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32 results for "art"
1. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, None (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 945
2. Homer, Odyssey, 11.271 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 944
3. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 8.16 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 942
8.16. "וַיָּבֵא אֹתִי אֶל־חֲצַר בֵּית־יְהוָה הַפְּנִימִית וְהִנֵּה־פֶתַח הֵיכַל יְהוָה בֵּין הָאוּלָם וּבֵין הַמִּזְבֵּחַ כְּעֶשְׂרִים וַחֲמִשָּׁה אִישׁ אֲחֹרֵיהֶם אֶל־הֵיכַל יְהוָה וּפְנֵיהֶם קֵדְמָה וְהֵמָּה מִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתֶם קֵדְמָה לַשָּׁמֶשׁ׃", 8.16. "And He brought me into the inner court of the LORD’S house, and, behold, at the door of the temple of the LORD, between the porch and the altar, were about five and twenty men, with their backs toward the temple of the LORD, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east.",
4. Aristotle, Metaphysics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 940
5. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.21.57 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 941
6. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 27 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 942
27. And they are accustomed to pray twice every day, at morning and at evening; when the sun is rising entreating God that the happiness of the coming day may be real happiness, so that their minds may be filled with heavenly light, and when the sun is setting they pray that their soul, being entirely lightened and relieved of the burden of the outward senses, and of the appropriate object of these outward senses, may be able to trace out truth existing in its own consistory and council chamber.
7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 161 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 940
161. Now, the first approaches of the male to the female have a pleasure in them which brings on other pleasures also, and it is through this pleasure that the formation and generation of children is carried on. And what is generated by it appears to be attached to nothing rather than to it, since they rejoice in pleasure, and are impatient at pain, which is its contrary. On which account even the infant when first brought forth cries, being as it seems in pain at the cold. For coming forth on a sudden into the air from a very warm, and indeed, hot region namely, the womb, in which it has been abiding a considerable time, the air being a cold place and one to which it is wholly unaccustomed, it is alarmed, and pours forth tears as the most evident proof of its grief and of its impatience at pain.
8. Ovid, Ibis, 13.154 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 945
9. Seneca The Younger, De Constantia Sapientis, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 901
10. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 35.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 905
11. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 10.31 (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 900
10.31.  At this Diogenes broke into a laugh and said, "He solve the Sphinx's riddle! Have you not heard that the Sphinx prompted him to give the answer 'man'? As to the meaning of 'man,' however, he neither expressed himself nor knew, but when he said the word 'man' he thought he was answering the question. It was just as if one were asked, 'What is Socrates?' and should give no other answer than the word 'Socrates.' I have heard someone say that the Sphinx stands for stupidity;
12. Artemidorus, Oneirocritica, 2.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 900
13. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.128 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 942
2.128. 5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising.
14. Tosefta, Avodah Zarah, 3.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 899
15. Tacitus, Histories, 3.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 942
3.24.  When Antonius could recognize his soldiers and be recognized by them, he began to urge them on, some by shame and reproaches, more by praise and encouragement, but all by hope and promises. He asked the Pannonian legions why they had taken up their arms again; he reminded them that this was the field on which they could blot out the stain of their earlier disgrace, where they could regain their former glory. Then turning to the soldiers from Moesia he appealed to them as the authors and promoters of this war. He told them that it had been useless to challenge the Vitellians with threats and words, if they could not endure their hands and looks. This he said as he came to each division; but he spoke at greater length to the troops of the Third legion, reminding them of their ancient glory as well as of their later achievements, of their victory over the Parthians when Mark Antony was their leader, over the Armenians when Corbulo commanded, and of their recent defeat of the Sarmatians. Then he indigtly said to the praetorians: "As for you, clowns that you are, if you do not win to‑day, what other general or other camp will take you in? Yonder are your standards and your arms, and, if defeated, death; for dishonour you have exhausted." A shout arose from the entire army; and the soldiers of the Third legion, according to the Syrian custom, hailed the rising sun.
16. Tacitus, Annals, 15.37 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 899
15.37. Ipse quo fidem adquireret nihil usquam perinde laetum sibi, publicis locis struere convivia totaque urbe quasi domo uti. et celeberrimae luxu famaque epulae fuere quas a Tigellino paratas ut exemplum referam, ne saepius eadem prodigentia narranda sit. igitur in stagno Agrippae fabricatus est ratem cui superpositum convivium navium aliarum tractu moveretur. naves auro et ebore distinctae, remiges- que exoleti per aetates et scientiam libidinum componebantur. volucris et feras diversis e terris et animalia maris Oceano abusque petiverat. crepidinibus stagni lupanaria adstabant inlustribus feminis completa et contra scorta visebantur nudis corporibus. iam gestus motusque obsceni; et postquam tenebrae incedebant, quantum iuxta nemoris et circumiecta tecta consonare cantu et luminibus clarescere. ipse per licita atque inlicita foedatus nihil flagitii reliquerat quo corruptior ageret, nisi paucos post dies uni ex illo contaminatorum grege (nomen Pythagorae fuit) in modum sollemnium coniugiorum denupsisset. inditum imperatori flammeum, missi auspices, dos et genialis torus et faces nuptiales, cuncta denique spectata quae etiam in femina nox operit. 15.37.  He himself, to create the impression that no place gave him equal pleasure with Rome, began to serve banquets in the public places and to treat the entire city as his palace. In point of extravagance and notoriety, the most celebrated of the feasts was that arranged by Tigellinus; which I shall describe as a type, instead of narrating time and again the monotonous tale of prodigality. He constructed, then, a raft on the Pool of Agrippa, and superimposed a banquet, to be set in motion by other craft acting as tugs. The vessels were gay with gold and ivory, and the oarsmen were catamites marshalled according to their ages and their libidinous attainments. He had collected birds and wild beasts from the ends of the earth, and marine animals from the ocean itself. On the quays of the lake stood brothels, filled with women of high rank; and, opposite, naked harlots met the view. First came obscene gestures and dances; then, as darkness advanced, the whole of the neighbouring grove, together with the dwelling-houses around, began to echo with song and to glitter with lights. Nero himself, defiled by every natural and unnatural lust had left no abomination in reserve with which to crown his vicious existence; except that, a few days later, he became, with the full rites of legitimate marriage, the wife of one of that herd of degenerates, who bore the name of Pythagoras. The veil was drawn over the imperial head, witnesses were despatched to the scene; the dowry, the couch of wedded love, the nuptial torches, were there: everything, in fine, which night enshrouds even if a woman is the bride, was left open to the view.
17. Clement of Alexandria, Exhortation To The Greeks, 4.57.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 905
18. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 2.22 (2nd cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 905
2.22. ὃν δὲ διέτριβεν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ χρόνον, πολὺς δὲ οὗτος ἐγένετο, ἔστ' ἂν ἀγγελθῇ τῷ βασιλεῖ ξένους ἥκειν, “ὦ Δάμι” ἔφη ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος, “ἔστι τι γραφική;” “εἴ γε” εἶπε “καὶ ἀλήθεια.” “πράττει δὲ τί ἡ τέχνη αὕτη;” “τὰ χρώματα” ἔφη “ξυγκεράννυσιν, ὁπόσα ἐστί, τὰ κυανᾶ τοῖς βατραχείοις καὶ τὰ λευκὰ τοῖς μέλασι καὶ τὰ πυρσὰ τοῖς ὠχροῖς.” “ταυτὶ δὲ” ἦ δ' ὃς “ὑπὲρ τίνος μίγνυσιν; οὐ γὰρ ὑπὲρ μόνου τοῦ ἄνθους, ὥσπερ αἱ κήριναι.” “ὑπὲρ μιμήσεως” ἔφη “καὶ τοῦ κύνα τε ἐξεικάσαι καὶ ἵππον καὶ ἄνθρωπον καὶ ναῦν καὶ ὁπόσα ὁρᾷ ὁ ἥλιος: ἤδη δὲ καὶ τὸν ἥλιον αὐτὸν ἐξεικάζει τοτὲ μὲν ἐπὶ τεττάρων ἵππων, οἷος ἐνταῦθα λέγεται φαίνεσθαι, τοτὲ δ' αὖ καὶ διαπυρσεύοντα τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, ἐπειδὰν αἰθέρα ὑπογράφῃ καὶ θεῶν οἶκον.” “μίμησις οὖν ἡ γραφική, ὦ Δάμι;” “τί δὲ ἄλλο;” εἶπεν “εἰ γὰρ μὴ τοῦτο πράττοι, γελοία δόξει χρώματα ποιοῦσα εὐήθως.” “τὰ δ' ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ” ἔφη “βλεπόμενα, ἐπειδὰν αἱ νεφέλαι διασπασθῶσιν ἀπ' ἀλλήλων, τοὺς κενταύρους καὶ τραγελάφους καὶ, νὴ Δί', οἱ λύκοι τε καὶ οἱ ἵπποι, τί φήσεις; ἆρ' οὐ μιμητικῆς εἶναι ἔργα;” “ἔοικεν,” ἔφη. “ζωγράφος οὖν ὁ θεός, ὦ Δάμι, καὶ καταλιπὼν τὸ πτηνὸν ἅρμα, ἐφ' οὗ πορεύεται διακοσμῶν τὰ θεῖά τε καὶ ἀνθρώπεια, κάθηται τότε ἀθύρων τε καὶ γράφων ταῦτα, ὥσπερ οἱ παῖδες ἐν τῇ ψάμμῳ;” ἠρυθρίασεν ὁ Δάμις ἐς οὕτως ἄτοπον ἐκπεσεῖν δόξαντος τοῦ λόγου. οὐχ ὑπεριδὼν οὖν αὐτὸν ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος, οὐδὲ γὰρ πικρὸς πρὸς τὰς ἐλέγξεις ἦν, “ἀλλὰ μὴ τοῦτο” ἔφη “βούλει λέγειν, ὦ Δάμι, τὸ ταῦτα μὲν ἄσημά τε καὶ ὡς ἔτυχε διὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ φέρεσθαι τόγε ἐπὶ τῷ θεῷ, ἡμᾶς δὲ φύσει τὸ μιμητικὸν ἔχοντας ἀναρρυθμίζειν τε αὐτὰ καὶ ποιεῖν;” “μᾶλλον” ἔφη “τοῦτο ἡγώμεθα, ὦ ̓Απολλώνιε, πιθανώτερον γὰρ καὶ πολλῷ βέλτιον.” “διττὴ ἄρα ἡ μιμητική, ὦ Δάμι, καὶ τὴν μὲν ἡγώμεθα οἵαν τῇ χειρὶ ἀπομιμεῖσθαι καὶ τῷ νῷ, γραφικὴν δὲ εἶναι ταύτην, τὴν δ' αὖ μόνῳ τῷ νῷ εἰκάζειν.” “οὐ διττήν,” ἔφη ὁ Δάμις “ἀλλὰ τὴν μὲν τελεωτέραν ἡγεῖσθαι προσήκει γραφικήν γε οὖσαν, ἣ δύναται καὶ τῷ νῷ καὶ τῇ χειρὶ ἐξεικάσαι, τὴν δὲ ἑτέραν ἐκείνης μόριον, ἐπειδὴ ξυνίησι μὲν καὶ μιμεῖται τῷ νῷ καὶ μὴ γραφικός τις ὤν, τῇ χειρὶ δὲ οὐκ ἂν ἐς τὸ γράφειν αὐτὰ χρήσαιτο.” “ἆρα,” ἔφη “ὦ Δάμι, πεπηρωμένος τὴν χεῖρα ὑπὸ πληγῆς τινος ἢ νόσου;” “μὰ Δί'” εἶπεν “ἀλλ' ὑπὸ τοῦ μήτε γραφίδος τινὸς ἧφθαι, μήτε ὀργάνου τινὸς ἢ χρώματος, ἀλλ' ἀμαθῶς ἔχειν τοῦ γράφειν.” “οὐκοῦν,” ἔφη “ὦ Δάμι, ἄμφω ὁμολογοῦμεν μιμητικὴν μὲν ἐκ φύσεως τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ἥκειν, τὴν γραφικὴν δὲ ἐκ τέχνης. τουτὶ δ' ἂν καὶ περὶ τὴν πλαστικὴν φαίνοιτο. τὴν δὲ δὴ ζωγραφίαν αὐτὴν οὔ μοι δοκεῖς μόνον τὴν διὰ τῶν χρωμάτων ἡγεῖσθαι, καὶ γὰρ ἓν χρῶμα ἐς αὐτὴν ἤρκεσε τοῖς γε ἀρχαιοτέροις τῶν γραφέων καὶ προϊοῦσα τεττάρων εἶτα πλειόνων ἥψατο, ἀλλὰ καὶ γραμμὴν καὶ τὸ ἄνευ χρώματος, ὃ δὴ σκιᾶς τε ξύγκειται καὶ φωτός, ζωγραφίαν προσήκει καλεῖν: καὶ γὰρ ἐν αὐτοῖς ὁμοιότης τε ὁρᾶται εἶδός τε καὶ νοῦς καὶ αἰδὼς καὶ θρασύτης, καίτοι χηρεύει χρωμάτων ταῦτα, καὶ οὔτε αἷμα ἐνσημαίνει οὔτε κόμης τινὸς ἢ ὑπήνης ἄνθος, ἀλλὰ μονοτρόπως ξυντιθέμενα τῷ τε ξανθῷ ἀνθρώπῳ ἔοικε καὶ τῷ λευκῷ, κἂν τούτων τινὰ τῶν ̓Ινδῶν λευκῇ τῇ γραμμῇ γράψωμεν, μέλας δήπου δόξει, τὸ γὰρ ὑπόσιμον τῆς ῥινὸς καὶ οἱ ὀρθοὶ βόστρυχοι καὶ ἡ περιττὴ γένυς καὶ ἡ περὶ τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς οἷον ἔκπληξις μελαίνει τὰ ὁρώμενα καὶ ̓Ινδὸν ὑπογράφει τοῖς γε μὴ ἀνοήτως ὁρῶσιν. ὅθεν εἴποιμ' ἂν καὶ τοὺς ὁρῶντας τὰ τῆς γραφικῆς ἔργα μιμητικῆς δεῖσθαι: οὐ γὰρ ἂν ἐπαινέσειέ τις τὸν γεγραμμένον ἵππον ἢ ταῦρον μὴ τὸ ζῷον ἐνθυμηθείς, ᾧ εἴκασται, οὐδ' ἂν τὸν Αἴαντά τις τὸν Τιμομάχου ἀγασθείη, ὃς δὴ ἀναγέγραπται αὐτῷ μεμηνώς, εἰ μὴ ἀναλάβοι τι ἐς τὸν νοῦν Αἴαντος εἴδωλον καὶ ὡς εἰκὸς αὐτὸν ἀπεκτονότα τὰ ἐν τῇ Τροίᾳ βουκόλια καθῆσθαι ἀπειρηκότα, βουλὴν ποιούμενον καὶ ἑαυτὸν κτεῖναι. ταυτὶ δέ, ὦ Δάμι, τὰ τοῦ Πώρου δαίδαλα μήτε χαλκευτικῆς μόνον ἀποφαινώμεθα, γεγραμμένοις γὰρ εἴκασται, μήτε γραφικῆς, ἐπειδὴ ἐχαλκεύθη, ἀλλ' ἡγώμεθα σοφίσασθαι αὐτὰ γραφικόν τε καὶ χαλκευτικὸν ἕνα ἄνδρα, οἷον δή τι παρ' ̔Ομήρῳ τὸ τοῦ ̔Ηφαίστου περὶ τὴν τοῦ ̓Αχιλλέως ἀσπίδα ἀναφαίνεται. μεστὰ γὰρ καὶ ταῦτα ὀλλύντων τε καὶ ὀλλυμένων, καὶ τὴν γῆν ᾑματῶσθαι φήσεις χαλκῆν οὖσαν.” 2.22. While he was waiting in the Temple, — and it took a long time for the king to be informed that strangers had arrived, — Apollonius said: O Damis, is there such a thing as painting? Why yes, he answered, if there be any such thing as truth. And what does this art do? It mixes together, replied Damis, all the colors there are, blue with green, and white with black, and red with yellow. And for what reason, said the other, does it mix these? For it isn't merely to get a color, like dyed wax. It is, said Damis, for the sake of imitation, and to get a likeness of a dog, or a horse, or a man, or a ship, or of anything else under the sun; and what is more, you see the sun himself represented, sometimes borne upon a four horse car, as he is said to be seen here, and sometimes again traversing the heaven with his torch, in case you are depicting the ether and the home of the gods. Then, O Damis, painting is imitation? And what else could it be? said he: for if it did not effect that, it would voted to be an idle playing with colors. And, said the other, the things which are seen in heaven, whenever the clouds are torn away from one another, I mean the centaurs and stag-antelopes, yes, and the wolves too, and the horses, what have you got to say about them? Are we not to regard them as works of imitation? It would seem so, he replied. Then, Damis, God is a painter, and has left his winged chariot, upon which he travels, as he disposes of affairs human and divine, and he sits down on these occasions to amuse himself by drawing these pictures, as children make figures in the sand. Damis blushed, for he felt that his argument was reduced to such an absurdity. But Apollonius, on his side, had no wish to humiliate him, for he was not unfeeling in his refutations of people, and said: But I am sure, Damis, you did not mean that; rather that these figures flit through the heaven not only without meaning, but, so far as providence is concerned, by mere chance; while we who by nature are prone to imitation rearrange and create them in these regular figures. We may, he said, rather consider this to be the case, O Apollonius, for it is more probable, and a much sounder idea. Then, O Damis, the mimetic art is twofold, and we may regard the one kind as an employment of the hands and mind in producing imitations, and declare that this is painting, whereas the other kind consists in making likenesses with the mind alone. Not twofold, replied Damis, for we ought to regard the former as the more perfect and more complete kind, being anyhow painting and a faculty of making likenesses with the help both of mind and hand; but we must regard the other kind as a department that, since its possessor perceives and imitates with the mind, without having the delineative faculty, and would never use his hand in depicting its objects. Then, said Apollonius, you mean, Damis, that the hand may be disabled by a blow or by disease? No, he answered, but it is disabled, because it has never handled pencil nor any instrument or color, and has never learned to draw. Then, said the other, we are both of us, Damis, agreed that man owes his mimetic faculty to nature, but his power of painting to art. And the same would appear to be true of plastic art. But, methinks, you would not confine painting itself to the mere use of colors, for a single color was often found sufficient for this purpose by our older painters; and as the art advanced, it employed four, and later, yet more; but we must also concede the name of a painting to an outline drawn without any color at all, and composed merely of shadow and light. For in such designs we see a resemblance, we see form and expression, and modesty and bravery, although they are altogether devoid of color; and neither blood is represented, nor the color of a man's hair or beard; nevertheless these compositions in monochrome are likenesses of people either tawny or white, and if we drew one of these Indians with a pencil without color, yet he would be known for a negro, for his flat nose, and his stiff curling locks and prominent jaw, and a certain gleam about his eyes, would give a black look to the picture and depict an Indian to the eyes of all those who have intelligence. And for this reason I should say that those who look at works of painting and drawing require a mimetic faculty; for no one could appreciate or admire a picture of a horse or of a bull, unless he had formed an idea of the picture represented. Nor again could one admire a picture of Ajax, by the painter Timomachus, which represents him in a state of madness, unless one had conceived in one's mind first an idea or notion of Ajax, and had entertained the probability that after killing the flocks in Troy he would sit down exhausted and even meditate suicide. But these elaborate works of Porus we cannot, Damis, regard as works of brass founding alone, for they are cast in brass; so let us regard them as the chefs d'oeuvre of a man who is both painter and brass-founder at once, and as similar to the work of Hephaestus upon the shield of Achilles, as revealed in Homer. For they are crowded together in that work too men slaying and slain, and you would say that the earth was stained with gore, though it is made of brass.
19. Lucian, The Tyrannicide, 11, 8 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 944
20. Herodian, History of The Empire After Marcus, 4.15 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 942
21. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 941
119a. עבידנא יומא טבא לרבנן אמר רבא תיתי לי דכי אתא צורבא מרבנן לקמאי לדינא לא מזיגנא רישי אבי סדיא כמה דלא מהפיכנא בזכותי' אמר מר בר רב אשי פסילנא ליה לצורבא מרבנן לדינא מ"ט דחביב עלי כגופאי ואין אדם רואה חובה לעצמו,רבי חנינא מיעטף וקאי אפניא דמעלי שבתא אמר בואו ונצא לקראת שבת המלכה רבי ינאי לביש מאניה מעלי שבת ואמר בואי כלה בואי כלה רבה בר רב הונא איקלע לבי רבה בר רב נחמן קריבו ליה תלת סאוי טחיי א"ל מי הוה ידעיתון דאתינא אמרו ליה מי עדיפת לן מינה,רבי אבא זבן בתליסר אסתירי פשיטי בישרא מתליסר טבחי ומשלים להו אצינורא דדשא ואמר להו אשור הייא אשור הייא ר' אבהו הוה יתיב אתכתקא דשינא ומושיף נורא רב ענן לביש גונדא דתנא דבי רבי ישמעאל בגדים שבישל בהן קדירה לרבו אל ימזוג בהן כוס לרבו,רב ספרא מחריך רישא רבא מלח שיבוטא רב הונא מדליק שרגי רב פפא גדיל פתילתא רב חסדא פרים סילקא רבה ורב יוסף מצלחי ציבי ר' זירא מצתת צתותי רב נחמן בר יצחק מכתף ועייל מכתף ונפיק אמר אילו מקלעין לי ר' אמי ור' אסי מי לא מכתיפנא קמייהו ואיכא דאמרי ר' אמי ורבי אסי מכתפי ועיילי מכתפי ונפקי אמרי אילו איקלע לן רבי יוחנן מי לא מכתפינן קמיה,יוסף מוקיר שבי הוה ההוא נכרי בשבבותיה דהוה נפישי נכסיה טובא אמרי ליה כלדאי כולהו נכסי יוסף מוקר שבי אכיל להו אזל זבנינהו לכולהו ניכסי זבן בהו מרגניתא אותבה בסייניה בהדי דקא עבר מברא אפרחיה זיקא שדייה במיא בלעיה כוורא אסקוה אייתוה אפניא דמעלי שבתא אמרי מאן זבין כי השתא אמרי להו זילו אמטיוהו לגבי יוסף מוקר שבי דרגיל דזבין אמטיוה ניהליה זבניה קרעיה אשכח ביה מרגניתא זבניה בתליסר עיליתא דדינרי דדהבא פגע ביה ההוא סבא אמר מאן דיזיף שבתא פרעיה שבתא,בעא מיניה רבי מר' ישמעאל ברבי יוסי עשירים שבא"י במה הן זוכין א"ל בשביל שמעשרין שנאמר (דברים יד, כב) עשר תעשר עשר בשביל שתתעשר שבבבל במה הן זוכין א"ל בשביל שמכבדין את התורה,ושבשאר ארצות במה הן זוכין א"ל בשביל שמכבדין את השבת דאמר רבי חייא בר אבא פעם אחת נתארחתי אצל בעל הבית בלודקיא והביאו לפניו שלחן של זהב משוי ששה עשר בני אדם ושש עשרה שלשלאות של כסף קבועות בו וקערות וכוסות וקיתוניות וצלוחיות קבועות בו ועליו כל מיני מאכל וכל מיני מגדים ובשמים וכשמניחים אותו אומרים (תהלים כד, א) לה' הארץ ומלואה וגו' וכשמסלקין אותו אומרים (תהלים קטו, טז) השמים שמים לה' והארץ נתן לבני אדם אמרתי לו בני במה זכית לכך אמר לי קצב הייתי ומכל בהמה שהיתה נאה אמרתי זו תהא לשבת אמרתי לו [אשריך שזכית] וברוך המקום שזיכך לכך,א"ל קיסר לרבי יהושע בן חנניא מפני מה תבשיל של שבת ריחו נודף אמר לו תבלין אחד יש לנו ושבת שמו שאנו מטילין לתוכו וריחו נודף אמר לו תן לנו הימנו אמר לו כל המשמר את השבת מועיל לו ושאינו משמר את השבת אינו מועיל לו,א"ל ריש גלותא לרב המנונא מאי דכתיב (ישעיהו נח, יג) ולקדוש ה' מכובד א"ל זה יוה"כ שאין בו לא אכילה ולא שתיה אמרה תורה כבדהו בכסות נקיה וכבדתו רב אמר להקדים ושמואל אמר לאחר אמרו ליה בני רב פפא בר אבא לרב פפא כגון אנן דשכיח לן בישרא וחמרא כל יומא במאי נישנייה אמר להו אי רגיליתו לאקדומי אחרוה אי רגיליתו לאחרוה אקדמוה רב ששת בקיטא מותיב להו לרבנן היכא דמטיא שימשא בסיתוא מותיב להו לרבנן היכא דמטיא טולא כי היכי דליקומו הייא ר' זירא 119a. b I make a feast for the Sages. Rava said: May I receive /b my reward b because when a young Torah scholar comes before me for judgment, I do not put my head on the pillow until I seek /b as many of b his merits /b as possible, based on conditions and his claims. b Mar bar Rav Ashi said: I am disqualified to /b sit in b judgment of a young Torah scholar. What is the reason /b that I am disqualified? It is b because /b the Torah scholar b is as beloved to me as my /b own b self, and a person does not find fault in himself. /b ,The Gemara now returns to the issue of delight in and deference to Shabbat. b Rabbi Ḥanina would wrap himself /b in his garment b and stand at nightfall on Shabbat eve, /b and b say: Come and we will go out to greet Shabbat the queen. Rabbi Yannai put on his garment on Shabbat eve and said: Enter, O bride. Enter, O bride. /b The Gemara relates: b Rabba bar Rav Huna happened /b to come b to the house of Rabba bar Rav Naḥman. They brought /b before b him three se’a of oiled biscuits. /b He b said to them: Did you know I was coming /b and prepared all of this in my honor? b They said to him: Are you /b more b important to us than /b Shabbat? The biscuits were prepared in deference to Shabbat., b Rabbi Abba bought thirteen plain staters [ i astirei peshitei /i ] /b worth half a i zuz /i b of meat from thirteen butchers /b in deference to Shabbat, so that he would have various types of fine meat. b And he would place /b the meats b at the door hinge /b at the entrance to his house to hurry to bring another type of meat. b And /b he b said to /b the cooks, in order to rush them: b Hurry and prepare it, hurry and prepare it. /b The Gemara also relates: b Rabbi Abbahu would sit on an ivory chair [ i takhteka /i ] and fan the fire /b cooking the food for Shabbat, in order to play a role in preparations for Shabbat. b Rav A would don a /b simple b black garment /b for the Shabbat preparations, b as the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: /b While wearing the b garments in which he cooked a pot /b of food b for his master, one should not dilute a cup of wine for his Master. /b One should wear a garment appropriate for the task at hand., b Rav Safra /b would b roast the head /b of an animal to prepare it for Shabbat. b Rava salted /b a b i shibuta /i /b fish in deference to Shabbat. b Rav Huna kindled lamps /b in deference to Shabbat. b Rav Pappa spun the wicks /b for the Shabbat lamp. b Rav Ḥisda cut the beets /b in preparation for Shabbat. b Rabba and Rav Yosef cut wood. Rabbi Zeira prepared thin sticks /b for kindling. b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak /b would b load /b objects b on his shoulder and enter, load /b objects b on his shoulder and exit. He said: If Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi happened to /b visit b me, would I not load /b objects b on my shoulder before them? /b So too, it is fitting to do so in deference to Shabbat. b And some say /b that b Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi /b would b load /b objects b on their shoulders and enter, load /b objects b on their shoulders and exit. They said: If Rabbi Yoḥa happened /b to come b to /b visit b us, would we not load /b objects b on our shoulders before him? /b ,The Gemara relates with regard to b Yosef who cherishes Shabbat: There was a gentile in his neighborhood whose property was extremely plentiful. The astrologers said to /b the gentile with regard to b all his property: Yosef who cherishes Shabbat will consume it. /b The gentile b went and sold all of his property, /b and with the money he received b he bought a pearl, /b and he b placed it in his hat. When he was crossing a river /b in b a ferry, the wind blew /b his hat b and cast it into the water, /b and b a fish swallowed it. /b The fish b was /b caught and b removed /b from the water and b it was brought /b to shore adjacent to b nightfall on Shabbat eve. /b The fishermen b said: Who buys /b fish at a time b like this? /b The townspeople b said to /b the fishermen: b Go bring it to Yosef who cherishes Shabbat, as he regularly purchases /b delicacies in deference to Shabbat. b They brought it to him /b and b he purchased it. He ripped /b the fish open and b found a pearl inside it. He sold it for thirteen vessels filled with golden dinars /b ( i Tosafot /i ). b This elderly man /b who b encountered him and said: One who lends /b to b Shabbat, Shabbat repays him. /b , b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b raised a dilemma before Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yosei: /b With regard to b the wealthy of Eretz Yisrael, by what /b virtue b do they merit /b their wealth? He b said to him: Because they tithe, as it is stated: “A tithe you shall tithe [ i asser te’asser /i ] /b from all the crops of your seed that come out of the field each year” (Deuteronomy 14:22). The Sages interpreted this homiletically: b Take a tithe [ i asser /i ] so that you will become wealthy [ i titasher /i ]. /b He asked: With regard to b the wealthy of Babylonia, /b who are not obligated to tithe, b by what /b virtue b do they merit /b their wealth? He b said to him: Because they honor the Torah /b and the Sages in Babylonia.,With regard to b the wealthy of other countries, /b where there are no Sages, b by what /b virtue b do they merit /b their wealth? He b said to him: Because they honor Shabbat, as Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said: One time I was hosted at /b the home of b a homeowner in Laodicea and /b they b brought before him a table of gold /b that was so heavy it required b sixteen people to carry it, and /b there were b sixteen chains of silver attached to it, and /b there were b bowls and cups and pitchers and flasks attached to it, and /b there were b all sorts of food, and delicacies, and fragrant spices on it. And when they placed it /b there b they /b would b say: “The earth and all that fills it is God’s, /b the world and all that inhabit it” (Psalms 24:1). b And when they removed it they /b would b say: “The heavens are God’s heavens, but the earth He gave to mankind” /b (Psalms 115:16). b I said to him: My son, what did you /b do to b merit this? He said to me: I was a slaughterer, and /b when I would come across parts b from every animal /b that I slaughtered that was b fine, I would say: This will be for Shabbat. I said to him: Happy are you that you merited /b this, b and blessed is God, Who has afforded you this merit. /b ,The Roman b emperor said to Rabbi Yehoshua ben Ḥaya: Why does the fragrance of a cooked Shabbat dish diffuse? /b He b said to him: We have a certain spice called dill [ i shevet /i ], which we place in /b the cooked dishes b and its fragrance diffuses. /b The emperor b said to him: Give us /b some b of it. /b He b said to him: For anyone who observes Shabbat, /b the spice b is effective, and for one who does not observe Shabbat, it is not effective. /b , b The Exilarch said to Rav Hamnuna: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written, “The holy one of God is honored” /b (Isaiah 58:13)? Rav Hamnuna b said to him: That is Yom Kippur, when there is no eating or drinking, /b and so the b Torah said: Honor it with a clean garment. /b And with regard to that which is stated about Shabbat, b “And you shall honor it,” Rav said: To /b honor Shabbat, b make /b the Shabbat feast b earlier /b than on other days, in order to show that one delights in eating it. b And Shmuel said: To /b honor Shabbat, b make /b the Shabbat feast b later, /b so that one’s appetite will be greater. b The sons of Rav Pappa bar Abba said to Rav Pappa: /b People b like us, for whom meat and wine is found /b on our table b every day, in what /b manner b can we change it /b on Shabbat? He b said to them: If you are accustomed to /b eating your meal b early, make it later /b on Shabbat; b if you are accustomed to making it late, make it earlier /b on Shabbat. This difference will underscore the uniqueness of Shabbat. The Gemara relates: b In the summer, Rav Sheshet would seat the Sages /b who attended his lecture in a place b where the sun would reach; in the winter, he would seat the Sages /b in a place b where the shade would reach. /b He did this b so /b that b they would stand quickly /b after the lecture ended and not engage in discussion, which would detract from the time devoted to delighting in Shabbat. b Rabbi Zeira /b
22. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 942
55a. כל המאריך בתפלתו ומעיין בה סוף בא לידי כאב לב שנאמר (משלי יג, יב) תוחלת ממושכה מחלה לב וא"ר יצחק שלשה דברים מזכירים עונותיו של אדם ואלו הן קיר נטוי ועיון תפלה ומוסר דין על חבירו לשמים,הא לא קשיא הא דמעיין בה הא דלא מעיין בה והיכי עביד דמפיש ברחמי,והמאריך על שלחנו דלמא אתי עניא ויהיב ליה דכתיב (יחזקאל מא, כב) המזבח עץ שלש אמות גבוה וכתיב (יחזקאל מא, כב) וידבר אלי זה השלחן אשר לפני ה' פתח במזבח וסיים בשלחן ר' יוחנן ור' אלעזר דאמרי תרוייהו כל זמן שבהמ"ק קיים מזבח מכפר על ישראל ועכשיו שלחנו של אדם מכפר עליו,והמאריך בבית הכסא מעליותא הוא והתניא עשרה דברים מביאין את האדם לידי תחתוניות האוכל עלי קנים ועלי גפנים ולולבי גפנים ומוריגי בהמה ושדרו של דג ודג מליח שאינו מבושל כל צרכו והשותה שמרי יין והמקנח בסיד ובחרסית והמקנח בצרור שקנח בו חבירו וי"א אף התולה עצמו בבית הכסא יותר מדאי,לא קשיא הא דמאריך ותלי הא דמאריך ולא תלי,כי הא דאמרה ליה ההיא מטרוניתא לר' יהודה בר' אלעאי פניך דומים למגדלי חזירים ולמלוי ברבית אמר לה הימנותא לדידי תרוייהו אסירן אלא עשרים וארבעה בית הכסא איכא מאושפיזאי לבי מדרשא דכי אזילנא בדיקנא נפשאי בכולהו.,ואמר רב יהודה שלשה דברים מקצרים ימיו ושנותיו של אדם מי שנותנין לו ס"ת לקרות ואינו קורא כוס של ברכה לברך ואינו מברך והמנהיג עצמו ברבנות,ס"ת לקרות ואינו קורא דכתיב (דברים ל, כ) כי הוא חייך ואורך ימיך כוס של ברכה לברך ואינו מברך דכתיב (בראשית יב, ג) ואברכה מברכיך והמנהיג עצמו ברבנות דא"ר חמא בר חנינא מפני מה מת יוסף קודם לאחיו מפני שהנהיג עצמו ברבנות:,ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב שלשה צריכים רחמים מלך טוב שנה טובה וחלום טוב מלך טוב דכתיב (משלי כא, א) פלגי מים לב מלך ביד ה' שנה טובה דכתיב (דברים יא, יב) תמיד עיני ה' אלהיך בה מראשית השנה ועד אחרית שנה חלום טוב דכתיב (ישעיהו לח, טז) ותחלימני (ותחייני):,אמר רבי יוחנן שלשה דברים מכריז עליהם הקב"ה בעצמו ואלו הן רעב ושובע ופרנס טוב רעב דכתיב (מלכים ב ח, א) כי קרא ה' לרעב וגו' שובע דכתיב (יחזקאל לו, כט) וקראתי אל הדגן והרביתי אותו פרנס טוב דכתיב (שמות לא, ב) (ויאמר) ה' אל משה לאמר ראה קראתי בשם בצלאל וגו',אמר רבי יצחק אין מעמידין פרנס על הצבור אלא אם כן נמלכים בצבור שנא' (שמות לה, ל) ראו קרא ה' בשם בצלאל אמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה משה הגון עליך בצלאל אמר לו רבונו של עולם אם לפניך הגון לפני לא כל שכן אמר לו אף על פי כן לך אמור להם הלך ואמר להם לישראל הגון עליכם בצלאל אמרו לו אם לפני הקדוש ברוך הוא ולפניך הוא הגון לפנינו לא כל שכן,א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן בצלאל על שם חכמתו נקרא בשעה שאמר לו הקדוש ברוך הוא למשה לך אמור לו לבצלאל עשה לי משכן ארון וכלים הלך משה והפך ואמר לו עשה ארון וכלים ומשכן אמר לו משה רבינו מנהגו של עולם אדם בונה בית ואחר כך מכניס לתוכו כלים ואתה אומר עשה לי ארון וכלים ומשכן כלים שאני עושה להיכן אכניסם שמא כך אמר לך הקב"ה עשה משכן ארון וכלים אמר לו שמא בצל אל היית וידעת,אמר רב יהודה אמר רב יודע היה בצלאל לצרף אותיות שנבראו בהן שמים וארץ כתיב הכא (שמות לה, לא) וימלא אותו רוח אלהים בחכמה ובתבונה ובדעת וכתיב התם (משלי ג, יט) ה' בחכמה יסד ארץ כונן שמים בתבונה וכתיב (משלי ג, כ) בדעתו תהומות נבקעו,אמר רבי יוחנן אין הקדוש ברוך הוא נותן חכמה אלא למי שיש בו חכמה שנא' (דניאל ב, כא) יהב חכמתא לחכימין ומנדעא לידעי בינה שמע רב תחליפא בר מערבא ואמרה קמיה דרבי אבהו אמר ליה אתון מהתם מתניתו לה אנן מהכא מתנינן לה דכתיב (שמות לא, ו) ובלב כל חכם לב נתתי חכמה:,אמר רב חסדא כל חלום ולא טוות ואמר רב חסדא חלמא דלא מפשר כאגרתא דלא מקריא ואמר רב חסדא לא חלמא טבא מקיים כוליה ולא חלמא בישא מקיים כוליה ואמר רב חסדא חלמא בישא עדיף מחלמא טבא וא"ר חסדא חלמא בישא עציבותיה מסתייה חלמא טבא חדויה מסתייה אמר רב יוסף חלמא טבא אפילו לדידי בדיחותיה מפכחא ליה ואמר רב חסדא חלמא בישא קשה מנגדא שנאמר (קהלת ג, יד) והאלהים עשה שייראו מלפניו ואמר רבה בר בר חנה א"ר יוחנן זה חלום רע,(ירמיהו כג, כח) הנביא אשר אתו חלום יספר חלום ואשר דברי אתו ידבר דברי אמת מה לתבן את הבר נאם ה' וכי מה ענין בר ותבן אצל חלום אלא אמר ר' יוחנן משום ר' שמעון בן יוחי כשם שאי אפשר לבר בלא תבן כך אי אפשר לחלום בלא דברים בטלים,אמר ר' ברכיה חלום אף על פי שמקצתו מתקיים כולו אינו מתקיים מנא לן מיוסף דכתיב (בראשית לז, ט) והנה השמש והירח וגו' 55a. b Anyone who prolongs his prayer and expects it /b to be answered, b will ultimately come to heartache, as it is stated: “Hope deferred makes the heart sick” /b (Proverbs 13:12). Similarly, b Rabbi Yitzḥak said: Three matters evoke a person’s sins, and they are: /b Endangering oneself by sitting or standing next to an b inclined wall /b that is about to collapse, b expecting prayer /b to be accepted, as that leads to an assessment of his status and merit, b and passing a case against another to Heaven, /b as praying for Heaven to pass judgment on another person causes one’s own deeds to be examined and compared with the deeds of that other person. This proves that prolonging prayer is a fault.,The Gemara resolves the apparent contradiction: This is b not difficult. This, /b where we learned that prolonging prayer is undesirable, refers to a situation when one b expects /b his prayer to be accepted, b while this, /b where Rav Yehuda says that prolonging prayer prolongs one’s life, refers to a situation where one does b not expect /b his prayer to be accepted. b How does he /b prolong his prayer? By b increasing /b his b supplication. /b ,As for the virtue of b prolonging one’s /b mealtime at the b table, /b which Rav Yehuda mentioned, the Gemara explains: b Perhaps a poor person will come /b during the meal and the host will be in a position to b give him /b food immediately, without forcing the poor person to wait. The Sages elsewhere praised a person who acts appropriately at a meal, b as it is written: “The altar, three cubits high /b and the length thereof, two cubits, was of wood, and so the corners thereof; the length thereof, and the walls thereof, were also of wood” (Ezekiel 41:22), b and it is written /b in the continuation of that verse: b “And he said unto me: This is the table that is before the Lord.” /b The language of this verse is difficult, as it b begins with the altar and concludes with the table. /b Rather, b Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar both say: As long as the Temple stood, the altar atoned for Israel’s /b transgressions. b Now /b that it is destroyed, b a person’s table atones for his /b transgressions.,With regard to what Rav Yehuda said in praise of b one who prolongs /b his time b in the bathroom, /b the Gemara asks: b Is that a virtue? Wasn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Ten things bring a person to /b suffer from b hemorrhoids: One who eats the leaves of bulrushes, grape leaves, tendrils of grapevines, the palate and tongue of an animal, /b as well as any other part of the animal which is not smooth and which has protrusions, b the spine of a fish, a salty fish that is not fully cooked, and one who drinks wine dregs, and one who wipes himself with lime and clay, /b the materials from which earthenware is made, b and one who wipes himself with a stone with which another /b person b wiped himself. And some say: One who suspends himself too much in the bathroom as well. /b This proves that prolonging one’s time in the bathroom is harmful.,The Gemara responds: This is b not difficult. This /b i baraita /i , which teaches that doing so is harmful, refers to where b one prolongs /b his time there b and suspends /b himself, while b this /b statement of Rav Yehuda refers to where b one prolongs /b his time there b and does not suspend /b himself.,The Gemara relates the benefits of prolonging one’s time in the bathroom. b Like that /b incident b when a matron [ i matronita /i ] said to Rabbi Yehuda son of Rabbi El’ai: Your face is /b fat and full, b like /b the faces of b pig farmers and usurers /b who do not work hard and who make a plentiful living. b He said to her: Honestly, those two /b occupations b are prohibited to me; rather, /b why is it that my face is nice? Because b there are twenty-four bathrooms between my lodging and the study hall, and when I walk I /b stop and b examine myself in all of them. /b , b And Rav Yehuda said: Three things curtail a person’s days and years: One who is /b invited and b given the Torah scroll to read and he does not read, /b one who is given b a cup of blessing over which to recite a blessing and he does not recite a blessing, and one who conducts himself with /b an air of b superiority. /b ,The Gemara details the biblical sources for these cases: One who is given the b Torah scroll to read and he does not read, as it is written /b of the Torah: b “It is your life and the length of your days” /b (Deuteronomy 30:20). b A cup of blessing over which to recite a blessing and he does not recite a blessing, as it is written: “I will bless them that bless you” /b (Genesis 12:3); one who blesses is blessed and one who does not bless does not merit a blessing. b And /b with regard to b one who conducts himself with /b an air of b superiority, as Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, said: Why did Joseph die before his brothers, /b as evidenced by the order in the verse: “And Joseph died, and all his brethren, and all that generation” (Exodus 1:6)? b Because he conducted himself with /b an air of b superiority, /b and those who did not serve in a leadership role lived on after he died., b Rav Yehuda said in the name of Rav: Three /b matters b require /b a plea for b mercy /b to bring them about: b A good king, a good year, and a good dream. /b These three, kings, years, and dreams, are all bestowed by God and one must pray that they should be positive and constructive. The Gemara enumerates the sources for these cases: b A good king, as it is written: “The king’s heart is in the hand of the Lord as the watercourses: /b He turns it whithersoever He will” (Proverbs 21:1). A b good year, as it is written: “The eyes of the Lord, thy God, are always upon it, from the beginning of the year even unto the end of the year” /b (Deuteronomy 11:12). And a b good dream, as it is written: /b “O Lord, by these things men live, and altogether therein is the life of my spirit; wherefore b You will recover me [ i vataḥlimeni /i ], and make me to live” /b (Isaiah 38:16). Due to their apparent etymological similarity, the word i taḥlimeni /i is interpreted as deriving from the word i ḥalom /i , dream.,Similarly, b Rabbi Yoḥa said: Three matters are proclaimed by the Holy One, Blessed be He, Himself: Famine, plenty, and a good leader. /b The Gemara enumerates the sources for these cases: b Famine, as it is written: “For the Lord has called for a famine; /b and it shall also come upon the land seven years” (II Kings 8:1). b Plenty, as it is written: “And I will call for the grain, and will increase it, and lay no famine upon you” /b (Ezekiel 36:29). And b a good leader, as it is written: “And the Lord spoke unto Moses, saying: See, I have called by name Bezalel, /b son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah” (Exodus 31:1–2).,With regard to Bezalel’s appointment, b Rabbi Yitzḥak said: One may only appoint a leader over a community if he consults with the community /b and they agree to the appointment, b as it is stated: /b “And Moses said unto the children of Israel: b See, the Lord has called by name Bezalel, /b son of Uri, son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah” (Exodus 35:30). b The Lord said to Moses: Moses, is Bezalel /b a b suitable /b appointment in b your /b eyes? Moses b said to Him: Master of the universe, if he is /b a b suitable /b appointment in b Your /b eyes, b then all the more so /b in b my /b eyes. The Holy One, Blessed be He, b said to him: Nevertheless, go and tell /b Israel and ask their opinion. Moses b went and said to Israel: Is Bezalel suitable /b in b your /b eyes? b They said to him: If he is suitable /b in the eyes of b the Holy One, Blessed be He, and /b in b your /b eyes, b all the more so /b he is suitable in b our /b eyes., b Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani said /b that b Rabbi Yonatan said: Bezalel was called /b by that name b on account of his wisdom. When the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Moses: Go say to Bezalel, “Make a tabernacle, an ark, and vessels” /b (see Exodus 31:7–11), b Moses went and reversed /b the order b and told /b Bezalel: b “Make an ark, and vessels, and a tabernacle” /b (see Exodus 25–26). b He said to /b Moses: b Moses, our teacher, the /b standard b practice /b throughout the b world /b is that b a person builds a house and /b only b afterward places the vessels /b in the house, b and you say /b to me: b Make an ark, and vessels, and a tabernacle. /b If I do so in the order you have commanded, b the vessels that I make, where shall I put them? Perhaps God told you the following: “Make a tabernacle, ark, and vessels” /b (see Exodus 36). Moses b said to /b Bezalel: b Perhaps you were in God’s shadow [ i betzel El /i ], and you knew /b precisely what He said. You intuited God’s commands just as He stated them, as if you were there., b Rav Yehuda said /b that b Rav said: Bezalel knew /b how b to join /b the b letters with which heaven and earth were created. /b From where do we derive this? b It is written here /b in praise of Bezalel: b “And I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, /b and in all manner of workmanship” (Exodus 31:3); b and it is written there /b with regard to creation of heaven and earth: b “The Lord, by wisdom, founded the earth; by understanding He established the heavens” /b (Proverbs 3:19), b and it is written: “By His knowledge the depths were broken up and the skies drop down the dew” /b (Proverbs 3:20). We see that wisdom, understanding, and knowledge, the qualities with which the heavens and earth were created, are all found in Bezalel.,On a similar note, b Rabbi Yoḥa said: The Holy One, Blessed be He, only grants wisdom to one who /b already b possesses wisdom, as it is stated: “He gives wisdom unto the wise, and knowledge to they who know understanding” /b (Daniel 2:21). b Rav Taḥalifa, from the West, /b Eretz Yisrael, b heard /b this b and repeated it before Rabbi Abbahu. /b Rabbi Abbahu b said to him: You learned /b proof for this idea b from there; we learn it from here: As it is written /b in praise of the builders of the Tabernacle: b “And in the hearts of all who are wise-hearted I have placed wisdom” /b (Exodus 31:6).,Related to what was stated above, that one should pray for a good dream, the Gemara cites additional maxims concerning dreams and their interpretation. b Rav Ḥisda said: /b One should see b any dream, and not a fast. /b In other words, any dream is preferable to a dream during a fast. b And Rav Ḥisda said: A dream not interpreted is like a letter not read. /b As long as it is not interpreted it cannot be fulfilled; the interpretation of a dream creates its meaning. b And Rav Ḥisda said: A good dream is not entirely fulfilled and a bad dream is not entirely fulfilled. And Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream is preferable to a good dream, /b as a bad dream causes one to feel remorse and to repent. b And Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream, his sadness is enough for him; a good dream, his joy is enough for him. /b This means that the sadness or joy engendered by the dream renders the actual fulfillment of the dream superfluous. Similarly, b Rav Yosef said: Even for me, the joy of a good dream negates it. /b Even Rav Yosef, who was blind and ill, derived such pleasure from a good dream that it was never actually realized. b And Rav Ḥisda said: A bad dream is worse than lashes, as it is stated: “God has so made it, that men should fear before Him” /b (Ecclesiastes 3:14), b and Rabba bar bar Ḥana said /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa said: That is a bad dream /b that causes man to fear.,With regard to the verse: b “The prophet that has a dream, let him tell a dream; and he that has My word, let him speak My word faithfully. What has the straw to do with the grain? says the Lord” /b (Jeremiah 23:28), the Gemara asks: b What do straw and grain have to do with a dream? Rather, Rabbi Yoḥa said in the name of Rabbi Shimon bar Yoḥai: Just as it is impossible for the grain /b to grow b without straw, so too it is impossible to dream without idle matters. /b Even a dream that will be fulfilled in the future contains some element of nonsense.,On a similar note, b Rabbi Berekhya said: Even though part of a dream is fulfilled, all of it is not fulfilled. From where do we /b derive this? b From /b the story of b Joseph’s /b dream, b as it is written: /b “And he said: Behold, I have dreamed yet a dream: b and, behold, the sun and the moon /b
23. Origen, Homilies On Joshua, 1.3 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 901
24. Macrobius, Saturnalia, 1.20.3, 1.20.8 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 900, 901
25. Prudentius, On The Crown of Martyrdom, 11.125 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 903
26. Theodore of Mopsuestia, Comm. In Proph. Min. Hos., 7.5 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 905
27. John Chrysostom, Homilies On Matthew, None (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 899
28. Servius, Commentary On The Aeneid, 6.395, 8.564 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 901
29. Macrobius, Saturnalia, 1.20.3, 1.20.8 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 900, 901
30. Aenas of Gaza, Letters, None (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 900
32. Gaius, Rerum Cottidianarum Bk., 11.10  Tagged with subjects: •art, interpretation of symbols Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 905