, ἡμᾶς δὲ φύσει τὸ μιμητικὸν ἔχοντας ἀναρρυθμίζειν τε αὐτὰ καὶ ποιεῖν;” “μᾶλλον” ἔφη “τοῦτο ἡγώμεθα, ὦ ̓Απολλώνιε, πιθανώτερον γὰρ καὶ πολλῷ βέλτιον.” “διττὴ ἄρα ἡ μιμητική, ὦ Δάμι, καὶ τὴν μὲν ἡγώμεθα οἵαν τῇ χειρὶ ἀπομιμεῖσθαι καὶ τῷ νῷ, γραφικὴν δὲ εἶναι ταύτην, τὴν δ' αὖ μόνῳ τῷ νῷ εἰκάζειν.” “οὐ διττήν,” ἔφη ὁ Δάμις “ἀλλὰ τὴν μὲν τελεωτέραν ἡγεῖσθαι προσήκει γραφικήν γε οὖσαν, ἣ δύναται καὶ τῷ νῷ καὶ τῇ χειρὶ ἐξεικάσαι, τὴν δὲ ἑτέραν ἐκείνης μόριον, ἐπειδὴ ξυνίησι μὲν καὶ μιμεῖται τῷ νῷ καὶ μὴ γραφικός τις ὤν, τῇ χειρὶ δὲ οὐκ ἂν ἐς τὸ γράφειν αὐτὰ χρήσαιτο.” “ἆρα,” ἔφη “ὦ Δάμι, πεπηρωμένος τὴν χεῖρα ὑπὸ πληγῆς τινος ἢ νόσου;” “μὰ Δί'” εἶπεν “ἀλλ' ὑπὸ τοῦ μήτε γραφίδος τινὸς ἧφθαι, μήτε ὀργάνου τινὸς ἢ χρώματος, ἀλλ' ἀμαθῶς ἔχειν τοῦ γράφειν.” “οὐκοῦν,” ἔφη “ὦ Δάμι, ἄμφω ὁμολογοῦμεν μιμητικὴν μὲν ἐκ φύσεως τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ἥκειν, τὴν γραφικὴν δὲ ἐκ τέχνης. τουτὶ δ' ἂν καὶ περὶ τὴν πλαστικὴν φαίνοιτο. τὴν δὲ δὴ ζωγραφίαν αὐτὴν οὔ μοι δοκεῖς μόνον τὴν διὰ τῶν χρωμάτων ἡγεῖσθαι, καὶ γὰρ ἓν χρῶμα ἐς αὐτὴν ἤρκεσε τοῖς γε ἀρχαιοτέροις τῶν γραφέων καὶ προϊοῦσα τεττάρων εἶτα πλειόνων ἥψατο, ἀλλὰ καὶ γραμμὴν καὶ τὸ ἄνευ χρώματος, ὃ δὴ σκιᾶς τε ξύγκειται καὶ φωτός, ζωγραφίαν προσήκει καλεῖν: καὶ γὰρ ἐν αὐτοῖς ὁμοιότης τε ὁρᾶται εἶδός τε καὶ νοῦς καὶ αἰδὼς καὶ θρασύτης, καίτοι χηρεύει χρωμάτων ταῦτα, καὶ οὔτε αἷμα ἐνσημαίνει οὔτε κόμης τινὸς ἢ ὑπήνης ἄνθος, ἀλλὰ μονοτρόπως ξυντιθέμενα τῷ τε ξανθῷ ἀνθρώπῳ ἔοικε καὶ τῷ λευκῷ, κἂν τούτων τινὰ τῶν ̓Ινδῶν λευκῇ τῇ γραμμῇ γράψωμεν, μέλας δήπου δόξει, τὸ γὰρ ὑπόσιμον τῆς ῥινὸς καὶ οἱ ὀρθοὶ βόστρυχοι καὶ ἡ περιττὴ γένυς καὶ ἡ περὶ τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς οἷον ἔκπληξις μελαίνει τὰ ὁρώμενα καὶ ̓Ινδὸν ὑπογράφει τοῖς γε μὴ ἀνοήτως ὁρῶσιν. ὅθεν εἴποιμ' ἂν καὶ τοὺς ὁρῶντας τὰ τῆς γραφικῆς ἔργα μιμητικῆς δεῖσθαι: οὐ γὰρ ἂν ἐπαινέσειέ τις τὸν γεγραμμένον ἵππον ἢ ταῦρον μὴ τὸ ζῷον ἐνθυμηθείς, ᾧ εἴκασται, οὐδ' ἂν τὸν Αἴαντά τις τὸν Τιμομάχου ἀγασθείη, ὃς δὴ ἀναγέγραπται αὐτῷ μεμηνώς, εἰ μὴ ἀναλάβοι τι ἐς τὸν νοῦν Αἴαντος εἴδωλον καὶ ὡς εἰκὸς αὐτὸν ἀπεκτονότα τὰ ἐν τῇ Τροίᾳ βουκόλια καθῆσθαι ἀπειρηκότα, βουλὴν ποιούμενον καὶ ἑαυτὸν κτεῖναι. ταυτὶ δέ, ὦ Δάμι, τὰ τοῦ Πώρου δαίδαλα μήτε χαλκευτικῆς μόνον ἀποφαινώμεθα, γεγραμμένοις γὰρ εἴκασται, μήτε γραφικῆς, ἐπειδὴ ἐχαλκεύθη, ἀλλ' ἡγώμεθα σοφίσασθαι αὐτὰ γραφικόν τε καὶ χαλκευτικὸν ἕνα ἄνδρα, οἷον δή τι παρ' ̔Ομήρῳ τὸ τοῦ ̔Ηφαίστου περὶ τὴν τοῦ ̓Αχιλλέως ἀσπίδα ἀναφαίνεται. μεστὰ γὰρ καὶ ταῦτα ὀλλύντων τε καὶ ὀλλυμένων, καὶ τὴν γῆν ᾑματῶσθαι φήσεις χαλκῆν οὖσαν.” 4.28. ἰδὼν δὲ ἐς τὸ ἕδος τὸ ἐν ̓Ολυμπίᾳ “χαῖρε,” εἶπεν “ἀγαθὲ Ζεῦ, σὺ γὰρ οὕτω τι ἀγαθός, ὡς καὶ σαυτοῦ κοινωνῆσαι τοῖς ἀνθρώποις.” ἐξηγήσατο δὲ καὶ τὸν χαλκοῦν Μίλωνα καὶ τὸν λόγον τοῦ περὶ αὐτὸν σχήματος. ὁ γὰρ Μίλων ἑστάναι μὲν ἐπὶ δίσκου δοκεῖ τὼ πόδε ἄμφω συμβεβηκώς, ῥόαν δὲ ξυνέχει τῇ ἀριστερᾷ, ἡ δεξιὰ δέ, ὀρθοὶ τῆς χειρὸς ἐκείνης οἱ δάκτυλοι καὶ οἷον διείροντες. οἱ μὲν δὴ κατ' ̓Ολυμπίαν τε καὶ ̓Αρκαδίαν λόγοι τὸν ἀθλητὴν ἱστοροῦσι τοῦτον ἄτρεπτον γενέσθαι καὶ μὴ ἐκβιβασθῆναί ποτε τοῦ χώρου, ἐν ᾧ ἔστη, δηλοῦσθαι δὲ τὸ μὲν ἀπρὶξ τῶν δακτύλων ἐν τῇ ξυνοχῇ τῆς ῥόας, τὸ δὲ μηδ' ἂν σχισθῆναί ποτ' ἀπ' ἀλλήλων αὐτούς, εἴ τις πρὸς ἕνα αὐτῶν ἁμιλλῷτο, τῷ τὰς διαφυὰς ἐν ὀρθοῖς τοῖς δακτύλοις εὖ ξυνηρμόσθαι, τὴν ταινίαν δέ, ἣν ἀναδεῖται, σωφροσύνης ἡγοῦνται ξύμβολον. ὁ δὲ ̓Απολλώνιος σοφῶς μὲν εἶπεν ἐπινενοῆσθαι ταῦτα, σοφώτερα δὲ εἶναι τὰ ἀληθέστερα. “ὡς δὲ γιγνώσκοιτε τὸν νοῦν τοῦ Μίλωνος, Κροτωνιᾶται τὸν ἀθλητὴν τοῦτον ἱερέα ἐστήσαντο τῆς ̔́Ηρας. τὴν μὲν δὴ μίτραν ὅ τι χρὴ νοεῖν, τί ἂν ἐξηγοίμην ἔτι, μνημονεύσας ἱερέως ἀνδρός; ἡ ῥόα δὲ μόνη φυτῶν τῇ ̔́Ηρᾳ φύεται, ὁ δὲ ὑπὸ τοῖς ποσὶ δίσκος, ἐπὶ ἀσπιδίου βεβηκὼς ὁ ἱερεὺς τῇ ̔́Ηρᾳ εὔχεται, τουτὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ δεξιὰ σημαίνει, τὸ δὲ ἔργον τῶν δακτύλων καὶ τὸ μήπω διεστὼς τῇ ἀρχαίᾳ ἀγαλματοποιίᾳ προσκείσθω.” 2.20. And after they had crossed the river, they were conducted by the satrap's guide direct to Taxila, where the Indian had his royal palace. And they say that on that side of the Indus the dress of the people consists of native linen, with shoes of byblus and a hat when it rains; but that the upper classes there are appareled in byssus; and that the byssus grows upon a tree of which the stem resembles that of the white poplar, and the leaves those of the willow. And Apollonius says that he was delighted with the byssus, because it resembled his sable philosopher's cloak. And the byssus is imported into Egypt from India for many sacred uses. Taxila, they tell us, is about as big as Nineveh, and was fortified fairly well after the manner of Greek cities; and here was the royal residence of the personage who then ruled the empire of Porus. And they saw a Temple, they saw, in front of the wall, which was not far short of 100 feet in size, made of porphyry, and there was constructed within it a shrine, somewhat small as compared with the great size of the Temple which is surrounded with columns, but deserving of notice. For bronze tablets were nailed into each of its walls on which were engraved the exploits of Porus and Alexander. But the pattern was wrought with orichalcus and silver and gold and black bronze, of elephants, horses, soldiers, helmets, shields, but spears, and javelins and swords, were all made of iron; and the composition was like the subject of some famous painting by Zeuxis or Polygnotus and Euphranor, who delighted in light and shade; and, they say, here also was an appearance of real life, as well as depth and relief. And the metals were blended in the design, melted in like so many colors; and the character of the picture was also pleasing in itself, for Porus dedicated these designs after the death of the Macedonian, who is depicted in the hour of victory, restoring Porus who is wounded, and presenting him with India which was now his gift. And it is said that Porus mourned over the death of Alexander, and that he lamented him as generous and a good prince; and as long as Alexander was alive after his departure from India, he never used the royal diction and style, although he had license to do so, nor issued kingly edicts to the Indians, but figured himself as satrap full of moderation, and guided every action by the wish to please Alexander. 2.22. While he was waiting in the Temple, — and it took a long time for the king to be informed that strangers had arrived, — Apollonius said: O Damis, is there such a thing as painting? Why yes, he answered, if there be any such thing as truth. And what does this art do? It mixes together, replied Damis, all the colors there are, blue with green, and white with black, and red with yellow. And for what reason, said the other, does it mix these? For it isn't merely to get a color, like dyed wax. It is, said Damis, for the sake of imitation, and to get a likeness of a dog, or a horse, or a man, or a ship, or of anything else under the sun; and what is more, you see the sun himself represented, sometimes borne upon a four horse car, as he is said to be seen here, and sometimes again traversing the heaven with his torch, in case you are depicting the ether and the home of the gods. Then, O Damis, painting is imitation? And what else could it be? said he: for if it did not effect that, it would voted to be an idle playing with colors. And, said the other, the things which are seen in heaven, whenever the clouds are torn away from one another, I mean the centaurs and stag-antelopes, yes, and the wolves too, and the horses, what have you got to say about them? Are we not to regard them as works of imitation? It would seem so, he replied. Then, Damis, God is a painter, and has left his winged chariot, upon which he travels, as he disposes of affairs human and divine, and he sits down on these occasions to amuse himself by drawing these pictures, as children make figures in the sand. Damis blushed, for he felt that his argument was reduced to such an absurdity. But Apollonius, on his side, had no wish to humiliate him, for he was not unfeeling in his refutations of people, and said: But I am sure, Damis, you did not mean that; rather that these figures flit through the heaven not only without meaning, but, so far as providence is concerned, by mere chance; while we who by nature are prone to imitation rearrange and create them in these regular figures. We may, he said, rather consider this to be the case, O Apollonius, for it is more probable, and a much sounder idea. Then, O Damis, the mimetic art is twofold, and we may regard the one kind as an employment of the hands and mind in producing imitations, and declare that this is painting, whereas the other kind consists in making likenesses with the mind alone. Not twofold, replied Damis, for we ought to regard the former as the more perfect and more complete kind, being anyhow painting and a faculty of making likenesses with the help both of mind and hand; but we must regard the other kind as a department that, since its possessor perceives and imitates with the mind, without having the delineative faculty, and would never use his hand in depicting its objects. Then, said Apollonius, you mean, Damis, that the hand may be disabled by a blow or by disease? No, he answered, but it is disabled, because it has never handled pencil nor any instrument or color, and has never learned to draw. Then, said the other, we are both of us, Damis, agreed that man owes his mimetic faculty to nature, but his power of painting to art. And the same would appear to be true of plastic art. But, methinks, you would not confine painting itself to the mere use of colors, for a single color was often found sufficient for this purpose by our older painters; and as the art advanced, it employed four, and later, yet more; but we must also concede the name of a painting to an outline drawn without any color at all, and composed merely of shadow and light. For in such designs we see a resemblance, we see form and expression, and modesty and bravery, although they are altogether devoid of color; and neither blood is represented, nor the color of a man's hair or beard; nevertheless these compositions in monochrome are likenesses of people either tawny or white, and if we drew one of these Indians with a pencil without color, yet he would be known for a negro, for his flat nose, and his stiff curling locks and prominent jaw, and a certain gleam about his eyes, would give a black look to the picture and depict an Indian to the eyes of all those who have intelligence. And for this reason I should say that those who look at works of painting and drawing require a mimetic faculty; for no one could appreciate or admire a picture of a horse or of a bull, unless he had formed an idea of the picture represented. Nor again could one admire a picture of Ajax, by the painter Timomachus, which represents him in a state of madness, unless one had conceived in one's mind first an idea or notion of Ajax, and had entertained the probability that after killing the flocks in Troy he would sit down exhausted and even meditate suicide. But these elaborate works of Porus we cannot, Damis, regard as works of brass founding alone, for they are cast in brass; so let us regard them as the chefs d'oeuvre of a man who is both painter and brass-founder at once, and as similar to the work of Hephaestus upon the shield of Achilles, as revealed in Homer. For they are crowded together in that work too men slaying and slain, and you would say that the earth was stained with gore, though it is made of brass. 4.28. And looking at the statue set up at Olympia, he said: Hail, O thou good Zeus, for thou art so good that thou dost impart thine own nature unto mankind. And he also gave them an account of the brazen statue of Milo and explained the attitude of this figure. For this Milo is seen standing on a disk with his two feet close together, and in his left hand he grasps a pomegranate, whole of his right hand the fingers are extended and pressed together as if to pass through a chink. Now among the people of Olympia and Arcadia the story told about this athlete is, that he was so inflexible that he could never be induced to leave the spot on which he stood; and they infer the grip of the clenched fingers from the way he grasps the pomegranate, and that they could never be separated from another, however much you struggled with any one of them, because the intervals between the extended fingers are very close; and they say that the fillet with which his head is bound is a symbol of temperance and sobriety. Apollonius while admitting that this account was wisely conceived, said that the truth was still wiser. In order that you may know, said he, the meaning of the statue of Milo, the people of Croton made this athlete a priest of Hera. As to the meaning then of this mitre, I need not explain it further than by reminding you that the hero was a priest. But the pomegranate is the only fruit which is grown in honor of Hera; and the disk beneath his feet means that the priest is standing on a small shield to offer his prayer to Hera; and this is also indicated by his right hand. As for the artist's rendering the fingers and feet, between which he has left no interval, that you may ascribe to the antique style of the sculpture.
41. Tertullian, Apology, 28 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, loss of pagan meaning for christians and jews Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 911
28. But as it was easily seen to be unjust to compel freemen against their will to offer sacrifice (for even in other acts of religious service a willing mind is required), it should be counted quite absurd for one man to compel another to do honour to the gods, when he ought ever voluntarily, and in the sense of his own need, to seek their favour, lest in the liberty which is his right he should be ready to say, I want none of Jupiter's favours; pray who are you? Let Janus meet me with angry looks, with whichever of his faces he likes; what have you to do with me? You have been led, no doubt, by these same evil spirits to compel us to offer sacrifice for the well-being of the emperor; and you are under a necessity of using force, just as we are under an obligation to face the dangers of it. This brings us, then, to the second ground of accusation, that we are guilty of treason against a majesty more august; for you do homage with a greater dread and an intenser reverence to C sar, than Olympian Jove himself. And if you knew it, upon sufficient grounds. For is not any living man better than a dead one, whoever he be? But this is not done by you on any other ground than regard to a power whose presence you vividly realize; so that also in this you are convicted of impiety to your gods, inasmuch as you show a greater reverence to a human sovereignty than you do to them. Then, too, among you, people far more readily swear a false oath in the name of all the gods, than in the name of the single genius of C sar.
42. Heliodorus, Ethiopian Story, 4.8 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, loss of pagan meaning for christians and jews Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 910
43. Babylonian Talmud, Eruvin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 483
96a. ואיבעית אימא דכ"ע לצאת לא בעי כוונה והכא לעבור משום בל תוסיף קמיפלגי דתנא קמא סבר לעבור משום בל תוסיף לא בעי כוונה ורבן גמליאל סבר לעבור משום בל תוסיף בעי כוונה,ואיבעית אימא אי דסבירא לן דשבת זמן תפילין דכ"ע לא לעבור בעי כוונה ולא לצאת בעי כוונה,והכא בלעבור שלא בזמנו קמיפלגי תנא קמא סבר לא בעי כוונה ורבן גמליאל סבר לעבור שלא בזמנו בעי כוונה,אי הכי לרבי מאיר זוג אחד נמי לא,ועוד הישן בשמיני בסוכה ילקה אלא מחוורתא כדשנינן מעיקרא,ומאן שמעת ליה שבת זמן תפילין ר' עקיבא דתניא (שמות יג, י) ושמרת את החקה הזאת למועדה מימים ימימה ימים ולא לילות מימים ולא כל ימים פרט לשבתות וימים טובים דברי רבי יוסי הגלילי,ר' עקיבא אומר לא נאמר חוקה זו אלא לענין פסח בלבד,ואלא הא דתנן הפסח והמילה מצות עשה לימא דלא כרבי עקיבא דאי ר"ע כיון דמוקי לה בפסח לאו נמי איכא כדרבי אבין א"ר אילעאי דאמר רבי אבין אמר רבי אילעאי כל מקום שנאמר השמר פן ואל אינו אלא בלא תעשה,אפילו תימא רבי עקיבא השמר דלאו לאו השמר דעשה עשה,וסבר רבי עקיבא שבת זמן תפילין הוא והתניא ר"ע אומר יכול יניח אדם תפילין בשבתות וימים טובים ת"ל (שמות יג, ט) והיה לך לאות על ידך מי שצריכין אות יצאו אלו שהן גופן אות,אלא האי תנא הוא דתניא הניעור בלילה רצה חולץ רצה מניח דברי רבי נתן יונתן הקיטוני אומר אין מניחין תפילין בלילה מדלילה לתנא קמא זמן תפילין שבת נמי זמן תפילין,דילמא ס"ל לילה זמן תפילין הוא שבת לאו זמן תפילין הוא דהא שמעינן ליה לרבי עקיבא דאמר לילה זמן תפילין הוא שבת לאו זמן תפילין הוא,אלא האי תנא הוא דתניא מיכל בת כושי היתה מנחת תפילין ולא מיחו בה חכמים ואשתו של יונה היתה עולה לרגל ולא מיחו בה חכמים מדלא מיחו בה חכמים אלמא קסברי מצות עשה שלא הזמן גרמא היא,ודילמא סבר לה 96a. b And if you wish, say /b instead that b everyone agrees /b that b to fulfill /b a mitzva b one does not need intent, and here they disagree with regard to /b the condition needed b to violate /b the prohibition: b Do not add /b to mitzvot of the Torah. b As the first i tanna /i holds /b that b one does not need intent to violate /b the prohibition: b Do not add /b to mitzvot. One who dons another pair of phylacteries transgresses the prohibition against adding to mitzvot even if he does not don them with the intention of fulfilling the mitzva. b And Rabban Gamliel holds /b that in order b to violate /b the prohibition: b Do not add /b to mitzvot, b one needs intent /b to perform a mitzva. Since in this case one’s intention is merely to move the phylacteries to a safer place, he may don a second pair., b And if you wish, say /b instead that the dispute may be explained as follows. b If we were to maintain /b that b Shabbat is /b a fit b time for /b donning b phylacteries, everyone /b would b agree /b that b one does not need intent to violate /b the prohibition against adding to mitzvot, b nor does one need intent to fulfill /b a mitzva. In this case, one’s intention has no bearing on his action., b However, here, they disagree with regard to /b the condition for b violating /b the prohibition against adding to a mitzva b not in its /b proper b time, /b i.e., when a mitzva is performed not at its prescribed time. b The first i tanna /i holds /b that if the act of a mitzva is performed not in its proper time, b one does not need intent; /b that is, even if one does not intend to perform the mitzva he nonetheless violates the prohibition against adding to mitzvot by his action alone. Consequently, in this case, a person may not don more than one pair of phylacteries. b And Rabban Gamliel holds that to violate /b the prohibition against adding to a mitzva b not in its /b proper b time, one needs intent /b to fulfill the mitzva. Without such intent one does not violate the prohibition, and therefore in this case he may don a second pair of phylacteries.,With regard to this last explanation the Gemara asks: b If so, according to /b the opinion of b Rabbi Meir /b one should b not even /b don b one pair /b of phylacteries. According to Rabbi Meir’s opinion, one who does so violates the prohibition against adding to mitzvot merely by donning one pair, since he is fulfilling the mitzva of phylacteries at a time when he is not commanded to do so., b And furthermore, /b according to this opinion, b one who sleeps in a i sukka /i on the Eighth Day /b of Assembly b should be flogged /b for violating the prohibition against adding to mitzvot, as he adds to the mitzva of: “You shall dwell in booths for seven days” (Leviticus 23:42). Yet the Sages instituted that outside of Eretz Yisrael, Jews must observe i Sukkot /i for eight days, even though one who sleeps in a i sukka /i on the eighth night outside of Eretz Yisrael transgresses a Torah law. b Rather, it is clear as we originally answered, /b i.e., you must accept one of the other explanations.,Since the topic of phylacteries was discussed, the Gemara continues to explore this issue. b Whom did you hear /b who said that b Shabbat is /b a fit b time for /b donning b phylacteries? /b It is b Rabbi Akiva, as it was taught /b in a i baraita /i with regard to the end of the section in the Torah beginning with: “Sanctify all firstborns to me” (Exodus 13:2), which deals with the mitzvot of the Paschal lamb and phylacteries: b “And you shall observe this ordice in its season from year [ i miyamim /i ] to year” /b (Exodus 13:10), which indicates that these mitzvot apply during the b days /b [ b i yamim /i /b ] b and not /b during the b nights. /b Furthermore, the letter i mem /i in b “from year” [ i miyamim /i ] /b teaches: b But not /b on b all days; /b this b excludes Shabbat and Festivals, /b on which phylacteries are not worn. This is b the statement of Rabbi Yosei HaGelili. /b , b Rabbi Akiva says: This ordice is stated only with regard to the Paschal /b lamb, and it does not refer to phylacteries at all. According to Rabbi Akiva, there is no reason to refrain from donning phylacteries on Shabbat and Festivals.,The Gemara asks: b But /b with regard to b that /b which b we learned /b in a mishna that b the Paschal /b lamb b and circumcision are positive mitzvot, let us say that /b this statement is b not in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Akiva. /b The reason for this claim is b that if /b you say this teaching is in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Akiva, since he establishes /b this verse as referring b to the Paschal /b lamb, this would mean that in failure to bring this offering there b is also /b the violation of b a negative /b mitzva, b in accordance with /b the principle b that Rabbi Avin /b said that b Rabbi Elai said. As Rabbi Avin said /b that b Rabbi Elai said: Any place /b where b it is stated: Observe, lest, or do not, /b this means b nothing other than a negative /b mitzva, as these are negative terms. Consequently, the verse “You shall observe this ordice,” which refers to the Paschal lamb, constitutes a negative mitzva.,The Gemara rejects this: b Even if you say /b that b Rabbi Akiva /b holds that no negative mitzva applies to the Paschal lamb, it is not difficult, as an additional principle must be taken into account. Although it is true that the term b observe with regard to a negative /b mitzva indicates the presence of another b negative /b mitzva; that same term b observe /b with regard to b a positive /b mitzva has the force of b a positive /b mitzva, as the Torah is warning adherents to take special care in the observance of a mitzva. The word observe in connection with the Paschal lamb is an example of this type of positive mitzva.,The Gemara returns to the issue at hand: b And /b does b Rabbi Akiva /b really b hold that Shabbat is a time for /b donning b phylacteries? Wasn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Akiva says: /b I b might /b have thought that b a person should don phylacteries on i Shabbatot /i and Festivals. /b Therefore, b the verse states: “And it shall be for a sign for you on your arm, /b and for a remembrance between your eyes, so that God’s law shall be in your mouth; for with a strong arm God brought you out of Egypt” (Exodus 13:9). The obligation to don phylacteries applies when Jews b require a sign /b to assert their Judaism and their status as the Chosen People, i.e., during the week, b excluding /b Shabbat and Festivals, b as they are themselves signs /b of Israel’s status as the Chosen People and a remembrance of the exodus from Egypt. Consequently, no further sign is required on these days. This teaching proves that Rabbi Akiva maintains that Shabbat is not a fit time for donning phylacteries., b Rather, it is this i tanna /i , /b Rabbi Natan, who maintains that Shabbat is a fit time for donning phylacteries, b as it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : With regard to b one who is awake at night, if he wishes he /b may b remove /b his phylacteries, and b if he wishes he /b may continue to b don /b them, and he need not worry about violating the prohibition against adding to mitzvot. This is b the statement of Rabbi Natan. Yonatan HaKitoni says: One /b may b not don phylacteries at night. From /b the fact b that according to the first i tanna /i , /b Rabbi Natan, b night is /b a fit b time for phylacteries, /b it may be inferred that b Shabbat, too, is a time for /b donning b phylacteries, /b as Rabbi Natan evidently does not accept Rabbi Yosei HaGelili’s limitation based on the phrase: From year to year.,The Gemara rejects this contention: This is not a conclusive proof, as b perhaps he holds /b that although b night is /b a fit b time for phylacteries, Shabbat is not /b a fit b time for phylacteries. As we /b have b heard that Rabbi Akiva said /b that b night is a time for phylacteries, /b because he does not accept the limitation of “from days to days,” and yet he maintains that b Shabbat is not a time for phylacteries, /b as no sign is required on Shabbat. It is therefore possible that Rabbi Natan holds the same opinion., b Rather, /b we must say that b it is this i tanna /i /b who maintains that Shabbat is a time for phylacteries, b as it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Michal, daughter of Kushi, /b King Saul, b would don phylacteries, and the Sages did not protest against her /b behavior, as she was permitted to do so. b And /b similarly, b Jonah’s wife would undertake the Festival pilgrimage and the Sages did not protest against her /b practice. b From /b the fact b that the Sages did not protest against /b Michal’s donning phylacteries, b it is apparent that these /b Sages b hold /b that phylacteries b is a positive mitzva not bound by time, /b i.e., it is a mitzva whose performance is mandated at all times, including nights and Shabbat. There is an accepted principle that women are obligated in all positive mitzvot not bound by time.,The Gemara rejects this contention: b But perhaps /b that i tanna /i b holds /b
44. Babylonian Talmud, Rosh Hashanah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005) 89, 483
24b. של חמשה ושל ששה ושל שמונה ושל שבעה לא יעשה אפי' של שאר מיני מתכות רבי יוסי בר יהודה אומר אף של עץ לא יעשה כדרך שעשו מלכי בית חשמונאי,אמרו לו משם ראייה שפודין של ברזל היו וחיפום בבעץ העשירו עשאום של כסף חזרו העשירו עשאום של זהב,ושמשין שאי אפשר לעשות כמותן מי שרי והתניא (שמות כ, יט) לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשיי המשמשין לפני במרום אמר אביי לא אסרה תורה אלא דמות ארבעה פנים בהדי הדדי,אלא מעתה פרצוף אדם לחודיה תשתרי אלמה תניא כל הפרצופות מותרין חוץ מפרצוף אדם א"ר הונא בריה דרב אידי מפרקיה דאביי שמיעא לי לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון אותי,ושאר שמשין מי שרי והא תניא לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשיי המשמשין לפני במרום כגון אופנים ושרפים וחיות הקודש ומלאכי השרת אמר אביי לא אסרה תורה אלא שמשין שבמדור העליון,ושבמדור התחתון מי שרי והתניא (שמות כ, ג) אשר בשמים לרבות חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות ממעל לרבות מלאכי השרת כי תניא ההיא לעבדם,אי לעבדם אפילו שלשול קטן נמי אין ה"נ דתניא (שמות כ, ג) אשר בארץ לרבות הרים וגבעות ימים ונהרות אפיקים וגאיות מתחת לרבות שלשול קטן,ועשייה גרידתא מי שרי והתניא לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשיי המשמשין לפני כגון חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות,שאני ר"ג דאחרים עשו לו והא רב יהודה דאחרים עשו לו וא"ל שמואל לרב יהודה שיננא סמי עיניה דדין,התם חותמו בולט הוה ומשום חשדא כדתניא טבעת חותמו בולט אסור להניחה ומותר לחתום בה חותמו שוקע מותר להניחה ואסור לחתום בה,ומי חיישינן לחשדא והא ההיא בי כנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעא דהוה ביה אנדרטא והוו עיילי רב ושמואל ואבוה דשמואל ולוי ומצלו התם ולא חיישי לחשדא רבים שאני,והא ר"ג יחיד הוא כיון דנשיא הוא שכיחי רבים גביה איבעית אימא דפרקים הוה,ואיבעית אימא להתלמד עבד וכתיב (דברים יח, ט) לא תלמד לעשות אבל אתה למד להבין ולהורות:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מעשה שבאו שנים ואמרו ראינוהו שחרית במזרח 24b. a candelabrum b of five or of six or of eight /b lamps. b But one may not fashion /b a candelabrum with b seven /b lamps b even /b if he constructs it b from other kinds of metal /b rather than gold, as in exigent circumstances the candelabrum in the Temple may be fashioned from other metals. b Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: Also, one may not fashion /b a candelabrum b of wood, in the manner that the kings of the Hasmonean monarchy fashioned /b it. When they first purified the Temple they had to prepare the candelabrum out of wood, as no other material was available. Since this candelabrum is fit for the Temple, it is prohibited to fashion one of this kind for oneself.,The other Sages b said to /b Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda: b From there /b you seek to bring b a proof? /b There the branches of the candelabrum b were /b comprised of b spits [ i shippudin /i ] of iron and they covered them with tin. /b Later, when b they grew richer /b and could afford a candelabrum of higher-quality material, b they fashioned them from silver. /b When b they grew even richer, they fashioned them from gold. /b Still, Abaye proves from this i baraita /i that the prohibition against forming an image applies only to items that can be reconstructed in an accurate manner. Since this is not possible in the case of the moon, Rabban Gamliel’s forms were permitted.,The Gemara asks: b And is it /b really b permitted /b to form images of b those attendants /b concerning b which it is impossible to reproduce their likeness? Isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i that the verse: b “You shall not make with Me /b gods of silver” (Exodus 20:19), comes to teach: b You shall not make images of My attendants that serve before Me on high. /b Apparently, this includes the sun and the moon. b Abaye said: /b This does not include the sun and the moon, as b the Torah prohibited only /b the fashioning of b an image of /b all b four faces /b of the creatures of the Heavenly Chariot b together /b (see Ezekiel, chapter 1). However, all other images, which are not the likeness of the ministering angels, are permitted.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: b However, if /b that is b so, let /b the fashioning of an image of b a human face [ i partzuf /i ] alone be permitted. Why, /b then, b is it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b All faces are permitted /b for ornamental purposes, b except for the face of a person? Rav Huna, son of Rav Idi, said: From a lecture of Abaye I heard /b that there is a different reason why one may not form an image of a human face, as the verse states: b “You shall not make with Me [ i iti /i ]” /b (Exodus 20:19). This can be read as: b You shall not make Me [ i oti /i ]. /b Since man is created in the image of God, it is prohibited to form an image of a human being.,The Gemara asks: b And is it permitted /b to form images of b other attendants? Isn’t it taught /b in another i baraita /i that the verse: b “You shall not make with Me /b gods of silver” (Exodus 20:19), teaches that b you shall not make images of My attendants that serve before Me on high, for example, i ofanim /i and seraphim and the sacred i ḥayyot /i and the ministering angels. Abaye said: The Torah prohibited only /b those b attendants that are /b found b in the upper Heaven, /b i.e., the supreme angels in the highest firmament, but not the celestial bodies, e.g., the sun and the moon, despite the fact that they too are located in heaven.,The Gemara raises another difficulty: b And is it permitted /b to form images of b those /b bodies found b in the lower heaven? Isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : “You shall not make for yourself any graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth” (Exodus 20:3). The phrase b “that is in heaven” /b comes b to include /b the b sun, /b the b moon, /b the b stars, and /b the b constellations. /b The term b “above” /b serves b to include the ministering angels. /b Apparently, it is prohibited to form an image even of the celestial bodies found in the lower Heaven. The Gemara answers: b When that /b i baraita /i b is taught, /b it is in reference to the prohibition b against worshipping them. /b However, there is no prohibition against forming an image in their likeness.,The Gemara asks: b If /b that i baraita /i is referring to b the prohibition against worshipping them, /b then b even a tiny worm /b should b also /b be prohibited. The Gemara answers: b Yes, it is indeed so, as it is taught /b in the same i baraita /i with regard to the continuation of the verse, b “in the earth” /b comes b to include mountains and hills, seas and rivers, streams and valleys; “beneath” /b comes b to include a tiny worm. /b If so, it is indeed possible to explain that the entire i baraita /i is referring to the prohibition against idol worship.,The Gemara raises yet another objection: b And is the mere fashioning /b of images of the celestial bodies b permitted? Isn’t it taught /b in another i baraita /i : b “You shall not make with Me /b gods of silver” (Exodus 20:19). This verse teaches that b you shall not make images of My attendants that serve before Me, for example /b the b sun, /b the b moon, /b the b stars and /b the b constellations. /b This is explicit proof that it is prohibited to form images of the sun and the moon; consequently, the solution proposed by Abaye is rejected, leaving the difficulty with Rabban Gamliel’s diagram unresolved.,The Gemara proposes an alternative resolution: The case of b Rabban Gamliel is different, as others, /b i.e., gentiles, b fashioned /b those images b for him, /b and it is prohibited only for a Jew to fashion such images; there is no prohibition against having them in one’s possession. The Gemara raises a difficulty: b But /b there is the case of b Rav Yehuda, as others fashioned for him /b a seal in the form of a human being, b and Shmuel said to Rav Yehuda, /b who was his student: b Sharp-witted one, blind this one’s eyes, /b i.e., disfigure the image, as it is prohibited even to have the image of a human being in one’s possession.,The Gemara answers: b There, /b in the case of Rav Yehuda, b his was a protruding seal, /b i.e., the image projected from the ring, and Shmuel prohibited it b due to /b the potential b suspicion /b that he had an object of idol worship in his hand. b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : With regard to b a ring, /b if b its seal protrudes it is prohibited to place it /b on one’s finger, due to the suspicion of idol worship, b but it is permitted to seal /b objects b with it. /b In this case, the act of sealing creates an image that is sunken below the surface, which is not prohibited. However, if b its seal is sunken, it is permitted to place it /b on one’s finger, b but it is prohibited to seal /b objects b with it, /b as that creates a protruding image.,The Gemara asks: b And are we concerned about /b arousing b suspicion /b in a case of this kind? b But /b what about that b certain synagogue that had been /b destroyed in Eretz Yisrael and its stones were b relocated and /b it was rebuilt so that it b sat in Neharde’a, /b and b there was a statue [ i andarta /i ] /b of the king b in it. And /b nevertheless b Rav and Shmuel and Shmuel’s father and Levi would /b all b enter and pray there and they were not concerned about /b arousing b suspicion. /b The Gemara answers: When b many /b Jews are present it b is different, /b as a large group is not suspected of having idolatrous intentions. Rather, it is assumed that the statue is there exclusively for purposes of ornamentation.,The Gemara asks: b But isn’t Rabban Gamliel an individual? /b According to this reasoning, his images of the moon should have been prohibited, as they would have aroused suspicion. The Gemara answers: b Since he is the i Nasi /i , /b the head of the Great Sanhedrin, b many /b people b were /b always b found with him, /b and therefore there was no room for suspicion. The Gemara suggests an alternative answer: b If you wish, say /b that these images were not whole; rather, they b were /b formed b from pieces /b of images that had to be put together. Only complete images are prohibited.,The Gemara suggests yet another answer: b If you wish, say: /b Rabban Gamliel b did /b this b to teach himself, /b which is not prohibited, as b it is written: “You shall not learn to do /b after the abominations of those nations” (Deuteronomy 18:9), which indicates: b However, you may learn to understand and to teach. /b In other words, it is permitted to do certain things for the sake of Torah study which would otherwise be prohibited., strong MISHNA: /strong There was b an incident /b in b which two /b witnesses b came /b to testify about the new moon, b and they said: We saw /b the waning moon b in the morning in the east, /b
45. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 7.18 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, loss of pagan meaning for christians and jews Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 907, 911
46. Nilus of Ancyra, Letters, 4.61 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, loss of pagan meaning for christians and jews Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 909
47. Augustine, Letters, 47, 46 (7th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 907
48. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 907
51b. עד כאן הוא מדבר בקדשים שהקדישן בשעת איסור הבמות והקריבן בשעת איסור הבמות,שהרי עונשן אמור שנאמר (ויקרא יז, ד) ואל פתח אהל מועד לא הביאו וגו' עונש שמענו אזהרה מנין ת"ל (דברים יב, יג) פן תעלה עולותיך,וכדר' אבין א"ר אילא דאמר ר' אבין א"ר אילא כל מקום שנאמר השמר ופן ואל אינו אלא בלא תעשה,מכאן ואילך הוא מדבר בקדשים שהקדישן בשעת היתר הבמות והקריבן בשעת איסור הבמות,שנאמר (ויקרא יז, ה) למען אשר יביאו בני ישראל את זבחיהם אשר הם זובחים שהתרתי לך כבר על פני השדה מלמד שכל הזובח בבמה בשעת איסור הבמות מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו הוא זובח על פני השדה,והביאום לה' זו מצות עשה ומצות לא תעשה מנין ת"ל (ויקרא יז, ז) ולא יזבחו עוד את זבחיהם,יכול יהא ענוש כרת ת"ל (ויקרא יז, ז) חקת עולם תהיה זאת להם זאת להם ולא אחרת להם,אמר רבא קרי ביה ולא יזבחו וקרי ביה ולא עוד:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big מצא בראשו מעות כסות או כלים הרי אלו מותרין פרכילי ענבים ועטרות של שבלים ויינות ושמנים וסלתות וכל דבר שכיוצא בו קרב ע"ג המזבח אסור:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנהני מילי א"ר חייא בר יוסף א"ר אושעיא כתוב אחד אומר (דברים כט, טז) ותראו את שקוציהם ואת גלוליהם עץ ואבן כסף וזהב אשר עמהם וכתוב אחד אומר (דברים ז, כה) לא תחמוד כסף וזהב עליהם הא כיצד,עמהם דומיא דעליהם מה עליהם דבר של נוי אסור שאינו של נוי מותר אף עמהם דבר של נוי אסור ושאינו של נוי מותר,ואימא עליהם דומיא דעמהם מה עמהם כל מה שעמהם אף עליהם כל שעליהם א"כ לא יאמר עליהם,מעות דבר של נוי הוא אמרי דבי ר' ינאי בכיס קשור ותלוי לו בצוארו,כסות דבר של נוי הוא אמרי דבי ר' ינאי בכסות מקופלת ומונחת לו על ראשו כלי דבר של נוי הוא אמר רב פפא דסחיפא ליה משכילתא ארישיה,אמר רב אסי בר חייא כל שהוא לפנים מן הקלקלין אפי' מים ומלח אסור חוץ לקלקלין דבר של נוי אסור שאינו של נוי מותר א"ר יוסי בר חנינא נקטינן אין קלקלין לא לפעור ולא למרקוליס,למאי אילימא דאפי' פנים כחוץ דמי ושרי השתא פעורי מפערין קמיה מים ומלח לא מקרבין ליה אלא אפי' חוץ כבפנים דמי ואסור:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big עבודת כוכבים שהיה לה גינה או מרחץ נהנין מהן שלא בטובה ואין נהנין מהן בטובה היה שלה ושל אחרים נהנין מהן בין בטובה ובין שלא בטובה עבודת כוכבים של עובד כוכבים אסורה מיד ושל ישראל אין אסורה עד שתיעבד:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר אביי בטובה בטובת כומרין שלא בטובה שלא בטובת כומרין לאפוקי טובת עובדיה דשרי,איכא דמתני לה אסיפא היה שלה ושל אחרים נהנין מהן בטובה ושלא בטובה אמר אביי בטובה בטובת אחרים שלא בטובה שלא בטובת כומרין,מאן דמתני אסיפא כ"ש ארישא ומאן דמתני ארישא אבל אסיפא כיון דאיכא אחרים בהדה אפי' בטובת כומרין נמי שפיר דמי:,עבודת כוכבים של עובד כוכבים אסורה מיד: מתני' מני ר"ע היא דתניא (דברים יב, ב) אבד תאבדון את כל המקומות אשר עבדו שם הגוים בכלים שנשתמשו בהן לעבודת כוכבים הכתוב מדבר,יכול עשאום ולא גמרום גמרום ולא הביאום הביאום ולא נשתמשו בהן יכול יהו אסורים ת"ל אשר עבדו שם הגוים שאין אסורין עד שיעבדו מכאן אמרו עבודת כוכבים של עובד כוכבים אינה אסורה עד שתיעבד ושל ישראל אסורה מיד דברי ר' ישמעאל,ר"ע אומר חילוף הדברים עבודת כוכבים של עובד כוכבים אסורה מיד ושל ישראל עד שתיעבד,אמר מר בכלים שנשתמשו בהן לעבודת כוכבים הכתוב מדבר הא מקומות כתיב אם אינו ענין למקומות דלא מיתסרי דכתיב (דברים יב, ב) אלהיהם על ההרים ולא ההרים אלהיהם 51b. The verse states: “Any man…that slaughters an ox…outside the camp, and to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting he did not bring it, to sacrifice an offering to the Lord” (Leviticus:17:3–4). b Until this point, /b the verse is b speaking about sacrificial /b animals b that one consecrated during a period when the prohibition of /b sacrificing offerings on private b altars /b was in effect, after the Tabernacle was erected, b and /b then b he /b also b sacrificed them during a period when the prohibition of /b sacrificing on private b altars /b was in effect.,This is apparent b as /b the b punishment /b for sacrificing b them is stated /b in this verse, b as it is stated: “And to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting he did not bring it, /b to sacrifice an offering to the Lord, before the Tabernacle of the Lord…that man shall be cut off from among his people” (Leviticus:17:4). b We have heard /b from that verse the b punishment, /b but with regard to the b prohibition /b against sacrificing on a private altar, b from where /b is it derived? b The verse states: /b “Take heed to yourself b lest you offer up your burnt-offerings /b in every place that you see” (Deuteronomy 12:13).,The Gemara comments: b And /b this is b in accordance with /b the principle b that Rabbi Avin /b says that b Rabbi Ile’a says, as Rabbi Avin says /b that b Rabbi Ile’a says: Wherever it is stated: “Beware,” “lest,” or “do not,” /b this is b nothing other than a prohibition. /b ,The i baraita /i continues: b From that /b point b onward, /b the verse is b speaking about sacrificial /b animals b that one consecrated during a period when /b there was b permission /b to sacrifice offerings on private b altars, /b before the Tabernacle was erected, b and /b then b one sacrificed them /b outside the Tabernacle b during a period when the prohibition of /b sacrificing on private b altars /b was in effect.,This is apparent, b as it is stated: “In order that the children of Israel shall bring their sacrifices, which they slaughter /b upon the open field, that they shall bring them to the Lord, to the entrance of the Tent of Meeting” (Leviticus 17:5). The phrase: “Their sacrifices, which they slaughter,” is interpreted as referring to offerings b that I have previously permitted you /b to slaughter on private altars. This verse teaches that those offerings may now be sacrificed only inside the Tabernacle. The phrase b “upon the open field” teaches that /b in the case of b anyone who slaughters /b an offering b on /b a private b altar during a period when the prohibition of /b sacrificing on private b altars /b is in effect, even if he sacrifices the offering to God, b the verse ascribes him /b blame b as if he is slaughtering /b it b upon the open field /b in idolatrous worship.,The verse continues: b “That they shall bring them to the Lord.” This /b is b a positive mitzva /b to sacrifice even offerings that were consecrated before the Tabernacle was erected in the wilderness. b And from where /b is it derived that there is b a prohibition /b against sacrificing them outside the Tabernacle? b The verse states: “And they shall not slaughter their offerings anymore /b to the i se’irim /i after whom they go astray; this shall be to them an eternal statute, throughout their generations” (Leviticus 17:7).,One b might /b have thought that sacrificing these offerings outside the Tabernacle b would be punishable by i karet /i , /b as this is the i halakha /i with regard to offerings consecrated after the Tabernacle was consecrated. Therefore, b the verse states: “This shall be to them an eternal statute, /b throughout their generations” (Leviticus 17:7). One can infer from this verse that b this, /b the punishment for transgressing a positive mitzva and a prohibition, applies b to them, but no other /b punishment applies b to them. /b In any event, the i baraita /i interprets the verse: “And they shall not slaughter their offerings anymore to the i se’irim /i ,” as prohibiting sacrificing to God on private altars, not as Rabbi Elazar interpreted it, as prohibiting the worship of an idol in an atypical manner., b Rava said: /b One may derive both i halakhot /i from the verse, as the term “And they shall not” can be interpreted as referring to two distinct prohibitions. b Read into /b the verse: b “And they shall not slaughter,” /b which is interpreted as prohibiting offerings to God on private altars. b And /b also b read into /b the verse: b “And they shall not /b slaughter… b anymore /b to the i se’irim /i ,” which is interpreted as prohibiting the worship of an idol in an atypical manner., strong MISHNA: /strong If one b found money, a garment, or vessels at the head of /b Mercury, b these are permitted. /b If one found vine b branches /b laden with clusters b of grapes, or wreaths /b made b of stalks, or /b containers of b wine, oil, or flour, or any /b other b item the likes of which is sacrificed on the altar /b there, it is b prohibited. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that money, clothing, or vessels found at the head of the idol are not forbidden. The Gemara asks: b From where are these matters /b derived? b Rav Ḥiyya bar Yosef says /b that b Rabbi Oshaya says: One verse states: “And you have seen their detestable things and their idols, wood and stone, silver and gold, which are with them” /b (Deuteronomy 29:16). b And one verse states: “You shall not covet the silver or the gold that is on them, /b nor take it for yourself” (Deuteronomy 7:25). b How /b can b these /b texts be reconciled? The second verse mentions the prohibition of only silver and gold, whereas the first verse also mentions wood and stone.,The Gemara answers: This teaches that the prohibition with regard to those items that are b “with them,” /b i.e., those found next to the idols, is b similar to /b the prohibition with regard to those items that are b “on them.” Just as /b with regard to those items that are b on /b the idols, b a decorative item, /b e.g., gold or silver, is b prohibited, /b but that b which is not a decorative /b item is b permitted, so too, /b with regard to those items that are b with /b the idols, b a decorative item /b is b prohibited, and /b that b which is not a decorative /b item is b permitted. /b ,The Gemara challenges: b But /b one could b say /b to the contrary, that the prohibition with regard to those items that are b “on them” /b is b similar to /b the prohibition with regard to those items that are b “with them.” Just as /b with regard to those items that are b with /b the idols, b everything that is /b found b with them /b is included in the prohibition, as the verse mentions wood and stone, which are not decorative items, b so too, /b with regard to those items that are b on /b the idols, b everything that is on them /b is forbidden. The Gemara explains: b If so, /b the verse b should not state /b the prohibition with regard to items that are b on /b the idols, as it may be inferred i a fortiori /i from the prohibition with regard to items that are found next to them.,The Gemara challenges: The mishna teaches that money that is found at the head of the idol is permitted. This is difficult, as b money is a decorative item. The school of Rabbi Yannai say: /b The ruling of the mishna is not stated with regard to a case where coins were placed on the idol in order to adorn it. Rather, the ruling of the mishna is stated b with regard to /b a case where the money is inside b a purse /b that is b tied /b onto the idol b and suspended from its neck /b for safekeeping, or left there as payment for the priests.,The Gemara challenges: The mishna teaches that a garment found at the head of the idol is permitted. This is difficult, as b a garment is a decorative item. The school of Rabbi Yannai say: /b The ruling of the mishna is not stated with regard to a garment that was placed on the idol in order to adorn it. Rather, the ruling of the mishna is stated b with regard to a garment /b that is b folded and placed upon the head of /b the idol. The Gemara challenges: The mishna teaches that vessels found at the head of the idol are permitted. This is difficult, as b a vessel is a decorative item. Rav Pappa said: /b The mishna is referring to b where a pot [ i mashkilta /i ] is placed upside down upon the head of /b the idol, in which case it does not serve as decoration., b Rav Asi bar Ḥiyya says: Any /b item b that is /b found b within the /b inner b partitions [ i hakilkalin /i ] /b that surround the idol, b even water or salt, is prohibited, /b as it is assumed to be an offering brought in idolatrous worship. With regard to items that are found b outside the partitions, a decorative item /b is b prohibited, /b but that b which is not a decorative /b object is b permitted. Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina says: We have a tradition /b that the i halakha /i with regard to the b partitions /b applies b neither to Peor nor to Mercury. /b ,The Gemara asks: b With regard to what /b i halakha /i is this stated? b If we say /b that this means b that /b with regard to Peor and Mercury b even /b items that are found b inside /b the partitions b are /b treated b like /b those that are found b outside /b the partitions b and /b they are b permitted, /b this is difficult. b Now, /b Peor is worshipped by b defecating before it. /b Even excrement is offered to Peor. Is it possible that its worshippers b do not sacrifice water and salt to it? /b Although water and salt are not generally offered to an idol, in the case of Peor they certainly can be. b Rather, /b Rabbi Yosei bar Ḥanina means that with regard to Peor and Mercury b even /b items that are found b outside /b the partitions b are /b treated b like /b those that are found b inside /b the partitions, b and /b they b are prohibited /b even if they are not decorative items., strong MISHNA: /strong In the case of an object of b idol worship that had a garden or a bathhouse, /b one b may derive benefit from them when /b it is b not to /b the b advantage /b of the idol worship, i.e., when he does not pay for his use, b but /b one b may not derive benefit from them /b when it is b to /b their b advantage, /b i.e., if one is required to pay for his use. If the garden or bathhouse b belonged /b jointly b to /b the place of idol worship b and to others, /b one b may derive benefit from them, both /b when it is b to /b their b advantage and when /b it is b not to /b their b advantage. A gentile’s /b object of b idol worship /b is b prohibited immediately, /b i.e., as soon as it is fashioned for that purpose, b but a Jew’s /b object of idol worship is b not prohibited until it is /b actually b worshipped. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong b Abaye says: /b The case where use of the garden or bathhouse is b to /b the ficial b advantage /b of the idol worship is referring to a case where it is b to /b the ficial b advantage of /b the b priests [ i komarin /i ], /b who receive payment for the use of the garden or bathhouse. The case b where /b it is b not to /b their ficial b advantage /b is referring to a case b where /b it is b not to /b the ficial b advantage of /b the b priests. /b This is b to the exclusion of /b a situation where using the facility is only to the ficial b advantage of /b the idol’s b worshippers, /b in b which /b case one is b permitted /b to derive benefit from them.,The Gemara comments: b There are those who teach /b Abaye’s statement b with regard to the latter clause /b of the mishna: If the garden or bathhouse b belonged to /b the place of idol worship b and to others, /b one b may derive benefit from them /b both when it is b to /b their b advantage and when /b it is b not to /b their b advantage. Abaye says: /b The term: When it is b to /b their b advantage, /b is referring to a case where it is b to /b the ficial b advantage of /b the b other /b owners, while the term: b When /b it is b not to /b their b advantage, /b is referring to a case b where /b it is b not to /b the ficial b advantage of /b the b priests. /b But if the use of the place is to the ficial advantage of the priests, one may not derive benefit from the place.,The Gemara notes: According to the b one who teaches /b Abaye’s statement b with regard to /b the case presented in b the latter clause /b of the mishna, where the garden or bathhouse is only partially owned by the place of idol worship, b all the more so /b does this statement apply b to /b the case presented in b the first clause /b of the mishna, where the garden or bathhouse is owned exclusively by the place of idol worship. b But /b according to the b one who teaches /b Abaye’s statement b with regard to /b the case presented in b the first clause, /b Abaye’s statement applies only to that case. b But with regard to /b the case presented in b the latter clause, since there are others /b who own the place b together with /b the place of idol worship, b even /b if the use of the garden or bathhouse is b to /b the ficial b advantage of /b the b priests /b it is b permitted. /b ,§ The mishna teaches: b A gentile’s /b object of b idol worship /b is b prohibited immediately, /b i.e., as soon as it is fashioned for that purpose. The Gemara asks: b Whose /b opinion is expressed in b the mishna? /b The Gemara answers: b It is /b the opinion of b Rabbi Akiva, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b “You shall destroy all the places, where the nations /b that you are to dispossess b served /b their gods, upon the high mountains, and upon the hills, and under every leafy tree” (Deuteronomy 12:2). b The verse is speaking of vessels that were used /b by the gentiles b for idol worship. /b ,One b might /b have thought that the vessels are prohibited even if the gentiles b fashioned them but did not complete them, completed them but did not bring them /b to the idol, or b brought them /b to the idol b but did not use them /b for idolatrous worship. b Might /b one have thought that in these cases the vessels b are prohibited? The verse states: “Where the nations /b that you are to dispossess b served /b their gods” (Deuteronomy 12:2). This indicates b that /b the vessels b are not prohibited until they are /b used for b worship. /b It is b from here /b that the Sages b stated: A gentile’s /b object of b idol worship is not prohibited until it is worshipped, but a Jew’s /b object of idol worship b is prohibited immediately. /b This is b the statement of Rabbi Yishmael. /b , b Rabbi Akiva says: The matters are reversed. A gentile’s /b object of b idol worship is prohibited immediately, but a Jew’s /b object of idol worship is not forbidden b until it is worshipped. /b The mishna is therefore in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Akiva., b The Master said /b above: b The verse is speaking of vessels that were used /b by the gentiles b for idol worship. /b The Gemara asks: b Isn’t /b it b written /b “You shall destroy all b the places” /b (Deuteronomy 12:2), indicating that the verse is not referring to vessels? The Gemara answers: b If /b the i halakha /i stated in this verse b is not /b applicable for the b matter of places /b that were worshipped, it must apply to another matter. The verse cannot apply to the places themselves, b as they are not rendered prohibited, as it is written: /b “You shall destroy… b their gods, upon the /b high b mountains” /b (Deuteronomy 12:2), indicating that one is b not /b required to destroy b the mountains /b that are themselves b their gods. /b Something that is attached to the ground is not rendered forbidden, and therefore even if idol worshippers worshipped the mountain itself it does not need to be destroyed.
49. Hebrew Bible, Lxx Psalms, 16  Tagged with subjects: •art, loss of pagan meaning for christians and jews Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 907
50. Epigraphy, Gibm, 51  Tagged with subjects: •art, loss of pagan meaning for christians and jews Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 938
51. Epigraphy, Dge, 476  Tagged with subjects: •art, loss of pagan meaning for christians and jews Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 910
52. Epigraphy, Bch, 1963.637  Tagged with subjects: •art, loss of pagan meaning for christians and jews Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 910
53. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 310  Tagged with subjects: •art, pagan Found in books: Levine (2005) 89
310. After the books had been read, the priests and the elders of the translators and the Jewish community and the leaders of the people stood up and said, that since so excellent and sacred and accurate a translation had been made, it was only right that it should remain as it was and no