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19 results for "art"
1. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 25.37 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, nudity Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 921
25.37. "אֶת־כַּסְפְּךָ לֹא־תִתֵּן לוֹ בְּנֶשֶׁךְ וּבְמַרְבִּית לֹא־תִתֵּן אָכְלֶךָ׃", 25.37. "Thou shalt not give him thy money upon interest, nor give him thy victuals for increase.",
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, nudity Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 898
2.3. "וְלֹא־יָכְלָה עוֹד הַצְּפִינוֹ וַתִּקַּח־לוֹ תֵּבַת גֹּמֶא וַתַּחְמְרָה בַחֵמָר וּבַזָּפֶת וַתָּשֶׂם בָּהּ אֶת־הַיֶּלֶד וַתָּשֶׂם בַּסּוּף עַל־שְׂפַת הַיְאֹר׃", 2.3. "And when she could not longer hide him, she took for him an ark of bulrushes, and daubed it with slime and with pitch; and she put the child therein, and laid it in the flags by the river’s brink.",
3. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 47.2 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, nudity Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 921
47.2. "קְחִי רֵחַיִם וְטַחֲנִי קָמַח גַּלִּי צַמָּתֵךְ חֶשְׂפִּי־שֹׁבֶל גַּלִּי־שׁוֹק עִבְרִי נְהָרוֹת׃", 47.2. "Take the millstones, and grind meal; Remove thy veil, Strip off the train, uncover the leg, Pass through the rivers.",
4. Plato, Symposium, 63 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nudity, art Found in books: Hubbard (2014) 570
5. Plato, Phaedo, 267-268 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Hubbard (2014) 570
6. Terence, The Eunuch, 580 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, nudity Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 908
580. Abducit secum ancillas: paucae quae circum illam essent manent
7. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 10.31 (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, nudity Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 900
10.31.  At this Diogenes broke into a laugh and said, "He solve the Sphinx's riddle! Have you not heard that the Sphinx prompted him to give the answer 'man'? As to the meaning of 'man,' however, he neither expressed himself nor knew, but when he said the word 'man' he thought he was answering the question. It was just as if one were asked, 'What is Socrates?' and should give no other answer than the word 'Socrates.' I have heard someone say that the Sphinx stands for stupidity;
8. Artemidorus, Oneirocritica, 2.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, nudity Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 900
9. New Testament, Acts, 19.23-19.40 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nudity, art Found in books: Hubbard (2014) 560
19.23. Ἐγένετο δὲ κατὰ τὸν καιρὸν ἐκεῖνον τάραχος οὐκ ὀλίγος περὶ τῆς ὁδοῦ. 19.24. Δημήτριος γάρ τις ὀνόματι, ἀργυροκόπος, ποιῶν ναοὺς [ἀργυροῦς] Ἀρτέμιδος παρείχετο τοῖς τεχνίταις οὐκ ὀλίγην ἐργασίαν, 19.25. οὓς συναθροίσας καὶ τοὺς περὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα ἐργάτας εἶπεν Ἄνδρες, ἐπίστασθε ὅτι ἐκ ταύτης τῆς ἐργασίας ἡ εὐπορία ἡμῖν ἐστίν, 19.26. καὶ θεωρεῖτε καὶ ἀκούετε ὅτι οὐ μόνον Ἐφέσου ἀλλὰ σχεδὸν πάσης τῆς Ἀσίας ὁ Παῦλος οὗτος πείσας μετέστησεν ἱκανὸν ὄχλον, λέγων ὅτι οὐκ εἰσὶν θεοὶ οἱ διὰ χειρῶν γινόμενοι. 19.27. οὐ μόνον δὲ τοῦτο κινδυνεύει ἡμῖν τὸ μέρος εἰς ἀπελεγμὸν ἐλθεῖν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὸ τῆς μεγάλης θεᾶς Ἀρτέμιδος ἱερὸν εἰς οὐθὲν λογισθῆναι, μέλλειν τε καὶ καθαιρεῖσθαι τῆς μεγαλειότητος αὐτῆς, ἣν ὅλη [ἡ] Ἀσία καὶ [ἡ] οἰκουμένη σέβεται. 19.28. ἀκούσαντες δὲ καὶ γενόμενοι πλήρεις θυμοῦ ἔκραζον λέγοντες Μεγάλη ἡ Ἄρτεμις Ἐφεσίων. 19.29. καὶ ἐπλήσθη ἡ πόλις τῆς συγχύσεως, ὥρμησάν τε ὁμοθυμαδὸν εἰς τὸ θέατρον συναρπάσαντες Γαῖον καὶ Ἀρίσταρχον Μακεδόνας, συνεκδήμους Παύλου. 19.30. Παύλου δὲ βουλομένου εἰσελθεῖν εἰς τὸν δῆμον οὐκ εἴων αὐτὸν οἱ μαθηταί· 19.31. τινὲς δὲ καὶ τῶν Ἀσιαρχῶν, ὄντες αὐτῷ φίλοι, πέμψαντες πρὸς αὐτὸν παρεκάλουν μὴ δοῦναι ἑαυτὸν εἰς τὸ θέατρον. 19.32. ἄλλοι μὲν οὖν ἄλλο τι ἔκραζον, ἦν γὰρ ἡ ἐκκλησία συνκεχυμένη, καὶ οἱ πλείους οὐκ ᾔδεισαν τίνος ἕνεκα συνεληλύθεισαν. 19.33. ἐκ δὲ τοῦ ὄχλου συνεβίβασαν Ἀλέξανδρον προβαλόντων αὐτὸν τῶν Ἰουδαίων, ὁ δὲ Ἀλέξανδρος κατασείσας τὴν χεῖρα ἤθελεν ἀπολογεῖσθαι τῷ δήμῳ. 19.34. ἐπιγνόντες δὲ ὅτι Ἰουδαῖός ἐστιν φωνὴ ἐγένετο μία ἐκ πάντων ὡσεὶ ἐπὶ ὥρας δύο κραζόντων Μεγάλη ἡ Ἄρτεμις Ἐφεσίων . 19.35. καταστείλας δὲ τὸν ὄχλον ὁ γραμματεύς φησιν Ἄνδρες Ἐφέσιοι, τίς γάρ ἐστιν ἀνθρώπων ὃς οὐ γινώσκει τὴν Ἐφεσίων πόλιν νεωκόρον οὖσαν τῆς μεγάλης Ἀρτέμιδος καὶ τοῦ διοπετοῦς; 19.36. ἀναντιρήτων οὖν ὄντων τούτων δέον ἐστὶν ὑμᾶς κατεσταλμένους ὑπάρχειν καὶ μηδὲν προπετὲς πράσσειν. 19.37. ἠγάγετε γὰρ τοὺς ἄνδρας τούτους οὔτε ἱεροσύλους οὔτε βλασφημοῦντας τὴν θεὸν ἡμῶν. 19.38. εἰ μὲν οὖν Δημήτριος καὶ οἱ σὺν αὐτῷ τεχνῖται ἔχουσιν πρός τινα λόγον, ἀγοραῖοι ἄγονται καὶ ἀνθύπατοί εἰσιν, ἐγκαλείτωσαν ἀλλήλοις. 19.39. εἰ δέ τι περαιτέρω ἐπιζητεῖτε, ἐν τῇ ἐννόμῳ ἐκκλησίᾳ ἐπιλυθήσεται. 19.40. καὶ γὰρ κινδυνεύομεν ἐγκαλεῖσθαι στάσεως περὶ τῆς σήμερον μηδενὸς αἰτίου ὑπάρχοντος, περὶ οὗ οὐ δυνησόμεθα ἀποδοῦναι λόγον περὶ τῆς συστροφῆς ταύτης. 19.23. About that time there arose no small stir concerning the Way. 19.24. For a certain man named Demetrius, a silversmith, who made silver shrines of Artemis, brought no little business to the craftsmen, 19.25. whom he gathered together, with the workmen of like occupation, and said, "Sirs, you know that by this business we have our wealth. 19.26. You see and hear, that not at Ephesus alone, but almost throughout all Asia, this Paul has persuaded and turned away many people, saying that they are no gods, that are made with hands. 19.27. Not only is there danger that this our trade come into disrepute, but also that the temple of the great goddess Artemis will be counted as nothing, and her majesty destroyed, whom all Asia and the world worships." 19.28. When they heard this they were filled with anger, and cried out, saying, "Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!" 19.29. The whole city was filled with confusion, and they rushed with one accord into the theater, having seized Gaius and Aristarchus, men of Macedonia, Paul's companions in travel. 19.30. When Paul wanted to enter in to the people, the disciples didn't allow him. 19.31. Certain also of the Asiarchs, being his friends, sent to him and begged him not to venture into the theater. 19.32. Some therefore cried one thing, and some another, for the assembly was in confusion. Most of them didn't know why they had come together. 19.33. They brought Alexander out of the multitude, the Jews putting him forward. Alexander beckoned with his hand, and would have made a defense to the people. 19.34. But when they perceived that he was a Jew, all with one voice for a time of about two hours cried out, "Great is Artemis of the Ephesians!" 19.35. When the town clerk had quieted the multitude, he said, "You men of Ephesus, what man is there who doesn't know that the city of the Ephesians is temple-keeper of the great goddess Artemis, and of the image which fell down from Zeus? 19.36. Seeing then that these things can't be denied, you ought to be quiet, and to do nothing rash. 19.37. For you have brought these men here, who are neither robbers of temples nor blasphemers of your goddess. 19.38. If therefore Demetrius and the craftsmen who are with him have a matter against anyone, the courts are open, and there are proconsuls. Let them press charges against one another. 19.39. But if you seek anything about other matters, it will be settled in the regular assembly. 19.40. For indeed we are in danger of being accused concerning this day's riot, there being no cause. Concerning it, we wouldn't be able to give an account of this commotion."
10. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, 1.5.28 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, nudity Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 914
11. Achilles Tatius, The Adventures of Leucippe And Cleitophon, 3.7, 4.8 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, nudity Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 908
12. Lucian, Essays In Portraiture, 6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nudity, art Found in books: Hubbard (2014) 35
13. Clement of Alexandria, Exhortation To The Greeks, 4.60.1-4.60.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, nudity Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 908
14. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Metzia, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, nudity Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 921
69b. כה"ג ודאי צריך לאודועיה זוזי מי שקיל טבי ושביק חסרי,(אמר ליה לא אמר ליה) חמרא כולי עלמא ידעי דאיכא דבסים ואיכא דלא בסים,גופא אמר רב נחמן זוזי כמאן דפליגי דמו הני מילי טבי וטבי תקולי ותקולי אבל טבי ותקולי לא,רב חמא הוה מוגר זוזי בפשיטא ביומא כלו זוזי דרב חמא הוא סבר מאי שנא ממרא ולא היא מרא הדרא בעינא וידיע פחתיה זוזי לא הדרי בעינייהו ולא ידיע פחתיה,אמר רבא שרי ליה לאיניש למימר ליה לחבריה הילך ד' זוזי ואוזפיה לפלניא זוזי לא אסרה תורה אלא רבית הבאה מלוה למלוה ואמר רבא שרי ליה לאיניש למימר ליה לחבריה שקיל לך ארבעה זוזי וא"ל לפלוני לאוזפן זוזי מ"ט שכר אמירה קא שקיל,כי הא דאבא מר בריה דרב פפא הוה שקיל אוגנא דקירא מקיראי וא"ל לאבוה אוזפינהו זוזי אמרו ליה רבנן לרב פפא אכיל בריה דמר רביתא אמר להו כל כי האי רביתא ניכול לא אסרה תורה אלא רבית הבאה מלוה למלוה הכא שכר אמירה קא שקיל ושרי:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big שמין פרה וחמור וכל דבר שהוא עושה ואוכל למחצה מקום שנהגו לחלוק את הולדות מיד חולקין מקום שנהגו לגדל יגדילו,רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר שמין עגל עם אמו וסיח עם אמו ומפריז על שדהו ואינו חושש משום רבית:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תנו רבנן מפריז על שדהו ואינו חושש משום רבית כיצד השוכר את השדה מחבירו בעשרה כורים חטין לשנה ואומר לו תן לי מאתים זוז ואפרנסנה ואני אעלה לך שנים עשר כורין לשנה מותר,אבל אין מפריז לא על חנות ולא על ספינה,אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה פעמים שמפריז על חנות לצור בה צורה ספינה לעשות לה איסקריא חנות לצור בה צורתא דצבו בה אינשי והוי אגרא טפי ספינה לעשות לה איסקריא כיון דשפירא איסקריא טפי אגרא טפי,ספינתא אמר רב אגרא ופגרא אמרו ליה רב כהנא ורב אסי לרב אי אגרא לא פגרא אי פגרא לא אגרא שתיק רב,אמר רב ששת מ"ט שתיק רב לא שמיעא ליה הא דתניא אע"פ. שאמרו אין מקבלין צאן ברזל מישראל אבל מקבלין צאן ברזל מן הנכרים אבל אמרו השם פרה לחבירו ואמר לו הרי פרתך עשויה עלי בשלשים דינר ואני אעלה לך סלע בחדש מותר לפי שלא עשאה דמים,ולא עשאה אמר רב ששת לא עשאה דמים מחיים אלא לאחר מיתה,אמר רב פפא הלכתא ספינה אגרא ופגרא 69b. In b a case like this /b it is b certainly necessary to inform /b the litigant of the reasons for the decision. Although a judge is not always obligated to explain the reasons for his decision to the litigants, in a case like this, where there is room for suspicion, he must. Rav Pappa explained: Last year, when the other individual divided b money, did he take /b the b good /b coins b and leave /b the b deficient /b ones?,The Samaritan b said to him: No, /b he simply divided the money without any particular consideration, and that was acceptable, as there is no difference between one coin and another. Rav Pappa b said to him: /b With regard to b wine, everyone knows that there is /b wine b that is sweet and there is /b wine b that is not sweet, /b so it is not equitable to simply divide the barrels evenly. Therefore, I ruled that you were not entitled to divide the wine without your partner’s knowledge.,The Gemara now returns to discuss b the /b matter b itself: Rav Naḥman said: Money is considered as if /b it were already b divided /b and there is no need to actually divide it in the presence of both of them. The Gemara comments: b This matter /b applies when he divided between b good /b dinars b and good /b dinars, or b heavy /b dinars b and heavy /b dinars, as then there is no need for evaluation. b But /b if some of the coins were b good and /b some were b heavy, /b it is b not /b permitted for him to divide them without informing the other party, as either one may have a preference for a particular type of coin.,§ The Gemara relates: b Rav Ḥama would rent out dinars at /b a rate of one b i peshita /i , /b i.e., one-eighth of a dinar, b per day for /b a dinar. He viewed this as rental of an item for use rather than as a loan. Ultimately, all of b Rav Ḥama’s money was lost /b as divine punishment for violating the prohibition of interest (see 71a). The Gemara explains: He did this because b he thought: /b In b what /b way is it b different from /b the rental of b a hoe? /b He viewed the money as an item that can be rented for a fee. b But /b that b is not so, /b as the b hoe returns /b to its owner b as is, and its depreciation is known, /b but the b dinars do not return as is, /b as a borrower does not return the same coins he borrowed, b and their depreciation is not known. /b Therefore, this cannot be called a rental; it is a loan with interest., b Rava said: It is permitted for a person to say to another: Here are four dinars; go and lend money to so-and-so. /b Even though the lender earns a profit from the loan, it is not prohibited because b the Torah prohibited only interest that comes /b directly b from the borrower to the lender, /b but not that which comes via a third party. b And Rava said: It is permitted for a person to say to another: Take four dinars for yourself and tell so-and-so to lend me money. /b The Gemara explains: b What is the reason /b for this? It is permitted because b he takes payment for talking /b to the lender, as these four dinars are a fee for the brokerage in arranging the loan.,This is b similar to this /b situation where b Abba Mar, son of Rav Pappa, would take pans of wax from wax manufacturers and tell his father: Lend them money. The Sages said to Rav Pappa: The Master’s son consumes interest, /b since the wax he receives is payment of interest for the loan. Rav Pappa b said to them: We may consume any interest of this kind. /b It is totally permitted, as b the Torah prohibited only interest that comes /b directly b from the borrower to the lender. Here, he takes payment for talking, and /b this is b permitted. /b , strong MISHNA: /strong b One may appraise a cow or a donkey or any item that generates /b revenue b while it eats /b and give it to another to feed it and take care of it in exchange b for one-half /b the profits, with the one who cares for the animal benefiting from the profits it generates during the period in which he raises it. Afterward, they divide the profit that accrues due to appreciation in the value of the animal and due to the offspring it produces. In b a place where it is customary to divide the offspring immediately /b upon their birth, b they divide /b them, and in b a place where it is customary /b for the one who cared for the mother b to raise /b the offspring for an additional period of time before dividing them, he shall b raise /b them., b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: One may appraise a calf /b together b with its mother or a foal with its mother /b even though these young animals do not generate revenue while they eat. The costs of raising the young animal need not be considered. b And /b one b may inflate [ i umafriz /i ] /b the rental fee paid b for his field, and he need not be concerned with regard to /b the prohibition of b interest, /b as the Gemara will explain., strong GEMARA: /strong b The Sages taught: One may inflate /b the rental fee paid b for his field, and he need not be concerned with regard to /b the prohibition of b interest. How so? /b In the case of b one who rents a field from another for /b the price of b ten i kor /i /b of b wheat per year, and /b the renter b says to /b the owner: b Give me two hundred dinars /b as a loan b and I will /b use it to cultivate the field and b equip it /b by fertilizing it and hiring people to work in it, b and /b then b I will pay you twelve i kor /i per year /b in addition to returning your two hundred dinars, this is b permitted, /b as the two hundred dinars are viewed as a joint investment in improving the field, with the owner providing the capital and the renter providing the labor. The higher rental fee is therefore paid for a higher-quality field, and not as interest on the loan., b But one may not inflate /b the rental fee paid b for a store or a ship. /b The renter cannot borrow money from the owner to purchase merchandise to sell in the store or transport in the ship and in return increase the rental fee. That is considered a loan with interest., b Rav Naḥman says /b that b Rabba bar Avuh said: /b There are b times when one may inflate /b the rental fee paid b for a store, /b such as in a case where one needs money in order b to paint a design /b on its walls, or in the case of b a ship, /b where one needs money b to fashion /b a new b sail [ i iskarya /i ]. /b The Gemara explains: It is permitted when the money is borrowed to invest in b a store /b in order b to paint a design /b on its walls, b because people will want to come /b to the more attractive store to purchase, b and the profits are /b thereby b increased. /b Similarly, it is permitted when the money is to be used for b a ship to fashion a sail, because the profits /b from the use of the ship b are greater since the sail is improved. /b Therefore, in these cases the arrangement is an investment, similar to the case of the field, and not interest.,Since the subject of b a ship /b was raised, the Gemara mentions a related statement of Rav. b Rav said: /b For a ship, it is permitted to conduct a transaction where someone pays b rent /b for the use of the ship b and /b is also liable to pay for any b damage /b caused to the ship. b Rav Kahana and Rav Asi said to Rav: If /b he receives b rent, /b then he should b not /b receive payment for b damage, /b and b if /b he receives payment for b damage, /b then he should b not /b receive b rent, /b as, if the ship is the responsibility of the renter, it is a loan, and if he pays rent for such a loan, it is interest. b Rav was silent, /b and it appeared that he could not answer this question., b Rav Sheshet said: What is the reason /b that b Rav was silent? Did he not hear that which is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Even though /b the Sages b said that one may not accept a guaranteed investment [ i tzon barzel /i ] from a Jew, /b meaning one may not accept from a Jew animals to raise and receive one-half of the profits while also accepting full responsibility to pay the initial value of the animals in the event there is a loss, as this arrangement is deemed a loan with interest, b but one may accept a guaranteed investment from gentiles, /b because there is no prohibition against paying them interest. b But /b nevertheless, the Sages b said: If one appraised a cow for another /b to raise and to divide the profits, b and /b the one accepting the cow b said to /b the cow’s owner: b Your cow is evaluated for me at thirty dinars /b if I do not return it to you, b and I will pay you a i sela /i per month /b for the use of it, this is b permitted, because he did not make /b it a matter of lending b money. /b ,The Gemara asks rhetorically: b And did he not make it /b a matter of lending money? He most certainly did, as he obligated himself to pay for the cow if he does not return it, making the transaction into a loan, and therefore the payment of a i sela /i per month should constitute interest. b Rav Sheshet said: /b It means that b he did not make it /b a matter of lending b money while /b the cow was b alive, /b meaning that he did not obligate himself to return this specific sum to him if the value of the cow decreased, but b rather /b agreed to pay the set payment of thirty dinars only b after /b its b death. /b Therefore, the transaction was not a loan and the monthly payment is not interest. According to this i baraita /i , the i halakha /i should be the same in the case of a ship., b Rav Pappa said: /b In fact, the b i halakha /i /b is that in the case of b a ship /b it is permitted to collect b rent and /b payment for b damage. /b
15. Athanasius, Against The Pagans, 26, 10 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Hubbard (2014) 560
16. Macrobius, Saturnalia, 1.20.3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, nudity Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 900
17. Macrobius, Saturnalia, 1.20.3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, nudity Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 900
18. Aenas of Gaza, Letters, None (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, nudity Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 900