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21 results for "art"
1. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 8.16 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, need for explanation Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 942
8.16. "וַיָּבֵא אֹתִי אֶל־חֲצַר בֵּית־יְהוָה הַפְּנִימִית וְהִנֵּה־פֶתַח הֵיכַל יְהוָה בֵּין הָאוּלָם וּבֵין הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּעֶשְׂרִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה אִישׁ אֲחֹרֵיהֶם אֶל־הֵיכַל יְהוָה וּפְנֵיהֶם קֵדְמָה וְהֵמָּה מִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם קֵדְמָה לַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃", 8.16. "And He brought me into the inner court of the LORD’S house, and, behold, at the door of the temple of the LORD, between the porch and the altar, were about five and twenty men, with their backs toward the temple of the LORD, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east.",
2. Dinarchus, Or., 1939.500 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, need for explanation Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 936
3. Aristotle, Metaphysics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, need for explanation Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 940
4. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 27 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, need for explanation Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 942
27. And they are accustomed to pray twice every day, at morning and at evening; when the sun is rising entreating God that the happiness of the coming day may be real happiness, so that their minds may be filled with heavenly light, and when the sun is setting they pray that their soul, being entirely lightened and relieved of the burden of the outward senses, and of the appropriate object of these outward senses, may be able to trace out truth existing in its own consistory and council chamber.
5. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 133, 161 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 940
161. Now, the first approaches of the male to the female have a pleasure in them which brings on other pleasures also, and it is through this pleasure that the formation and generation of children is carried on. And what is generated by it appears to be attached to nothing rather than to it, since they rejoice in pleasure, and are impatient at pain, which is its contrary. On which account even the infant when first brought forth cries, being as it seems in pain at the cold. For coming forth on a sudden into the air from a very warm, and indeed, hot region namely, the womb, in which it has been abiding a considerable time, the air being a cold place and one to which it is wholly unaccustomed, it is alarmed, and pours forth tears as the most evident proof of its grief and of its impatience at pain.
6. Tacitus, Histories, 3.24, 4.53 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, need for explanation Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 913, 942
3.24.  When Antonius could recognize his soldiers and be recognized by them, he began to urge them on, some by shame and reproaches, more by praise and encouragement, but all by hope and promises. He asked the Pannonian legions why they had taken up their arms again; he reminded them that this was the field on which they could blot out the stain of their earlier disgrace, where they could regain their former glory. Then turning to the soldiers from Moesia he appealed to them as the authors and promoters of this war. He told them that it had been useless to challenge the Vitellians with threats and words, if they could not endure their hands and looks. This he said as he came to each division; but he spoke at greater length to the troops of the Third legion, reminding them of their ancient glory as well as of their later achievements, of their victory over the Parthians when Mark Antony was their leader, over the Armenians when Corbulo commanded, and of their recent defeat of the Sarmatians. Then he indigtly said to the praetorians: "As for you, clowns that you are, if you do not win to‑day, what other general or other camp will take you in? Yonder are your standards and your arms, and, if defeated, death; for dishonour you have exhausted." A shout arose from the entire army; and the soldiers of the Third legion, according to the Syrian custom, hailed the rising sun. 4.53.  The charge of restoring the Capitol was given by Vespasian to Lucius Vestinus, a member of the equestrian order, but one whose influence and reputation put him on an equality with the nobility. The haruspices when assembled by him directed that the ruins of the old shrine should be carried away to the marshes and that a new temple should be erected on exactly the same site as the old: the gods were unwilling to have the old plan changed. On the twenty-first of June, under a cloudless sky, the area that was dedicated to the temple was surrounded with fillets and garlands; soldiers, who had auspicious names, entered the enclosure carrying boughs of good omen; then the Vestals, accompanied by boys and girls whose fathers and mothers were living, sprinkled the area with water drawn from fountains and streams. Next Helvidius Priscus, the praetor, guided by the pontifex Plautius Aelianus, purified the area with the sacrifice of the suovetaurilia, and placed the vitals of the victims on an altar of turf; and then, after he had prayed to Jupiter, Juno, Minerva, and to the gods who protect the empire to prosper this undertaking and by their divine assistance to raise again their home which man's piety had begun, he touched the fillets with which the foundation stone was wound and the ropes entwined; at the same time the rest of the magistrates, the priests, senators, knights, and a great part of the people, putting forth their strength together in one enthusiastic and joyful effort, dragged the huge stone to its place. A shower of gold and silver and of virgin ores, never smelted in any furnace, but in their natural state, was thrown everywhere into the foundations: the haruspices had warned against the profanation of the work by the use of stone or gold intended for any other purpose. The temple was given greater height than the old: this was the only change that religious scruples allowed, and the only feature that was thought wanting in the magnificence of the old structure.
7. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.128 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, need for explanation Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 942
2.128. 5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising.
8. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 35.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, need for explanation Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 905
9. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 2.22 (2nd cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, need for explanation Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 905
2.22. ὃν δὲ διέτριβεν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ χρόνον, πολὺς δὲ οὗτος ἐγένετο, ἔστ' ἂν ἀγγελθῇ τῷ βασιλεῖ ξένους ἥκειν, “ὦ Δάμι” ἔφη ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος, “ἔστι τι γραφική;” “εἴ γε” εἶπε “καὶ ἀλήθεια.” “πράττει δὲ τί ἡ τέχνη αὕτη;” “τὰ χρώματα” ἔφη “ξυγκεράννυσιν, ὁπόσα ἐστί, τὰ κυανᾶ τοῖς βατραχείοις καὶ τὰ λευκὰ τοῖς μέλασι καὶ τὰ πυρσὰ τοῖς ὠχροῖς.” “ταυτὶ δὲ” ἦ δ' ὃς “ὑπὲρ τίνος μίγνυσιν; οὐ γὰρ ὑπὲρ μόνου τοῦ ἄνθους, ὥσπερ αἱ κήριναι.” “ὑπὲρ μιμήσεως” ἔφη “καὶ τοῦ κύνα τε ἐξεικάσαι καὶ ἵππον καὶ ἄνθρωπον καὶ ναῦν καὶ ὁπόσα ὁρᾷ ὁ ἥλιος: ἤδη δὲ καὶ τὸν ἥλιον αὐτὸν ἐξεικάζει τοτὲ μὲν ἐπὶ τεττάρων ἵππων, οἷος ἐνταῦθα λέγεται φαίνεσθαι, τοτὲ δ' αὖ καὶ διαπυρσεύοντα τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, ἐπειδὰν αἰθέρα ὑπογράφῃ καὶ θεῶν οἶκον.” “μίμησις οὖν ἡ γραφική, ὦ Δάμι;” “τί δὲ ἄλλο;” εἶπεν “εἰ γὰρ μὴ τοῦτο πράττοι, γελοία δόξει χρώματα ποιοῦσα εὐήθως.” “τὰ δ' ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ” ἔφη “βλεπόμενα, ἐπειδὰν αἱ νεφέλαι διασπασθῶσιν ἀπ' ἀλλήλων, τοὺς κενταύρους καὶ τραγελάφους καὶ, νὴ Δί', οἱ λύκοι τε καὶ οἱ ἵπποι, τί φήσεις; ἆρ' οὐ μιμητικῆς εἶναι ἔργα;” “ἔοικεν,” ἔφη. “ζωγράφος οὖν ὁ θεός, ὦ Δάμι, καὶ καταλιπὼν τὸ πτηνὸν ἅρμα, ἐφ' οὗ πορεύεται διακοσμῶν τὰ θεῖά τε καὶ ἀνθρώπεια, κάθηται τότε ἀθύρων τε καὶ γράφων ταῦτα, ὥσπερ οἱ παῖδες ἐν τῇ ψάμμῳ;” ἠρυθρίασεν ὁ Δάμις ἐς οὕτως ἄτοπον ἐκπεσεῖν δόξαντος τοῦ λόγου. οὐχ ὑπεριδὼν οὖν αὐτὸν ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος, οὐδὲ γὰρ πικρὸς πρὸς τὰς ἐλέγξεις ἦν, “ἀλλὰ μὴ τοῦτο” ἔφη “βούλει λέγειν, ὦ Δάμι, τὸ ταῦτα μὲν ἄσημά τε καὶ ὡς ἔτυχε διὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ φέρεσθαι τόγε ἐπὶ τῷ θεῷ, ἡμᾶς δὲ φύσει τὸ μιμητικὸν ἔχοντας ἀναρρυθμίζειν τε αὐτὰ καὶ ποιεῖν;” “μᾶλλον” ἔφη “τοῦτο ἡγώμεθα, ὦ ̓Απολλώνιε, πιθανώτερον γὰρ καὶ πολλῷ βέλτιον.” “διττὴ ἄρα ἡ μιμητική, ὦ Δάμι, καὶ τὴν μὲν ἡγώμεθα οἵαν τῇ χειρὶ ἀπομιμεῖσθαι καὶ τῷ νῷ, γραφικὴν δὲ εἶναι ταύτην, τὴν δ' αὖ μόνῳ τῷ νῷ εἰκάζειν.” “οὐ διττήν,” ἔφη ὁ Δάμις “ἀλλὰ τὴν μὲν τελεωτέραν ἡγεῖσθαι προσήκει γραφικήν γε οὖσαν, ἣ δύναται καὶ τῷ νῷ καὶ τῇ χειρὶ ἐξεικάσαι, τὴν δὲ ἑτέραν ἐκείνης μόριον, ἐπειδὴ ξυνίησι μὲν καὶ μιμεῖται τῷ νῷ καὶ μὴ γραφικός τις ὤν, τῇ χειρὶ δὲ οὐκ ἂν ἐς τὸ γράφειν αὐτὰ χρήσαιτο.” “ἆρα,” ἔφη “ὦ Δάμι, πεπηρωμένος τὴν χεῖρα ὑπὸ πληγῆς τινος ἢ νόσου;” “μὰ Δί'” εἶπεν “ἀλλ' ὑπὸ τοῦ μήτε γραφίδος τινὸς ἧφθαι, μήτε ὀργάνου τινὸς ἢ χρώματος, ἀλλ' ἀμαθῶς ἔχειν τοῦ γράφειν.” “οὐκοῦν,” ἔφη “ὦ Δάμι, ἄμφω ὁμολογοῦμεν μιμητικὴν μὲν ἐκ φύσεως τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ἥκειν, τὴν γραφικὴν δὲ ἐκ τέχνης. τουτὶ δ' ἂν καὶ περὶ τὴν πλαστικὴν φαίνοιτο. τὴν δὲ δὴ ζωγραφίαν αὐτὴν οὔ μοι δοκεῖς μόνον τὴν διὰ τῶν χρωμάτων ἡγεῖσθαι, καὶ γὰρ ἓν χρῶμα ἐς αὐτὴν ἤρκεσε τοῖς γε ἀρχαιοτέροις τῶν γραφέων καὶ προϊοῦσα τεττάρων εἶτα πλειόνων ἥψατο, ἀλλὰ καὶ γραμμὴν καὶ τὸ ἄνευ χρώματος, ὃ δὴ σκιᾶς τε ξύγκειται καὶ φωτός, ζωγραφίαν προσήκει καλεῖν: καὶ γὰρ ἐν αὐτοῖς ὁμοιότης τε ὁρᾶται εἶδός τε καὶ νοῦς καὶ αἰδὼς καὶ θρασύτης, καίτοι χηρεύει χρωμάτων ταῦτα, καὶ οὔτε αἷμα ἐνσημαίνει οὔτε κόμης τινὸς ἢ ὑπήνης ἄνθος, ἀλλὰ μονοτρόπως ξυντιθέμενα τῷ τε ξανθῷ ἀνθρώπῳ ἔοικε καὶ τῷ λευκῷ, κἂν τούτων τινὰ τῶν ̓Ινδῶν λευκῇ τῇ γραμμῇ γράψωμεν, μέλας δήπου δόξει, τὸ γὰρ ὑπόσιμον τῆς ῥινὸς καὶ οἱ ὀρθοὶ βόστρυχοι καὶ ἡ περιττὴ γένυς καὶ ἡ περὶ τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς οἷον ἔκπληξις μελαίνει τὰ ὁρώμενα καὶ ̓Ινδὸν ὑπογράφει τοῖς γε μὴ ἀνοήτως ὁρῶσιν. ὅθεν εἴποιμ' ἂν καὶ τοὺς ὁρῶντας τὰ τῆς γραφικῆς ἔργα μιμητικῆς δεῖσθαι: οὐ γὰρ ἂν ἐπαινέσειέ τις τὸν γεγραμμένον ἵππον ἢ ταῦρον μὴ τὸ ζῷον ἐνθυμηθείς, ᾧ εἴκασται, οὐδ' ἂν τὸν Αἴαντά τις τὸν Τιμομάχου ἀγασθείη, ὃς δὴ ἀναγέγραπται αὐτῷ μεμηνώς, εἰ μὴ ἀναλάβοι τι ἐς τὸν νοῦν Αἴαντος εἴδωλον καὶ ὡς εἰκὸς αὐτὸν ἀπεκτονότα τὰ ἐν τῇ Τροίᾳ βουκόλια καθῆσθαι ἀπειρηκότα, βουλὴν ποιούμενον καὶ ἑαυτὸν κτεῖναι. ταυτὶ δέ, ὦ Δάμι, τὰ τοῦ Πώρου δαίδαλα μήτε χαλκευτικῆς μόνον ἀποφαινώμεθα, γεγραμμένοις γὰρ εἴκασται, μήτε γραφικῆς, ἐπειδὴ ἐχαλκεύθη, ἀλλ' ἡγώμεθα σοφίσασθαι αὐτὰ γραφικόν τε καὶ χαλκευτικὸν ἕνα ἄνδρα, οἷον δή τι παρ' ̔Ομήρῳ τὸ τοῦ ̔Ηφαίστου περὶ τὴν τοῦ ̓Αχιλλέως ἀσπίδα ἀναφαίνεται. μεστὰ γὰρ καὶ ταῦτα ὀλλύντων τε καὶ ὀλλυμένων, καὶ τὴν γῆν ᾑματῶσθαι φήσεις χαλκῆν οὖσαν.” 2.22. While he was waiting in the Temple, — and it took a long time for the king to be informed that strangers had arrived, — Apollonius said: O Damis, is there such a thing as painting? Why yes, he answered, if there be any such thing as truth. And what does this art do? It mixes together, replied Damis, all the colors there are, blue with green, and white with black, and red with yellow. And for what reason, said the other, does it mix these? For it isn't merely to get a color, like dyed wax. It is, said Damis, for the sake of imitation, and to get a likeness of a dog, or a horse, or a man, or a ship, or of anything else under the sun; and what is more, you see the sun himself represented, sometimes borne upon a four horse car, as he is said to be seen here, and sometimes again traversing the heaven with his torch, in case you are depicting the ether and the home of the gods. Then, O Damis, painting is imitation? And what else could it be? said he: for if it did not effect that, it would voted to be an idle playing with colors. And, said the other, the things which are seen in heaven, whenever the clouds are torn away from one another, I mean the centaurs and stag-antelopes, yes, and the wolves too, and the horses, what have you got to say about them? Are we not to regard them as works of imitation? It would seem so, he replied. Then, Damis, God is a painter, and has left his winged chariot, upon which he travels, as he disposes of affairs human and divine, and he sits down on these occasions to amuse himself by drawing these pictures, as children make figures in the sand. Damis blushed, for he felt that his argument was reduced to such an absurdity. But Apollonius, on his side, had no wish to humiliate him, for he was not unfeeling in his refutations of people, and said: But I am sure, Damis, you did not mean that; rather that these figures flit through the heaven not only without meaning, but, so far as providence is concerned, by mere chance; while we who by nature are prone to imitation rearrange and create them in these regular figures. We may, he said, rather consider this to be the case, O Apollonius, for it is more probable, and a much sounder idea. Then, O Damis, the mimetic art is twofold, and we may regard the one kind as an employment of the hands and mind in producing imitations, and declare that this is painting, whereas the other kind consists in making likenesses with the mind alone. Not twofold, replied Damis, for we ought to regard the former as the more perfect and more complete kind, being anyhow painting and a faculty of making likenesses with the help both of mind and hand; but we must regard the other kind as a department that, since its possessor perceives and imitates with the mind, without having the delineative faculty, and would never use his hand in depicting its objects. Then, said Apollonius, you mean, Damis, that the hand may be disabled by a blow or by disease? No, he answered, but it is disabled, because it has never handled pencil nor any instrument or color, and has never learned to draw. Then, said the other, we are both of us, Damis, agreed that man owes his mimetic faculty to nature, but his power of painting to art. And the same would appear to be true of plastic art. But, methinks, you would not confine painting itself to the mere use of colors, for a single color was often found sufficient for this purpose by our older painters; and as the art advanced, it employed four, and later, yet more; but we must also concede the name of a painting to an outline drawn without any color at all, and composed merely of shadow and light. For in such designs we see a resemblance, we see form and expression, and modesty and bravery, although they are altogether devoid of color; and neither blood is represented, nor the color of a man's hair or beard; nevertheless these compositions in monochrome are likenesses of people either tawny or white, and if we drew one of these Indians with a pencil without color, yet he would be known for a negro, for his flat nose, and his stiff curling locks and prominent jaw, and a certain gleam about his eyes, would give a black look to the picture and depict an Indian to the eyes of all those who have intelligence. And for this reason I should say that those who look at works of painting and drawing require a mimetic faculty; for no one could appreciate or admire a picture of a horse or of a bull, unless he had formed an idea of the picture represented. Nor again could one admire a picture of Ajax, by the painter Timomachus, which represents him in a state of madness, unless one had conceived in one's mind first an idea or notion of Ajax, and had entertained the probability that after killing the flocks in Troy he would sit down exhausted and even meditate suicide. But these elaborate works of Porus we cannot, Damis, regard as works of brass founding alone, for they are cast in brass; so let us regard them as the chefs d'oeuvre of a man who is both painter and brass-founder at once, and as similar to the work of Hephaestus upon the shield of Achilles, as revealed in Homer. For they are crowded together in that work too men slaying and slain, and you would say that the earth was stained with gore, though it is made of brass.
10. Herodian, History of The Empire After Marcus, 4.15 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, need for explanation Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 942
11. Clement of Alexandria, Exhortation To The Greeks, 4.57.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, need for explanation Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 905
12. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, need for explanation Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 936
13b. בניו ממזרין,ות"ק אשתו לא מפקר,אמר מר שחיטת עובד כוכבים נבלה וניחוש שמא מין הוא אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה אין מינין באומות עובדי כוכבים,והא קאחזינן דאיכא אימא אין רוב עובדי כוכבים מינין סבר לה כי הא דאמר ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן נכרים שבחוצה לארץ לאו עובדי עבודת כוכבים הן אלא מנהג אבותיהן בידיהן,אמר רב יוסף בר מניומי אמר רב נחמן אין מינין באומות עובדי כוכבים למאי אילימא לשחיטה השתא שחיטת מין דישראל אמרת אסירא דעובד כוכבים מבעיא אלא למורידין השתא דישראל מורידין דעובדי כוכבים מבעיא,אמר רב עוקבא בר חמא לקבל מהן קרבן דתניא (ויקרא א, ב) מכם ולא כולכם להוציא את המומר מכם בכם חלקתי ולא בעובדי כוכבים,ממאי דלמא הכי קאמר מישראל מצדיקי קבל מרשיעי לא תקבל אבל בעובדי כוכבים כלל כלל לא לא ס"ד דתניא איש מה ת"ל איש איש לרבות העובדי כוכבים שנודרים נדרים ונדבות כישראל:,ומטמאה במשא: פשיטא כיון דנבלה היא מטמאה במשא אמר רבא הכי קתני זו מטמאה במשא ויש לך אחרת שהיא מטמאה אפילו באהל ואיזו זו תקרובת עבודת כוכבים וכרבי יהודה בן בתירא,איכא דאמרי אמר רבא הכי קתני זו מטמאה במשא ויש לך אחרת שהיא כזו שמטמאה במשא ואינה מטמאה באהל ואיזו זו תקרובת עבודת כוכבים ודלא כר' יהודה בן בתירא,דתניא ר' יהודה בן בתירא אומר מנין לתקרובת עבודת כוכבים שהיא מטמאה באהל שנאמר (תהלים קו, כח) ויצמדו לבעל פעור ויאכלו זבחי מתים מה מת מטמא באהל אף תקרובת עבוד' כוכבי' מטמאה באהל:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big השוחט בלילה וכן הסומא ששחט שחיטתו כשרה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big השוחט דיעבד אין לכתחלה לא ורמינהי לעולם שוחטין בין ביום ובין בלילה בין בראש הגג בין בראש הספינה,אר"פ בשאבוקה כנגדו אמר רב אשי דיקא נמי דקתני התם דומיא דיום והכא דומיא דסומא ש"מ: 13b. b his sons are i mamzerim /i , /b as he is indifferent to his wife’s engaging in adultery.,The Gemara asks: b And the first i tanna /i , /b why did he not include the ruling that the sons of a heretic are i mamzerim /i ? The Gemara answers: In his opinion, a heretic b does not release his wife /b and allow her to engage in adultery., b The Master said /b in the mishna: b Slaughter /b performed by b a gentile /b renders the animal b an unslaughtered carcass. /b The Gemara challenges this: b And let us be concerned /b that b perhaps he is a heretic /b who is a devout idolater and deriving benefit from his slaughter is prohibited. b Rav Naḥman said /b that b Rabba bar Avuh says: There are no /b such b heretics among the nations /b of the world.,The Gemara asks: b But don’t we see that there are? /b The Gemara answers: b Say the majority of /b the people of b the nations /b of the world b are not heretics, /b and with regard to slaughter one follows the majority. The Gemara notes: Rabba bar Avuh b holds in accordance with that which Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b The status of b gentiles outside of Eretz /b Yisrael is b not /b that of b idol worshippers, /b as their worship is not motivated by faith and devotion. b Rather, it is /b a traditional b custom of their ancestors /b that was transmitted b to them. /b , b Rav Yosef bar Minyumi says /b that b Rav Naḥman says: There are no heretics among the nations /b of the world, i.e., gentile heretics do not have the halakhic status of actual heretics. The Gemara asks: b With regard to what /b matter did Rav Naḥman state the i halakha /i ? b If we say /b that it is b with regard to slaughter, now /b that b you said the slaughter of a Jewish heretic is forbidden, /b is it b necessary /b to say the slaughter b of a gentile /b heretic is forbidden? b Rather, /b it is b with regard to /b the i halakha /i that b one lowers /b them into a pit, i.e., one may kill a heretic, and Rav Naḥman holds that one may not kill them. But this too is difficult, as b now /b if b one lowers a Jewish /b heretic into a pit, is it b necessary /b to say b that /b one lowers b a gentile /b heretic?, b Rav Ukva bar Ḥama said: /b It is stated b with regard to accepting an offering from them, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i with regard to the verse: “When any person of you shall bring an offering” (Leviticus 1:2): The verse states: b “of you,” and not: /b of b all of you, to exclude the /b Jewish b transgressor /b who regularly violates a prohibition. Furthermore, God states: b “of you,” /b to mean that b among you, /b the Jews, b I distinguished /b between a transgressor and other Jews, b but not among the nations. /b One accepts an offering from all gentiles, even a heretic.,The Gemara asks: b From where /b do you draw that conclusion? b Perhaps this /b is what the verse b is saying: /b With regard to offerings b from Jews, from righteous /b Jews b accept /b the offering and b from wicked /b Jews b do not accept /b the offering; b but with regard to the nations of the world, do not /b accept their offerings b at all. /b The Gemara rejects that possibility: That b should not enter your mind, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i with regard to the verse: “Any man [ i ish ish /i ] from the house of Israel…who shall sacrifice his offering” (Leviticus 22:18): Since it would have been sufficient to write: b A man [ i ish /i ], what /b is the meaning when b the verse states: “Any man [ i ish ish /i ]”? /b It serves b to include the gentiles, who /b may b vow /b to bring b vow offerings and gift offerings like a Jew. /b ,§ The mishna states with regard to an animal slaughtered by a gentile: b And /b the carcass b imparts ritual impurity through carrying. /b The Gemara asks: Isn’t it b obvious? Since it is /b considered b an unslaughtered carcass it imparts ritual impurity through carrying. Rava said /b that b this /b is what the i tanna /i b is teaching: This /b slaughtered animal b imparts ritual impurity through carrying, and you have another /b animal b that imparts impurity even in a tent, /b i.e., if one is beneath the same roof with this animal he becomes impure even though he neither touched it nor carried it. b And which /b animal is that? b That /b animal b is an idolatrous offering, and /b this statement is b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira /b cited below., b There are /b those b who say /b an alternative version of Rava’s statement: b Rava said /b that b this /b is what the i tanna /i b is teaching: This /b slaughtered animal b imparts ritual impurity through carrying, and you have another /b animal b that is like this /b one in b that /b it b imparts ritual impurity through carrying and does not impart impurity in a tent. And which /b animal is this? b This /b animal b is an idolatrous offering, and /b this statement is b not in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira. /b , b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: From where /b is it derived with regard b to an idolatrous offering that it imparts impurity in a tent? /b It is derived from a verse, b as it is stated: “They adhered to Ba’al-Peor and ate the offerings to the dead” /b (Psalms 106:28). b Just as a corpse imparts impurity in a tent, so too an idolatrous offering imparts impurity in a tent. /b , strong MISHNA: /strong In the case of b one who slaughters /b an animal b at night, and likewise /b in the case of b the blind /b person b who slaughters /b an animal, b his slaughter is valid. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara infers from the formulation of the mishna: b One who slaughters, /b and not: One may slaughter, that with regard to the slaughter of one who slaughters at night, b after the fact, yes, /b it is valid, but b i ab initio /i , /b one may b not /b do so. The Gemara b raises a contradiction /b from a i baraita /i ( i Tosefta /i 1:4): b One may always slaughter, both during the day and at night, both on the rooftop and atop a ship, /b indicating that slaughter at night is permitted i ab initio /i ., b Rav Pappa said: /b The i tanna /i of the i baraita /i is referring b to /b a case b where /b there is b a torch opposite /b the slaughterer; therefore, it is permitted i ab initio /i . b Rav Ashi said: /b The language of the i baraita /i b is also precise, as /b slaughter at night b is taught there /b in the i baraita /i b similar to /b slaughter b during the day, /b based on the juxtaposition: Both during the day and at night. b And here /b slaughter at night is taught b similar to /b the slaughter performed b by a blind /b person, with no light, based on the juxtaposition: One who slaughters at night, and likewise the blind person who slaughters. Therefore, the slaughter is valid only after the fact. The Gemara concludes: b Learn from it. /b
13. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, need for explanation Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 942
55a. כל המאריך בתפלתו ומעיין בה סוף בא לידי כאב לב שנאמר (משלי יג, יב) תוחלת ממושכה מחלה לב וא"ר יצחק שלשה דברים מזכירים עונותיו של אדם ואלו הן קיר נטוי ועיון תפלה ומוסר דין על חבירו לשמים,הא לא קשיא הא דמעיין בה הא דלא מעיין בה והיכי עביד דמפיש ברחמי,והמאריך על שלחנו דלמא אתי עניא ויהיב ליה דכתיב (יחזקאל מא, כב) המזבח עץ שלש אמות גבוה וכתיב (יחזקאל מא, כב) וידבר אלי זה השלחן אשר לפני ה' פתח במזבח וסיים בשלחן ר' יוחנן ור' אלעזר דאמרי תרוייהו כל זמן שבהמ"ק קיים מזבח מכפר על ישראל ועכשיו שלחנו של אדם מכפר עליו,והמאריך בבית הכסא מעליותא הוא והתניא עשרה דברים מביאין את האדם לידי תחתוניות האוכל עלי קנים ועלי גפנים ולולבי גפנים ומוריגי בהמה ושדרו של דג ודג מליח שאינו מבושל כל צרכו והשותה שמרי יין והמקנח בסיד ובחרסית והמקנח בצרור שקנח בו חבירו וי"א אף התולה עצמו בבית הכסא יותר מדאי,לא קשיא הא דמאריך ותלי הא דמאריך ולא תלי,כי הא דאמרה ליה ההיא מטרוניתא לר' יהודה בר' אלעאי פניך דומים למגדלי חזירים ולמלוי ברבית אמר לה הימנותא לדידי תרוייהו אסירן אלא עשרים וארבעה בית הכסא איכא מאושפיזאי לבי מדרשא דכי אזילנא בדיקנא נפשאי בכולהו.,ואמר רב יהודה שלשה דברים מקצרים ימיו ושנותיו של אדם מי שנותנין לו ס"ת לקרות ואינו קורא כוס של ברכה לברך ואינו מברך והמנהיג עצמו ברבנות,ס"ת לקרות ואינו קורא דכתיב (דברים ל, כ) כי הוא חייך ואורך ימיך כוס של ברכה לברך ואינו מברך דכתיב (בראשית יב, ג) ואברכה מברכיך והמנהיג עצמו ברבנות דא"ר חמא בר חנינא מפני מה מת יוסף קודם לאחיו מפני שהנהיג עצמו ברבנות:,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב שלשה צריכים רחמים מלך טוב שנה טובה וחלום טוב מלך טוב דכתיב (משלי כא, א) פלגי מים לב מלך ביד ה' שנה טובה דכתיב (דברים יא, יב) תמיד עיני ה' אלהיך בה מראשית השנה ועד אחרית שנה חלום טוב דכתיב (ישעיהו לח, טז) ותחלימני (ותחייני):,אמר רבי יוחנן שלשה דברים מכריז עליהם הקב"ה בעצמו ואלו הן רעב ושובע ופרנס טוב רעב דכתיב (מלכים ב ח, א) כי קרא ה' לרעב וגו' שובע דכתיב (יחזקאל לו, כט) וקראתי אל הדגן והרביתי אותו פרנס טוב דכתיב (שמות לא, ב) (ויאמר) ה' אל משה לאמר ראה קראתי בשם בצלאל וגו',אמר רבי יצחק אין מעמידין פרנס על הצבור אלא אם כן נמלכים בצבור שנא' (שמות לה, ל) ראו קרא ה' בשם בצלאל אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה משה הגון עליך בצלאל אמר לו רבונו של עולם אם לפניך הגון לפני לא כל שכן אמר לו אף על פי כן לך אמור להם הלך ואמר להם לישראל הגון עליכם בצלאל אמרו לו אם לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא ולפניך הוא הגון לפנינו לא כל שכן,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן בצלאל על שם חכמתו נקרא בשעה שאמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה לך אמור לו לבצלאל עשה לי משכן ארון וכלים הלך משה והפך ואמר לו עשה ארון וכלים ומשכן אמר לו משה רבינו מנהגו של עולם אדם בונה בית ואחר כך מכניס לתוכו כלים ואתה אומר עשה לי ארון וכלים ומשכן כלים שאני עושה להיכן אכניסם שמא כך אמר לך הקב"ה עשה משכן ארון וכלים אמר לו שמא בצל אל היית וידעת,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב יודע היה בצלאל לצרף אותיות שנבראו בהן שמים וארץ כתיב הכא (שמות לה, לא) וימלא אותו רוח אלהים בחכמה ובתבונה ובדעת וכתיב התם (משלי ג, יט) ה' בחכמה יסד ארץ כונן שמים בתבונה וכתיב (משלי ג, כ) בדעתו תהומות נבקעו,אמר רבי יוחנן אין הקדוש ברוך הוא נותן חכמה אלא למי שיש בו חכמה שנא' (דניאל ב, כא) יהב חכמתא לחכימין ומנדעא לידעי בינה שמע רב תחליפא בר מערבא ואמרה קמיה דרבי אבהו אמר ליה אתון מהתם מתניתו לה אנן מהכא מתנינן לה דכתיב (שמות לא, ו) ובלב כל חכם לב נתתי חכמה:,אמר רב חסדא כל חלום ולא טוות ואמר רב חסדא חלמא דלא מפשר כאגרתא דלא מקריא ואמר רב חסדא לא חלמא טבא מקיים כוליה ולא חלמא בישא מקיים כוליה ואמר רב חסדא חלמא בישא עדיף מחלמא טבא וא"ר חסדא חלמא בישא עציבותיה מסתייה חלמא טבא חדויה מסתייה אמר רב יוסף חלמא טבא אפילו לדידי בדיחותיה מפכחא ליה ואמר רב חסדא חלמא בישא קשה מנגדא שנאמר (קהלת ג, יד) והאלהים עשה שייראו מלפניו ואמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן זה חלום רע,(ירמיהו כג, כח) הנביא אשר אתו חלום יספר חלום ואשר דברי אתו ידבר דברי אמת מה לתבן את הבר נאם ה' וכי מה ענין בר ותבן אצל חלום אלא אמר ר' יוחנן משום ר' שמעון בן יוחי כשם שאי אפשר לבר בלא תבן כך אי אפשר לחלום בלא דברים בטלים,אמר ר' ברכיה חלום אף על פי שמקצתו מתקיים כולו אינו מתקיים מנא לן מיוסף דכתיב (בראשית לז, ט) והנה השמש והירח וגו' 55a. b Anyone who prolongs his prayer and expects it /b to be answered, b will ultimately come to heartache, as it is stated: “Hope deferred makes the heart sick” /b (Proverbs 13:12). Similarly, b Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Three matters evoke a person’s sins, and they are: /b Endangering oneself by sitting or standing next to an b inclined wall /b that is about to collapse, b expecting prayer /b to be accepted, as that leads to an assessment of his status and merit, b and passing a case against another to Heaven, /b as praying for Heaven to pass judgment on another person causes one’s own deeds to be examined and compared with the deeds of that other person. This proves that prolonging prayer is a fault.,The Gemara resolves the apparent contradiction: This is b not difficult. This, /b where we learned that prolonging prayer is undesirable, refers to a situation when one b expects /b his prayer to be accepted, b while this, /b where Rav Yehuda says that prolonging prayer prolongs one’s life, refers to a situation where one does b not expect /b his prayer to be accepted. b How does he /b prolong his prayer? By b increasing /b his b supplication. /b ,As for the virtue of b prolonging one’s /b mealtime at the b table, /b which Rav Yehuda mentioned, the Gemara explains: b Perhaps a poor person will come /b during the meal and the host will be in a position to b give him /b food immediately, without forcing the poor person to wait. The Sages elsewhere praised a person who acts appropriately at a meal, b as it is written: “The altar, three cubits high /b and the length thereof, two cubits, was of wood, and so the corners thereof; the length thereof, and the walls thereof, were also of wood” (Ezekiel 41:22), b and it is written /b in the continuation of that verse: b “And he said unto me: This is the table that is before the Lord.” /b The language of this verse is difficult, as it b begins with the altar and concludes with the table. /b Rather, b Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar both say: As long as the Temple stood, the altar atoned for Israel’s /b transgressions. b Now /b that it is destroyed, b a person’s table atones for his /b transgressions.,With regard to what Rav Yehuda said in praise of b one who prolongs /b his time b in the bathroom, /b the Gemara asks: b Is that a virtue? Wasn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Ten things bring a person to /b suffer from b hemorrhoids: One who eats the leaves of bulrushes, grape leaves, tendrils of grapevines, the palate and tongue of an animal, /b as well as any other part of the animal which is not smooth and which has protrusions, b the spine of a fish, a salty fish that is not fully cooked, and one who drinks wine dregs, and one who wipes himself with lime and clay, /b the materials from which earthenware is made, b and one who wipes himself with a stone with which another /b person b wiped himself. And some say: One who suspends himself too much in the bathroom as well. /b This proves that prolonging one’s time in the bathroom is harmful.,The Gemara responds: This is b not difficult. This /b i baraita /i , which teaches that doing so is harmful, refers to where b one prolongs /b his time there b and suspends /b himself, while b this /b statement of Rav Yehuda refers to where b one prolongs /b his time there b and does not suspend /b himself.,The Gemara relates the benefits of prolonging one’s time in the bathroom. b Like that /b incident b when a matron [ i matronita /i ] said to Rabbi Yehuda son of Rabbi El’ai: Your face is /b fat and full, b like /b the faces of b pig farmers and usurers /b who do not work hard and who make a plentiful living. b He said to her: Honestly, those two /b occupations b are prohibited to me; rather, /b why is it that my face is nice? Because b there are twenty-four bathrooms between my lodging and the study hall, and when I walk I /b stop and b examine myself in all of them. /b , b And Rav Yehuda said: Three things curtail a person’s days and years: One who is /b invited and b given the Torah scroll to read and he does not read, /b one who is given b a cup of blessing over which to recite a blessing and he does not recite a blessing, and one who conducts himself with /b an air of b superiority. /b ,The Gemara details the biblical sources for these cases: One who is given the b Torah scroll to read and he does not read, as it is written /b of the Torah: b “It is your life and the length of your days” /b (Deuteronomy 30:20). b A cup of blessing over which to recite a blessing and he does not recite a blessing, as it is written: “I will bless them that bless you” /b (Genesis 12:3); one who blesses is blessed and one who does not bless does not merit a blessing. b And /b with regard to b one who conducts himself with /b an air of b superiority, as Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Why did Joseph die before his brothers, /b as evidenced by the order in the verse: “And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation” (Exodus 1:6)? b Because he conducted himself with /b an air of b superiority, /b and those who did not serve in a leadership role lived on after he died., b Rav Yehuda said in the name of Rav: Three /b matters b require /b a plea for b mercy /b to bring them about: b A good king, a good year, and a good dream. /b These three, kings, years, and dreams, are all bestowed by God and one must pray that they should be positive and constructive. The Gemara enumerates the sources for these cases: b A good king, as it is written: “The king’s heart is in the hand of the Lord as the watercourses: /b He turns it whithersoever He will” (Proverbs 21:1). A b good year, as it is written: “The eyes of the Lord, thy God, are always upon it, from the beginning of the year even unto the end of the year” /b (Deuteronomy 11:12). And a b good dream, as it is written: /b “O Lord, by these things men live, and altogether therein is the life of my spirit; wherefore b You will recover me [ i vataḥlimeni /i ], and make me to live” /b (Isaiah 38:16). Due to their apparent etymological similarity, the word i taḥlimeni /i is interpreted as deriving from the word i ḥalom /i , dream.,Similarly, b Rabbi Yoḥa said: Three matters are proclaimed by the Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself: Famine, plenty, and a good leader. /b The Gemara enumerates the sources for these cases: b Famine, as it is written: “For the Lord has called for a famine; /b and it shall also come upon the land seven years” (II Kings 8:1). b Plenty, as it is written: “And I will call for the grain, and will increase it, and lay no famine upon you” /b (Ezekiel 36:29). And b a good leader, as it is written: “And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying: See, I have called by name Bezalel, /b son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah” (Exodus 31:1–2).,With regard to Bezalel’s appointment, b Rabbi Yitzḥak said: One may only appoint a leader over a community if he consults with the community /b and they agree to the appointment, b as it is stated: /b “And Moses said unto the children of Israel: b See, the Lord has called by name Bezalel, /b son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah” (Exodus 35:30). b The Lord said to Moses: Moses, is Bezalel /b a b suitable /b appointment in b your /b eyes? Moses b said to Him: Master of the universe, if he is /b a b suitable /b appointment in b Your /b eyes, b then all the more so /b in b my /b eyes. The Holy One, Blessed be He, b said to him: Nevertheless, go and tell /b Israel and ask their opinion. Moses b went and said to Israel: Is Bezalel suitable /b in b your /b eyes? b They said to him: If he is suitable /b in the eyes of b the Holy One, Blessed be He, and /b in b your /b eyes, b all the more so /b he is suitable in b our /b eyes., b Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said /b that b Rabbi Yonatan said: Bezalel was called /b by that name b on account of his wisdom. When the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Go say to Bezalel, “Make a tabernacle, an ark, and vessels” /b (see Exodus 31:7–11), b Moses went and reversed /b the order b and told /b Bezalel: b “Make an ark, and vessels, and a tabernacle” /b (see Exodus 25–26). b He said to /b Moses: b Moses, our teacher, the /b standard b practice /b throughout the b world /b is that b a person builds a house and /b only b afterward places the vessels /b in the house, b and you say /b to me: b Make an ark, and vessels, and a tabernacle. /b If I do so in the order you have commanded, b the vessels that I make, where shall I put them? Perhaps God told you the following: “Make a tabernacle, ark, and vessels” /b (see Exodus 36). Moses b said to /b Bezalel: b Perhaps you were in God’s shadow [ i betzel El /i ], and you knew /b precisely what He said. You intuited God’s commands just as He stated them, as if you were there., b Rav Yehuda said /b that b Rav said: Bezalel knew /b how b to join /b the b letters with which heaven and earth were created. /b From where do we derive this? b It is written here /b in praise of Bezalel: b “And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, /b and in all manner of workmanship” (Exodus 31:3); b and it is written there /b with regard to creation of heaven and earth: b “The Lord, by wisdom, founded the earth; by understanding He established the heavens” /b (Proverbs 3:19), b and it is written: “By His knowledge the depths were broken up and the skies drop down the dew” /b (Proverbs 3:20). We see that wisdom, understanding, and knowledge, the qualities with which the heavens and earth were created, are all found in Bezalel.,On a similar note, b Rabbi Yoḥa said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, only grants wisdom to one who /b already b possesses wisdom, as it is stated: “He gives wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to they who know understanding” /b (Daniel 2:21). b Rav Taḥalifa, from the West, /b Eretz Yisrael, b heard /b this b and repeated it before Rabbi Abbahu. /b Rabbi Abbahu b said to him: You learned /b proof for this idea b from there; we learn it from here: As it is written /b in praise of the builders of the Tabernacle: b “And in the hearts of all who are wise-hearted I have placed wisdom” /b (Exodus 31:6).,Related to what was stated above, that one should pray for a good dream, the Gemara cites additional maxims concerning dreams and their interpretation. b Rav Ḥisda said: /b One should see b any dream, and not a fast. /b In other words, any dream is preferable to a dream during a fast. b And Rav Ḥisda said: A dream not interpreted is like a letter not read. /b As long as it is not interpreted it cannot be fulfilled; the interpretation of a dream creates its meaning. b And Rav Ḥisda said: A good dream is not entirely fulfilled and a bad dream is not entirely fulfilled. And Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream is preferable to a good dream, /b as a bad dream causes one to feel remorse and to repent. b And Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream, his sadness is enough for him; a good dream, his joy is enough for him. /b This means that the sadness or joy engendered by the dream renders the actual fulfillment of the dream superfluous. Similarly, b Rav Yosef said: Even for me, the joy of a good dream negates it. /b Even Rav Yosef, who was blind and ill, derived such pleasure from a good dream that it was never actually realized. b And Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream is worse than lashes, as it is stated: “God has so made it, that men should fear before Him” /b (Ecclesiastes 3:14), b and Rabba bar bar Ḥana said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: That is a bad dream /b that causes man to fear.,With regard to the verse: b “The prophet that has a dream, let him tell a dream; and he that has My word, let him speak My word faithfully. What has the straw to do with the grain? says the Lord” /b (Jeremiah 23:28), the Gemara asks: b What do straw and grain have to do with a dream? Rather, Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai: Just as it is impossible for the grain /b to grow b without straw, so too it is impossible to dream without idle matters. /b Even a dream that will be fulfilled in the future contains some element of nonsense.,On a similar note, b Rabbi Berekhya said: Even though part of a dream is fulfilled, all of it is not fulfilled. From where do we /b derive this? b From /b the story of b Joseph’s /b dream, b as it is written: /b “And he said: Behold, I have dreamed yet a dream: b and, behold, the sun and the moon /b
14. Theodore of Mopsuestia, Comm. In Proph. Min. Hos., 7.5 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, need for explanation Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 905
15. Theodosius Ii Emperor of Rome, Theodosian Code, 16.8.8 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, need for explanation Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 925
16. Epigraphy, Cij, 694  Tagged with subjects: •art, need for explanation Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 925
17. Dio Cassius, Epitome, 2.127, 2.183  Tagged with subjects: •art, need for explanation Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 936
18. Epigraphy, Ils, 8157  Tagged with subjects: •art, need for explanation Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 925
19. Nicene Canons, Praef., 213  Tagged with subjects: •art, need for explanation Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 936
20. Origen, Phaedo, 2.216  Tagged with subjects: •art, need for explanation Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 925
21. Gaius, Rerum Cottidianarum Bk., 11.10  Tagged with subjects: •art, need for explanation Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 905