Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

validated results only / all results

and or

Filtering options: (leave empty for all results)
By author:     
By work:        
By subject:
By additional keyword:       

Results for
Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.

24 results for "art"
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 21.28 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, funerary Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 934
21.28. "וְכִי־יִגַּח שׁוֹר אֶת־אִישׁ אוֹ אֶת־אִשָּׁה וָמֵת סָקוֹל יִסָּקֵל הַשּׁוֹר וְלֹא יֵאָכֵל אֶת־בְּשָׂרוֹ וּבַעַל הַשּׁוֹר נָקִי׃", 21.28. "And if an ox gore a man or a woman, that they die, the ox shall be surely stoned, and its flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall be quit.",
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 33.7 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, funerary Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 934
33.7. "וְזֹאת לִיהוּדָה וַיֹּאמַר שְׁמַע יְהוָה קוֹל יְהוּדָה וְאֶל־עַמּוֹ תְּבִיאֶנּוּ יָדָיו רָב לוֹ וְעֵזֶר מִצָּרָיו תִּהְיֶה׃", 33.7. "And this for Judah, and he said: Hear, LORD, the voice of Judah, And bring him in unto his people; His hands shall contend for him, And Thou shalt be a help against his adversaries.",
3. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, funerary Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 935
6.3. "וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃", 6.3. "And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory.",
4. Euripides, Alcestis, 800 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •funerary art (non-christian) Found in books: Galinsky (2016) 281
5. Dinarchus, Or., 1939.500 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, funerary Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 936
6. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 1.117, 2.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, funerary Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 934
1.117. On the other hand what reason is there for adoring the gods on the ground of our admiration for the divine nature, if we cannot see that that nature possesses any special excellence? "As for freedom from superstition, which is the favourite boast of your school, that is easy to attain when you have deprived the gods of all power; unless perchance you think that it was possible for Diagoras or Theodorus to be superstitious, who denied the existence of the gods altogether. For my part, I don't see how it was possible even for Protagoras, who was not certain either that the gods exist or that they do not. For the doctrines of all these thinkers abolish not only superstition, which implies a groundless fear of the gods, but also religion, which consists in piously worshipping them. 2.14. third, the awe inspired by lightning, storms, rain, snow, hail, floods, pestilences, earthquakes and occasionally subterranean rumblings, showers of stones and raindrops the colour of blood, also landslips and chasms suddenly opening in the ground, also unnatural monstrosities human and animal, and also the appearance of meteoric lights and what are called by the Greeks 'comets,' and in our language 'long-haired stars,' such as recently during the Octavian War appeared as harbingers of dire disasters, and the doubling of the sun, which my father told me had happened in the consulship of Tuditanus and Aquilius, the year in which the light was quenched of Publius Africanus, that second sun of Rome: all of which alarming portents have suggested to mankind the idea of the existence of some celestial and divine power.
7. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 133 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, funerary Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 936
133. Nor is what we are about to say inconsistent with what has been said; for nature has bestowed upon every mother, as a most indispensable part of her conformation, breasts gushing forth like fountains, having in this manner provided abundant food for the child that is to be born. And the earth also, as it seems, is a mother, from which consideration it occurred to the early ages to call her Demetra, combining the names of mother (m÷et÷er), and earth (g÷e or d÷e). For it is not the earth which imitates the woman, as Plato has said, but the woman who has imitated the earth which the race of poets has been accustomed with truth to call the mother of all things, and the fruit-bearer, and the giver of all things, since she is at the same time the cause of the generation and durability of all things, to the animals and plants. Rightly, therefore, did nature bestow on the earth as the eldest and most fertile of mothers, streams of rivers, and fountains like breasts, in order that the plants might be watered, and that all living things might have abundant supplies of drink. XLVI.
8. New Testament, Matthew, 12.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, funerary Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 934
12.24. οἱ δὲ Φαρισαῖοι ἀκούσαντες εἶπον Οὗτος οὐκ ἐκβάλλει τὰ δαιμόνια εἰ μὴ ἐν τῷ Βεεζεβοὺλ ἄρχοντι τῶν δαιμονίων. 12.24. But when the Pharisees heard it, they said, "This man does not cast out demons, except by Beelzebul, the prince of the demons."
9. Mishnah, Kelim, 19.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •funerary art Found in books: Hachlili (2005) 356
19.5. "מִטָּה שֶׁהָיְתָה טְמֵאָה מִדְרָס, וְכָרַךְ לָהּ מִזְרָן, כֻּלָּהּ טְמֵאָה מִדְרָס. פֵּרְשָׁה, הִיא טְמֵאָה מִדְרָס, וְהַמִּזְרָן מַגַּע מִדְרָס. הָיְתָה טְמֵאָה טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה, וְכָרַךְ לָהּ מִזְרָן, כֻּלָּהּ טְמֵאָה טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה. פֵּרְשָׁה, הִיא טְמֵאָה טֻמְאַת שִׁבְעָה, וְהַמִּזְרָן טָמֵא טֻמְאַת עָרֶב. הָיְתָה טְמֵאָה טֻמְאַת עֶרֶב, וְכָרַךְ לָהּ מִזְרָן, כֻּלָּהּ טְמֵאָה טֻמְאַת עָרֶב. פֵּרְשָׁה, הִיא טְמֵאָה טֻמְאַת עֶרֶב, וְהַמִּזְרָן טָהוֹר:", 19.5. "If around a bed that had contracted midras uncleanness one wrapped a mattress, the whole becomes subject to midras uncleanness. If it was removed, the bed remains subject to midras uncleanness but the mattress is unclean only from contact with midras. If around a bed that had contracted seven-day uncleanness one wrapped a mattress, the whole becomes subject to seven-day uncleanness. If it was removed, the bed remains subject to seven-day uncleanness but the mattress is unclean until the evening. If the bed was subject to evening uncleanness and around it he wrapped a mattress, the whole becomes subject to evening uncleanness; If it was removed, the bed remains subject to evening uncleanness but the mattress becomes clean.",
10. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 2.218 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, funerary Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 932
2.218. but every good man hath his own conscience bearing witness to himself, and by virtue of our legislator’s prophetic spirit, and of the firm security God himself affords such a one, he believes that God hath made this grant to those that observe these laws, even though they be obliged readily to die for them, that they shall come into being again, and at a certain revolution of things shall receive a better life than they had enjoyed before.
11. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.154, 3.374 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, funerary Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 932, 934
2.154. 11. For their doctrine is this: That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and continue forever; and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement; 3.374. Do not you know that those who depart out of this life, according to the law of nature, and pay that debt which was received from God, when he that lent it us is pleased to require it back again, enjoy eternal fame? that their houses and their posterity are sure, that their souls are pure and obedient, and obtain a most holy place in heaven, from whence, in the revolution of ages, they are again sent into pure bodies;
12. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 18.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, funerary Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 932
18.14. They also believe that souls have an immortal rigor in them, and that under the earth there will be rewards or punishments, according as they have lived virtuously or viciously in this life; and the latter are to be detained in an everlasting prison, but that the former shall have power to revive and live again;
13. Palestinian Talmud, Peah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, funerary Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 934
14. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 85, 105 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 933
105. The Psalm also predicts the crucifixion and the subject of the last prayers of Christ on Earth Justin: And what follows of the Psalm —'But You, Lord, do not remove Your assistance from me; give heed to help me. Deliver my soul from the sword, and my only-begotten from the hand of the dog; save me from the lion's mouth, and my humility from the horns of the unicorns,'— was also information and prediction of the events which should befall Him. For I have already proved that He was the only-begotten of the Father of all things, being begotten in a peculiar manner Word and Power by Him, and having afterwards become man through the Virgin, as we have learned from the memoirs. Moreover, it is similarly foretold that He would die by crucifixion. For the passage, 'Deliver my soul from the sword, and my only-begotten from the hand of the dog; save me from the lion's mouth, and my humility from the horns of the unicorns,' is indicative of the suffering by which He should die, i.e., by crucifixion. For the 'horns of the, unicorns,' I have already explained to you, are the figure of the cross only. And the prayer that His soul should be saved from the sword, and lion's mouth, and hand of the dog, was a prayer that no one should take possession of His soul: so that, when we arrive at the end of life, we may ask the same petition from God, who is able to turn away every shameless evil angel from taking our souls. And that the souls survive, I have shown to you from the fact that the soul of Samuel was called up by the witch, as Saul demanded. And it appears also, that all the souls of similar righteous men and prophets fell under the dominion of such powers, as is indeed to be inferred from the very facts in the case of that witch. Hence also God by His Son teaches us for whose sake these things seem to have been done, always to strive earnestly, and at death to pray that our souls may not fall into the hands of any such power. For when Christ was giving up His spirit on the cross, He said, 'Father, into Your hands I commend my spirit,' Luke 23:46 as I have learned also from the memoirs. For He exhorted His disciples to surpass the pharisaic way of living, with the warning, that if they did not, they might be sure they could not be saved; and these words are recorded in the memoirs: 'Unless your righteousness exceed that of the Scribes and Pharisees, you shall not enter into the kingdom of heaven.' Matthew 5:20
15. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 2.22 (2nd cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, funerary Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 935
2.22. ὃν δὲ διέτριβεν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ χρόνον, πολὺς δὲ οὗτος ἐγένετο, ἔστ' ἂν ἀγγελθῇ τῷ βασιλεῖ ξένους ἥκειν, “ὦ Δάμι” ἔφη ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος, “ἔστι τι γραφική;” “εἴ γε” εἶπε “καὶ ἀλήθεια.” “πράττει δὲ τί ἡ τέχνη αὕτη;” “τὰ χρώματα” ἔφη “ξυγκεράννυσιν, ὁπόσα ἐστί, τὰ κυανᾶ τοῖς βατραχείοις καὶ τὰ λευκὰ τοῖς μέλασι καὶ τὰ πυρσὰ τοῖς ὠχροῖς.” “ταυτὶ δὲ” ἦ δ' ὃς “ὑπὲρ τίνος μίγνυσιν; οὐ γὰρ ὑπὲρ μόνου τοῦ ἄνθους, ὥσπερ αἱ κήριναι.” “ὑπὲρ μιμήσεως” ἔφη “καὶ τοῦ κύνα τε ἐξεικάσαι καὶ ἵππον καὶ ἄνθρωπον καὶ ναῦν καὶ ὁπόσα ὁρᾷ ὁ ἥλιος: ἤδη δὲ καὶ τὸν ἥλιον αὐτὸν ἐξεικάζει τοτὲ μὲν ἐπὶ τεττάρων ἵππων, οἷος ἐνταῦθα λέγεται φαίνεσθαι, τοτὲ δ' αὖ καὶ διαπυρσεύοντα τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, ἐπειδὰν αἰθέρα ὑπογράφῃ καὶ θεῶν οἶκον.” “μίμησις οὖν ἡ γραφική, ὦ Δάμι;” “τί δὲ ἄλλο;” εἶπεν “εἰ γὰρ μὴ τοῦτο πράττοι, γελοία δόξει χρώματα ποιοῦσα εὐήθως.” “τὰ δ' ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ” ἔφη “βλεπόμενα, ἐπειδὰν αἱ νεφέλαι διασπασθῶσιν ἀπ' ἀλλήλων, τοὺς κενταύρους καὶ τραγελάφους καὶ, νὴ Δί', οἱ λύκοι τε καὶ οἱ ἵπποι, τί φήσεις; ἆρ' οὐ μιμητικῆς εἶναι ἔργα;” “ἔοικεν,” ἔφη. “ζωγράφος οὖν ὁ θεός, ὦ Δάμι, καὶ καταλιπὼν τὸ πτηνὸν ἅρμα, ἐφ' οὗ πορεύεται διακοσμῶν τὰ θεῖά τε καὶ ἀνθρώπεια, κάθηται τότε ἀθύρων τε καὶ γράφων ταῦτα, ὥσπερ οἱ παῖδες ἐν τῇ ψάμμῳ;” ἠρυθρίασεν ὁ Δάμις ἐς οὕτως ἄτοπον ἐκπεσεῖν δόξαντος τοῦ λόγου. οὐχ ὑπεριδὼν οὖν αὐτὸν ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος, οὐδὲ γὰρ πικρὸς πρὸς τὰς ἐλέγξεις ἦν, “ἀλλὰ μὴ τοῦτο” ἔφη “βούλει λέγειν, ὦ Δάμι, τὸ ταῦτα μὲν ἄσημά τε καὶ ὡς ἔτυχε διὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ φέρεσθαι τόγε ἐπὶ τῷ θεῷ, ἡμᾶς δὲ φύσει τὸ μιμητικὸν ἔχοντας ἀναρρυθμίζειν τε αὐτὰ καὶ ποιεῖν;” “μᾶλλον” ἔφη “τοῦτο ἡγώμεθα, ὦ ̓Απολλώνιε, πιθανώτερον γὰρ καὶ πολλῷ βέλτιον.” “διττὴ ἄρα ἡ μιμητική, ὦ Δάμι, καὶ τὴν μὲν ἡγώμεθα οἵαν τῇ χειρὶ ἀπομιμεῖσθαι καὶ τῷ νῷ, γραφικὴν δὲ εἶναι ταύτην, τὴν δ' αὖ μόνῳ τῷ νῷ εἰκάζειν.” “οὐ διττήν,” ἔφη ὁ Δάμις “ἀλλὰ τὴν μὲν τελεωτέραν ἡγεῖσθαι προσήκει γραφικήν γε οὖσαν, ἣ δύναται καὶ τῷ νῷ καὶ τῇ χειρὶ ἐξεικάσαι, τὴν δὲ ἑτέραν ἐκείνης μόριον, ἐπειδὴ ξυνίησι μὲν καὶ μιμεῖται τῷ νῷ καὶ μὴ γραφικός τις ὤν, τῇ χειρὶ δὲ οὐκ ἂν ἐς τὸ γράφειν αὐτὰ χρήσαιτο.” “ἆρα,” ἔφη “ὦ Δάμι, πεπηρωμένος τὴν χεῖρα ὑπὸ πληγῆς τινος ἢ νόσου;” “μὰ Δί'” εἶπεν “ἀλλ' ὑπὸ τοῦ μήτε γραφίδος τινὸς ἧφθαι, μήτε ὀργάνου τινὸς ἢ χρώματος, ἀλλ' ἀμαθῶς ἔχειν τοῦ γράφειν.” “οὐκοῦν,” ἔφη “ὦ Δάμι, ἄμφω ὁμολογοῦμεν μιμητικὴν μὲν ἐκ φύσεως τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ἥκειν, τὴν γραφικὴν δὲ ἐκ τέχνης. τουτὶ δ' ἂν καὶ περὶ τὴν πλαστικὴν φαίνοιτο. τὴν δὲ δὴ ζωγραφίαν αὐτὴν οὔ μοι δοκεῖς μόνον τὴν διὰ τῶν χρωμάτων ἡγεῖσθαι, καὶ γὰρ ἓν χρῶμα ἐς αὐτὴν ἤρκεσε τοῖς γε ἀρχαιοτέροις τῶν γραφέων καὶ προϊοῦσα τεττάρων εἶτα πλειόνων ἥψατο, ἀλλὰ καὶ γραμμὴν καὶ τὸ ἄνευ χρώματος, ὃ δὴ σκιᾶς τε ξύγκειται καὶ φωτός, ζωγραφίαν προσήκει καλεῖν: καὶ γὰρ ἐν αὐτοῖς ὁμοιότης τε ὁρᾶται εἶδός τε καὶ νοῦς καὶ αἰδὼς καὶ θρασύτης, καίτοι χηρεύει χρωμάτων ταῦτα, καὶ οὔτε αἷμα ἐνσημαίνει οὔτε κόμης τινὸς ἢ ὑπήνης ἄνθος, ἀλλὰ μονοτρόπως ξυντιθέμενα τῷ τε ξανθῷ ἀνθρώπῳ ἔοικε καὶ τῷ λευκῷ, κἂν τούτων τινὰ τῶν ̓Ινδῶν λευκῇ τῇ γραμμῇ γράψωμεν, μέλας δήπου δόξει, τὸ γὰρ ὑπόσιμον τῆς ῥινὸς καὶ οἱ ὀρθοὶ βόστρυχοι καὶ ἡ περιττὴ γένυς καὶ ἡ περὶ τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς οἷον ἔκπληξις μελαίνει τὰ ὁρώμενα καὶ ̓Ινδὸν ὑπογράφει τοῖς γε μὴ ἀνοήτως ὁρῶσιν. ὅθεν εἴποιμ' ἂν καὶ τοὺς ὁρῶντας τὰ τῆς γραφικῆς ἔργα μιμητικῆς δεῖσθαι: οὐ γὰρ ἂν ἐπαινέσειέ τις τὸν γεγραμμένον ἵππον ἢ ταῦρον μὴ τὸ ζῷον ἐνθυμηθείς, ᾧ εἴκασται, οὐδ' ἂν τὸν Αἴαντά τις τὸν Τιμομάχου ἀγασθείη, ὃς δὴ ἀναγέγραπται αὐτῷ μεμηνώς, εἰ μὴ ἀναλάβοι τι ἐς τὸν νοῦν Αἴαντος εἴδωλον καὶ ὡς εἰκὸς αὐτὸν ἀπεκτονότα τὰ ἐν τῇ Τροίᾳ βουκόλια καθῆσθαι ἀπειρηκότα, βουλὴν ποιούμενον καὶ ἑαυτὸν κτεῖναι. ταυτὶ δέ, ὦ Δάμι, τὰ τοῦ Πώρου δαίδαλα μήτε χαλκευτικῆς μόνον ἀποφαινώμεθα, γεγραμμένοις γὰρ εἴκασται, μήτε γραφικῆς, ἐπειδὴ ἐχαλκεύθη, ἀλλ' ἡγώμεθα σοφίσασθαι αὐτὰ γραφικόν τε καὶ χαλκευτικὸν ἕνα ἄνδρα, οἷον δή τι παρ' ̔Ομήρῳ τὸ τοῦ ̔Ηφαίστου περὶ τὴν τοῦ ̓Αχιλλέως ἀσπίδα ἀναφαίνεται. μεστὰ γὰρ καὶ ταῦτα ὀλλύντων τε καὶ ὀλλυμένων, καὶ τὴν γῆν ᾑματῶσθαι φήσεις χαλκῆν οὖσαν.” 2.22. While he was waiting in the Temple, — and it took a long time for the king to be informed that strangers had arrived, — Apollonius said: O Damis, is there such a thing as painting? Why yes, he answered, if there be any such thing as truth. And what does this art do? It mixes together, replied Damis, all the colors there are, blue with green, and white with black, and red with yellow. And for what reason, said the other, does it mix these? For it isn't merely to get a color, like dyed wax. It is, said Damis, for the sake of imitation, and to get a likeness of a dog, or a horse, or a man, or a ship, or of anything else under the sun; and what is more, you see the sun himself represented, sometimes borne upon a four horse car, as he is said to be seen here, and sometimes again traversing the heaven with his torch, in case you are depicting the ether and the home of the gods. Then, O Damis, painting is imitation? And what else could it be? said he: for if it did not effect that, it would voted to be an idle playing with colors. And, said the other, the things which are seen in heaven, whenever the clouds are torn away from one another, I mean the centaurs and stag-antelopes, yes, and the wolves too, and the horses, what have you got to say about them? Are we not to regard them as works of imitation? It would seem so, he replied. Then, Damis, God is a painter, and has left his winged chariot, upon which he travels, as he disposes of affairs human and divine, and he sits down on these occasions to amuse himself by drawing these pictures, as children make figures in the sand. Damis blushed, for he felt that his argument was reduced to such an absurdity. But Apollonius, on his side, had no wish to humiliate him, for he was not unfeeling in his refutations of people, and said: But I am sure, Damis, you did not mean that; rather that these figures flit through the heaven not only without meaning, but, so far as providence is concerned, by mere chance; while we who by nature are prone to imitation rearrange and create them in these regular figures. We may, he said, rather consider this to be the case, O Apollonius, for it is more probable, and a much sounder idea. Then, O Damis, the mimetic art is twofold, and we may regard the one kind as an employment of the hands and mind in producing imitations, and declare that this is painting, whereas the other kind consists in making likenesses with the mind alone. Not twofold, replied Damis, for we ought to regard the former as the more perfect and more complete kind, being anyhow painting and a faculty of making likenesses with the help both of mind and hand; but we must regard the other kind as a department that, since its possessor perceives and imitates with the mind, without having the delineative faculty, and would never use his hand in depicting its objects. Then, said Apollonius, you mean, Damis, that the hand may be disabled by a blow or by disease? No, he answered, but it is disabled, because it has never handled pencil nor any instrument or color, and has never learned to draw. Then, said the other, we are both of us, Damis, agreed that man owes his mimetic faculty to nature, but his power of painting to art. And the same would appear to be true of plastic art. But, methinks, you would not confine painting itself to the mere use of colors, for a single color was often found sufficient for this purpose by our older painters; and as the art advanced, it employed four, and later, yet more; but we must also concede the name of a painting to an outline drawn without any color at all, and composed merely of shadow and light. For in such designs we see a resemblance, we see form and expression, and modesty and bravery, although they are altogether devoid of color; and neither blood is represented, nor the color of a man's hair or beard; nevertheless these compositions in monochrome are likenesses of people either tawny or white, and if we drew one of these Indians with a pencil without color, yet he would be known for a negro, for his flat nose, and his stiff curling locks and prominent jaw, and a certain gleam about his eyes, would give a black look to the picture and depict an Indian to the eyes of all those who have intelligence. And for this reason I should say that those who look at works of painting and drawing require a mimetic faculty; for no one could appreciate or admire a picture of a horse or of a bull, unless he had formed an idea of the picture represented. Nor again could one admire a picture of Ajax, by the painter Timomachus, which represents him in a state of madness, unless one had conceived in one's mind first an idea or notion of Ajax, and had entertained the probability that after killing the flocks in Troy he would sit down exhausted and even meditate suicide. But these elaborate works of Porus we cannot, Damis, regard as works of brass founding alone, for they are cast in brass; so let us regard them as the chefs d'oeuvre of a man who is both painter and brass-founder at once, and as similar to the work of Hephaestus upon the shield of Achilles, as revealed in Homer. For they are crowded together in that work too men slaying and slain, and you would say that the earth was stained with gore, though it is made of brass.
16. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, funerary Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 936
13b. בניו ממזרין,ות"ק אשתו לא מפקר,אמר מר שחיטת עובד כוכבים נבלה וניחוש שמא מין הוא אמר רב נחמן אמר רבה בר אבוה אין מינין באומות עובדי כוכבים,והא קאחזינן דאיכא אימא אין רוב עובדי כוכבים מינין סבר לה כי הא דאמר ר' חייא בר אבא א"ר יוחנן נכרים שבחוצה לארץ לאו עובדי עבודת כוכבים הן אלא מנהג אבותיהן בידיהן,אמר רב יוסף בר מניומי אמר רב נחמן אין מינין באומות עובדי כוכבים למאי אילימא לשחיטה השתא שחיטת מין דישראל אמרת אסירא דעובד כוכבים מבעיא אלא למורידין השתא דישראל מורידין דעובדי כוכבים מבעיא,אמר רב עוקבא בר חמא לקבל מהן קרבן דתניא (ויקרא א, ב) מכם ולא כולכם להוציא את המומר מכם בכם חלקתי ולא בעובדי כוכבים,ממאי דלמא הכי קאמר מישראל מצדיקי קבל מרשיעי לא תקבל אבל בעובדי כוכבים כלל כלל לא לא ס"ד דתניא איש מה ת"ל איש איש לרבות העובדי כוכבים שנודרים נדרים ונדבות כישראל:,ומטמאה במשא: פשיטא כיון דנבלה היא מטמאה במשא אמר רבא הכי קתני זו מטמאה במשא ויש לך אחרת שהיא מטמאה אפילו באהל ואיזו זו תקרובת עבודת כוכבים וכרבי יהודה בן בתירא,איכא דאמרי אמר רבא הכי קתני זו מטמאה במשא ויש לך אחרת שהיא כזו שמטמאה במשא ואינה מטמאה באהל ואיזו זו תקרובת עבודת כוכבים ודלא כר' יהודה בן בתירא,דתניא ר' יהודה בן בתירא אומר מנין לתקרובת עבודת כוכבים שהיא מטמאה באהל שנאמר (תהלים קו, כח) ויצמדו לבעל פעור ויאכלו זבחי מתים מה מת מטמא באהל אף תקרובת עבוד' כוכבי' מטמאה באהל:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big השוחט בלילה וכן הסומא ששחט שחיטתו כשרה:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big השוחט דיעבד אין לכתחלה לא ורמינהי לעולם שוחטין בין ביום ובין בלילה בין בראש הגג בין בראש הספינה,אר"פ בשאבוקה כנגדו אמר רב אשי דיקא נמי דקתני התם דומיא דיום והכא דומיא דסומא ש"מ: 13b. b his sons are i mamzerim /i , /b as he is indifferent to his wife’s engaging in adultery.,The Gemara asks: b And the first i tanna /i , /b why did he not include the ruling that the sons of a heretic are i mamzerim /i ? The Gemara answers: In his opinion, a heretic b does not release his wife /b and allow her to engage in adultery., b The Master said /b in the mishna: b Slaughter /b performed by b a gentile /b renders the animal b an unslaughtered carcass. /b The Gemara challenges this: b And let us be concerned /b that b perhaps he is a heretic /b who is a devout idolater and deriving benefit from his slaughter is prohibited. b Rav Naḥman said /b that b Rabba bar Avuh says: There are no /b such b heretics among the nations /b of the world.,The Gemara asks: b But don’t we see that there are? /b The Gemara answers: b Say the majority of /b the people of b the nations /b of the world b are not heretics, /b and with regard to slaughter one follows the majority. The Gemara notes: Rabba bar Avuh b holds in accordance with that which Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: /b The status of b gentiles outside of Eretz /b Yisrael is b not /b that of b idol worshippers, /b as their worship is not motivated by faith and devotion. b Rather, it is /b a traditional b custom of their ancestors /b that was transmitted b to them. /b , b Rav Yosef bar Minyumi says /b that b Rav Naḥman says: There are no heretics among the nations /b of the world, i.e., gentile heretics do not have the halakhic status of actual heretics. The Gemara asks: b With regard to what /b matter did Rav Naḥman state the i halakha /i ? b If we say /b that it is b with regard to slaughter, now /b that b you said the slaughter of a Jewish heretic is forbidden, /b is it b necessary /b to say the slaughter b of a gentile /b heretic is forbidden? b Rather, /b it is b with regard to /b the i halakha /i that b one lowers /b them into a pit, i.e., one may kill a heretic, and Rav Naḥman holds that one may not kill them. But this too is difficult, as b now /b if b one lowers a Jewish /b heretic into a pit, is it b necessary /b to say b that /b one lowers b a gentile /b heretic?, b Rav Ukva bar Ḥama said: /b It is stated b with regard to accepting an offering from them, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i with regard to the verse: “When any person of you shall bring an offering” (Leviticus 1:2): The verse states: b “of you,” and not: /b of b all of you, to exclude the /b Jewish b transgressor /b who regularly violates a prohibition. Furthermore, God states: b “of you,” /b to mean that b among you, /b the Jews, b I distinguished /b between a transgressor and other Jews, b but not among the nations. /b One accepts an offering from all gentiles, even a heretic.,The Gemara asks: b From where /b do you draw that conclusion? b Perhaps this /b is what the verse b is saying: /b With regard to offerings b from Jews, from righteous /b Jews b accept /b the offering and b from wicked /b Jews b do not accept /b the offering; b but with regard to the nations of the world, do not /b accept their offerings b at all. /b The Gemara rejects that possibility: That b should not enter your mind, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i with regard to the verse: “Any man [ i ish ish /i ] from the house of Israel…who shall sacrifice his offering” (Leviticus 22:18): Since it would have been sufficient to write: b A man [ i ish /i ], what /b is the meaning when b the verse states: “Any man [ i ish ish /i ]”? /b It serves b to include the gentiles, who /b may b vow /b to bring b vow offerings and gift offerings like a Jew. /b ,§ The mishna states with regard to an animal slaughtered by a gentile: b And /b the carcass b imparts ritual impurity through carrying. /b The Gemara asks: Isn’t it b obvious? Since it is /b considered b an unslaughtered carcass it imparts ritual impurity through carrying. Rava said /b that b this /b is what the i tanna /i b is teaching: This /b slaughtered animal b imparts ritual impurity through carrying, and you have another /b animal b that imparts impurity even in a tent, /b i.e., if one is beneath the same roof with this animal he becomes impure even though he neither touched it nor carried it. b And which /b animal is that? b That /b animal b is an idolatrous offering, and /b this statement is b in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira /b cited below., b There are /b those b who say /b an alternative version of Rava’s statement: b Rava said /b that b this /b is what the i tanna /i b is teaching: This /b slaughtered animal b imparts ritual impurity through carrying, and you have another /b animal b that is like this /b one in b that /b it b imparts ritual impurity through carrying and does not impart impurity in a tent. And which /b animal is this? b This /b animal b is an idolatrous offering, and /b this statement is b not in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira. /b , b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Yehuda ben Beteira says: From where /b is it derived with regard b to an idolatrous offering that it imparts impurity in a tent? /b It is derived from a verse, b as it is stated: “They adhered to Ba’al-Peor and ate the offerings to the dead” /b (Psalms 106:28). b Just as a corpse imparts impurity in a tent, so too an idolatrous offering imparts impurity in a tent. /b , strong MISHNA: /strong In the case of b one who slaughters /b an animal b at night, and likewise /b in the case of b the blind /b person b who slaughters /b an animal, b his slaughter is valid. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara infers from the formulation of the mishna: b One who slaughters, /b and not: One may slaughter, that with regard to the slaughter of one who slaughters at night, b after the fact, yes, /b it is valid, but b i ab initio /i , /b one may b not /b do so. The Gemara b raises a contradiction /b from a i baraita /i ( i Tosefta /i 1:4): b One may always slaughter, both during the day and at night, both on the rooftop and atop a ship, /b indicating that slaughter at night is permitted i ab initio /i ., b Rav Pappa said: /b The i tanna /i of the i baraita /i is referring b to /b a case b where /b there is b a torch opposite /b the slaughterer; therefore, it is permitted i ab initio /i . b Rav Ashi said: /b The language of the i baraita /i b is also precise, as /b slaughter at night b is taught there /b in the i baraita /i b similar to /b slaughter b during the day, /b based on the juxtaposition: Both during the day and at night. b And here /b slaughter at night is taught b similar to /b the slaughter performed b by a blind /b person, with no light, based on the juxtaposition: One who slaughters at night, and likewise the blind person who slaughters. Therefore, the slaughter is valid only after the fact. The Gemara concludes: b Learn from it. /b
17. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •art, funerary Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 933
28b. רב אויא חלש ולא אתא לפרקא דרב יוסף למחר כי אתא בעא אביי לאנוחי דעתיה דרב יוסף א"ל מ"ט לא אתא מר לפרקא א"ל דהוה חליש לבאי ולא מצינא א"ל אמאי לא טעמת מידי ואתית א"ל לא סבר לה מר להא דרב הונא דאמר רב הונא אסור לו לאדם שיטעום כלום קודם שיתפלל תפלת המוספין א"ל איבעי ליה למר לצלויי צלותא דמוספין ביחיד ולטעום מידי ולמיתי א"ל ולא סבר לה מר להא דא"ר יוחנן אסור לו לאדם שיקדים תפלתו לתפלת הצבור א"ל לאו אתמר עלה א"ר אבא בצבור שנו,ולית הלכתא לא כרב הונא ולא כריב"ל כרב הונא הא דאמרן כריב"ל דאריב"ל כיון שהגיע זמן תפלת המנחה אסור לו לאדם שיטעום כלום קודם שיתפלל תפלת המנחה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ר' נחוניא בן הקנה היה מתפלל בכניסתו לבית המדרש וביציאתו תפלה קצרה אמרו לו מה מקום לתפלה זו אמר להם בכניסתי אני מתפלל שלא יארע דבר תקלה על ידי וביציאתי אני נותן הודאה על חלקי:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר בכניסתו מהו אומר יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהי שלא יארע דבר תקלה על ידי ולא אכשל בדבר הלכה וישמחו בי חברי ולא אומר על טמא טהור ולא על טהור טמא ולא יכשלו חברי בדבר הלכה ואשמח בהם,ביציאתו מהו אומר מודה אני לפניך ה' אלהי ששמת חלקי מיושבי בית המדרש ולא שמת חלקי מיושבי קרנות שאני משכים והם משכימים אני משכים לדברי תורה והם משכימים לדברים בטלים אני עמל והם עמלים אני עמל ומקבל שכר והם עמלים ואינם מקבלים שכר אני רץ והם רצים אני רץ לחיי העולם הבא והם רצים לבאר שחת:,ת"ר כשחלה ר' אליעזר נכנסו תלמידיו לבקרו אמרו לו רבינו למדנו אורחות חיים ונזכה בהן לחיי העולם הבא,אמר להם הזהרו בכבוד חבריכם ומנעו בניכם מן ההגיון והושיבום בין ברכי תלמידי חכמים וכשאתם מתפללים דעו לפני מי אתם עומדים ובשביל כך תזכו לחיי העולם הבא,וכשחלה רבי יוחנן בן זכאי נכנסו תלמידיו לבקרו כיון שראה אותם התחיל לבכות אמרו לו תלמידיו נר ישראל עמוד הימיני פטיש החזק מפני מה אתה בוכה,אמר להם אילו לפני מלך בשר ודם היו מוליכין אותי שהיום כאן ומחר בקבר שאם כועס עלי אין כעסו כעס עולם ואם אוסרני אין איסורו איסור עולם ואם ממיתני אין מיתתו מיתת עולם ואני יכול לפייסו בדברים ולשחדו בממון אעפ"כ הייתי בוכה ועכשיו שמוליכים אותי לפני ממ"ה הקב"ה שהוא חי וקיים לעולם ולעולמי עולמים שאם כועס עלי כעסו כעס עולם ואם אוסרני איסורו איסור עולם ואם ממיתני מיתתו מיתת עולם ואיני יכול לפייסו בדברים ולא לשחדו בממון ולא עוד אלא שיש לפני שני דרכים אחת של גן עדן ואחת של גיהנם ואיני יודע באיזו מוליכים אותי ולא אבכה,אמרו לו רבינו ברכנו אמר להם יהי רצון שתהא מורא שמים עליכם כמורא בשר ודם אמרו לו תלמידיו עד כאן אמר להם ולואי תדעו כשאדם עובר עבירה אומר שלא יראני אדם.,בשעת פטירתו אמר להם פנו כלים מפני הטומאה והכינו כסא לחזקיהו מלך יהודה שבא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big רבן גמליאל אומר בכל יום ויום מתפלל אדם שמנה עשרה רבי יהושע אומר מעין י"ח ר"ע אומר אם שגורה תפלתו בפיו מתפלל י"ח ואם לאו מעין י"ח,ר"א אומר העושה תפלתו קבע אין תפלתו תחנונים,ר' יהושע אומר ההולך במקום סכנה מתפלל תפלה קצרה ואומר הושע ה' את עמך את שארית ישראל בכל פרשת העבור יהיו צרכיהם לפניך ברוך אתה ה' שומע תפלה,היה רוכב על החמור ירד ויתפלל ואם אינו יכול לירד יחזיר את פניו ואם אינו יכול להחזיר את פניו יכוין את לבו כנגד בית קדשי הקדשים היה מהלך בספינה או באסדא יכוין את לבו כנגד בית קדשי הקדשים:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big הני י"ח כנגד מי,א"ר הלל בריה דר' שמואל בר נחמני כנגד י"ח אזכרות שאמר דוד (תהלים כט, א) בהבו לה' בני אלים רב יוסף אמר כנגד י"ח אזכרות שבקריאת שמע א"ר תנחום אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי כנגד שמונה עשרה חוליות שבשדרה.,ואמר ר' תנחום אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי המתפלל צריך שיכרע עד שיתפקקו כל חוליות שבשדרה,עולא אמר עד כדי שיראה איסר כנגד לבו רבי חנינא אמר כיון שנענע ראשו שוב אינו צריך אמר רבא והוא דמצער נפשיה ומחזי כמאן דכרע,הני תמני סרי תשסרי הוויין,אמר רבי לוי ברכת הצדוקים ביבנה תקנוה כנגד מי תקנוה,א"ר לוי לרבי הלל בריה דרבי שמואל בר נחמני כנגד (תהלים כט, ג) אל הכבוד הרעים לרב יוסף כנגד אחד שבקריאת שמע לר' תנחום א"ר יהושע בן לוי כנגד חוליא קטנה שבשדרה:,ת"ר שמעון הפקולי הסדיר י"ח ברכות לפני רבן גמליאל על הסדר ביבנה אמר להם ר"ג לחכמים כלום יש אדם שיודע לתקן ברכת הצדוקים עמד שמואל הקטן ותקנה,לשנה אחרת שכחה 28b. After mentioning until when the additional prayer may be recited, the Gemara relates: b Rav Avya was ill and did not come to Rav Yosef’s Shabbat lecture. When /b Rav Avya b came the following day, Abaye sought to placate Rav Yosef, /b and through a series of questions and answers sought to make clear to him that Rav Avya’s failure to attend the lecture was not a display of contempt for Rav Yosef. br To this end, he asked him: b Why did the Master not attend the Shabbat lecture? /b br Rav Avya b said to him: Because my heart was faint and I was unable /b to attend. br Abaye b said to him: Why did you not eat something and come? /b br Rav Avya b said to him: /b Does b the Master not hold /b in accordance with b that /b statement b of Rav Huna? As Rav Huna said: A person may not taste anything before he recites the additional prayer. /b br Abaye b said to him: My Master should have recited the additional prayer individually, eaten something, and /b then b come /b to the lecture. br Rav Avya b said to him: /b Does b my Master not hold /b in accordance with b that /b statement b of Rabbi Yoḥa: A person may not recite his /b individual b prayer prior to the communal prayer? /b br Abaye b said to him: /b Was b it not stated regarding this /b i halakha /i , b Rabbi Abba said: They taught /b this b in a communal /b setting? br In other words, only one who is part of a congregation is prohibited from praying alone prior to the prayer of the congregation. Even though Rav Avya was incorrect, the reason for his failure to attend the lecture was clarified through this discussion., b And /b the Gemara summarizes: b The i halakha /i is neither in accordance with /b the statement of b Rav Huna nor in accordance with /b the statement of b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi. /b The Gemara explains: It is not b in accordance with /b the statement of b Rav Huna, as we said /b above with regard to the prohibition to eat prior to the additional prayer. It is not b in accordance with /b the statement of b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Once the time /b to recite b the afternoon prayer has arrived, a person may not taste anything before he recites the afternoon prayer. /b , strong MISHNA: /strong In addition to the i halakhot /i relating to the fixed prayers, the Gemara relates: b Rabbi Neḥunya ben Hakana would recite a brief prayer upon his entrance into the study hall and upon his exit. They said to him: /b The study hall is not a dangerous place that would warrant a prayer when entering and exiting, so b what room is there for this prayer? He said to them: Upon my entrance, I pray that no mishap will transpire /b caused b by me /b in the study hall. b And upon my exit, I give thanks for my portion. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i the complete formula of Rabbi Neḥunya ben Hakana’s prayer: b Upon his entrance, what does he say? May it be Your will, Lord my God, that no mishap /b in determining the i halakha /i b transpires /b caused b by me, and that I not fail in any matter of i halakha /i , and that my colleagues, /b who together with me engage in clarifying the i halakha, /i b will rejoice in me. /b He specified: b And that I will neither declare pure that which is impure, nor /b declare b impure that which is pure and that my colleagues will not fail in any matter of i halakha /i , and that I will rejoice in them. /b , b Upon his exit, what did he say? I give thanks before You, Lord my God, that You have placed my lot among those who sit in the study hall, and that you have not given me my portion among those who sit /b idly b on /b street b corners. I rise early, and they rise early. I rise early to /b pursue b matters of Torah, and they rise early to /b pursue b frivolous matters. I toil and they toil. I toil and receive a reward, and they toil and do not receive a reward. I run and they run. I run to the life of the World-to-Come and they run to the pit of destruction. /b ,On a similar note, the Gemara recounts related stories with different approaches. b The Sages taught: When Rabbi Eliezer fell ill, his students entered to visit him. They said to him: Teach us paths of life, /b guidelines by which to live, b and we will thereby merit the life of the World-to-Come. /b , b He said to them: Be vigilant in the honor of your counterparts, and prevent your children from logic /b when studying verses that tend toward heresy ( i ge /i ’ i onim /i ), b and place /b your children, while they are still young, b between the knees of Torah scholars, and when you pray, know before Whom you stand. For /b doing b that, you will merit the life of the World-to-Come. /b ,A similar story is told about Rabbi Eliezer’s mentor, Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai: When b Rabbi Yoḥa ben Zakkai fell ill his students entered to visit him. When he saw them, he began to cry. His students said to him: Lamp of Israel, the right pillar, the mighty hammer, /b the man whose life’s work is the foundation of the future of the Jewish people, b for what /b reason b are you crying? /b With a life as complete as yours, what is upsetting you?, b He said to them: /b I cry in fear of heavenly judgment, as the judgment of the heavenly court is unlike the judgment of man. b If they were leading me before a flesh and blood king /b whose life is temporal, b who is here today and /b dead b in the grave tomorrow; if he is angry with me, his anger is not eternal /b and, consequently, his punishment is not eternal; b if he incarcerates me, his incarceration is not an eternal incarceration, /b as I might maintain my hope that I would ultimately be freed. b If he kills me, his killing is not for eternity, /b as there is life after any death that he might decree. Moreover, b I am able to appease him with words and /b even b bribe him with money, /b and b even so I would cry /b when standing before royal judgment. b Now that they are leading me before the supreme King of Kings, the Holy One, Blessed be He, Who lives and endures forever and all time; if He is angry with me, His anger is eternal; if He incarcerates me, His incarceration is an eternal incarceration; and if He kills me, His killing is for eternity. I am unable to appease Him with words and bribe him with money. Moreover, but I have two paths before me, one of the Garden of Eden and one of Gehenna, and I do not know on which they are leading me; and will I not cry? /b ,His students b said to him: Our teacher, bless us. He said to them: May it be /b His b will that the fear of Heaven shall be upon you like the fear of flesh and blood. His students /b were puzzled b and said: To that point /b and not beyond? Shouldn’t one fear God more? b He said to them: Would that /b a person achieve that level of fear. b Know that when one commits a transgression, he says /b to himself: I hope b that no man will see me. /b If one is as concerned about avoiding shame before God as he is before man, he will never sin.,The Gemara relates that b at the time of his death, /b immediately beforehand, b he said to them: Remove the vessels /b from the house and take them outside b due to the ritual impurity /b that will be imparted by my corpse, which they would otherwise contract. b And prepare a chair for Hezekiah, the King of Judea, who is coming /b from the upper world to accompany me., strong MISHNA: /strong The mishna cites a dispute with regard to the obligation to recite the i Amida /i prayer, also known as i Shemoneh Esreh /i , the prayer of eighteen blessings, or simply as i tefilla /i , prayer. b Rabban Gamliel says: Each and every day a person recites the /b prayer of b eighteen blessings. Rabbi Yehoshua says: /b A short prayer is sufficient, and one only recites b an abridged /b version of the prayer of b eighteen blessings. Rabbi Akiva says /b an intermediate opinion: b If he is fluent in his prayer, he recites the /b prayer of b eighteen blessings, and if not, /b he need only recite b an abridged /b version of the prayer of b eighteen blessings. /b , b Rabbi Eliezer says: One whose prayer is fixed, his prayer is not supplication /b and is flawed. The Gemara will clarify the halakhic implications of this flaw., b Rabbi Yehoshua says: One who /b cannot recite a complete prayer because he b is walking in a place of danger, recites a brief prayer and says: Redeem, Lord, Your people, the remt of Israel, at every transition [ i parashat ha’ibur /i ], /b the meaning of which will be discussed in the Gemara. b May their needs be before You. Blessed are You, Lord, Who listens to prayer. /b ,While praying, one must face toward the direction of the Holy Temple. b One who was riding on a donkey should dismount and pray /b calmly. b If he is unable to dismount, he should turn his face /b toward the direction of the Temple. b If he is unable to turn his face, /b it is sufficient that b he focus his heart opposite the Holy of Holies. /b Similarly, b one who was traveling in a ship or on a raft [ i asda /i ] /b and is unable to turn and face in the direction of Jerusalem, b should focus his heart opposite the Holy of Holies. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong Since the mishna deals with the fundamental obligation to recite the i Amida /i prayer, the Gemara seeks to resolve fundamental problems pertaining to this prayer. b Corresponding to what were these eighteen /b blessings instituted? When the i Shemoneh Esreh /i was instituted by the Sages, on what did they base the number of blessings?, b Rabbi Hillel, son of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, said: Corresponding to the eighteen mentions of God’s name /b that King b David said /b in the psalm: b “Give unto the Lord, O you sons of might” /b (Psalms 29). b Rav Yosef said: Corresponding to the eighteen mentions of God’s name in i Shema /i . Rabbi Tanḥum said /b that b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: Corresponding to the eighteen vertebrae in the spine /b beneath the ribs.,Since Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi’s opinion based the i Amida /i prayer on the spinal vertebrae, the Gemara cites another statement of his that connects the two: b Rabbi Tanḥum said /b that b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said: /b In those blessings where one is required to bow, b one who prays must bow until all the vertebrae in the spine protrude. /b ,Establishing a different indicator to determine when he has bowed sufficiently, b Ulla said: /b Until b he can see a small coin [ i issar /i ], /b on the ground before him b opposite his heart /b (Rav Hai Gaon). b Rabbi Ḥanina said: /b There is room for leniency; b once he moves his head /b forward, b he need not /b bow any further. b Rava said: But that /b applies only if b he is exerting himself /b when doing so, b and he appears like one who is bowing. /b However, if he is able, he should bow further.,Until now, the prayer of eighteen blessings has been discussed as if it was axiomatic. The Gemara wonders: Are b these eighteen /b blessings? b They are nineteen. /b , b Rabbi Levi said: The blessing of the heretics, /b which curses informers, b was instituted in Yavne /b and is not included in the original tally of blessings. Nevertheless, since the number of blessings corresponds to various allusions, the Gemara attempts to clarify: b Corresponding to what was /b this nineteenth blessing b instituted? /b , b Rabbi Levi said: According to Rabbi Hillel, son of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, /b who said that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen mentions of God’s name that King David said in the psalm, the nineteenth blessing b corresponds to /b a reference to God in that psalm, where a name other than the tetragrammaton was used: b “The God of glory thunders” ( /b Psalms 29:3). b According to Rav Yosef, /b who said that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen mentions of God’s name in i Shema /i , the additional blessing b corresponds to /b the word b one that is in i Shema /i . /b Although it is not the tetragrammaton, it expresses the essence of faith in God. b According to /b what b Rabbi Tanḥum /b said that b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi said, /b that the eighteen blessings correspond to the eighteen vertebrae in the spine, the additional blessing b corresponds to the small vertebra that is /b at the bottom b of the spine. /b ,In light of the previous mention of the blessing of the heretics, the Gemara explains how this blessing was instituted: b The Sages taught: Shimon HaPakuli arranged /b the b eighteen blessings, /b already extant during the period of the Great Assembly, b before Rabban Gamliel, /b the i Nasi /i of the Sanhedrin, b in order in Yavne. /b Due to prevailing circumstances, there was a need to institute a new blessing directed against the heretics. b Rabban Gamliel said to the Sages: Is there any person who knows to institute the blessing of the heretics, /b a blessing directed against the Sadducees? b Shmuel HaKatan, /b who was one of the most pious men of that generation, b stood and instituted it. /b ,The Gemara relates: b The next year, /b when Shmuel HaKatan served as the prayer leader, b he forgot /b that blessing,
18. Nicene Canons, Praef., 213  Tagged with subjects: •art, funerary Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 936
19. Epigraphy, Dge, 476  Tagged with subjects: •art, funerary Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 932
20. Dio Cassius, Epitome, 2.127, 2.183, 2.193-2.194  Tagged with subjects: •art, funerary Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 932, 933, 936
21. Epigraphy, Cij, 148  Tagged with subjects: •art, funerary Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 934
22. Anon., Semahot, 9.23  Tagged with subjects: •funerary art Found in books: Hachlili (2005) 161
23. Tanhuma, Vayera, 16.10.10  Tagged with subjects: •funerary art (non-christian) Found in books: Galinsky (2016) 268
24. Anon., Assumption of Moses, 31  Tagged with subjects: •art, funerary Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 933