|1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.15-4.19, 17.10, 31.9, 32.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, idol vs. image • Art, official character • Moses, art • ahl al-raʾy (Ar. “people of [legal] opinion”) • ahl al-ḥadīṯ (Ar. “scholars of Tradition”) • art, Qumran • art, pagan • art, priests • catacombs, Bet Shearim, figural art • church fathers, figural art • figural art • ijtihād (Ar. “diligent efforts”)
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 897, 920, 930; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 53, 79, 247, 248, 252; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 236, 481; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022), The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King, 141
4.15 וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּם מְאֹד לְנַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי לֹא רְאִיתֶם כָּל־תְּמוּנָה בְּיוֹם דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם בְּחֹרֵב מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃ 4.16 פֶּן־תַּשְׁחִתוּן וַעֲשִׂיתֶם לָכֶם פֶּסֶל תְּמוּנַת כָּל־סָמֶל תַּבְנִית זָכָר אוֹ נְקֵבָה׃ 4.17 תַּבְנִית כָּל־בְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ תַּבְנִית כָּל־צִפּוֹר כָּנָף אֲשֶׁר תָּעוּף בַּשָּׁמָיִם׃ 4.18 תַּבְנִית כָּל־רֹמֵשׂ בָּאֲדָמָה תַּבְנִית כָּל־דָּגָה אֲשֶׁר־בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ׃ 4.19 וּפֶן־תִּשָּׂא עֵינֶיךָ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְאֶת־הַיָּרֵחַ וְאֶת־הַכּוֹכָבִים כֹּל צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וְנִדַּחְתָּ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לָהֶם וַעֲבַדְתָּם אֲשֶׁר חָלַק יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֹתָם לְכֹל הָעַמִּים תַּחַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃' 31.9 וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וַיִּתְּנָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי לֵוִי הַנֹּשְׂאִים אֶת־אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהוָה וְאֶל־כָּל־זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
32.11 כְּנֶשֶׁר יָעִיר קִנּוֹ עַל־גּוֹזָלָיו יְרַחֵף יִפְרֹשׂ כְּנָפָיו יִקָּחֵהוּ יִשָּׂאֵהוּ עַל־אֶבְרָתוֹ׃'' None
4.15 Take ye therefore good heed unto yourselves—for ye saw no manner of form on the day that the LORD spoke unto you in Horeb out of the midst of the fire— 4.16 lest ye deal corruptly, and make you a graven image, even the form of any figure, the likeness of male or female, 4.17 the likeness of any beast that is on the earth, the likeness of any winged fowl that flieth in the heaven, 4.18 the likeness of any thing that creepeth on the ground, the likeness of any fish that is in the water under the earth; . 4.19 and lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun and the moon and the stars, even all the host of heaven, thou be drawn away and worship them, and serve them, which the LORD thy God hath allotted unto all the peoples under the whole heaven.
17.10 And thou shalt do according to the tenor of the sentence, which they shall declare unto thee from that place which the LORD shall choose; and thou shalt observe to do according to all that they shall teach thee.
31.9 And Moses wrote this law, and delivered it unto the priests the sons of Levi, that bore the ark of the covet of the LORD, and unto all the elders of Israel.
32.11 As an eagle that stirreth up her nest, Hovereth over her young, Spreadeth abroad her wings, taketh them, Beareth them on her pinions—'' None
|2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.6, 3.15, 14.19, 16.7-16.10, 17.6, 20.4, 21.28 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, funerary • Art, idol vs. image • Art, official character • Jews, as blind to identity of Christ, depicted in art • Moses, art • art and architecture • art, • art, Qumran • art, early Christian • art, medieval Christian, depiction of Jews • art, origins anddevelopment • art, priests • clothing, signification of, in medieval Christian art • hypostasis (of God), ʿibāda (Ar. “piety”) • ijmāʿ (Ar. “consensus”) • maʿrifat Allāh (Ar. “knowledge of God”) • pallium, signification in medieval Christian art • priests, Jewish, depiction in medieval Jewish art • synagogues, art • taqlīd (Ar. “tradition”)
Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 94, 97; Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 897, 920, 934; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 31, 40, 52, 63, 122, 218, 249, 274, 322; Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 95, 747; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 247; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022), The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King, 140
3.6 וַיֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי אֱלֹהֵי אָבִיךָ אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וַיַּסְתֵּר מֹשֶׁה פָּנָיו כִּי יָרֵא מֵהַבִּיט אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים׃
3.15 וַיֹּאמֶר עוֹד אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כֹּה־תֹאמַר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵיכֶם אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם זֶה־שְּׁמִי לְעֹלָם וְזֶה זִכְרִי לְדֹר דֹּר׃
14.19 וַיִּסַּע מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים הַהֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵי מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֵּלֶךְ מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם וַיִּסַּע עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן מִפְּנֵיהֶם וַיַּעֲמֹד מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם׃
16.7 וּבֹקֶר וּרְאִיתֶם אֶת־כְּבוֹד יְהוָה בְּשָׁמְעוֹ אֶת־תְּלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם עַל־יְהוָה וְנַחְנוּ מָה כִּי תלונו תַלִּינוּ עָלֵינוּ׃ 16.8 וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה בְּתֵת יְהוָה לָכֶם בָּעֶרֶב בָּשָׂר לֶאֱכֹל וְלֶחֶם בַּבֹּקֶר לִשְׂבֹּעַ בִּשְׁמֹעַ יְהוָה אֶת־תְּלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם מַלִּינִם עָלָיו וְנַחְנוּ מָה לֹא־עָלֵינוּ תְלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם כִּי עַל־יְהוָה׃ 16.9 וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן אֱמֹר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל קִרְבוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה כִּי שָׁמַע אֵת תְּלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם׃' 17.6 הִנְנִי עֹמֵד לְפָנֶיךָ שָּׁם עַל־הַצּוּר בְּחֹרֵב וְהִכִּיתָ בַצּוּר וְיָצְאוּ מִמֶּנּוּ מַיִם וְשָׁתָה הָעָם וַיַּעַשׂ כֵּן מֹשֶׁה לְעֵינֵי זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
20.4 לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל וְכָל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתַָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ
21.28 וְכִי־יִגַּח שׁוֹר אֶת־אִישׁ אוֹ אֶת־אִשָּׁה וָמֵת סָקוֹל יִסָּקֵל הַשּׁוֹר וְלֹא יֵאָכֵל אֶת־בְּשָׂרוֹ וּבַעַל הַשּׁוֹר נָקִי׃'' None
3.6 Moreover He said: ‘I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’ And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God.
3.15 And God said moreover unto Moses: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you; this is My name for ever, and this is My memorial unto all generations.
14.19 And the angel of God, who went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud removed from before them, and stood behind them;
16.7 and in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of the LORD; for that He hath heard your murmurings against the LORD; and what are we, that ye murmur against us?’ 16.8 And Moses said: ‘This shall be, when the LORD shall give you in the evening flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to the full; for that the LORD heareth your murmurings which ye murmur against Him; and what are we? your murmurings are not against us, but against the LORD.’ 16.9 And Moses said unto Aaron: ‘Say unto all the congregation of the children of Israel: Come near before the LORD; for He hath heard your murmurings.’ 16.10 And it came to pass, as Aaron spoke unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and, behold, the glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud.
17.6 Behold, I will stand before thee there upon the rock in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink.’ And Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel.
20.4 Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;
21.28 And if an ox gore a man or a woman, that they die, the ox shall be surely stoned, and its flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall be quit.' ' None
|3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 23.40, 23.43 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Samaritans, art • art, • artisans, artists • basilica-type synagogue, plan, mosaic, mosaic, artistic motifs • lulav, in synagogue art
Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 216; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 247, 308
23.43 לְמַעַן יֵדְעוּ דֹרֹתֵיכֶם כִּי בַסֻּכּוֹת הוֹשַׁבְתִּי אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהוֹצִיאִי אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃' ' None
23.40 And ye shall take you on the first day the fruit of goodly trees, branches of palm-trees, and boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook, and ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God seven days.
23.43 that your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths, when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God.'' None
|4. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 21.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • art and architecture • seals, figural art
Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 321; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 225
21.9 וַיַּעַשׂ מֹשֶׁה נְחַשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת וַיְשִׂמֵהוּ עַל־הַנֵּס וְהָיָה אִם־נָשַׁךְ הַנָּחָשׁ אֶת־אִישׁ וְהִבִּיט אֶל־נְחַשׁ הַנְּחֹשֶׁת וָחָי׃'' None
21.9 And Moses made a serpent of brass, and set it upon the pole; and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he looked unto the serpent of brass, he lived.'' None
|5. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 24.7, 24.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • art, Qumran • art, pagan • art, priests • zabūr (Ar. “Psalms”, concept)
Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 53, 66; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 32; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022), The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King, 222
24.7 שְׂאוּ שְׁעָרִים רָאשֵׁיכֶם וְהִנָּשְׂאוּ פִּתְחֵי עוֹלָם וְיָבוֹא מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד׃
24.9 שְׂאוּ שְׁעָרִים רָאשֵׁיכֶם וּשְׂאוּ פִּתְחֵי עוֹלָם וְיָבֹא מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד׃' ' None
24.7 Lift up your heads, O ye gates, and be ye lifted up, ye everlasting doors; that the King of glory may come in.
24.9 Lift up your heads, O ye gates, Yea, lift them up, ye everlasting doors; That the King of glory may come in.' ' None
|6. None, None, nan (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • art, Qumran • art, priests • popular culture See reception history, and art
Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51, 55; Sneed (2022), Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan, 239
|7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, funerary • Art, loss of pagan meaning for Christians and Jews • Moses, art • art, Qumran • art, priests
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 935; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 34, 49, 50, 52, 250
6.3 וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃'' None
6.3 And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory.'' None
|8. Hesiod, Works And Days, 202-212 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Georgic poet, as artist • Georgics , art in • Golden Age, art in • Orpheus,, as symbol of failure of art • Phrygia and Phrygians, art and monuments of • ars
Found in books: Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 86; Perkell (1989), The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics, 81, 82, 83, 136, 137, 139, 140
202 νῦν δʼ αἶνον βασιλεῦσιν ἐρέω φρονέουσι καὶ αὐτοῖς·'203 ὧδʼ ἴρηξ προσέειπεν ἀηδόνα ποικιλόδειρον 204 ὕψι μάλʼ ἐν νεφέεσσι φέρων ὀνύχεσσι μεμαρπώς· 205 ἣ δʼ ἐλεόν, γναμπτοῖσι πεπαρμένη ἀμφʼ ὀνύχεσσι, 206 μύρετο· τὴν ὅγʼ ἐπικρατέως πρὸς μῦθον ἔειπεν· 207 δαιμονίη, τί λέληκας; ἔχει νύ σε πολλὸν ἀρείων· 208 τῇ δʼ εἶς, ᾗ σʼ ἂν ἐγώ περ ἄγω καὶ ἀοιδὸν ἐοῦσαν· 209 δεῖπνον δʼ, αἴ κʼ ἐθέλω, ποιήσομαι ἠὲ μεθήσω. 210 ἄφρων δʼ, ὅς κʼ ἐθέλῃ πρὸς κρείσσονας ἀντιφερίζειν· 211 νίκης τε στέρεται πρός τʼ αἴσχεσιν ἄλγεα πάσχει. 212 ὣς ἔφατʼ ὠκυπέτης ἴρηξ, τανυσίπτερος ὄρνις. ' None
202 Might will be right and shame shall cease to be,'203 The bad will harm the good whom they shall maim 204 With crooked words, swearing false oaths. We’ll see 205 Envy among the wretched, foul of face 206 And voice, adoring villainy, and then 207 Into Olympus from the endless space 208 Mankind inhabits, leaving mortal men, 209 Fair flesh veiled by white robes, shall Probity 210 And Shame depart, and there’ll be grievous pain 211 For men: against all evil there shall be 212 No safeguard. Now I’ll tell, for lords who know ' None
|9. Hesiod, Theogony, 81-96 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Phrygia and Phrygians, art and monuments of • patrons of the arts
Found in books: Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 59; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 88
81 ὅν τινα τιμήσωσι Διὸς κοῦραι μεγάλοιο'82 γεινόμενόν τε ἴδωσι διοτρεφέων βασιλήων, 83 τῷ μὲν ἐπὶ γλώσσῃ γλυκερὴν χείουσιν ἐέρσην, 84 τοῦ δʼ ἔπεʼ ἐκ στόματος ῥεῖ μείλιχα· οἱ δέ τε λαοὶ 85 πάντες ἐς αὐτὸν ὁρῶσι διακρίνοντα θέμιστας 86 ἰθείῃσι δίκῃσιν· ὃ δʼ ἀσφαλέως ἀγορεύων 87 αἶψά κε καὶ μέγα νεῖκος ἐπισταμένως κατέπαυσεν· 88 τοὔνεκα γὰρ βασιλῆες ἐχέφρονες, οὕνεκα λαοῖς 89 βλαπτομένοις ἀγορῆφι μετάτροπα ἔργα τελεῦσι 90 ῥηιδίως, μαλακοῖσι παραιφάμενοι ἐπέεσσιν. 91 ἐρχόμενον δʼ ἀνʼ ἀγῶνα θεὸν ὣς ἱλάσκονται 92 αἰδοῖ μειλιχίῃ, μετὰ δὲ πρέπει ἀγρομένοισιν· 93 τοίη Μουσάων ἱερὴ δόσις ἀνθρώποισιν. 94 ἐκ γάρ τοι Μουσέων καὶ ἑκηβόλου Ἀπόλλωνος 95 ἄνδρες ἀοιδοὶ ἔασιν ἐπὶ χθόνα καὶ κιθαρισταί, 96 ἐκ δὲ Διὸς βασιλῆες· ὃ δʼ ὄλβιος, ὅν τινα Μοῦσαι ' None
81 In heaven, once Cronus he’d subjugated'82 As to the immortals he disseminated 83 Their rights. Lord Zeus begat this company 84 of Muses, Thalia, Melpomene, 85 Clio, Euterpe and Terpsichory, 86 And Polyhymnia, Calliope, 87 Urania, Erato: but the best 88 of all of them, deferred to by the rest 89 of all the Muses is Calliope 90 Because the kings blest by divinity 91 She serves. Each god-nursed king whom they adore, 92 Beholding him at birth, for him they pour 93 Sweet dew upon his tongue that there may flow 94 Kind words from hm; thus all the people go 95 To see him arbitrate successfully 96 Their undertakings and unswervingly ' None
|10. Homer, Iliad, 14.292 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Mimetic art • theurgy (hieratic art)
Found in books: Dillon and Timotin (2015), Platonic Theories of Prayer, 178; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 421
14.292 Ἥρη δὲ κραιπνῶς προσεβήσετο Γάργαρον ἄκρον'' None
14.292 in the likeness of a clear-voiced mountain bird, that the gods call Chalcis, and men Cymindis.But Hera swiftly drew nigh to topmost Gargarus, the peak of lofty Ida, and Zeus, the cloud-gatherer, beheld her. And when he beheld her, then love encompassed his wise heart about, '' None
|11. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Minoan-Mycenaean religion and art, Aphrodite in • Minoan-Mycenaean religion and art, Artemis and • Neo-Hittite, art • Orestes,, gestures in art • Phrygia and Phrygians, art and monuments of • art work, as object of gaze • audience, artistic strategies as reaction to • gaze, focused on work of art • response, emotional, to work of art, in Virgil’s Aeneid • wonder, inspired by gazing at work of art
Found in books: Boeghold (2022), When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature. 31; Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 80; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 36; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 107; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 180, 265
|12. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 28.2, 28.11-28.13, 28.19 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ (Ar. “Tales of the Prophets”, genre), al-Quds (Ar. “Jerusalem,” “Temple”) • art, Qumran • art, priests • faṣl (dual. faṣlayn, Ar. “[thematic] unit,” “episode”) • qiṣṣa (Ar. „story”) • tawqīf (Ar. “instruction from God”) • ʿiṣma (Ar. “infallibility of prophets”, “impeccability,” “immunity from sin”)
Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 66, 102, 106, 274; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022), The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King, 89, 90, 96, 99
28.2 וַיָּקָם דָּוִיד הַמֶּלֶךְ עַל־רַגְלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמָעוּנִי אַחַי וְעַמִּי אֲנִי עִם־לְבָבִי לִבְנוֹת בֵּית מְנוּחָה לַאֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה וְלַהֲדֹם רַגְלֵי אֱלֹהֵינוּ וַהֲכִינוֹתִי לִבְנוֹת׃
28.2 וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד לִשְׁלֹמֹה בְנוֹ חֲזַק וֶאֱמַץ וַעֲשֵׂה אַל־תִּירָא וְאַל־תֵּחָת כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֱלֹהַי עִמָּךְ לֹא יַרְפְּךָ וְלֹא יַעַזְבֶךָּ עַד־לִכְלוֹת כָּל־מְלֶאכֶת עֲבוֹדַת בֵּית־יְהוָה׃
28.11 וַיִּתֵּן דָּוִיד לִשְׁלֹמֹה בְנוֹ אֶת־תַּבְנִית הָאוּלָם וְאֶת־בָּתָּיו וְגַנְזַכָּיו וַעֲלִיֹּתָיו וַחֲדָרָיו הַפְּנִימִים וּבֵית הַכַּפֹּרֶת׃ 28.12 וְתַבְנִית כֹּל אֲשֶׁר הָיָה בָרוּחַ עִמּוֹ לְחַצְרוֹת בֵּית־יְהוָה וּלְכָל־הַלְּשָׁכוֹת סָבִיב לְאֹצְרוֹת בֵּית הָאֱלֹהִים וּלְאֹצְרוֹת הַקֳּדָשִׁים׃ 28.13 וּלְמַחְלְקוֹת הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם וּלְכָל־מְלֶאכֶת עֲבוֹדַת בֵּית־יְהוָה וּלְכָל־כְּלֵי עֲבוֹדַת בֵּית־יְהוָה׃
28.19 הַכֹּל בִּכְתָב מִיַּד יְהוָה עָלַי הִשְׂכִּיל כֹּל מַלְאֲכוֹת הַתַּבְנִית׃'' None
28.2 Then David the king stood up upon his feet, and said: ‘Hear me, my brethren, and my people; as for me, it was in my heart to build a house of rest for the ark of the covet of the LORD, and for the footstool of our God; and I had made ready for the building.
28.11 Then David gave to Solomon his son the pattern of the porch of the temple, and of the houses thereof, and of the treasuries thereof, and of the upper rooms thereof, and of the inner chambers thereof, and of the place of the ark-cover; 28.12 and the pattern of all that he had by the spirit, for the courts of the house of the LORD, and for all the chambers round about, for the treasuries of the house of God, and for the treasuries of the hallowed things; 28.13 also for the courses of the priests and the Levites, and for all the work of the service of the house of the LORD, and for all the vessels of service in the house of the LORD:
28.19 ’All this do I give thee in writing, as the LORD hath made me wise by His hand upon me, even all the works of this pattern.’'' None
|13. Herodotus, Histories, 3.17-3.25, 3.131, 9.27.4 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Amazons, in the figurative arts • Egyptian, art • Hippocrates, works,, Art of Medicine • Lucian, as self-conscious reception artist • to the Kyklades by artist Babis Kritikos, sacrificial (?choral), to Apollo Pythaieus (Asine)
Found in books: Barbato (2020), The Ideology of Democratic Athens: Institutions, Orators and the Mythical Past, 146; Jouanna (2012), Greek Medicine from Hippocrates to Galen, 52; Kirkland (2022), Herodotus and Imperial Greek Literature: Criticism, Imitation, Reception, 187, 196; Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 153; Papadodima (2022), Ancient Greek Literature and the Foreign: Athenian Dialogues II, 21
3.17 μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ὁ Καμβύσης ἐβουλεύσατο τριφασίας στρατηίας, ἐπί τε Καρχηδονίους καὶ ἐπὶ Ἀμμωνίους καὶ ἐπὶ τοὺς μακροβίους Αἰθίοπας, οἰκημένους δὲ Λιβύης ἐπὶ τῇ νοτίῃ θαλάσσῃ· βουλευομένῳ δέ οἱ ἔδοξε ἐπὶ μὲν Καρχηδονίους τὸν ναυτικὸν στρατὸν ἀποστέλλειν, ἐπὶ δὲ Ἀμμωνίους τοῦ πεζοῦ ἀποκρίναντα, ἐπὶ δὲ τοὺς Αἰθίοπας κατόπτας πρῶτον, ὀψομένους τε τὴν ἐν τούτοισι τοῖσι Αἰθίοψι λεγομένην εἶναι ἡλίου τράπεζαν εἰ ἔστι ἀληθέως, καὶ πρὸς ταύτῃ τὰ ἄλλα κατοψομένους, δῶρα δὲ τῷ λόγῳ φέροντας τῷ βασιλέι αὐτῶν. 3.18 ἡ δὲ τράπεζα τοῦ ἡλίου τοιήδε τις λέγεται εἶναι, λειμὼν ἐστὶ ἐν τῷ προαστείῳ ἐπίπλεος κρεῶν ἑφθῶν πάντων τῶν τετραπόδων, ἐς τὸν τὰς μὲν νύκτας ἐπιτηδεύοντας τιθέναι τὰ κρέα τοὺς ἐν τέλεϊ ἑκάστοτε ἐόντας τῶν ἀστῶν, τὰς δὲ ἡμέρας δαίνυσθαι προσιόντα τὸν βουλόμενον. φάναι δὲ τοὺς ἐπιχωρίους ταῦτα τὴν γῆν αὐτὴν ἀναδιδόναι ἑκάστοτε. 3.19 ἡ μὲν δὴ τράπεζα τοῦ ἡλίου καλεομένη λέγεται εἶναι τοιήδε. Καμβύσῃ δὲ ὡς ἔδοξε πέμπειν τοὺς κατασκόπους, αὐτίκα μετεπέμπετο ἐξ Ἐλεφαντίνης πόλιος τῶν Ἰχθυοφάγων ἀνδρῶν τοὺς ἐπισταμένους τὴν Αἰθιοπίδα γλῶσσαν. ἐν ᾧ δὲ τούτους μετήισαν, ἐν τούτῳ ἐκέλευε ἐπὶ τὴν Καρχηδόνα πλέειν τὸν ναυτικὸν στρατόν. Φοίνικες δὲ οὐκ ἔφασαν ποιήσειν ταῦτα· ὁρκίοισι γὰρ μεγάλοισι ἐνδεδέσθαι, καὶ οὐκ ἂν ποιέειν ὅσια ἐπὶ τοὺς παῖδας τοὺς ἑωυτῶν στρατευόμενοι. Φοινίκων δὲ οὐ βουλομένων οἱ λοιποὶ οὐκ ἀξιόμαχοι ἐγίνοντο. Καρχηδόνιοι μέν νυν οὕτω δουλοσύνην διέφυγον πρὸς Περσέων· Καμβύσης γὰρ βίην οὐκ ἐδικαίου προσφέρειν Φοίνιξι, ὅτι σφέας τε αὐτοὺς ἐδεδώκεσαν Πέρσῃσι καὶ πᾶς ἐκ Φοινίκων ἤρτητο ὁ ναυτικὸς στρατός. δόντες δὲ καὶ Κύπριοι σφέας αὐτοὺς Πέρσῃσι ἐστρατεύοντο ἐπʼ Αἴγυπτον. 3.20 ἐπείτε δὲ τῷ Καμβύσῃ ἐκ τῆς Ἐλεφαντίνης ἀπίκοντο οἱ Ἰχθυοφάγοι, ἔπεμπε αὐτοὺς ἐς τοὺς Αἰθίοπας ἐντειλάμενος τὰ λέγειν χρῆν καὶ δῶρα φέροντας πορφύρεόν τε εἷμα καὶ χρύσεον στρεπτὸν περιαυχένιον καὶ ψέλια καὶ μύρου ἀλάβαστρον καὶ φοινικηίου οἴνου κάδον. οἱ δὲ Αἰθίοπες οὗτοι, ἐς τοὺς ἀπέπεμπε ὁ Καμβύσης, λέγονται εἶναι μέγιστοι καὶ κάλλιστοι ἀνθρώπων πάντων. νόμοισι δὲ καὶ ἄλλοισι χρᾶσθαι αὐτοὺς κεχωρισμένοισι τῶν ἄλλων ἀνθρώπων καὶ δὴ καὶ κατὰ τὴν βασιληίην τοιῷδε· τὸν ἂν τῶν ἀστῶν κρίνωσι μέγιστόν τε εἶναι καὶ κατὰ τὸ μέγαθος ἔχειν τὴν ἰσχύν, τοῦτον ἀξιοῦσι βασιλεύειν. 3.21 ἐς τούτους δὴ ὦν τοὺς ἄνδρας ὡς ἀπίκοντο οἱ Ἰχθυοφάγοι, διδόντες τὰ δῶρα τῷ, βασιλέι αὐτῶν ἔλεγον τάδε. “βασιλεὺς ὁ Περσέων Καμβύσης, βουλόμενος φίλος καὶ ξεῖνός τοι γενέσθαι, ἡμέας τε ἀπέπεμψε ἐς λόγους τοι ἐλθεῖν κελεύων, καὶ δῶρα ταῦτά τοι διδοῖ τοῖσι καὶ αὐτὸς μάλιστα ἥδεται χρεώμενος.” ὁ δὲ Αἰθίοψ μαθὼν ὅτι κατόπται ἥκοιεν, λέγει πρὸς αὐτοὺς τοιάδε. “οὔτε ὁ Περσέων βασιλεὺς δῶρα ὑμέας ἔπεμψε φέροντας προτιμῶν πολλοῦ ἐμοὶ ξεῖνος γενέσθαι, οὔτε ὑμεῖς λέγετε ἀληθέα ʽἥκετε γὰρ κατόπται τῆς ἐμῆς ἀρχῆσ̓, οὔτε ἐκεῖνος ἀνήρ δίκαιος. εἰ γὰρ ἦν δίκαιος, οὔτʼ ἂν ἐπεθύμησε χώρης ἄλλης ἢ τῆς ἑωυτοῦ, οὔτʼ ἂν ἐς δουλοσύνην ἀνθρώπους ἦγε ὑπʼ ὧν μηδὲν ἠδίκηται. νῦν δὲ αὐτῷ τόξον τόδε διδόντες τάδε ἔπεα λέγετε.” “βασιλεὺς ὁ Αἰθιόπων συμβουλεύει τῷ Περσέων βασιλέι, ἐπεὰν οὕτω εὐπετέως ἕλκωσι τὰ τόξα Πέρσαι ἐόντα μεγάθεϊ τοσαῦτα, τότε ἐπʼ Αἰθίοπας τοὺς μακροβίους πλήθεϊ ὑπερβαλλόμενον στρατεύεσθαι· μέχρι δὲ τούτου θεοῖσι εἰδέναι χάριν, οἳ οὐκ ἐπὶ νόον τρέπουσι Αἰθιόπων παισὶ γῆν ἄλλην προσκτᾶσθαι τῇ ἑωυτῶν.” 3.22 ταῦτα δὲ εἴπας καὶ ἀνεὶς τὸ τόξον παρέδωκε τοῖσι ἥκουσι. λαβὼν δὲ τὸ εἷμα τὸ πορφύρεον εἰρώτα ὅ τι εἴη καὶ ὅκως πεποιημένον· εἰπόντων δὲ τῶν Ἰχθυοφάγων τὴν ἀληθείην περὶ τῆς πορφύρης καὶ τῆς βαφῆς, δολεροὺς μὲν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἔφη εἶναι, δολερὰ δὲ αὐτῶν τὰ εἵματα. δεύτερα δὲ τὸν χρυσὸν εἰρώτα τὸν στρεπτὸν τὸν περιαυχένιον καὶ τὰ ψέλια· ἐξηγεομένων δὲ τῶν Ἰχθυοφάγων τὸν κόσμον αὐτοῦ, γελάσας ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ νομίσας εἶναι σφέα πέδας εἶπε ὡς παρʼ ἑωυτοῖσι εἰσὶ ῥωμαλεώτεραι τουτέων πέδαι. τρίτον δὲ εἰρώτα τὸ μύρον· εἰπόντων δὲ τῆς ποιήσιος πέρι καὶ ἀλείψιος, τὸν αὐτὸν λόγον τὸν καὶ περὶ τοῦ εἵματος εἶπε. ὡς δὲ ἐς τὸν οἶνον ἀπίκετο καὶ ἐπύθετο αὐτοῦ τὴν ποίησιν, ὑπερησθεὶς τῷ πόματι ἐπείρετο ὅ τι τε σιτέεται ὁ βασιλεὺς καὶ χρόνον ὁκόσον μακρότατον ἀνὴρ Πέρσης ζώει. οἳ δὲ σιτέεσθαι μὲν τὸν ἄρτον εἶπον, ἐξηγησάμενοι τῶν πυρῶν τὴν φύσιν, ὀγδώκοντα δὲ ἔτεα ζόης πλήρωμα ἀνδρὶ μακρότατον προκεῖσθαι. πρὸς ταῦτα ὁ Αἰθίοψ ἔφη οὐδὲν θωμάζειν εἰ σιτεόμενοι κόπρον ἔτεα ὀλίγα ζώουσι· οὐδὲ γὰρ ἂν τοσαῦτα δύνασθαι ζώειν σφέας, εἰ μὴ τῷ πόματι ἀνέφερον, φράζων τοῖσι Ἰχθυοφάγοισι τὸν οἶνον· τούτῳ γὰρ ἑωυτοὺς ὑπὸ Περσέων ἑσσοῦσθαι. 3.23 ἀντειρομένων δὲ τὸν βασιλέα τῶν Ἰχθυοφάγων τῆς ζόης καὶ διαίτης πέρι, ἔτεα μὲν ἐς εἴκοσι καὶ ἑκατὸν τοὺς πολλοὺς αὐτῶν ἀπικνέεσθαι, ὑπερβάλλειν δὲ τινὰς καὶ ταῦτα, σίτησιν δὲ εἶναι κρέα τε ἑφθὰ καὶ πόμα γάλα. θῶμα δὲ ποιευμένων τῶν κατασκόπων περὶ τῶν ἐτέων, ἐπὶ κρήνην σφι ἡγήσασθαι, ἀπʼ ἧς λουόμενοι λιπαρώτεροι ἐγίνοντο, κατά περ εἰ ἐλαίου εἴη· ὄζειν δὲ ἀπʼ αὐτῆς ὡς εἰ ἴων. ἀσθενὲς δὲ τὸ ὕδωρ τῆς κρήνης ταύτης οὕτω δή τι ἔλεγον εἶναι οἱ κατάσκοποι ὥστε μηδὲν οἷόν τʼ εἶναι ἐπʼ αὐτοῦ ἐπιπλέειν, μήτε ξύλον μήτε τῶν ὅσα ξύλου ἐστὶ ἐλαφρότερα, ἀλλὰ πάντα σφέα χωρέειν ἐς βυσσόν. τὸ δὲ ὕδωρ τοῦτο εἴ σφι ἐστὶ ἀληθέως οἷόν τι λέγεται, διὰ τοῦτο ἂν εἶεν, τούτῳ τὰ πάντα χρεώμενοι, μακρόβιοι. ἀπὸ τῆς κρήνης δὲ ἀπαλλασσομένων, ἀγαγεῖν σφεας ἐς δεσμωτήριον ἀνδρῶν, ἔνθα τοὺς πάντας ἐν πέδῃσι χρυσέῃσι δεδέσθαι. ἔστι δὲ ἐν τούτοισι τοῖσι Αἰθίοψι πάντων ὁ χαλκὸς σπανιώτατον καὶ τιμιώτατον. θεησάμενοι δὲ καὶ τὸ δεσμωτήριον, ἐθεήσαντο καὶ τὴν τοῦ ἡλίου λεγομένην τράπεζαν. 3.24 μετὰ δὲ ταύτην τελευταίας ἐθεήσαντο τὰς θήκας αὐτῶν, αἳ λέγονται σκευάζεσθαι ἐξ ὑέλου τρόπῳ τοιῷδε· ἐπεὰν τὸν νεκρὸν ἰσχνήνωσι, εἴτε δὴ κατά περ Αἰγύπτιοι εἴτε ἄλλως κως, γυψώσαντες ἅπαντα αὐτὸν γραφῇ κοσμέουσι, ἐξομοιεῦντες τὸ εἶδος ἐς τὸ δυνατόν, ἔπειτα δέ οἱ περιιστᾶσι στήλην ἐξ ὑέλου πεποιημένην κοίλην· ἣ δέ σφι πολλὴ καὶ εὐεργὸς ὀρύσσεται. ἐν μέσῃ δὲ τῇ στήλῃ ἐνεὼν διαφαίνεται ὁ νέκυς, οὔτε ὀδμὴν οὐδεμίαν ἄχαριν παρεχόμενος οὔτε ἄλλο ἀεικὲς οὐδέν, καὶ ἔχει πάντα φανερὰ ὁμοίως αὐτῷ τῷ νέκυϊ. ἐνιαυτὸν μὲν δὴ ἔχουσι τὴν στήλην ἐν τοῖσι οἰκίοισι οἱ μάλιστα προσήκοντες, πάντων ἀπαρχόμενοι καὶ θυσίας οἱ προσάγοντες· μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ἐκκομίσαντες ἱστᾶσι περὶ τὴν πόλιν. 3.25 θεησάμενοι δὲ τὰ πάντα οἱ κατάσκοποι ἀπαλλάσσοντο ὀπίσω. ἀπαγγειλάντων δὲ ταῦτα τούτων, αὐτίκα ὁ Καμβύσης ὀργὴν ποιησάμενος ἐστρατεύετο ἐπὶ τοὺς Αἰθίοπας, οὔτε παρασκευὴν σίτου οὐδεμίαν παραγγείλας, οὔτε λόγον ἑωυτῷ δοὺς ὅτι ἐς τὰ ἔσχατα γῆς ἔμελλε στρατεύεσθαι· οἷα δὲ ἐμμανής τε ἐὼν καὶ οὐ φρενήρης, ὡς ἤκουε τῶν Ἰχθυοφάγων, ἐστρατεύετο, Ἑλλήνων μὲν τοὺς παρεόντας αὐτοῦ τάξας ὑπομένειν, τὸν δὲ πεζὸν πάντα ἅμα ἀγόμενος. ἐπείτε δὲ στρατευόμενος ἐγένετο ἐν Θήβῃσι, ἀπέκρινε τοῦ στρατοῦ ὡς πέντε μυριάδας, καὶ τούτοισι μὲν ἐνετέλλετο Ἀμμωνίους ἐξανδραποδισαμένους τὸ χρηστήριον τὸ τοῦ Διὸς ἐμπρῆσαι, αὐτὸς δὲ τὸν λοιπὸν ἄγων στρατὸν ἤιε ἐπὶ τοὺς Αἰθίοπας. πρὶν δὲ τῆς ὁδοῦ τὸ πέμπτον μέρος διεληλυθέναι τὴν στρατιήν, αὐτίκα πάντα αὐτοὺς τὰ εἶχον σιτίων ἐχόμενα ἐπελελοίπεε, μετὰ δὲ τὰ σιτία καὶ τὰ ὑποζύγια ἐπέλιπε κατεσθιόμενα. εἰ μέν νυν μαθὼν ταῦτα ὁ Καμβύσης ἐγνωσιμάχεε καὶ ἀπῆγε ὀπίσω τὸν στρατόν, ἐπὶ τῇ ἀρχῆθεν γενομένῃ ἁμαρτάδι ἦν ἂν ἀνὴρ σοφός· νῦν δὲ οὐδένα λόγον ποιεύμενος ἤιε αἰεὶ ἐς τὸ πρόσω. οἱ δὲ στρατιῶται ἕως μέν τι εἶχον ἐκ τῆς γῆς λαμβάνειν, ποιηφαγέοντες διέζωον, ἐπεὶ δὲ ἐς τὴν ψάμμον ἀπίκοντο, δεινὸν ἔργον αὐτῶν τινες ἐργάσαντο· ἐκ δεκάδος γὰρ ἕνα σφέων αὐτῶν ἀποκληρώσαντες κατέφαγον. πυθόμενος δὲ ταῦτα ὁ Καμβύσης, δείσας τὴν ἀλληλοφαγίην, ἀπεὶς τὸν ἐπʼ Αἰθίοπας στόλον ὀπίσω ἐπορεύετο καὶ ἀπικνέεται ἐς Θήβας πολλοὺς ἀπολέσας τοῦ στρατοῦ· ἐκ Θηβέων δὲ καταβὰς ἐς Μέμφιν τοὺς Ἕλληνας ἀπῆκε ἀποπλέειν.
3.131 ὁ δὲ Δημοκήδης οὗτος ὧδε ἐκ Κρότωνος ἀπιγμένος Πολυκράτεϊ ὡμίλησε· πατρὶ συνείχετο ἐν τῇ Κρότωνι ὀργὴν χαλεπῷ· τοῦτον ἐπείτε οὐκ ἐδύνατο φέρειν, ἀπολιπὼν οἴχετο ἐς Αἴγιναν. καταστὰς δὲ ἐς ταύτην πρώτῳ ἔτεϊ ὑπερεβάλετο τοὺς ἄλλους ἰητρούς, ἀσκευής περ ἐὼν καὶ ἔχων οὐδὲν τῶν ὅσα περὶ τὴν τέχνην ἐστὶ ἐργαλήια. καί μιν δευτέρῳ ἔτεϊ ταλάντου Αἰγινῆται δημοσίῃ μισθοῦνται, τρίτῳ δὲ ἔτεϊ Ἀθηναῖοι ἑκατὸν μνέων, τετάρτῳ δὲ ἔτεϊ Πολυκράτης δυῶν ταλάντων. οὕτω μὲν ἀπίκετο ἐς τὴν Σάμον, καὶ ἀπὸ τούτου τοῦ ἀνδρὸς οὐκ ἥκιστα Κροτωνιῆται ἰητροὶ εὐδοκίμησαν. ἐγένετο γὰρ ὦν τοῦτο ὅτε πρῶτοι μὲν Κροτωνιῆται ἰητροὶ ἐλέγοντο ἀνὰ τὴν Ἑλλάδα εἶναι, δεύτεροι δὲ Κυρηναῖοι. κατὰ τὸν αὐτὸν δὲ τοῦτον χρόνον καὶ Ἀργεῖοι ἤκουον μουσικὴν εἶναι Ἑλλήνων πρῶτοι. 1' ' None
3.17 After this Cambyses planned three expeditions, against the Carchedonians, against the Ammonians, and against the “long-lived” Ethiopians, who inhabit that part of Libya that is on the southern sea. ,He decided after consideration to send his fleet against the Carthaginians and a part of his land army against the Ammonians; to Ethiopia he would first send spies, to see what truth there was in the story of a Table of the Sun in that country, and to spy out all else besides, under the pretext of bringing gifts for the Ethiopian king. ' "3.18 Now the Table of the Sun is said to be something of this kind: there is a meadow outside the city, filled with the boiled flesh of all four-footed things; here during the night the men of authority among the townsmen are careful to set out the meat, and all day whoever wishes comes and feasts on it. These meats, say the people of the country, are ever produced by the earth of itself. Such is the story of the Sun's Table. " '3.19 When Cambyses determined to send the spies, he sent for those Fish-eaters from the city of Elephantine who understood the Ethiopian language. ,While they were fetching them, he ordered his fleet to sail against Carthage . But the Phoenicians said they would not do it; for they were bound, they said, by strong oaths, and if they sailed against their own progeny they would be doing an impious thing; and the Phoenicians being unwilling, the rest were inadequate fighters. ,Thus the Carthaginians escaped being enslaved by the Persians; for Cambyses would not use force with the Phoenicians, seeing that they had willingly surrendered to the Persians, and the whole fleet drew its strength from them. The Cyprians too had come of their own accord to aid the Persians against Egypt . ' "3.20 When the Fish-eaters arrived from Elephantine at Cambyses' summons, he sent them to Ethiopia, with orders what to say, and bearing as gifts a red cloak and a twisted gold necklace and bracelets and an alabaster box of incense and an earthenware jar of palm wine. These Ethiopians, to whom Cambyses sent them, are said to be the tallest and most handsome of all men. ,Their way of choosing kings is different from that of all others, as (it is said) are all their laws; they consider that man worthy to be their king whom they judge to be tallest and to have strength proportional to his stature. " '3.21 When the Fish-eaters arrived among these men, they gave the gifts to their king and said: “Cambyses, the king of the Persians, wishing to become your friend and ally, sent us with orders to address ourselves to you; and he offers you as gifts these things which he enjoys using himself.” ,But the Ethiopian, perceiving that they had come as spies, spoke thus to them: “It is not because he values my friendship that the Persian King sends you with gifts, nor do you speak the truth (for you have come to spy on my realm), nor is that man just; for were he just, he would not have coveted a land other than his own, nor would he try to lead into slavery men by whom he has not been injured. Now, give him this bow, and this message: ,‘The King of the Ethiopians advises the King of the Persians to bring overwhelming odds to attack the long-lived Ethiopians when the Persians can draw a bow of this length as easily as I do; but until then, to thank the gods who do not incite the sons of the Ethiopians to add other land to their own.’” 3.22 So speaking he unstrung the bow and gave it to the men who had come. Then, taking the red cloak, he asked what it was and how it was made; and when the Fish-eaters told him the truth about the color and the process of dyeing, he said that both the men and their garments were full of deceit. ,Next he inquired about the twisted gold necklace and the bracelets; and when the Fish-eaters told him how they were made, the king smiled, and, thinking them to be fetters, said: “We have stronger chains than these.” ,Thirdly he inquired about the incense; and when they described making and applying it, he made the same reply as about the cloak. But when he came to the wine and asked about its making, he was vastly pleased with the drink, and asked further what food their king ate, and what was the greatest age to which a Persian lived. ,They told him their king ate bread, showing him how wheat grew; and said that the full age to which a man might hope to live was eighty years. Then, said the Ethiopian, it was no wonder that they lived so few years, if they ate dung; they would not even have been able to live that many unless they were refreshed by the drink—signifying to the Fish-eaters the wine—for in this, he said, the Persians excelled the Ethiopians. 3.23 The Fish-eaters then in turn asking of the Ethiopian length of life and diet, he said that most of them attained to a hundred and twenty years, and some even to more; their food was boiled meat and their drink milk. ,The spies showed wonder at the tale of years; whereupon he led them, it is said, to a spring, by washing in which they grew sleeker, as though it were of oil; and it smelled of violets. ,So light, the spies said, was this water, that nothing would float on it, neither wood nor anything lighter than wood, but all sank to the bottom. If this water is truly such as they say, it is likely that their constant use of it makes the people long-lived. ,When they left the spring, the king led them to a prison where all the men were bound with fetters of gold. Among these Ethiopians there is nothing so scarce and so precious as bronze. Then, having seen the prison, they saw what is called the Table of the Sun. 3.24 Last after this they viewed the Ethiopian coffins; these are said to be made of alabaster, as I shall describe: ,they cause the dead body to shrink, either as the Egyptians do or in some other way, then cover it with gypsum and paint it all as far as possible in the likeness of the living man; ,then they set it within a hollow pillar of alabaster, which they dig in abundance from the ground, and it is easily worked; the body can be seen in the pillar through the alabaster, no evil stench nor anything unpleasant proceeding from it, and showing clearly all its parts, as if it were the man himself. ,The nearest of kin keep the pillar in their house for a year, giving it of the first-fruits and offering it sacrifices; after which they bring the pillars out and set them round about the city. 3.25 Having seen everything, the spies departed again. When they reported all this, Cambyses was angry, and marched at once against the Ethiopians, neither giving directions for any provision of food nor considering that he was about to lead his army to the ends of the earth; ,being not in his right mind but mad, however, he marched at once on hearing from the Fish-eaters, ordering the Greeks who were with him to await him where they were, and taking with him all his land army. ,When he came in his march to Thebes , he detached about fifty thousand men from his army, and directed them to enslave the Ammonians and burn the oracle of Zeus; and he himself went on towards Ethiopia with the rest of his host. ,But before his army had accomplished the fifth part of their journey they had come to an end of all there was in the way of provision, and after the food was gone, they ate the beasts of burden until there was none of these left either. ,Now had Cambyses, when he perceived this, changed his mind and led his army back again, he would have been a wise man at last after his first fault; but as it was, he went ever forward, taking account of nothing. ,While his soldiers could get anything from the earth, they kept themselves alive by eating grass; but when they came to the sandy desert, some did a terrible thing, taking by lot one man out of ten and eating him. ,Hearing this, Cambyses feared their becoming cannibals, and so gave up his expedition against the Ethiopians and marched back to Thebes , with the loss of many of his army; from Thebes he came down to Memphis, and sent the Greeks to sail away.
3.131 Now this is how Democedes had come from Croton to live with Polycrates: he was oppressed by a harsh-tempered father at Croton ; since he could not stand him, he left him and went to Aegina . Within the first year after settling there, he excelled the rest of the physicians, although he had no equipment nor any medical implements. ,In his second year the Aeginetans paid him a talent to be their public physician; in the third year the Athenians hired him for a hundred minae, and Polycrates in the fourth year for two talents. Thus he came to Samos, and not least because of this man the physicians of Croton were well-respected ,for at this time the best physicians in Greek countries were those of Croton, and next to them those of Cyrene . About the same time the Argives had the name of being the best musicians.
9.27.4 We also have on record our great victory against the Amazons, who once came from the river Thermodon and broke into Attica, and in the hard days of Troy we were second to none. But since it is useless to recall these matters—for those who were previously valiant may now be of lesser mettle, and those who lacked mettle then may be better men now— '' None
|14. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art, artistic representation • Paradigm and art • theurgy (hieratic art)
Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 332; Dillon and Timotin (2015), Platonic Theories of Prayer, 127, 172; d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 284
|28a ἀεί, ὂν δὲ οὐδέποτε; τὸ μὲν δὴ νοήσει μετὰ λόγου περιληπτόν, ἀεὶ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ὄν, τὸ δʼ αὖ δόξῃ μετʼ αἰσθήσεως ἀλόγου δοξαστόν, γιγνόμενον καὶ ἀπολλύμενον, ὄντως δὲ οὐδέποτε ὄν. πᾶν δὲ αὖ τὸ γιγνόμενον ὑπʼ αἰτίου τινὸς ἐξ ἀνάγκης γίγνεσθαι· παντὶ γὰρ ἀδύνατον χωρὶς αἰτίου γένεσιν σχεῖν. ὅτου μὲν οὖν ἂν ὁ δημιουργὸς πρὸς τὸ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἔχον βλέπων ἀεί, τοιούτῳ τινὶ προσχρώμενος παραδείγματι, τὴν ἰδέαν καὶ δύναμιν αὐτοῦ ἀπεργάζηται, καλὸν ἐξ ἀνάγκης'29a ἀπηργάζετο, πότερον πρὸς τὸ κατὰ ταὐτὰ καὶ ὡσαύτως ἔχον ἢ πρὸς τὸ γεγονός. εἰ μὲν δὴ καλός ἐστιν ὅδε ὁ κόσμος ὅ τε δημιουργὸς ἀγαθός, δῆλον ὡς πρὸς τὸ ἀίδιον ἔβλεπεν· εἰ δὲ ὃ μηδʼ εἰπεῖν τινι θέμις, πρὸς γεγονός. παντὶ δὴ σαφὲς ὅτι πρὸς τὸ ἀίδιον· ὁ μὲν γὰρ κάλλιστος τῶν γεγονότων, ὁ δʼ ἄριστος τῶν αἰτίων. οὕτω δὴ γεγενημένος πρὸς τὸ λόγῳ καὶ φρονήσει περιληπτὸν καὶ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἔχον δεδημιούργηται· ' None||28a and has no Becoming? And what is that which is Becoming always and never is Existent? Now the one of these is apprehensible by thought with the aid of reasoning, since it is ever uniformly existent; whereas the other is an object of opinion with the aid of unreasoning sensation, since it becomes and perishes and is never really existent. Again, everything which becomes must of necessity become owing to some Cause; for without a cause it is impossible for anything to attain becoming. But when the artificer of any object, in forming its shape and quality, keeps his gaze fixed on that which is uniform, using a model of this kind, that object, executed in this way, must of necessity'29a Was it after that which is self-identical and uniform, or after that which has come into existence; Now if so be that this Cosmos is beautiful and its Constructor good, it is plain that he fixed his gaze on the Eternal; but if otherwise (which is an impious supposition), his gaze was on that which has come into existence. But it is clear to everyone that his gaze was on the Eternal; for the Cosmos is the fairest of all that has come into existence, and He the best of all the Causes. So having in this wise come into existence, it has been constructed after the pattern of that which is apprehensible by reason and thought and is self-identical. ' None|
|15. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Artists of Dionysus • Dionysus, Artists of • guilds, Artists of Dionysus • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), benefactors of (φιλοτεχνῖται)
Found in books: Cosgrove (2022), Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine, 134; Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 51
|16. Anon., 1 Enoch, 1 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • art • art, Metatron • art, interpreters • art, stars
Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 112, 189, 191, 197; Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 161
1 The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, And appear from His camp And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him."" None
|17. Anon., Jubilees, 2.2-2.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • art, Qumran • art, priests • healing and medicines, exorcism as healing art
Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 332
2.2 Write the complete history of the creation, how in six days the Lord God finished all His works and all that He created, and kept Sabbath on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages, and appointed it as a sign for all His works. 2.3 For on the first day He created the heavens which are above and the earth and the waters and all the spirits which serve before Him'' None
|18. Cicero, On Divination, 1.12, 1.24, 1.88, 1.92 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • ars • artists, Greek • cosmos,, craft, art, techne • haruspices, haruspicina (ars), • history of divinatory arts
Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001), Traditions of Theology: Studies in Hellenistic Theology, its Background and Aftermath, 244; Luck (2006), Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts, 309, 310; Mueller (2002), Roman Religion in Valerius Maximus, 95; Santangelo (2013), Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond, 63; Wynne (2019), Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage, 208, 245
1.12 Quae est autem gens aut quae civitas, quae non aut extispicum aut monstra aut fulgora interpretantium aut augurum aut astrologorum aut sortium (ea enim fere artis sunt) aut somniorum aut vaticinationum (haec enim duo naturalia putantur) praedictione moveatur? Quarum quidem rerum eventa magis arbitror quam causas quaeri oportere. Est enim vis et natura quaedam, quae tum observatis longo tempore significationibus, tum aliquo instinctu inflatuque divino futura praenuntiat. Quare omittat urguere Carneades, quod faciebat etiam Panaetius requirens, Iuppiterne cornicem a laeva, corvum ab dextera canere iussisset. Observata sunt haec tempore inmenso et in significatione eventis animadversa et notata. Nihil est autem, quod non longinquitas temporum excipiente memoria prodendisque monumentis efficere atque adsequi possit.
1.24 At non numquam ea, quae praedicta sunt, minus eveniunt. Quae tandem id ars non habet? earum dico artium, quae coniectura continentur et sunt opinabiles. An medicina ars non putanda est? quam tamen multa fallunt. Quid? gubernatores nonne falluntur? An Achivorum exercitus et tot navium rectores non ita profecti sunt ab Ilio, ut profectione laeti piscium lasciviam intuerentur, ut ait Pacuvius, nec tuendi satietas capere posset? Ínterea prope iam óccidente sóle inhorrescít mare, Ténebrae conduplicántur noctisque ét nimbum occaecát nigror. Num igitur tot clarissimorum ducum regumque naufragium sustulit artem guberdi? aut num imperatorum scientia nihil est, quia summus imperator nuper fugit amisso exercitu? aut num propterea nulla est rei publicae gerendae ratio atque prudentia, quia multa Cn. Pompeium, quaedam M. Catonem, non nulla etiam te ipsum fefellerunt? Similis est haruspicum responsio omnisque opinabilis divinatio; coniectura enim nititur, ultra quam progredi non potest.
1.88 Amphilochus et Mopsus Argivorum reges fuerunt, sed iidem augures, iique urbis in ora marituma Ciliciae Graecas condiderunt; atque etiam ante hos Amphiaraus et Tiresias non humiles et obscuri neque eorum similes, ut apud Ennium est, Quí sui quaestus caúsa fictas súscitant senténtias, sed clari et praestantes viri, qui avibus et signis admoniti futura dicebant; quorum de altero etiam apud inferos Homerus ait solum sapere, ceteros umbrarum vagari modo ; Amphiaraum autem sic honoravit fama Graeciae, deus ut haberetur, atque ut ab eius solo, in quo est humatus, oracla peterentur.
1.92 Etruria autem de caelo tacta scientissume animadvertit eademque interpretatur, quid quibusque ostendatur monstris atque portentis. Quocirca bene apud maiores nostros senatus tum, cum florebat imperium, decrevit, ut de principum filiis x ex singulis Etruriae populis in disciplinam traderentur, ne ars tanta propter tenuitatem hominum a religionis auctoritate abduceretur ad mercedem atque quaestum. Phryges autem et Pisidae et Cilices et Arabum natio avium significationibus plurimum obtemperant, quod idem factitatum in Umbria accepimus.'' None
1.12 Now — to mention those almost entirely dependent on art — what nation or what state disregards the prophecies of soothsayers, or of interpreters of prodigies and lightnings, or of augurs, or of astrologers, or of oracles, or — to mention the two kinds which are classed as natural means of divination — the forewarnings of dreams, or of frenzy? of these methods of divining it behoves us, I think, to examine the results rather than the causes. For there is a certain natural power, which now, through long-continued observation of signs and now, through some divine excitement and inspiration, makes prophetic announcement of the future. 7 Therefore let Carneades cease to press the question, which Panaetius also used to urge, whether Jove had ordered the crow to croak on the left side and the raven on the right. Such signs as these have been observed for an unlimited time, and the results have been checked and recorded. Moreover, there is nothing which length of time cannot accomplish and attain when aided by memory to receive and records to preserve.
1.12 The Divine Will accomplishes like results in the case of birds, and causes those known as alites, which give omens by their flight, to fly hither and thither and disappear now here and now there, and causes those known as oscines, which give omens by their cries, to sing now on the left and now on the right. For if every animal moves its body forward, sideways, or backward at will, it bends, twists, extends, and contracts its members as it pleases, and performs these various motions almost mechanically; how much easier it is for such results to be accomplished by a god, whose divine will all things obey!
1.24 But, it is objected, sometimes predictions are made which do not come true. And pray what art — and by art I mean the kind that is dependent on conjecture and deduction — what art, I say, does not have the same fault? Surely the practice of medicine is an art, yet how many mistakes it makes! And pilots — do they not make mistakes at times? For example, when the armies of the Greeks and the captains of their mighty fleet set sail from Troy, they, as Pacuvius says,Glad at leaving Troy behind them, gazed upon the fish at play,Nor could get their fill of gazing — thus they whiled the time away.Meantime, as the sun was setting, high uprose the angry main:Thick and thicker fell the shadows; night grew black with blinding rain.Then, did the fact that so many illustrious captains and kings suffered shipwreck deprive navigation of its right to be called an art? And is military science of no effect because a general of the highest renown recently lost his army and took to flight? Again, is statecraft devoid of method or skill because political mistakes were made many times by Gnaeus Pompey, occasionally by Marcus Cato, and once or twice even by yourself? So it is with the responses of soothsayers, and, indeed, with every sort of divination whose deductions are merely probable; for divination of that kind depends on inference and beyond inference it cannot go.
1.88 Amphilochus and Mopsus were kings of Argos, but they were augurs too, and they founded Greek cities on the coasts of Cilicia. And even before them were Amphiaraus and Tiresias. They were no lowly and unknown men, nor were they like the person described by Ennius,Who, for their own gain, uphold opinions that are false,but they were eminent men of the noblest type and foretold the future by means of augural signs. In speaking of Tiresias, even when in the infernal regions, Homer says that he alone was wise, that the rest were mere wandering shadows. As for Amphiaraus, his reputation in Greece was such that he was honoured as a god, and oracular responses were sought in the place where he was buried.
1.92 Again, the Etruscans are very skilful in observing thunderbolts, in interpreting their meaning and that of every sign and portent. That is why, in the days of our forefathers, it was wisely decreed by the Senate, when its power was in full vigour, that, of the sons of the chief men, six should be handed over to each of the Etruscan tribes for the study of divination, in order that so important a profession should not, on account of the poverty of its members, be withdrawn from the influence of religion, and converted into a means of mercenary gain. On the other hand the Phrygians, Pisidians, Cilicians, and Arabians rely chiefly on the signs conveyed by the flights of birds, and the Umbrians, according to tradition, used to do the same. 42'' None
|19. Polybius, Histories, 4.20.12, 16.21.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Artists of Dionysus • Dionysus, Artists of • Polybius, on the Artists of Dionysus • civic values and art,, public discussion • guilds, Artists of Dionysus • political life, public discussion of art • technitai (Artists of Dionysus) • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), benefactors of (φιλοτεχνῖται)
Found in books: Cosgrove (2022), Music at Social Meals in Greek and Roman Antiquity: From the Archaic Period to the Age of Augustine, 164; Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 11, 51; Rutter and Sparkes (2012), Word and Image in Ancient Greece, 194
4.20.12 καὶ μὴν ἐμβατήρια μετʼ αὐλοῦ καὶ τάξεως ἀσκοῦντες, ἔτι δʼ ὀρχήσεις ἐκπονοῦντες μετὰ κοινῆς ἐπιστροφῆς καὶ δαπάνης κατʼ ἐνιαυτὸν ἐν τοῖς θεάτροις ἐπιδείκνυνται τοῖς αὑτῶν πολίταις
16.21.8 ὃν δέ ποτε χρόνον τῆς ἡμέρας ἀπεμέριζε πρὸς ἐντεύξεις, ἐν τούτῳ διεδίδου, μᾶλλον δʼ, εἰ δεῖ τὸ φαινόμενον εἰπεῖν, διερρίπτει τὰ βασιλικὰ χρήματα τοῖς ἀπὸ τῆς Ἑλλάδος παραγεγονόσι πρεσβευταῖς καὶ τοῖς περὶ τὸν Διόνυσον τεχνίταις, μάλιστα δὲ τοῖς περὶ τὴν αὐλὴν ἡγεμόσι καὶ στρατιώταις.'' None
4.20.12 \xa0Besides this the young men practise military parades to the music of the flute and perfect themselves in dances and give annual performances in the theatres, all under state supervision and at the public expense. <
16.21.8 \xa0During that portion of the day that he set apart for audiences he used to distribute, or rather, if one must speak the truth, scatter the royal funds among the envoys who had come from Greece and the actors of the theatre of Dionysus and chiefly among the generals and soldiers present at court. <'' None
|20. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Verres, C., appropriates art works in Syracuse • ars • ars, oratoris • liberal arts • proprietas properties of individual arts
Found in books: Keeline (2018), The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy, 219, 220, 221; Oksanish (2019), Benedikt Eckhardt, and Meret Strothmann, Law in the Roman Provinces, 130, 131, 142; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 118
|21. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Verres, C., appropriates art works in Syracuse • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • art and architecture, Roman appreciation
Found in books: Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 242, 262; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 49
|22. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • artes liberales • liberal arts
Found in books: Keeline (2018), The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy, 218, 219; Oksanish (2019), Benedikt Eckhardt, and Meret Strothmann, Law in the Roman Provinces, 38
|23. Ovid, Ars Amatoria, 1.1-1.2, 1.4, 1.7-1.10, 1.17, 1.31-1.38, 1.203, 2.599-2.600, 2.643-2.644, 2.657-2.662, 2.683-2.684, 3.57-3.58, 3.807-3.808 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Alcinous, Middle Platonist author of Didasklikos, Art of love • Ars Amatoria (Ovid) • Ars Amatoria (Ovid),, audience disclaimer and • Cicero, influence of De officiis on Ars amatoria • Love, Art of falling out of love (Ovid) • Love, Art of love • Orpheus,, audience awareness and artistic strategies of • Ovid on relabelling, On Art of Love and Falling out of love • Ovid, Ars amatoria • Ovid, Ars and Remedia as philosophical in their own right • Ovid, philosophy as ars uitae • Ovid’s poems, Ars Amatoria • Plato, Art of love and its three objectives • audience, power dynamic between artist and • power as motif,, vulnerability of artist • power, of artists and authors • sexual subjects in art, Orpheus and • sexual subjects in art, eroticdidacticism • sexual subjects in art, homoeroticism • sexual subjects in art, pederasty
Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 101; Green (2014), Carthage in Virgil's Aeneid: Staging the Enemy under Augustus, 61; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 109, 120; Pandey (2018), The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome, 223; Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 222, 279; Thorsen et al. (2021), Greek and Latin Love: The Poetic Connection, 92, 95, 162, 196, 202, 203, 204, 205, 208; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 72, 78, 80, 125, 126, 132, 137, 138
1.1 Siquis in hoc artem populo non novit amandi, 1.2 rend=
1.7 Me Venus artificem tenero praefecit Amori; 1.9 Ille quidem ferus est et qui mihi saepe repugnet:
1.17 Aeacidae Chiron, ego sum praeceptor Amoris:
1.31 Este procul, vittae tenues, insigne pudoris, 1.33 Nos venerem tutam concessaque furta canemus, 1.35 Principio, quod amare velis, reperire labora, 1.37 Proximus huic labor est placitam exorare puellam:
2.599 En, iterum testor: nihil hic, nisi lege remissum
2.643 Nec suus Andromedae color est obiectus ab illo,
2.657 Nominibus mollire licet mala: fusca vocetur, 2.659 Si straba, sit Veneri similis: si rava, Minervae: 2.661 Dic habilem, quaecumque brevis, quae turgida, plenam,
2.683 Odi concubitus, qui non utrumque resolvunt;
3.57 Dum facit ingenium, petite hinc praecepta, puellae,
3.807 Nec lucem in thalamos totis admitte fenestris; 3.808 rend=' ' None
1.1 In Cupid's school The poet here lays down the proposition of the work, which he comprehends in the two first verses: he then invokes the assistance of the gods and begins his narration. , whoe'er would take degree" '1.2 Must learn his rudiments by reading me, One must learn to love, and what to love: for love is so far from being forbidden, that there is nothing so commendable, provided the object is good.
1.4 Art guides the chariot: art instructs to love.
1.7 Cupid indeed is obstinate and wild,' "1.8 A stubborn god He speaks of love who is very seldom guided by reason. ; but yet the god's a child:" '1.9 Easy to govern in his tender age,
1.10 Like fierce Achilles in his pupilage:
1.17 To teach her softer arts; to sooth the mind,
1.31 Nor Clio , nor her sisters, have I seen,' "1.32 As Hesiod saw them on the shady green: Ovid names Clio only, of all the nine, in this place. The fable tells us, she and her sisters were born of Jupiter 's caresses of Mnemosyne, that is, memory." '1.33 Experience makes my work a truth so tried, 1.34 You may believe; and Venus be my guide. It has been before observed, that Ovid invokes the goddess of love to assist his song, as Lucretius does the same divinity for his world of nature, as being the mother of all generations, and all productions. 1.35 Far hence ye vestals be, who bind your hair; The author forewarns all virgins, and chaste persons, not to follow, in all things, the precepts of his book. 1.36 And wives, who gowns below your ancles wear.' "1.37 I sing the brothels loose and unconfin'd," "1.38 Th' unpunishable pleasures of the kind;" 2.599 Shall I, with patience, the known signal hear, 2.600 Retire, and leave a happy rival there!
2.643 She wants that cover for another place. 2.644 To burly Mars a gay spectator said,' "
2.657 Tho' in your pow'r, a rival ne'er expose," "2.658 Never his intercepted joys disclose: He means intercepting a rival's letter, and discovering the contents. To intercept letters, and divulge a secret, was a crime punishable by the laws, by banishment, or interdiction of fire and water, by which was understood exile." '2.659 This I command, Venus commands the same,' "2.660 Who hates the snares she once sustain'd with shame." "2.661 What impious wretch will Ceres ' rites expose, This is a simile, and shows us it was not lawful to reveal the mysteries of Ceres . Macrobius in the 11th chapter of his first book upon Scipio's dream, writes that the philosopher Numenius, being too curious to know the secrets of hidden things, incurred the wrath of the gods by divulging the Eleusinian mysteries, which were the same with those of Ceres ." "2.662 Or Juno's solemn mysteries disclose!" 2.683 For light too modest, and unshaded air!' "2.684 From public view they decently retir'd," 3.57 Why Phyllis by a fate untimely fell. Phyllis despairing of the return of Demophoon, to whom she had granted her last favours, was about to hang herself, when, as the fable says. the gods, in compassion to her, turned her to an almond tree without leaves: Demophoon, some time after this. returning, went and embraced his metamorphosed mistress, and the tree afterwards put forth leaves.' "3.58 Nine times, in vain, upon the promis'd day," 3.807 There rosemary and bays their odours join,' "3.808 And with the fragrant myrtle's scent combine." " None
|24. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 5.369-5.372, 6.1-6.8, 6.10-6.14, 6.17-6.24, 6.40, 6.44-6.51, 6.53-6.66, 6.68-6.69, 6.80, 6.83-6.85, 6.100-6.126, 6.128, 6.133-6.134, 6.144, 10.149-10.154, 10.241-10.323, 10.325-10.344, 10.346-10.361, 10.363-10.387, 10.389-10.410, 10.412-10.415, 10.417-10.433, 10.435-10.444, 10.446-10.474, 10.476-10.480, 10.482-10.487, 10.489-10.502, 10.509, 10.512, 15.871-15.879 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Arachne, as arrogant artist • Ars Amatoria (Ovid) • Ars Amatoria (Ovid),, as cause of exile • Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology • Augustus, artistic freedom suppressed by • Metamorphoses (Ovid), as commemorative of art • Orpheus,, as artist • Orpheus,, audience awareness and artistic strategies of • Ovid, Ars amatoria • Pygmalion, as artist • allusion, to artistic and singing contests • anxiety, artistic • artist • artist, Pygmalion as • artists and gods • contests, artistic hubris and entry into • death, triumph of art over • drapery, artistic treatment of • ekphrasis,, artistic process and • ekphrasis,, nonvisual arts and • hubris,, artistic arrogance • imperialism, art as critique of • ivory, as artistic medium • nature, transgressed by art • patrons of the arts • power as motif,, vulnerability of artist • power, of artists and authors • punishment, erasure of artistic works as • sexual subjects in art, Orpheus and • sexual subjects in art, as customary entertainment • sexual subjects in art, audience and • sexual subjects in art, eroticdidacticism • sexual subjects in art, incest • sexual subjects in art, on Arachne’s tapestry • sexual subjects in art, pederasty • sexual subjects in art, realism and • sexual subjects in art, selfcensorship and • sexual subjects in art, tone and explicit discussion of
Found in books: Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 113, 114, 121, 122, 125, 126, 127, 128; Gianvittorio-Ungar and Schlapbach (2021), Choreonarratives: Dancing Stories in Greek and Roman Antiquity and Beyond, 337, 340, 341; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 10, 37, 42, 64, 74, 76, 77, 79, 80, 85, 86, 87, 92, 93, 103, 106, 111, 112, 122, 123; Pandey (2018), The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome, 4, 21, 22, 227; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 231; Thorsen et al. (2021), Greek and Latin Love: The Poetic Connection, 196
|sup>5.370 victa domas ipsumque, regit qui numina ponti. 5.371 Tartara quid cessant? cur non matrisque tuumque 5.372 imperium profers? agitur pars tertia mundi.' 6.1 Praebuerat dictis Tritonia talibus aures 6.2 carminaque Aonidum iustamque probaverat iram. 6.3 Tum secum “laudare parum est; laudemur et ipsae 6.4 numina nec sperni sine poena nostra sinamus” 6.5 Maeoniaeque animum fatis intendit Arachnes, 6.6 quam sibi lanificae non cedere laudibus artis 6.7 audierat. Non illa loco neque origine gentis 6.8 clara, sed arte fuit. Pater huic Colophonius Idmon |
6.10 Occiderat mater; sed et haec de plebe suoque
6.11 aequa viro fuerat. Lydas tamen illa per urbes
6.12 quaesierat studio nomen memorabile, quamvis
6.14 Huius ut adspicerent opus admirabile, saepe
6.17 Nec factas solum vestes spectare iuvabat;
6.18 tum quoque, cum fierent: tantus decor adfuit arti.
6.19 Sive rudem primos lanam glomerabat in orbes, 6.20 seu digitis subigebat opus repetitaque longo 6.21 vellera mollibat nebulas aequantia tractu, 6.22 sive levi teretem versabat pollice fusum, 6.23 seu pingebat acu, scires a Pallade doctam. 6.24 Quod tamen ipsa negat, tantaque offensa magistra
6.40 Consilii satis est in me mihi. Neve monendo
6.44 Palladaque exhibuit. Venerantur numina nymphae 6.45 Mygdonidesque nurus: sola est non territa virgo. 6.46 Sed tamen erubuit, subitusque invita notavit 6.47 ora rubor rursusque evanuit, ut solet aer 6.48 purpureus fieri, cum primum aurora movetur, 6.49 et breve post tempus candescere solis ab ortu. 6.50 Perstat in incepto stolidaeque cupidine palmae
6.53 Haud mora, constituunt diversis partibus ambae 6.54 et gracili geminas intendunt stamine telas 6.55 (tela iugo iuncta est, stamen secernit harundo); 6.57 quod digiti expediunt, atque inter stamina ductum 6.58 percusso paviunt insecti pectine dentes. 6.59 Utraque festit cinctaeque ad pectora vestes 6.60 bracchia docta movent, studio fallente laborem. 6.61 Illic et Tyrium quae purpura sensit aenum 6.62 texitur et tenues parvi discriminis umbrae, 6.63 qualis ab imbre solet percussis solibus arcus 6.64 inficere ingenti longum curvamine caelum: 6.65 in quo diversi niteant cum mille colores, 6.66 transitus ipse tamen spectantia lumina fallit;
6.68 Illic et lentum filis inmittitur aurum 6.69 et vetus in tela deducitur argumentum.
6.83 Ut tamen exemplis intellegat aemula laudis, 6.84 quod pretium speret pro tam furialibus ausis, 6.85 quattuor in partes certamina quattuor addit,
6.100 amplectens saxoque iacens lacrimare videtur.
6.101 Circuit extremas oleis pacalibus oras:
6.102 is modus est, operisque sua facit arbore finem.
6.103 Maeonis elusam designat imagine tauri
6.104 Europam: verum taurum, freta vera putares.
6.105 Ipsa videbatur terras spectare relictas
6.106 et comites clamare suas tactumque vereri
6.107 adsilientis aquae timidasque reducere plantas.
6.108 Fecit et Asterien aquila luctante teneri,
6.110 addidit, ut satyri celatus imagine pulchram
6.111 Iuppiter implerit gemino Nycteida fetu,
6.112 Amphitryon fuerit, cum te, Tirynthia, cepit,
6.113 aureus ut Danaen, Asopida luserit ignis,
6.114 Mnemosynen pastor, varius Deoida serpens.
6.115 Te quoque mutatum torvo, Neptune, iuvenco
6.116 virgine in Aeolia posuit. Tu visus Enipeus
6.118 et te flava comas frugum mitissima mater
6.119 sensit equum, sensit volucrem crinita colubris
6.120 mater equi volucris, sensit delphina Melantho.
6.121 Omnibus his faciemque suam faciemque locorum
6.123 utque modo accipitris pennas, modo terga leonis
6.124 gesserit, ut pastor Macareida luserit Issen;
6.125 Liber ut Erigonen falsa deceperit uva,
6.126 ut Saturnus equo geminum Chirona crearit.
6.128 nexilibus flores hederis habet intertextos.
6.133 ter quater Idmoniae frontem percussit Arachnes.
6.134 Non tulit infelix laqueoque animosa ligavit
6.144 cetera venter habet: de quo tamen illa remittit
10.149 carmina nostra move! Iovis est mihi saepe potestas 10.150 dicta prius: cecini plectro graviore Gigantas 10.151 sparsaque Phlegraeis victricia fulmina campis: 10.152 nunc opus est leviore lyra, puerosque canamus 10.153 dilectos superis, inconcessisque puellas 10.154 ignibus attonitas meruisse libidine poenam.
10.241 utque pudor cessit sanguisque induruit oris, 10.242 in rigidum parvo silicem discrimine versae. 10.243 Quas quia Pygmalion aevum per crimen agentes 10.244 viderat, offensus vitiis, quae plurima menti 10.245 femineae natura dedit, sine coniuge caelebs 10.246 vivebat thalamique diu consorte carebat. 10.247 Interea niveum mira feliciter arte 10.248 sculpsit ebur formamque dedit, qua femina nasci 10.249 nulla potest: operisque sui concepit amorem. 10.250 Virginis est verae facies, quam vivere credas, 10.251 et, si non obstet reverentia, velle moveri: 10.252 ars adeo latet arte sua. Miratur et haurit 10.253 pectore Pygmalion simulati corporis ignes. 10.254 Saepe manus operi temptantes admovet, an sit 10.255 corpus an illud ebur: nec adhuc ebur esse fatetur. 10.256 Oscula dat reddique putat loquiturque tenetque, 10.257 et credit tactis digitos insidere membris, 10.258 et metuit, pressos veniat ne livor in artus. 10.259 Et modo blanditias adhibet, modo grata puellis 10.260 munera fert illi conchas teretesque lapillos 10.261 et parvas volucres et flores mille colorum 10.262 liliaque pictasque pilas et ab arbore lapsas 10.263 Heliadum lacrimas; ornat quoque vestibus artus, 10.264 dat digitis gemmas, dat longa monilia collo: 10.265 aure leves bacae, redimicula pectore pendent. 10.266 Cuncta decent: nec nuda minus formosa videtur. 10.267 Conlocat hanc stratis concha Sidonide tinctis 10.269 mollibus in plumis, tamquam sensura, reponit. 10.270 Festa dies Veneris tota celeberrima Cypro 10.271 venerat, et pandis inductae cornibus aurum 10.272 conciderant ictae nivea cervice iuvencae, 10.273 turaque fumabant: cum munere functus ad aras 10.274 constitit et timide, “si di dare cuncta potestis, 10.275 sit coniunx, opto” (non ausus “eburnea virgo” 10.276 dicere) Pygmalion “similis mea” dixit “eburnae.” 10.277 Sensit, ut ipsa suis aderat Venus aurea festis, 10.278 vota quid illa velint; et, amici numinis omen, 10.279 flamma ter accensa est apicemque per aera duxit. 10.280 Ut rediit, simulacra suae petit ille puellae 10.281 incumbensque toro dedit oscula: visa tepere est. 10.282 Admovet os iterum, manibus quoque pectora temptat: 10.283 temptatum mollescit ebur positoque rigore 10.284 subsidit digitis ceditque, ut Hymettia sole 10.286 flectitur in facies ipsoque fit utilis usu. 10.287 Dum stupet et dubie gaudet fallique veretur, 10.288 rursus amans rursusque manu sua vota retractat. 10.289 Corpus erat: saliunt temptatae pollice venae. 10.290 Tum vero Paphius plenissima concipit heros 10.291 verba, quibus Veneri grates agat, oraque tandem 10.292 ore suo non falsa premit: dataque oscula virgo 10.293 sensit et erubuit timidumque ad lumina lumen 10.294 attollens pariter cum caelo vidit amantem. 10.295 Coniugio, quod fecit, adest dea. Iamque coactis 10.296 cornibus in plenum noviens lunaribus orbem 10.297 illa Paphon genuit, de qua tenet insula nomen. 10.298 Editus hac ille est, qui, si sine prole fuisset, 10.299 inter felices Cinyras potuisset haberi. 10.300 Dira canam: procul hinc natae, procul este parentes! 10.301 Aut, mea si vestras mulcebunt carmina mentes, 10.302 desit in hac mihi parte fides, nec credite factum, 10.303 vel, si credetis, facti quoque credite poenam. 10.304 Si tamen admissum sinit hoc natura videri, 10.305 gentibus Ismariis et nostro gratulor orbi, 10.306 gratulor huic terrae, quod abest regionibus illis, 10.307 quae tantum genuere nefas. Sit dives amomo 10.308 cinnamaque costumque suum sudataque ligno 10.309 tura ferat floresque alios Panchaia tellus, 10.310 dum ferat et murram: tanti nova non fuit arbor. 10.311 Ipse negat nocuisse tibi sua tela Cupido, 10.312 Myrrha, facesque suas a crimine vindicat isto. 10.313 Stipite te Stygio tumidisque adflavit echidnis 10.314 e tribus una soror. Scelus est odisse parentem: 10.315 hic amor est odio maius scelus. Undique lecti 10.317 ad thalami certamen adest. Ex omnibus unum 10.318 elige, Myrrha, virum: dum ne sit in omnibus unus. 10.319 Illa quidem sentit foedoque repugnat amori 10.320 et secum “quo mente feror? quid molior?” inquit: 10.321 “di, precor, et pietas sacrataque iura parentum, 10.322 hoc prohibete nefas scelerique resistite nostro, — 10.323 si tamen hoc scelus est. Sed enim damnare negatur
10.325 cetera delicto. Nec habetur turpe iuvencae 10.326 ferre patrem tergo, fit equo sua filia coniunx, 10.327 quasque creavit init pecudes caper, ipsaque, cuius 10.328 semine concepta est, ex illo concipit ales. 10.329 Felices, quibus ista licent! Humana malignas 10.330 cura dedit leges, et quod natura remittit, 10.331 invida iura negant. Gentes tamen esse feruntur, 10.332 in quibus et nato genetrix et nata parenti 10.333 iungitur, ut pietas geminato crescat amore. 10.334 Me miseram, quod non nasci mihi contigit illic, 10.335 fortunaque loci laedor! — Quid in ista revolvor? 10.336 Spes interdictae discedite! Dignus amari 10.337 ille, sed ut pater, est. — Ergo si filia magni 10.338 non essem Cinyrae, Cinyrae concumbere possem; 10.339 nunc quia iam meus est, non est meus, ipsaque damno 10.340 est mihi proximitas: aliena potentior essem. 10.341 Ire libet procul hinc patriaeque relinquere fines, 10.342 dum scelus effugiam. Retinet malus ardor amantem, 10.343 ut praesens spectem Cinyram tangamque loquarque 10.344 osculaque admoveam, si nil conceditur ultra.
10.346 Et quot confundas et iura et nomina, sentis! 10.347 Tune eris et matris paelex et adultera patris? 10.348 Tune soror nati genetrixque vocabere fratris? 10.349 Nec metues atro crinitas angue sorores, 10.350 quas facibus saevis oculos atque ora petentes 10.351 noxia corda vident? At tu, dum corpore non es 10.352 passa nefas, animo ne concipe, neve potentis 10.353 concubitu vetito naturae pollue foedus. 10.354 Velle puta: res ipsa vetat. Pius ille memorque est 10.355 moris — et o vellem similis furor esset in illo!” 10.356 Dixerat, at Cinyras, quem copia digna procorum, 10.357 quid faciat, dubitare facit, scitatur ab ipsa 10.358 nominibus dictis, cuius velit esse mariti. 10.359 Illa silet primo, patriisque in vultibus haerens 10.360 aestuat et tepido suffundit lumina rore. 10.361 Virginei Cinyras haec credens esse timoris,
10.363 Myrrha datis nimium gaudet: consultaque, qualem 10.364 optet habere virum, “similem tibi” dixit. At ille 10.365 non intellectam vocem conlaudat et “esto 10.366 tam pia semper” ait. Pietatis nomine dicto 10.367 demisit vultus sceleris sibi conscia virgo. 10.368 Noctis erat medium, curasque et corpora somnus 10.369 solverat. At virgo Cinyreia pervigil igni 10.370 carpitur indomito furiosaque vota retractat. 10.371 Et modo desperat, modo vult temptare, pudetque 10.372 et cupit, et, quid agat, non invenit. Utque securi 10.373 saucia trabs ingens, ubi plaga novissima restat, 10.374 quo cadat, in dubio est omnique a parte timetur: 10.375 sic animus vario labefactus vulnere nutat 10.376 huc levis atque illuc momentaque sumit utroque. 10.377 Nec modus aut requies, nisi mors, reperitur amoris. 10.378 Mors placet. Erigitur laqueoque innectere fauces 10.379 destinat et zona summo de poste revincta 10.380 “care vale Cinyra causamque intellege mortis!” 10.381 dixit et aptabat pallenti vincula collo. 10.382 Murmura verborum fidas nutricis ad aures 10.383 pervenisse ferunt limen servantis alumnae. 10.384 Surgit anus reseratque fores, mortisque paratae 10.385 instrumenta videns spatio conclamat eodem 10.386 seque ferit scinditque sinus ereptaque collo 10.387 vincula dilaniat. Tum denique flere vacavit,
10.389 Muta silet virgo terramque inmota tuetur 10.390 et deprensa dolet tardae conamina mortis. 10.391 Instat anus canosque suos et iia nudans 10.392 ubera per cunas alimentaque prima precatur, 10.393 ut sibi committat, quidquid dolet. Illa rogantem 10.394 aversata gemit. Certa est exquirere nutrix 10.395 nec solam spondere fidem: “dic” inquit “opemque 10.396 me sine ferre tibi; non est mea pigra senectus. 10.397 Seu furor est, habeo, quae carmine sanet et herbis, 10.398 sive aliquis nocuit, magico lustrabere ritu, 10.399 ira deum sive est, sacris placabilis ira. 10.400 Quid rear ulterius ? Certe fortuna domusque 10.401 sospes et in cursu est, vivit genetrixque paterque.” 10.402 Myrrha, patre audito, suspiria duxit ab imo 10.403 pectore. Nec nutrix etiamnum concipit ullum 10.404 mente nefas, aliquemque tamen praesentit amorem; 10.405 propositique tenax, quodcumque est, orat, ut ipsi 10.406 indicet, et gremio lacrimantem tollit anili 10.407 atque ita complectens infirmis membra lacertis 10.408 “sensimus,” inquit “amas! sed et hic mea (pone timorem) 10.409 sedulitas erit apta tibi, nec sentiet umquam 10.410 hoc pater.” Exsiluit gremio furibunda torumque
10.412 parce!” ait. Instanti “discede, aut desine” dixit 10.413 “quaerere, quid doleam: scelus est, quod scire laboras.” 10.414 Horret anus tremulasque manus annisque metuque 10.415 tendit et ante pedes supplex procumbit alumnae
10.417 terret; et indicium laquei coeptaeque minatur 10.418 mortis et officium commisso spondet amori. 10.419 Extulit illa caput lacrimisque implevit obortis 10.420 pectora nutricis; conataque saepe fateri 10.421 saepe tenet vocem, pudibundaque vestibus ora 10.422 texit et “o” dixit “felicem coniuge matrem!” 10.423 Hactenus, et gemuit. Gelidus nutricis in artus 10.424 ossaque (sensit enim) penetrat tremor, albaque toto 10.425 vertice canities rigidis stetit hirta capillis. 10.426 Multaque, ut excuteret diros, si posset, amores, 10.427 addidit: at virgo scit se non falsa moneri, 10.428 certa mori tamen est, si non potiatur amore. 10.429 “Vive,” ait haec “potiere tuo” — et, non ausa “parente” 10.430 dicere, conticuit promissaque numine firmat. 10.431 Festa piae Cereris celebrabant annua matres 10.432 illa, quibus nivea velatae corpora veste 10.433 primitias frugum dant spicea serta suarum
10.435 in vetitis numerant. Turba Cenchreis in illa 10.436 regis adest coniunx, arcanaque sacra frequentat. 10.437 Ergo legitima vacuus dum coniuge lectus, 10.438 nacta gravem vino Cinyram male sedula nutrix, 10.439 nomine mentito veros exponit amores 10.440 et faciem laudat. Quaesitis virginis annis 10.441 “par” ait “est Myrrhae.” Quam postquam adducere iussa est 10.442 utque domum rediit, “gaude mea” dixit “alumna: 10.443 vicimus.” Infelix non toto pectore sentit 10.444 laetitiam virgo, praesagaque pectora maerent;
10.446 Tempus erat, quo cuncta silent, interque triones 10.447 flexerat obliquo plaustrum temone Bootes: 10.448 ad facinus venit illa suum. Fugit aurea caelo 10.449 luna, tegunt nigrae latitantia sidera nubes: 10.450 nox caret igne suo. Primus tegis, Icare, vultus 10.451 Erigoneque pio sacrata parentis amore. 10.452 Ter pedis offensi signo est revocata, ter omen 10.453 funereus bubo letali carmine fecit: 10.454 it tamen, et tenebrae minuunt noxque atra pudorem; 10.455 nutricisque manum laeva tenet, altera motu 10.456 caecum iter explorat. Thalami iam limina tangit, 10.457 iamque fores aperit, iam ducitur intus: at illi 10.458 poplite succiduo genua intremuere, fugitque 10.459 et color et sanguis, animusque relinquit euntem. 10.460 Quoque suo propior sceleri est, magis horret, et ausi 10.461 paenitet, et vellet non cognita posse reverti. 10.462 Cunctantem longaeva manu deducit et alto 10.463 admotam lecto cum traderet “accipe,” dixit 10.464 “ista tua est, Cinyra” devotaque corpora iunxit. 10.465 Accipit obsceno genitor sua viscera lecto 10.466 virgineosque metus levat hortaturque timentem. 10.467 Forsitan aetatis quoque nomine “filia” dixit, 10.468 dixit et illa “pater,” sceleri ne nomina desint. 10.469 Plena patris thalamis excedit et impia diro 10.470 semina fert utero conceptaque crimina portat. 10.471 Postera nox facinus geminat. Nec finis in illa est: 10.472 cum tandem Cinyras, avidus cognoscere amantem 10.473 post tot concubitus, inlato lumine vidit 10.474 et scelus et natam, verbisque dolore retentis
10.476 Myrrha fugit, tenebrisque et caecae munere noctis 10.477 intercepta neci est: latosque vagata per agros 10.478 palmiferos Arabas Panchaeaque rura reliquit; 10.479 perque novem erravit redeuntis cornua lunae, 10.480 cum tandem terra requievit fessa Sabaea;
10.482 atque inter mortisque metus et taedia vitae 10.483 est tales complexa preces: “O siqua patetis 10.484 numina confessis, merui nec triste recuso 10.485 supplicium. Sed ne violem vivosque superstes 10.486 mortuaque exstinctos, ambobus pellite regnis 10.487 mutataeque mihi vitamque necemque negate.”
10.489 vota suos habuere deos. Nam crura loquentis 10.490 terra supervenit, ruptosque obliqua per ungues 10.491 porrigitur radix, longi firmamina trunci; 10.492 ossaque robur agunt, mediaque manente medulla 10.493 sanguis it in sucos, in magnos bracchia ramos, 10.494 in parvos digiti, duratur cortice pellis. 10.495 Iamque gravem crescens uterum perstrinxerat arbor 10.497 non tulit illa moram venientique obvia ligno 10.498 subsedit mersitque suos in cortice vultus. 10.499 Quae quamquam amisit veteres cum corpore sensus, 10.500 flet tamen, et tepidae mat ex arbore guttae. 10.501 Est honor et lacrimis, stillataque robore murra 10.502 nomen erile tenet nulloque tacebitur aevo.
10.509 dat gemitus arbor lacrimisque cadentibus umet.
10.512 Arbor agit rimas et fissa cortice vivum
15.871 Iamque opus exegi, quod nec Iovis ira nec ignis 15.872 nec poterit ferrum nec edax abolere vetustas. 15.874 ius habet, incerti spatium mihi finiat aevi: 15.875 parte tamen meliore mei super alta perennis 15.876 astra ferar, nomenque erit indelebile nostrum, 15.877 quaque patet domitis Romana potentia terris, 15.878 ore legar populi, perque omnia saecula fama, 15.879 siquid habent veri vatum praesagia, vivam.'' None
|sup>5.370 where Phineus had turned his trembling face: 5.371 and as he struggled to avert his gaze 5.372 his neck grew stiff; the moisture of his eye |
6.1 All this Minerva heard; and she approved 6.2 their songs and their resentment; but her heart 6.3 was brooding thus, “It is an easy thing 6.4 to praise another, I should do as they: 6.5 no creature of the earth should ever slight 6.6 the majesty that dwells in me,—without 6.7 just retribution.”—So her thought was turned 6.8 upon the fortune of Arachne — proud,
6.10 won by the art of deftly weaving wool,
6.11 a girl who had not fame for place of birth,
6.12 nor fame for birth, but only fame for skill!
6.14 in Colophon ; where, at his humble trade,
6.17 had died. Arachne in a mountain town
6.18 by skill had grown so famous in the Land
6.19 of Lydia , that unnumbered curious nymph 6.20 eager to witness her dexterity, 6.21 deserted the lush vineyards of Timolus; 6.22 or even left the cool and flowing stream 6.23 of bright Pactolus, to admire the cloth, 6.24 or to observe her deftly spinning wool.
6.40 and with a staff to steady her weak limbs.
6.44 with lengthened years; and, therefore, you should not 6.45 despise my words. It is no harm in you 6.46 to long for praise of mortals, when 6.47 your nimble hands are spinning the soft wool,—' "6.48 but you should not deny Minerva's art—" '6.49 and you should pray that she may pardon you, 6.50 for she will grant you pardon if you ask.”
6.53 She hardly could restrain her threatening hand, 6.54 and, trembling in her anger, she replied 6.55 to you, disguised Minerva: 6.57 worn out and witless in your palsied age, 6.58 a great age is your great misfortune!— Let' "6.59 your daughter and your son's wife—if the God" '6.60 have blessed you—let them profit by your words; 6.61 within myself, my knowledge is contained 6.62 ufficient; you need not believe that your 6.63 advice does any good; for I am quite 6.64 unchanged in my opinion. Get you gone,— 6.65 advise your goddess to come here herself, 6.66 and not avoid the contest!”
6.68 the goddess said, “Minerva comes to you!” 6.69 And with those brief words, put aside the shape
6.83 Nor did the daughter of almighty Jove 6.84 decline: disdaining to delay with words, 6.85 he hesitated not.
6.100 that spans new glory in the curving sky,
6.101 its glittering rays reflected in the rain,
6.102 preads out a multitude of blended tints,
6.103 in scintillating beauty to the sight
6.104 of all who gaze upon it; — so the threads,
6.105 inwoven, mingled in a thousand tints,
6.106 harmonious and contrasting; shot with gold:
6.107 and there, depicted in those shining webs,
6.108 were shown the histories of ancient days:—
6.110 where ancient Cecrops built his citadel,
6.111 and showed the old contention for the name
6.112 it should be given.—Twelve celestial God
6.113 urrounded Jupiter , on lofty thrones;
6.114 and all their features were so nicely drawn,
6.115 that each could be distinguished.— Jupiter
6.116 appeared as monarch of those judging Gods.
6.118 contending with Minerva. As he struck
6.119 the Rock with his long trident, a wild horse
6.120 prang forth which he bequeathed to man. He claimed
6.121 his right to name the city for that gift.
6.123 bearing a shield, and in her hand a lance,
6.124 harp-pointed, and a helmet on her head—
6.125 her breast well-guarded by her Aegis: there
6.126 he struck her spear into the fertile earth,
6.128 pale with new clustered fruits.—And those twelve Gods,
6.133 from the great deeds of ancient histories,
6.134 and what award presumption must expect,
6.144 that Pygmy, whom the angry Juno changed
10.149 the brittle hazel, and the virgin laurel-tree, 10.150 the ash for strong spears, the smooth silver-fir, 10.151 the flex bent with acorns and the plane, 10.152 the various tinted maple and with those, 10.153 the lotus and green willows from their streams, 10.154 evergreen box and slender tamarisks,' "
10.241 except the eagle's, able to sustain" '10.242 the weight of his own thunderbolts. Without 10.243 delay, Jove on fictitious eagle wings, 10.244 tole and flew off with that loved Trojan boy: 10.245 who even to this day, against the will 10.246 of Juno, mingles nectar in the cup 10.247 of his protector, mighty Jupiter . 10.248 You also, Hyacinthus, would have been 10.249 et in the sky! if Phoebus had been given 10.250 time which the cruel fates denied for you. 10.251 But in a way you are immortal too. 10.252 Though you have died. Always when warm spring 10.253 drives winter out, and Aries (the Ram) 10.254 ucceeds to Pisces (watery Fish), you rise 10.255 and blossom on the green turf. And the love 10.256 my father had for you was deeper than he felt 10.257 for others. Delphi center of the world, 10.258 had no presiding guardian, while the God 10.259 frequented the Eurotas and the land 10.260 of Sparta , never fortified with walls. 10.261 His zither and his bow no longer fill 10.262 his eager mind and now without a thought 10.263 of dignity, he carried nets and held 10.264 the dogs in leash, and did not hesitate 10.265 to go with Hyacinthus on the rough, 10.266 teep mountain ridges; and by all of such 10.267 associations, his love was increased. 10.269 the coming and the banished night, and stood 10.270 at equal distance from those two extremes. 10.271 Then, when the youth and Phoebus were well stripped, 10.272 and gleaming with rich olive oil, they tried 10.273 a friendly contest with the discus. First 10.274 Phoebus, well-poised, sent it awhirl through air, 10.275 and cleft the clouds beyond with its broad weight; 10.276 from which at length it fell down to the earth, 10.277 a certain evidence of strength and skill. 10.278 Heedless of danger Hyacinthus rushed 10.279 for eager glory of the game, resolved 10.280 to get the discus. But it bounded back 10.281 from off the hard earth, and struck full against 10.282 your face, O Hyacinthus! Deadly pale' "10.283 the God's face went — as pallid as the boy's." '10.284 With care he lifted the sad huddled form. 10.286 and next endeavors to attend your wound, 10.287 and stay your parting soul with healing herbs. 10.288 His skill is no advantage, for the wound 10.289 is past all art of cure. As if someone, 10.290 when in a garden, breaks off violets, 10.291 poppies, or lilies hung from golden stems, 10.292 then drooping they must hang their withered heads, 10.293 and gaze down towards the earth beneath them; so,' "10.294 the dying boy's face droops, and his bent neck," '10.295 a burden to itself, falls back upon 10.296 his shoulder: “You are fallen in your prime 10.297 defrauded of your youth, O Hyacinthus!” 10.298 Moaned Apollo. “I can see in your sad wound 10.299 my own guilt, and you are my cause of grief 10.300 and self-reproach. My own hand gave you death 10.301 unmerited — I only can be charged 10.302 with your destruction.—What have I done wrong? 10.303 Can it be called a fault to play with you? 10.304 Should loving you be called a fault? And oh, 10.305 that I might now give up my life for you! 10.306 Or die with you! But since our destinie 10.307 prevent us you shall always be with me, 10.308 and you shall dwell upon my care-filled lips. 10.309 The lyre struck by my hand, and my true song 10.310 will always celebrate you. A new flower 10.311 you shall arise, with markings on your petals, 10.312 close imitation of my constant moans: 10.313 and there shall come another to be linked 10.314 with this new flower, a valiant hero shall 10.315 be known by the same marks upon its petals.” 10.317 with his truth-telling lips, behold the blood 10.318 of Hyacinthus, which had poured out on 10.319 the ground beside him and there stained the grass, 10.320 was changed from blood; and in its place a flower, 10.321 more beautiful than Tyrian dye, sprang up. 10.322 It almost seemed a lily, were it not 10.323 that one was purple and the other white.
10.325 For it was he who worked the miracle 10.326 of his sad words inscribed on flower leaves. 10.327 These letters AI, AI, are inscribed 10.328 on them. And Sparta certainly is proud 10.329 to honor Hyacinthus as her son; 10.330 and his loved fame endures; and every year 10.331 they celebrate his solemn festival. 10.332 If you should ask Amathus , which is rich 10.333 in metals, how can she rejoice and take 10.334 a pride in deeds of her Propoetides; 10.335 he would disclaim it and repudiate 10.336 them all, as well as those of transformed men, 10.337 whose foreheads were deformed by two rough horns, 10.338 from which their name Cerastae. By their gate 10.339 an altar unto Jove stood. If by chance 10.340 a stranger, not informed of their dark crimes, 10.341 had seen the horrid altar smeared with blood, 10.342 he would suppose that suckling calves and sheep 10.343 of Amathus , were sacrificed thereon— 10.344 it was in fact the blood of slaughtered guests!
10.346 of sacrifice, was ready to desert 10.347 her cities and her snake-infested plains; 10.348 “But how,” said she, “have their delightful land 10.349 together with my well built cities sinned? 10.350 What crime have they done?—Those inhabitant 10.351 hould pay the penalty of their own crime 10.352 by exile or by death; or it may be 10.353 a middle course, between exile and death; 10.354 and what can that be, but the punishment 10.355 of a changed form?” And while she hesitates, 10.356 in various thoughts of what form they should take, 10.357 her eyes by chance, observed their horns, 10.358 and that decided her; such horns could well 10.359 be on them after any change occurred, 10.360 and she transformed their big and brutal bodie 10.361 to savage bulls.
10.363 the obscene Propoetides dared to deny 10.364 divinity of Venus, for which fault, 10.365 (and it is common fame) they were the first 10.366 to criminate their bodies, through the wrath 10.367 of Venus; and so blushing shame was lost, 10.368 white blood, in their bad faces grew so fast, 10.369 o hard, it was no wonder they were turned 10.370 with small change into hard and lifeless stones. 10.371 Pygmalion saw these women waste their live 10.372 in wretched shame, and critical of fault 10.373 which nature had so deeply planted through 10.374 their female hearts, he lived in preference, 10.375 for many years unmarried.—But while he 10.376 was single, with consummate skill, he carved 10.377 a statue out of snow-white ivory, 10.378 and gave to it exquisite beauty, which 10.379 no woman of the world has ever equalled: 10.380 he was so beautiful, he fell in love 10.381 with his creation. It appeared in truth 10.382 a perfect virgin with the grace of life, 10.383 but in the expression of such modesty 10.384 all motion was restrained—and so his art 10.385 concealed his art. Pygmalion gazed, inflamed 10.386 with love and admiration for the form, 10.387 in semblance of a woman, he had carved.
10.389 and wonders if it can be ivory, 10.390 because it seems to him more truly flesh. — 10.391 his mind refusing to conceive of it 10.392 as ivory, he kisses it and feel 10.393 his kisses are returned. And speaking love, 10.394 caresses it with loving hands that seem 10.395 to make an impress, on the parts they touch, 10.396 o real that he fears he then may bruise 10.397 her by his eager pressing. Softest tone 10.398 are used each time he speaks to her. He bring 10.399 to her such presents as are surely prized 10.400 by sweet girls; such as smooth round pebbles, shells, 10.401 and birds, and fragrant flowers of thousand tints, 10.402 lilies, and painted balls, and amber tear 10.403 of Heliads, which distill from far off trees.— 10.404 he drapes her in rich clothing and in gems: 10.405 rings on her fingers, a rich necklace round 10.406 her neck, pearl pendants on her graceful ears; 10.407 and golden ornaments adorn her breast. 10.408 All these are beautiful—and she appear 10.409 most lovable, if carefully attired,— 10.410 or perfect as a statue, unadorned.
10.412 with coverlets of Tyrian purple dye, 10.413 and naming her the consort of his couch, 10.414 lays her reclining head on the most soft 10.415 and downy pillows, trusting she could feel.
10.417 all Cyprus , now had come, and throngs were there 10.418 to celebrate. Heifers with spreading horns, 10.419 all gold-tipped, fell when given the stroke of death 10.420 upon their snow-white necks; and frankincense 10.421 was smoking on the altars. There, intent, 10.422 Pygmalion stood before an altar, when 10.423 his offering had been made; and although he 10.424 feared the result, he prayed: “If it is true, 10.425 O Gods, that you can give all things, I pray 10.426 to have as my wife—” but, he did not dare 10.427 to add “my ivory statue-maid,” and said, 10.428 “One like my ivory—.” Golden Venus heard, 10.429 for she was present at her festival, 10.430 and she knew clearly what the prayer had meant. 10.431 She gave a sign that her Divinity 10.432 favored his plea: three times the flame leaped high 10.433 and brightly in the air.
10.435 he went directly to his image-maid, 10.436 bent over her, and kissed her many times, 10.437 while she was on her couch; and as he kissed, 10.438 he seemed to gather some warmth from his lips. 10.439 Again he kissed her; and he felt her breast; 10.440 the ivory seemed to soften at the touch, 10.441 and its firm texture yielded to his hand, 10.442 as honey-wax of Mount Hymettus turn 10.443 to many shapes when handled in the sun, 10.444 and surely softens from each gentle touch.
10.446 while fearful there is some mistake, again 10.447 and yet again, gives trial to his hope 10.448 by touching with his hand. It must be flesh! 10.449 The veins pulsate beneath the careful test 10.450 of his directed finger. Then, indeed, 10.451 the astonished hero poured out lavish thank 10.452 to Venus; pressing with his raptured lip' "10.453 his statue's lips. Now real, true to life—" '10.454 the maiden felt the kisses given to her, 10.455 and blushing, lifted up her timid eyes, 10.456 o that she saw the light and sky above, 10.457 as well as her rapt lover while he leaned 10.458 gazing beside her—and all this at once— 10.459 the goddess graced the marriage she had willed, 10.460 and when nine times a crescent moon had changed, 10.461 increasing to the full, the statue-bride 10.462 gave birth to her dear daughter Paphos . From 10.463 which famed event the island takes its name. 10.464 The royal Cinyras was sprung from her; 10.465 and if he had been father of no child, 10.466 might well have been accounted fortunate— 10.467 but I must sing of horrible events— 10.468 avoid it daughters! Parents! shun this tale! 10.469 But if my verse has charmed your thought, 10.470 do not give me such credit in this part; 10.471 convince yourself it cannot be true life; 10.472 or, if against my wish you hear and must 10.473 believe it, then be sure to notice how 10.474 uch wickedness gets certain punishment.
10.476 as this to happen, I congratulate 10.477 Ismarian people and all Thrace as well, 10.478 and I congratulate this nation, which 10.479 we know is far away from the land where 10.480 this vile abomination did occur.
10.482 in balsam, cinnamon, and costum sweet 10.483 for ointment, frankincense distilled from trees, 10.484 with many flowers besides. All this large wealth 10.485 combined could never compensate the land 10.486 for this detestable, one crime: even though 10.487 the new Myrrh-Tree advanced on that rich soil.
10.489 an injury to Myrrha, and denie 10.490 his torches ever could have urged her crime.— 10.491 one of the three bad sisters kindled this, 10.492 with fire brand from the Styx, and poisoned you 10.493 with swollen vipers.—It is criminal 10.494 to hate a parent, but love such as her 10.495 is certainly more criminal than hate. 10.497 you now in marriage, and young men throughout 10.498 the Orient are vying for your hand. 10.499 Choose, Myrrha one from all of these for your 10.500 good husband; but exclude from such a thought 10.501 your father only. She indeed is quite 10.502 aware, and struggles bitterly against
10.509 I am not sure it is—I have not heard
10.512 All animals will mate as they desire—
15.871 that I should pass my life in exile than 15.872 be seen a king throned in the capitol.” 15.874 the people and the grave and honored Senate. 15.875 But first he veiled his horns with laurel, which 15.876 betokens peace. Then, standing on a mound 15.877 raised by the valiant troops, he made a prayer 15.878 after the ancient mode, and then he said, 15.879 “There is one here who will be king, if you' ' None
|25. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.2 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • art, medieval Christian, depiction of Jews • clothing, signification of, in medieval Christian art • pallium, signification in medieval Christian art
Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 94; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 143
2.2 For some persons say, and not without some reason and propriety, that this is the only way by which cities can be expected to advance in improvement, if either the kings cultivate philosophy, or if philosophers exercise the kingly power. But Moses will be seen not only to have displayed all these powers--I mean the genius of the philosopher and of the king--in an extraordinary degree at the same time, but three other powers likewise, one of which is conversant about legislation, the second about the way of discharging the duties of high priest, and the last about the prophetic office; '' None
|26. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • art and architecture, Roman appreciation • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica
Found in books: Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 187; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 240
|27. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ovid, Ars amatoria • ars
Found in books: Clay and Vergados (2022), Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry, 280; Thorsen et al. (2021), Greek and Latin Love: The Poetic Connection, 208
|28. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Hadrian, as artist • Nero, artistic aspirations • Petronius, and the decline of art • Pliny the Elder, on decline of art • Vitruvius, on decline of art • art expert, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art history, Petronius’ satire of
Found in books: Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 192; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 84
|29. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Horace, Ars poetica • Horace, Empedocles in Ars poetica • Nile, subject matter of art • ekphrasis,, literary arts excluded from traditional use of • ekphrasis,, nonvisual arts and
Found in books: Goldschmidt (2019), Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry, 134, 135; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 32, 33; Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 292; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 303
|30. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ars Amatoria (Ovid) • Ovid, Ars Amatoria • aesthetic approach to art and architecture • architecture and art, aesthetic approach • art and architecture, aesthetic approach
Found in books: Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 314; Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 160
|31. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ars Amatoria (Ovid) • Ars Amatoria (Ovid),, as cause of exile • Ars Amatoria (Ovid),, contexts of composition • Augustus, artistic freedom suppressed by • Greek, art • Orpheus,, audience awareness and artistic strategies of • anxiety, artistic • ars • death, triumph of art over • sexual subjects in art, Orpheus and • sexual subjects in art, eroticdidacticism • sexual subjects in art, homoeroticism • sexual subjects in art, pederasty
Found in books: Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 4, 5, 16, 110, 113, 123; Oksanish (2019), Benedikt Eckhardt, and Meret Strothmann, Law in the Roman Provinces, 131; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 38
|32. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Greek, art • Ovid, Ars amatoria • Porcius Cato the Elder, M., on Greek art and culture • ars (“art”) • art • objects, artefactual versus artistic • war, art plundering
Found in books: Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 40; Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 396; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 10, 33, 36, 38, 45; Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 88
|33. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Cicero, influence of De officiis on Ars amatoria • Love, Art of falling out of love (Ovid) • Love, Art of love • Ovid on relabelling, On Art of Love and Falling out of love • Ovid, Ars amatoria
Found in books: Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 222; Thorsen et al. (2021), Greek and Latin Love: The Poetic Connection, 64; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 80
|34. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ovid, Ars Amatoria • aesthetic approach to art and architecture • architecture and art, aesthetic approach • art and architecture, aesthetic approach
Found in books: Fabre-Serris et al. (2021), Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity, 159; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 319
|35. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ars Amatoria (Ovid) • Ars Amatoria (Ovid),, as cause of exile • Ars Amatoria (Ovid),, audience disclaimer and • Augustus, artistic freedom suppressed by • Augustus, misjudgment of Ars amatoria • Orpheus,, audience awareness and artistic strategies of • Ovid, Ars Amatoria • Ovid, Ars amatoria • Ovid’s poems, Ars Amatoria • artists and gods • erotic art • exile (relegation), as artistic disempowerment • freedom, artistic freedom as theme • hubris,, artistic arrogance • sexual subjects in art, Orpheus and • sexual subjects in art, as customary entertainment • sexual subjects in art, eroticdidacticism • sexual subjects in art, incest
Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 20, 21, 238; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 4, 12, 73, 112, 120, 121; Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 160; McGinn (2004), The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman world: A study of Social History & The Brothel. 120, 128; Pandey (2018), The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome, 22; Thorsen et al. (2021), Greek and Latin Love: The Poetic Connection, 220; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 329, 330
|36. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • aesthetic approach to art and architecture • architecture and art, aesthetic approach • art and architecture, aesthetic approach • patrons of the arts,, recusatio and • place among ancient artists, his realism • religions, Roman, religious responses to art and architecture
Found in books: Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 236, 316; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 58; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 100
|37. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.18-1.26, 3.91, 3.181-3.186, 3.203, 14.231-14.232, 16.164, 17.150, 18.55 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art and Artists • Art, idol vs. image • Dionysiac Artists, granted exemption from war contributions and military service • Jews, as blind to identity of Christ, depicted in art • Moses, art • Naaran basilical synagogue, basilical synagogue, mosaic (figural art and Jewish symbols) • Yafia, figural art • art, • art, medieval Christian, depiction of Jews • art, pagan • catacombs, Bet Shearim, figural art • church fathers, figural art • clothing, signification of, in medieval Christian art • discovery, frescoes, artistic motifs • pallium, signification in medieval Christian art • priests, Jewish, depiction in medieval Jewish art
Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 94, 97; Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 920, 937; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 131, 132, 146, 147; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 182; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 111, 128, 224, 481; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 247; Udoh (2006), To Caesar What Is Caesar's: Tribute, Taxes, and Imperial Administration in Early Roman Palestine 63 B.C.E to 70 B.C.E, 79, 80
1.18 ̓Επειδὴ δὲ πάντα σχεδὸν ἐκ τῆς τοῦ νομοθέτου σοφίας ἡμῖν ἀνήρτηται Μωυσέος, ἀνάγκη μοι βραχέα περὶ ἐκείνου προειπεῖν, ὅπως μή τινες τῶν ἀναγνωσομένων διαπορῶσι, πόθεν ἡμῖν ὁ λόγος περὶ νόμων καὶ πράξεων ἔχων τὴν ἀναγραφὴν ἐπὶ τοσοῦτον φυσιολογίας κεκοινώνηκεν.
1.18 ἔνθα ὁ τῆς Σολυμᾶ ὑποδέχεται βασιλεὺς αὐτὸν Μελχισεδέκ: σημαίνει δὲ τοῦτο βασιλεὺς δίκαιος: καὶ ἦν δὲ τοιοῦτος ὁμολογουμένως, ὡς διὰ ταύτην αὐτὸν τὴν αἰτίαν καὶ ἱερέα γενέσθαι τοῦ θεοῦ: τὴν μέντοι Σολυμᾶ ὕστερον ἐκάλεσεν ̔Ιεροσόλυμα.' "1.19 ἰστέον οὖν, ὅτι πάντων ἐκεῖνος ἀναγκαιότατον ἡγήσατο τῷ καὶ τὸν ἑαυτοῦ μέλλοντι βίον οἰκονομήσειν καλῶς καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις νομοθετεῖν θεοῦ πρῶτον φύσιν κατανοῆσαι καὶ τῶν ἔργων τῶν ἐκείνου θεατὴν τῷ νῷ γενόμενον οὕτως παράδειγμα τὸ πάντων ἄριστον μιμεῖσθαι καθ' ὅσον οἷόν τε καὶ πειρᾶσθαι κατακολουθεῖν." "1.19 παρακούουσαν μὲν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ προσωτέρω χωροῦσαν ἔλεγεν ἀπολεῖσθαι, νοστήσασαν δὲ αὐτὴν ὀπίσω γενήσεσθαι μητέρα παιδὸς τῆς γῆς ἐκείνης βασιλεύσοντος. τούτοις πείθεται καὶ ἐπανελθοῦσα πρὸς τοὺς δεσπότας συγγνώμης ἔτυχε: τίκτει δὲ μετ' οὐ πολὺ ̓Ισμαῆλον, θεόκλυτον ἄν τις εἴποι, διὰ τὸ εἰσακοῦσαι τὸν θεὸν τῆς ἱκεσίας." "1.21 παρακαλεῖ τε πρᾴως ἔχειν πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ τὸν θεὸν εὐμενῆ ποιεῖν, παρ' αὐτῷ τε μένειν βουλομένῳ πᾶσαν ἀφθονίαν ὑπάρξειν ἀπιέναι τε προαιρούμενον τεύξεσθαι πομπῆς καὶ πάντων ὅσων καὶ χρῄζων πρὸς αὐτὸν ἀφίκοιτο." '1.21 τοῦτο δὴ παιδεῦσαι βουληθεὶς Μωυσῆς τὸ παίδευμα τοὺς ἑαυτοῦ πολίτας τῆς τῶν νόμων θέσεως οὐκ ἀπὸ συμβολαίων καὶ τῶν πρὸς ἀλλήλους δικαίων ἤρξατο τοῖς ἄλλοις παραπλησίως, ἀλλ' ἐπὶ τὸν θεὸν καὶ τὴν τοῦ κόσμου κατασκευὴν τὰς γνώμας αὐτῶν ἀναγαγὼν καὶ πείσας, ὅτι τῶν ἐπὶ γῆς ἔργων τοῦ θεοῦ κάλλιστόν ἐσμεν ἄνθρωποι, ὅτε πρὸς τὴν εὐσέβειαν ἔσχεν ὑπακούοντας, ῥᾳδίως ἤδη περὶ πάντων ἔπειθεν." "1.22 ̓Ανδρωθέντι δὲ τῷ παιδὶ γύναιον ἄγεται τὸ γένος Αἰγύπτιον, ἐνθένδε ἦν καὶ αὐτὴ τὸ ἀρχαῖον, ἐξ οὗ παῖδες ̓Ισμαήλῳ γίνονται δώδεκα πάντες, Ναβαιώθης Κήδαρος ̓Αβδεῆλος Μάσσαμος Μάσμασος ̓Ιδουμᾶς Μάσμησος Χόδαμος Θέμανος ̓Ιετοῦρος Νάφαισος Κάδμασος.' "1.22 οἱ μὲν γὰρ ἄλλοι νομοθέται τοῖς μύθοις ἐξακολουθήσαντες τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων ἁμαρτημάτων εἰς τοὺς θεοὺς τῷ λόγῳ τὴν αἰσχύνην μετέθεσαν καὶ πολλὴν ὑποτίμησιν τοῖς πονηροῖς ἔδωκαν: 1.23 ἐπεὶ δ' ἐγεννήθης * ἀποθάνῃς οὐ τὸν κοινὸν ἐκ τοῦ ζῆν τρόπον, ἀλλ' ὑπὸ πατρὸς ἰδίου θεῷ τῷ πάντων πατρὶ νόμῳ θυσίας προπεμπόμενος, ἄξιον οἶμαί σε κρίναντος αὐτοῦ μήτε νόσῳ μήτε πολέμῳ μήτε ἄλλῳ τινὶ τῶν παθῶν, ἃ συμπίπτειν πέφυκεν ἀνθρώποις, ἀπαλλαγῆναι τοῦ βίου," "1.23 ὁ δ' ἡμέτερος νομοθέτης ἀκραιφνῆ τὴν ἀρετὴν ἔχοντα τὸν θεὸν ἀποφήνας ᾠήθη δεῖν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἐκείνης πειρᾶσθαι μεταλαμβάνειν καὶ τοὺς μὴ ταῦτα φρονοῦντας μηδὲ μὴν πιστεύοντας ἀπαραιτήτως ἐκόλασε." "1.24 μαρτυρεῖ δέ μου τῷ λόγῳ ̓Αλέξανδρος ὁ πολυίστωρ λέγων οὕτως: “Κλεόδημος δέ φησιν ὁ προφήτης ὁ καὶ Μάλχος ἱστορῶν τὰ περὶ ̓Ιουδαίων, καθὼς καὶ Μωυσῆς ἱστόρησεν ὁ νομοθέτης αὐτῶν, ὅτι ἐκ τῆς Κατούρας ̔Αβράμῳ ἐγένοντο παῖδες ἱκανοί.' "1.24 πρὸς ταύτην οὖν τὴν ὑπόθεσιν ποιεῖσθαι τὴν ἐξέτασιν τοὺς ἀναγνωσομένους παρακαλῶ: φανεῖται γὰρ σκοπουμένοις οὕτως οὐδὲν οὔτ' ἄλογον αὐτοῖς οὔτε πρὸς τὴν μεγαλειότητα τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τὴν φιλανθρωπίαν ἀνάρμοστον: πάντα γὰρ τῇ τῶν ὅλων φύσει σύμφωνον ἔχει τὴν διάθεσιν, τὰ μὲν αἰνιττομένου τοῦ νομοθέτου δεξιῶς, τὰ δ' ἀλληγοροῦντος μετὰ σεμνότητος, ὅσα δ' ἐξ εὐθείας λέγεσθαι συνέφερε, ταῦτα ῥητῶς ἐμφανίζοντος." '1.25 ἠξίου τε παρ' αὐτοῖς καταχθῆναι τοῦ προσωτέρω χωρεῖν τῆς νυκτὸς αὐτὸν ἀφαιρουμένης, κόσμον τε φέρων γυναικεῖον πολυτελῆ πιστεύειν αὐτὸν οὐκ ἀσφαλεστέροις ἔφασκεν ἢ τούτοις, οἷς αὐτὸς ἐπειράθη. τεκμαίρεσθαι δὲ καὶ τὴν τῆς μητρὸς καὶ τἀδελφοῦ φιλανθρωπίαν αὐτῆς ἔλεγεν, ὡς οὐ δυσχερανοῦσιν, ἐκ τῆς περὶ αὐτὴν ἀρετῆς: οὐδὲ γὰρ ἔσεσθαι βαρὺς μισθόν τε τῆς φιλοξενίας τελέσας καὶ δαπάναις ἰδίαις χρησάμενος." "1.25 τοῖς μέντοι βουλομένοις καὶ τὰς αἰτίας ἑκάστου σκοπεῖν πολλὴ γένοιτ' ἂν ἡ θεωρία καὶ λίαν φιλόσοφος, ἣν ἐγὼ νῦν μὲν ὑπερβάλλομαι, θεοῦ δὲ διδόντος ἡμῖν χρόνον πειράσομαι μετὰ ταύτην γράψαι τὴν πραγματείαν." "1.26 ὁρῶν γὰρ τὸν θεὸν τῷ ̓Ισάκῳ συμπαρόντα καὶ τοσαύτῃ περὶ αὐτὸν σπουδῇ χρώμενον ἀπώσατο αὐτόν. ὁ δὲ τοιούτου πάλιν ἐκ μεταβολῆς τῆς ἀπὸ τοῦ βασκάνου πειραθεὶς ̓Αβιμελέχου τότε μὲν ἀνεχώρησεν εἰς τὴν λεγομένην Φάραγγα χωρίον οὐ μακρὰν Γεράρων, ὀρύσσοντι δ' αὐτῷ φρέαρ ποιμένες ἐπιπεσόντες εἰς μάχην ἐχώρησαν κωλύοντες τὸ ἔργον, καὶ μὴ βουληθέντος φιλονικεῖν ἔδοξαν κεκρατηκέναι." '1.26 τρέψομαι δὲ ἐπὶ τὴν ἀφήγησιν ἤδη τῶν πραγμάτων μνησθεὶς πρότερον ὧν περὶ τῆς τοῦ κόσμου κατασκευῆς εἶπε Μωυσῆς: ταῦτα δ' ἐν ταῖς ἱεραῖς βίβλοις εὗρον ἀναγεγραμμένα. ἔχει δὲ οὕτως:" "
3.91 Διδάσκει μὲν οὖν ἡμᾶς ὁ πρῶτος λόγος, ὅτι θεός ἐστιν εἷς καὶ τοῦτον δεῖ σέβεσθαι μόνον: ὁ δὲ δεύτερος κελεύει μηδενὸς εἰκόνα ζῴου ποιήσαντας προσκυνεῖν: ὁ τρίτος δὲ ἐπὶ μηδενὶ φαύλῳ τὸν θεὸν ὀμνύναι: ὁ δὲ τέταρτος παρατηρεῖν τὰς ἑβδομάδας ἀναπαυομένους ἀπὸ παντὸς ἔργου:
3.181 τήν τε γὰρ σκηνὴν τριάκοντα πηχῶν οὖσαν νείμας εἰς τρία καὶ δύο μέρη πᾶσιν ἀνεὶς τοῖς ἱερεῦσιν ὥσπερ βέβηλόν τινα καὶ κοινὸν τόπον, τὴν γῆν καὶ τὴν θάλασσαν ἀποσημαίνει: καὶ γὰρ ταῦτα πᾶσίν ἐστιν ἐπιβατά. τὴν δὲ τρίτην μοῖραν μόνῳ περιέγραψε τῷ θεῷ διὰ τὸ καὶ τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀνεπίβατον εἶναι ἀνθρώποις. 3.182 ἐπί τε τῇ τραπέζῃ τοὺς δώδεκα τιθεὶς ἄρτους ἀποσημαίνει τὸν ἐνιαυτὸν εἰς τοσούτους μῆνας διῃρημένον. τὴν δὲ λυχνίαν ἐξ ἑβδομήκοντα μορίων ποιήσας συγκειμένην τὰς τῶν πλανητῶν δεκαμοιρίας ᾐνίξατο: καὶ λύχνους ὑπὲρ αὐτῆς ἑπτά, τῶν πλανητῶν τὴν φοράν: τοσοῦτοι γάρ εἰσι τὸν ἀριθμόν.' "3.183 τά τε φάρση ἐκ τεσσάρων ὑφανθέντα τὴν τῶν στοιχείων φύσιν δηλοῖ: ἥ τε γὰρ βύσσος τὴν γῆν ἀποσημαίνειν ἔοικε διὰ τὸ ἐξ αὐτῆς ἀνεῖσθαι τὸ λίνον, ἥ τε πορφύρα τὴν θάλασσαν τῷ πεφοινῖχθαι τῶν ἰχθύων τῷ αἵματι, τὸν δὲ ἀέρα βούλεται δηλοῦν ὁ ὑάκινθος, καὶ ὁ φοῖνιξ δ' ἂν εἴη τεκμήριον τοῦ πυρός." "3.184 ἀποσημαίνει δὲ καὶ ὁ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως χιτὼν τὴν γῆν λίνεος ὤν, ὁ δὲ ὑάκινθος τὸν πόλον, ἀστραπαῖς μὲν κατὰ τοὺς ῥοί̈σκους ἀπεικασμένος βρονταῖς δὲ κατὰ τὸν τῶν κωδώνων ψόφον. καὶ τὴν ἐφαπτίδα τοῦ παντὸς τὴν φύσιν ἐκ τεσσάρων δοχθεῖσαν γενέσθαι τῷ θεῷ χρυσῷ συνυφασμένην κατ' ἐπίνοιαν οἶμαι τῆς προσούσης ἅπασιν αὐγῆς." '3.185 καὶ τὸν ἐσσῆνα μέσον ὄντα τῆς ἐφαπτίδος ἐν τρόπῳ γῆς ἔταξε: καὶ γὰρ αὕτη τὸν μεσαίτατον τόπον ἔχει: ζώνῃ τε περιοδεύσας τὸν ὠκεανὸν ἀποσημαίνει: καὶ γὰρ οὗτος ἐμπεριείληφε τὰ πάντα. δηλοῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν ἥλιον καὶ τὴν σελήνην τῶν σαρδονύχων ἑκάτερος, οἷς ἐνεπόρπωσε τὸν ἀρχιερέα.' "3.186 τήν τε δωδεκάδα τῶν λίθων εἴτε τοὺς μῆνάς τις θέλοι νοεῖν, εἴτε τὸν οὕτως ἀριθμὸν τῶν ἀστέρων, ὃν ζωδιακὸν κύκλον ̔́Ελληνες καλοῦσι, τῆς κατ' ἐκεῖνο γνώμης οὐκ ἂν ἁμάρτοι: καὶ ὁ πῖλος δέ μοι δοκεῖ τὸν οὐρανὸν τεκμηριοῦν ὑακίνθινος πεποιημένος," "
3.203 ὁ μὲν οὐρανὸς καθαρὸς ἦν, ὑπὲρ δὲ τὴν σκηνὴν μόνην ἤχλυσεν οὔτε βαθεῖ πάνυ νέφει καὶ πυκνῷ περιλαβὼν αὐτήν, ὥστ' εἶναι δόξαι χειμέριον, οὔτε μὴν λεπτὸν οὕτως, ὥστε τὴν ὄψιν ἰσχύσαι τι δι' αὐτοῦ κατανοῆσαι: ἡδεῖα δὲ ἀπ' αὐτοῦ δρόσος ἔρρει καὶ θεοῦ δηλοῦσα παρουσίαν τοῖς τοῦτο καὶ βουλομένοις καὶ πεπιστευκόσι." "
14.231 Ψήφισμα Δηλίων. ἐπ' ἄρχοντος Βοιωτοῦ μηνὸς Θαργηλιῶνος εἰκοστῇ χρηματισμὸς στρατηγῶν. Μᾶρκος Πείσων πρεσβευτὴς ἐνδημῶν ἐν τῇ πόλει ἡμῶν ὁ καὶ τεταγμένος ἐπὶ τῆς στρατολογίας προσκαλεσάμενος ἡμᾶς καὶ ἱκανοὺς τῶν πολιτῶν προσέταξεν," '14.232 ἵνα εἴ τινές εἰσιν ̓Ιουδαῖοι πολῖται ̔Ρωμαίων τούτοις μηδεὶς ἐνοχλῇ περὶ στρατείας, διὰ τὸ τὸν ὕπατον Λούκιον Κορνήλιον Λέντλον δεισιδαιμονίας ἕνεκα ἀπολελυκέναι τοὺς ̓Ιουδαίους τῆς στρατείας. διὸ πείθεσθαι ἡμᾶς δεῖ τῷ στρατηγῷ. ὅμοια δὲ τούτοις καὶ Σαρδιανοὶ περὶ ἡμῶν ἐψηφίσαντο.
16.164 ἐὰν δέ τις φωραθῇ κλέπτων τὰς ἱερὰς βίβλους αὐτῶν ἢ τὰ ἱερὰ χρήματα ἔκ τε σαββατείου ἔκ τε ἀνδρῶνος, εἶναι αὐτὸν ἱερόσυλον καὶ τὸν βίον αὐτοῦ ἐνεχθῆναι εἰς τὸ δημόσιον τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων.
18.55 Πιλᾶτος δὲ ὁ τῆς ̓Ιουδαίας ἡγεμὼν στρατιὰν ἐκ Καισαρείας ἀγαγὼν καὶ μεθιδρύσας χειμαδιοῦσαν ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις ἐπὶ καταλύσει τῶν νομίμων τῶν ̓Ιουδαϊκῶν ἐφρόνησε, προτομὰς Καίσαρος, αἳ ταῖς σημαίαις προσῆσαν, εἰσαγόμενος εἰς τὴν πόλιν, εἰκόνων ποίησιν ἀπαγορεύοντος ἡμῖν τοῦ νόμου.' ' None
1.18 4. But because almost all our constitution depends on the wisdom of Moses, our legislator, I cannot avoid saying somewhat concerning him beforehand, though I shall do it briefly; I mean, because otherwise those that read my book may wonder how it comes to pass, that my discourse, which promises an account of laws and historical facts, contains so much of philosophy.
1.18 where Melchisedec, king of the city Salem, received him. That name signifies, the righteous king: and such he was, without dispute, insomuch that, on this account, he was made the priest of God: however, they afterward called Salem Jerusalem. 1.19 He also told her, that if she disobeyed God, and went on still in her way, she should perish; but if she would return back, she should become the mother of a son who should reign over that country. These admonitions she obeyed, and returned to her master and mistress, and obtained forgiveness. A little while afterwards, she bare Ismael; which may be interpreted Heard of God, because God had heard his mother’s prayer. 1.19 The reader is therefore to know, that Moses deemed it exceeding necessary, that he who would conduct his own life well, and give laws to others, in the first place should consider the divine nature; and, upon the contemplation of God’s operations, should thereby imitate the best of all patterns, so far as it is possible for human nature to do, and to endeavor to follow after it: 1.21 He also entreated him to be at peace with him, and to make God propitious to him; and that if he thought fit to continue with him, he should have what he wanted in abundance; but that if he designed to go away, he should be honorably conducted, and have whatsoever supply he wanted when he came thither. 1.21 Now when Moses was desirous to teach this lesson to his countrymen, he did not begin the establishment of his laws after the same manner that other legislators did; I mean, upon contracts and other rights between one man and another, but by raising their minds upwards to regard God, and his creation of the world; and by persuading them, that we men are the most excellent of the creatures of God upon earth. Now when once he had brought them to submit to religion, he easily persuaded them to submit in all other things: 1.22 4. When the lad was grown up, he married a wife, by birth an Egyptian, from whence the mother was herself derived originally. of this wife were born to Ismael twelve sons; Nabaioth, Kedar, Abdeel, Mabsam, Idumas, Masmaos, Masaos, Chodad, Theman, Jetur, Naphesus, Cadmas. 1.22 for as to other legislators, they followed fables, and by their discourses transferred the most reproachful of human vices unto the gods, and so afforded wicked men the most plausible excuses for their crimes; 1.23 Accordingly thou, my son, wilt now die, not in any common way of going out of the world, but sent to God, the Father of all men, beforehand, by thy own father, in the nature of a sacrifice. I suppose he thinks thee worthy to get clear of this world neither by disease, neither by war, nor by any other severe way, by which death usually comes upon men, 1.23 but as for our legislator, when he had once demonstrated that God was possessed of perfect virtue, he supposed that men also ought to strive after the participation of it; and on those who did not so think, and so believe, he inflicted the severest punishments. 1.24 And indeed Alexander Polyhistor gives his attestation to what I here say; who speaks thus: “Cleodemus the prophet, who was also called Malchus, who wrote a History of the Jews, in agreement with the History of Moses, their legislator, relates, that there were many sons born to Abraham by Keturah: 1.24 I exhort, therefore, my readers to examine this whole undertaking in that view; for thereby it will appear to them, that there is nothing therein disagreeable either to the majesty of God, or to his love to mankind; for all things have here a reference to the nature of the universe; while our legislator speaks some things wisely, but enigmatically, and others under a decent allegory, but still explains such things as required a direct explication plainly and expressly. 1.25 However, those that have a mind to know the reasons of every thing, may find here a very curious philosophical theory, which I now indeed shall wave the explication of; but if God afford me time for it, I will set about writing it after I have finished the present work. 1.25 She desired also that he would come and lodge with them, since the approach of the night gave him not time to proceed farther. And producing his precious ornaments for women, he said he desired to trust them to none more safely than to such as she had shown herself to be; and that he believed he might guess at the humanity of her mother and brother, that they would not be displeased, from the virtue he found in her; for he would not be burdensome, but would pay the hire for his entertainment, and spend his own money. 1.26 I shall now betake myself to the history before me, after I have first mentioned what Moses says of the creation of the world, which I find described in the sacred books after the manner following. 1.26 for when he saw that God was with Isaac, and took such great care of him, he drove him away from him. But Isaac, when he saw how envy had changed the temper of Abimelech retired to a place called the Valley, not far from Gerar: and as he was digging a well, the shepherds fell upon him, and began to fight, in order to hinder the work; and because he did not desire to contend, the shepherds seemed to get the better of him,
3.91 5. The first commandment teaches us that there is but one God, and that we ought to worship him only. The second commands us not to make the image of any living creature to worship it. The third, that we must not swear by God in a false matter. The fourth, that we must keep the seventh day, by resting from all sorts of work.
3.181 When Moses distinguished the tabernacle into three parts, and allowed two of them to the priests, as a place accessible and common, he denoted the land and the sea, these being of general access to all; but he set apart the third division for God, because heaven is inaccessible to men. 3.182 And when he ordered twelve loaves to be set on the table, he denoted the year, as distinguished into so many months. By branching out the candlestick into seventy parts, he secretly intimated the Decani, or seventy divisions of the planets; and as to the seven lamps upon the candlesticks, they referred to the course of the planets, of which that is the number. 3.183 The veils, too, which were composed of four things, they declared the four elements; for the fine linen was proper to signify the earth, because the flax grows out of the earth; the purple signified the sea, because that color is dyed by the blood of a sea shell-fish; the blue is fit to signify the air; and the scarlet will naturally be an indication of fire. 3.184 Now the vestment of the high priest being made of linen, signified the earth; the blue denoted the sky, being like lightning in its pomegranates, and in the noise of the bells resembling thunder. And for the ephod, it showed that God had made the universe of four elements; and as for the gold interwoven, I suppose it related to the splendor by which all things are enlightened. 3.185 He also appointed the breastplate to be placed in the middle of the ephod, to resemble the earth, for that has the very middle place of the world. And the girdle which encompassed the high priest round, signified the ocean, for that goes round about and includes the universe. Each of the sardonyxes declares to us the sun and the moon; those, I mean, that were in the nature of buttons on the high priest’s shoulders. 3.186 And for the twelve stones, whether we understand by them the months, or whether we understand the like number of the signs of that circle which the Greeks call the Zodiac, we shall not be mistaken in their meaning. And for the mitre, which was of a blue color, it seems to me to mean heaven;
3.203 The sky was clear, but there was a mist over the tabernacle only, encompassing it, but not with such a very deep and thick cloud as is seen in the winter season, nor yet in so thin a one as men might be able to discern any thing through it, but from it there dropped a sweet dew, and such a one as showed the presence of God to those that desired and believed it.
14.231 14. The decree of the Delians. “The answer of the praetors, when Beotus was archon, on the twentieth day of the month Thargeleon. While Marcus Piso the lieutet lived in our city, who was also appointed over the choice of the soldiers, he called us, and many other of the citizens, and gave order, 14.232 that if there be here any Jews who are Roman citizens, no one is to give them any disturbance about going into the army, because Cornelius Lentulus, the consul, freed the Jews from going into the army, on account of the superstition they are under;—you are therefore obliged to submit to the praetor.” And the like decree was made by the Sardians about us also.
16.164 But if any one be caught stealing their holy books, or their sacred money, whether it be out of the synagogue or public school, he shall be deemed a sacrilegious person, and his goods shall be brought into the public treasury of the Romans.
18.55 1. But now Pilate, the procurator of Judea, removed the army from Caesarea to Jerusalem, to take their winter quarters there, in order to abolish the Jewish laws. So he introduced Caesar’s effigies, which were upon the ensigns, and brought them into the city; whereas our law forbids us the very making of images;' ' None
|38. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.128-2.131, 2.145, 2.154, 3.352, 5.181, 5.213 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art and Artists • Art, funerary • Art, interpretation of symbols • Art, need for explanation • Judas the Essene, predictive art of (Josephus) • Moses, art • art, pagan • blessings, figural art • churches, art • healing and medicines, exorcism as healing art • seals, figural art
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 934, 937, 942; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 80, 138, 139, 146; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 171; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 65, 226; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 61, 76, 199
2.128 Πρός γε μὴν τὸ θεῖον εὐσεβεῖς ἰδίως: πρὶν γὰρ ἀνασχεῖν τὸν ἥλιον οὐδὲν φθέγγονται τῶν βεβήλων, πατρίους δέ τινας εἰς αὐτὸν εὐχὰς ὥσπερ ἱκετεύοντες ἀνατεῖλαι. 2.129 καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα πρὸς ἃς ἕκαστοι τέχνας ἴσασιν ὑπὸ τῶν ἐπιμελητῶν διαφίενται, καὶ μέχρι πέμπτης ὥρας ἐργασάμενοι συντόνως πάλιν εἰς ἓν συναθροίζονται χωρίον, ζωσάμενοί τε σκεπάσμασιν λινοῖς οὕτως ἀπολούονται τὸ σῶμα ψυχροῖς ὕδασιν, καὶ μετὰ ταύτην τὴν ἁγνείαν εἰς ἴδιον οἴκημα συνίασιν, ἔνθα μηδενὶ τῶν ἑτεροδόξων ἐπιτέτραπται παρελθεῖν: αὐτοί τε καθαροὶ καθάπερ εἰς ἅγιόν τι τέμενος παραγίνονται τὸ δειπνητήριον.' "2.131 προκατεύχεται δ' ὁ ἱερεὺς τῆς τροφῆς, καὶ γεύσασθαί τινα πρὶν τῆς εὐχῆς ἀθέμιτον: ἀριστοποιησάμενος δ' ἐπεύχεται πάλιν: ἀρχόμενοί τε καὶ παυόμενοι γεραίρουσι θεὸν ὡς χορηγὸν τῆς ζωῆς. ἔπειθ' ὡς ἱερὰς καταθέμενοι τὰς ἐσθῆτας πάλιν ἐπ' ἔργα μέχρι δείλης τρέπονται." "
2.145 Περὶ δὲ τὰς κρίσεις ἀκριβέστατοι καὶ δίκαιοι, καὶ δικάζουσι μὲν οὐκ ἐλάττους τῶν ἑκατὸν συνελθόντες, τὸ δ' ὁρισθὲν ὑπ' αὐτῶν ἀκίνητον. σέβας δὲ μέγα παρ' αὐτοῖς μετὰ τὸν θεὸν τοὔνομα τοῦ νομοθέτου, κἂν βλασφημήσῃ τις εἰς τοῦτον κολάζεται θανάτῳ." "
2.154 Καὶ γὰρ ἔρρωται παρ' αὐτοῖς ἥδε ἡ δόξα, φθαρτὰ μὲν εἶναι τὰ σώματα καὶ τὴν ὕλην οὐ μόνιμον αὐτῶν, τὰς δὲ ψυχὰς ἀθανάτους ἀεὶ διαμένειν, καὶ συμπλέκεσθαι μὲν ἐκ τοῦ λεπτοτάτου φοιτώσας αἰθέρος ὥσπερ εἱρκταῖς τοῖς σώμασιν ἴυγγί τινι φυσικῇ κατασπωμένας," 3.352 ἦν δὲ καὶ περὶ κρίσεις ὀνείρων ἱκανὸς συμβαλεῖν τὰ ἀμφιβόλως ὑπὸ τοῦ θείου λεγόμενα, τῶν γε μὴν ἱερῶν βίβλων οὐκ ἠγνόει τὰς προφητείας ὡς ἂν αὐτός τε ὢν ἱερεὺς καὶ ἱερέων ἔγγονος:' "
5.181 καὶ ποικίλαι μὲν ὕλαι μακροὶ δὲ δι' αὐτῶν περίπατοι καὶ περὶ τούτους εὔριποι βαθεῖς δεξαμεναί τε πανταχοῦ χαλκουργημάτων περίπλεοι, δι' ὧν τὸ ὕδωρ ἐξεχεῖτο, καὶ πολλοὶ περὶ τὰ νάματα πύργοι πελειάδων ἡμέρων." "
5.213 ἐδόκει γὰρ αἰνίττεσθαι τῇ κόκκῳ μὲν τὸ πῦρ, τῇ βύσσῳ δὲ τὴν γῆν, τῇ δ' ὑακίνθῳ τὸν ἀέρα, καὶ τῇ πορφύρᾳ τὴν θάλασσαν, τῶν μὲν ἐκ τῆς χροίας ὁμοιουμένων, τῆς δὲ βύσσου καὶ τῆς πορφύρας διὰ τὴν γένεσιν, ἐπειδὴ τὴν μὲν ἀναδίδωσιν ἡ γῆ, τὴν δ' ἡ θάλασσα." ' None
2.128 5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising. 2.129 After this every one of them are sent away by their curators, to exercise some of those arts wherein they are skilled, in which they labor with great diligence till the fifth hour. After which they assemble themselves together again into one place; and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe their bodies in cold water. And after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any of another sect to enter; while they go, after a pure manner, into the dining-room, as into a certain holy temple, 2.131 but a priest says grace before meat; and it is unlawful for anyone to taste of the food before grace be said. The same priest, when he hath dined, says grace again after meat; and when they begin, and when they end, they praise God, as he that bestows their food upon them; after which they lay aside their white garments, and betake themselves to their labors again till the evening;
2.145 9. But in the judgments they exercise they are most accurate and just, nor do they pass sentence by the votes of a court that is fewer than a hundred. And as to what is once determined by that number, it is unalterable. What they most of all honor, after God himself, is the name of their legislator Moses, whom, if anyone blaspheme, he is punished capitally.
2.154 11. For their doctrine is this: That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and continue forever; and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement;
3.352 Now Josephus was able to give shrewd conjectures about the interpretation of such dreams as have been ambiguously delivered by God. Moreover, he was not unacquainted with the prophecies contained in the sacred books, as being a priest himself, and of the posterity of priests:
5.181 There were, moreover, several groves of trees, and long walks through them, with deep canals, and cisterns, that in several parts were filled with brazen statues, through which the water ran out. There were withal many dove-courts of tame pigeons about the canals.
5.213 for by the scarlet there seemed to be enigmatically signified fire, by the fine flax the earth, by the blue the air, and by the purple the sea; two of them having their colors the foundation of this resemblance; but the fine flax and the purple have their own origin for that foundation, the earth producing the one, and the sea the other.' ' None
|39. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.37, 1.279, 2.75, 2.168, 2.218 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, funerary • Art, idol vs. image • Artistic Originality, Greece and Orient • Judas the Essene, predictive art of (Josephus) • Moses, art • art, pagan • catacombs, Bet Shearim, figural art • church fathers, figural art • lulav, in synagogue art
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 871, 920, 932; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 133, 138, 175, 178; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 68, 481; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 92
1.37 εἰκότως οὖν, μᾶλλον δὲ ἀναγκαίως, ἅτε μήτε τὸ ὑπογράφειν αὐτεξουσίου πᾶσιν ὄντος μήτε τινὸς ἐν τοῖς γραφομένοις ἐνούσης διαφωνίας, ἀλλὰ μόνον τῶν προφητῶν τὰ μὲν ἀνωτάτω καὶ παλαιότατα κατὰ τὴν ἐπίπνοιαν τὴν ἀπὸ τοῦ θεοῦ μαθόντων, τὰ δὲ καθ' αὑτοὺς ὡς ἐγένετο σαφῶς συγγραφόντων," 1.279 Λοιπόν μοι πρὸς αὐτὸν εἰπεῖν περὶ Μωυσέως. τοῦτον δὲ τὸν ἄνδρα θαυμαστὸν μὲν Αἰγύπτιοι καὶ θεῖον νομίζουσι, βούλονται δὲ προσποιεῖν αὐτοῖς μετὰ βλασφημίας ἀπιθάνου, λέγοντες ̔Ηλιοπολίτην εἶναι τῶν ἐκεῖθεν ἱερέων ἕνα διὰ τὴν λέπραν συνεξεληλαμένον.
2.75 ηονορεμ πραεβερε υιδεαντυρ? πορρο νοστερ λεγισλατορ, νον θυασι προπηετανς ρομανορυμ ποτεντιαμ νον ηονορανδαμ, σεδ ταμθυαμ ξαυσαμ νεθυε δεο νεθυε ηομινιβυς υτιλεμ δεσπιξιενς, ετ θυονιαμ τοτιυς ανιματι, μυλτο μαγις δει ινανιματυ προβατυρ ινφεριυς ιντερδιχιτ ιμαγινες φαβριξαρι.' "
2.168 ὁποῖος δὲ κατ' οὐσίαν ἐστὶν ἄγνωστον. ταῦτα περὶ θεοῦ φρονεῖν οἱ σοφώτατοι παρ' ̔́Ελλησιν ὅτι μὲν ἐδιδάχθησαν ἐκείνου τὰς ἀρχὰς παρασχόντος, ἐῶ νῦν λέγειν, ὅτι δ' ἐστὶ καλὰ καὶ πρέποντα τῇ τοῦ θεοῦ φύσει καὶ μεγαλειότητι, σφόδρα μεμαρτυρήκασι: καὶ γὰρ Πυθαγόρας καὶ ̓Αναξαγόρας καὶ Πλάτων οἵ τε μετ' ἐκεῖνον ἀπὸ τῆς στοᾶς φιλόσοφοι καὶ μικροῦ δεῖν ἅπαντες οὕτως" "
2.218 καὶ τοιαύτη τις ἀνακήρυξις, ἀλλ' αὐτὸς ἕκαστος αὑτῷ τὸ συνειδὸς ἔχων μαρτυροῦν πεπίστευκεν, τοῦ μὲν νομοθέτου προφητεύσαντος, τοῦ δὲ θεοῦ τὴν πίστιν ἰσχυρὰν παρεσχηκότος, ὅτι τοῖς τοὺς νόμους διαφυλάξασι κἂν εἰ δέοι θνήσκειν ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν προθύμως ἀποθανεῖν ἔδωκεν ὁ θεὸς γενέσθαι τε πάλιν καὶ βίον ἀμείνω λαβεῖν ἐκ περιτροπῆς."" None
1.37 and this is justly, or rather necessarily done, because every one is not permitted of his own accord to be a writer, nor is there any disagreement in what is written; they being only prophets that have written the original and earliest accounts of things as they learned them of God himself by inspiration; and others have written what hath happened in their own times, and that in a very distinct manner also. 8.
1.279 31. It now remains that I debate with Manetho about Moses. Now the Egyptians acknowledge him to have been a wonderful, and a divine person; nay they would willingly lay claim to him themselves, though after a most abusive and incredible manner; and pretend that he was of Heliopolis, and one of the priests of that place, and was ejected out of it among the rest, on account of his leprosy;
2.75 But then our legislator hath forbidden us to make images, not by way of denunciation beforehand, that the Roman authority was not to be honored, but as despising a thing that was neither necessary nor useful for either God or man; and he forbade them, as we shall prove hereafter, to make these images for any part of the animal creation,
2.168 I do not now explain how these notions of God are the sentiments of the wisest among the Grecians, and how they were taught them upon the principles that he afforded them. However, they testify, with great assurance, that these notions are just, and agreeable to the nature of God, and to his majesty; for Pythagoras, and Anaxagoras, and Plato, and the Stoic philosophers that succeeded them, and almost all the rest, are of the same sentiments, and had the same notions of the nature of God;
2.218 but every good man hath his own conscience bearing witness to himself, and by virtue of our legislator’s prophetic spirit, and of the firm security God himself affords such a one, he believes that God hath made this grant to those that observe these laws, even though they be obliged readily to die for them, that they shall come into being again, and at a certain revolution of things shall receive a better life than they had enjoyed before. '' None
|40. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, idol vs. image • Art, imitation of models • Art, loss of pagan meaning for Christians and Jews • Art, religious art manufactured by Jews and Christians • art, pagan • seals, figural art
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 907; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 229, 478
3.4 שָׁאַל פְּרוֹקְלוֹס בֶּן פִלוֹסְפוֹס אֶת רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל בְּעַכּוֹ, שֶׁהָיָה רוֹחֵץ בַּמֶּרְחָץ שֶׁל אַפְרוֹדִיטִי, אָמַר לוֹ, כָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַתְכֶם, וְלֹא יִדְבַּק בְּיָדְךָ מְאוּמָה מִן הַחֵרֶם. מִפְּנֵי מָה אַתָּה רוֹחֵץ בַּמֶּרְחָץ שֶׁל אַפְרוֹדִיטִי. אָמַר לוֹ, אֵין מְשִׁיבִין בַּמֶּרְחָץ. וּכְשֶׁיָּצָא אָמַר לוֹ, אֲנִי לֹא בָאתִי בִגְבוּלָהּ, הִיא בָאתָה בִגְבוּלִי, אֵין אוֹמְרִים, נַעֲשֶׂה מֶרְחָץ לְאַפְרוֹדִיטִי נוֹי, אֶלָּא אוֹמְרִים, נַעֲשֶׂה אַפְרוֹדִיטִי נוֹי לַמֶּרְחָץ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אִם נוֹתְנִין לְךָ מָמוֹן הַרְבֵּה, אִי אַתָּה נִכְנָס לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה שֶׁלְּךָ עָרוֹם וּבַעַל קֶרִי וּמַשְׁתִּין בְּפָנֶיהָ, וְזוֹ עוֹמֶדֶת עַל פִּי הַבִּיב וְכָל הָעָם מַשְׁתִּינִין לְפָנֶיהָ. לֹא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא אֱלֹהֵיהֶם. אֶת שֶׁנּוֹהֵג בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם אֱלוֹהַּ, אָסוּר. וְאֶת שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם אֱלוֹהַּ, מֻתָּר:'' None
3.4 Proclos, son of a plosphos, asked Rabban Gamaliel in Acco when the latter was bathing in the bathhouse of aphrodite. He said to him, “It is written in your torah, ‘let nothing that has been proscribed stick to your hand (Deuteronomy 13:18)’; why are you bathing in the bathhouse of Aphrodite?” He replied to him, “We do not answer questions relating to torah in a bathhouse.” When he came out, he said to him, “I did not come into her domain, she has come into mine. People do not say, ‘the bath was made as an adornment for Aphrodite’; rather they say, ‘Aphrodite was made as an adornment for the bath.’ Another reason is, even if you were given a large sum of money, you would not enter the presence of your idol while you were nude or had experienced seminal emission, nor would you urinate before it. But this statue of Aphrodite stands by a sewer and all people urinate before it. In the torah it is only stated, “their gods” (Deuteronomy 12:3) what is treated as a god is prohibited, what is not treated as a deity is permitted.'' None
|41. New Testament, 1 Peter, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • art • crown, in Christian art
Found in books: Brodd and Reed (2011), Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult, 165; Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 161
5.4 καὶ φανερωθέντος τοῦ ἀρχιποίμενος κομιεῖσθε τὸν ἀμαράντινον τῆς δόξης στέφανον.'' None
5.4 When the chief Shepherd is revealed, you will receive the crown of glory that doesn't fade away. "" None
|42. New Testament, Apocalypse, 4.6-4.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • Roman art • art, • art, Qumran • art, priests • crown, in Christian art
Found in books: Brodd and Reed (2011), Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult, 166; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 52; Dijkstra (2020), The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman, 136; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 9
4.6 καὶ ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου ὡς θάλασσα ὑαλίνηὁμοία κρυστάλλῳ. καὶ ἐν μέσῳ τοῦ θρόνουκαὶκύκλῳ τοῦ θρόνου τέσσερα ζῷα γέμοντα ὀφθαλμῶνἔμπροσθεν καὶ ὄπισθεν· 4.7 καὶ τὸ ζῷοντὸ πρῶτονὅμοιονλέοντι, καὶ τὸ δεύτερονζῷον ὅμοιονμόσχῳ, καὶ τὸ τρίτονζῷον ἔχωντὸ πρόσωπονὡςἀνθρώπου, καὶ τὸ τέταρτονζῷον ὅμοιονἀετῷπετομένῳ· 4.8 καὶ τὰ τέσσερα ζῷα,ἓν καθʼ ἓναὐτῶν ἔχωνἀνὰ πτέρυγας ἕξ, κυκλόθενκαὶ ἔσωθενγέμουσιν ὀφθαλμῶν·καὶ ἀνάπαυσιν οὐκ ἔχουσιν ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτὸς λέγοντες Ἅγιος ἅγιος ἅγιος Κύριος, ὁ θεός, ὁ παντοκράτωρ, ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ὤν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος. 4.9 Καὶ ὅταν δώσουσιν τὰ ζῷα δόξαν καὶ τιμὴν καὶ εὐχαριστίαν τῷκαθημένῳ ἐπὶ τοῦ θρόνου, τῷ ζῶντι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶναςτῶν αἰώνων, 4.10 πεσοῦνται οἱ εἴκοσι τέσσαρες πρεσβύτεροι ἐνώπιον τοῦκαθημένου ἐπὶ τοῦ θρόνου,καὶ προσκυνήσουσιντῷ ζῶντι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶναςτῶν αἰώνων, καὶ βαλοῦσιν τοὺς στεφάνους αὐτῶν ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου, λέγοντες 4.11 ' ' None
4.6 Before the throne was something like a sea of glass, like a crystal. In the midst of the throne, and around the throne were four living creatures full of eyes before and behind. 4.7 The first creature was like a lion, and the second creature like a calf, and the third creature had a face like a man, and the fourth was like a flying eagle. 4.8 The four living creatures, having each one of them six wings, are full of eyes around about and within. They have no rest day and night, saying, "Holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy is the Lord God, the Almighty, who was and who is and who is to come!" 4.9 When the living creatures give glory, honor, and thanks to him who sits on the throne, to him who lives forever and ever, 4.10 the twenty-four elders fall down before him who sits on the throne, and worship him who lives forever and ever, and throw their crowns before the throne, saying, 4.11 "Worthy are you, our Lord and our God, the Holy One, to receive the glory, the honor, and the power, for you created all things, and because of your desire they existed, and were created!" ' ' None
|43. New Testament, Mark, 14.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Roman art • music, liberal art of music (musica)
Found in books: Dijkstra (2020), The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman, 121; Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 781
14.26 Καὶ ὑμνήσαντες ἐξῆλθον εἰς τὸ Ὄρος τῶν Ἐλαιῶν.'' None
14.26 When they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives. '' None
|44. New Testament, Matthew, 26.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Roman art • art
Found in books: Dijkstra (2020), The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman, 121; Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 161
26.33 ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ Πέτρος εἶπεν αὐτῷ Εἰ πάντες σκανδαλισθήσονται ἐν σοί, ἐγὼ οὐδέποτε σκανδαλισθήσομαι.'' None
26.33 But Peter answered him, "Even if all will be made to stumble because of you, I will never be made to stumble."'' None
|45. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 12.10.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Apelles, place among ancient artists • Lysippus, place among ancient artists • Myron, his place among ancient artists • Phidias, his place among ancient artists • Polyclitus, his place among ancient artists • Praxiteles, his place among ancient artists • Quintilian, judgment on artists • Zeuxis, place among ancient artists • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • art and architecture, Roman appreciation • artist, canonization of • artist, styles of • place among ancient artists
Found in books: Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 240, 241; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 90
12.10.9 \xa0On the other hand, Phidias is regarded as more gifted in his representation of gods station of men, and indeed for chryselephantine statues he is without a peer, as he would in truth be, even if he had produced nothing in this material beyond his Minerva at Athens and his Jupiter at Olympia in Elis, whose beauty is such that it is said to have added something even to the awe with which the god was already regarded: so perfectly did the majesty of the work give the impression of godhead. Lysippus and Praxiteles are asserted to be supreme as regards faithfulness to nature. For Demetrius is blamed for carrying realism too far, and is less concerned about the beauty than the truth of his work.'' None
|46. Quintilian, Institutio Oratoria, 12.10.3-12.10.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Apelles (artist) • Apelles, place among ancient artists • Lysippus, place among ancient artists • Myron, his place among ancient artists • Phidias, his place among ancient artists • Polyclitus, his place among ancient artists • Praxiteles, his place among ancient artists • Quintilian, judgment on artists • Zeuxis, place among ancient artists • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica • artist, canonization of • artist, styles of • offering, art work as • place among ancient artists
Found in books: Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 42, 183, 187; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 90
12.10.3 \xa0The first great painters, whose works deserve inspection for something more than their mere antiquity, are said to have been Polygnotus and Aglaophon, whose simple colouring has still such enthusiastic admirers that they prefer these almost primitive works, which may be regarded as the first foundations of the art that was to be, over the works of the greatest of their successors, their motive being, in my opinion, an ostentatious desire to seem persons of superior taste. 12.10.4 \xa0Later Zeuxis and Parrhasius contributed much to the progress of painting. These artists were separated by no great distance of time, since both flourished about the period of the Peloponnesian war; for example, Xenophon has preserved a conversation between Socrates and Parrhasius. The first-mentioned seems to have discovered the method of representing light and shade, while the latter is said to have devoted special attention to the treatment of line. 12.10.5 \xa0For Zeuxis emphasised the limbs of the human body, thinking thereby to add dignity and grandeur to his style: it is generally supposed that in this he followed the example of Homer, who likes to represent even his female characters as being of heroic mould. Parrhasius, on the other hand, was so fine a draughtsman that he has been styled the law-giver of his art, on the ground that all other artists take his representations of gods and heroes as models, as though no other course were possible. 12.10.6 \xa0It was, however, from about the period of the reign of Philip down to that of the successors of Alexander that painting flourished more especially, although the different artists are distinguished for different excellences. Protogenes, for example, was renowned for accuracy, Pamphilus and Melanthius for soundness of taste, Antiphilus for facility, Theon of Samos for his depiction of imaginary scenes, known as Ï\x86Î±Î½Ï\x84Î±Ï\x83Î¯Î±Î¹, and Apelles for genius and grace, in the latter of which qualities he took especial pride. Euphranor, on the other hand, was admired on the ground that, while he ranked with the most eminent masters of other arts, he at the same time achieved a marvellous skill in the arts of sculpture and painting.' "12.10.7 \xa0The same differences exist between sculptors. The art of Callon and Hegesias is somewhat rude and recalls the Etruscans, but the work of Calamis has already begun to be less stiff, while Myron's statues show a greater form than had been achieved by the artists just mentioned. Polyclitus surpassed all others for care and grace, but although the majority of critics account him as the greatest of sculptors, to avoid making him faultless they express the opinion that his work is lacking in grandeur." '12.10.8 \xa0For while he gave the human form an ideal grace, he is thought to have been less successful in representing the dignity of the gods. He is further alleged to have shrunken from representing persons of maturer years, and to have ventured on nothing more difficult than a smooth and beardless face. But the qualities lacking in Polyclitus are allowed to have been possessed by Phidias and Alcamenes. 12.10.9 \xa0On the other hand, Phidias is regarded as more gifted in his representation of gods station of men, and indeed for chryselephantine statues he is without a peer, as he would in truth be, even if he had produced nothing in this material beyond his Minerva at Athens and his Jupiter at Olympia in Elis, whose beauty is such that it is said to have added something even to the awe with which the god was already regarded: so perfectly did the majesty of the work give the impression of godhead. Lysippus and Praxiteles are asserted to be supreme as regards faithfulness to nature. For Demetrius is blamed for carrying realism too far, and is less concerned about the beauty than the truth of his work.'' None
|47. Tacitus, Annals, 15.37 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, interpretation of symbols • Artist, works of art
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 899; Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 62
15.37 Ipse quo fidem adquireret nihil usquam perinde laetum sibi, publicis locis struere convivia totaque urbe quasi domo uti. et celeberrimae luxu famaque epulae fuere quas a Tigellino paratas ut exemplum referam, ne saepius eadem prodigentia narranda sit. igitur in stagno Agrippae fabricatus est ratem cui superpositum convivium navium aliarum tractu moveretur. naves auro et ebore distinctae, remiges- que exoleti per aetates et scientiam libidinum componebantur. volucris et feras diversis e terris et animalia maris Oceano abusque petiverat. crepidinibus stagni lupanaria adstabant inlustribus feminis completa et contra scorta visebantur nudis corporibus. iam gestus motusque obsceni; et postquam tenebrae incedebant, quantum iuxta nemoris et circumiecta tecta consonare cantu et luminibus clarescere. ipse per licita atque inlicita foedatus nihil flagitii reliquerat quo corruptior ageret, nisi paucos post dies uni ex illo contaminatorum grege (nomen Pythagorae fuit) in modum sollemnium coniugiorum denupsisset. inditum imperatori flammeum, missi auspices, dos et genialis torus et faces nuptiales, cuncta denique spectata quae etiam in femina nox operit.'' None
15.37 \xa0He himself, to create the impression that no place gave him equal pleasure with Rome, began to serve banquets in the public places and to treat the entire city as his palace. In point of extravagance and notoriety, the most celebrated of the feasts was that arranged by Tigellinus; which I\xa0shall describe as a type, instead of narrating time and again the monotonous tale of prodigality. He constructed, then, a raft on the Pool of Agrippa, and superimposed a banquet, to be set in motion by other craft acting as tugs. The vessels were gay with gold and ivory, and the oarsmen were catamites marshalled according to their ages and their libidinous attainments. He had collected birds and wild beasts from the ends of the earth, and marine animals from the ocean itself. On the quays of the lake stood brothels, filled with women of high rank; and, opposite, naked harlots met the view. First came obscene gestures and dances; then, as darkness advanced, the whole of the neighbouring grove, together with the dwelling-houses around, began to echo with song and to glitter with lights. Nero himself, defiled by every natural and unnatural lust had left no abomination in reserve with which to crown his vicious existence; except that, a\xa0few days later, he became, with the full rites of legitimate marriage, the wife of one of that herd of degenerates, who bore the name of Pythagoras. The veil was drawn over the imperial head, witnesses were despatched to the scene; the dowry, the couch of wedded love, the nuptial torches, were there: everything, in fine, which night enshrouds even if a woman is the bride, was left open to the view. <'' None
|48. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art and Artists • erotic art
Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 211; McGinn (2004), The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman world: A study of Social History & The Brothel. 121
|49. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • technitai (Artists of Dionysus) • young womens rituals, in Statius Achilleid, female artistic voice versus epic male voice
Found in books: Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 118; Panoussi(2019), Brides, Mourners, Bacchae: Women's Rituals in Roman Literature, 261
|50. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, idol vs. image • Art, imitation of models • blessings, figural art • seals, figural art
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 912, 920, 937; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 226, 478
|51. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art and Artists • Art, idol vs. image • blessings, figural art • seals, figural art
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 920; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 171; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 226
|52. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Artist, works of art • Vipsanius Agrippa, M., on public art • connoisseurship, art historical
Found in books: Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 62; Rojas(2019), The Remains of the Past and the Invention of Archaeology in Roman Anatolia: Interpreters, Traces, Horizons, 164; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 58
|53. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Artistic metaphor, for training in virtue • Moses, art
Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 180; Gray (2021), Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers, 1
|54. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Artist, works of art • Hadrian, as artist • Nero, artistic aspirations • Petronius, and the decline of art • Pliny the Elder, on decline of art • Vitruvius, on decline of art • art expert, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art history, Petronius’ satire of • liberal arts or disciplines, listed or enumerated
Found in books: Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 188, 192; Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 137; Pollmann and Vessey (2007), Augustine and the Disciplines: From Cassiciacum to Confessions, 158; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 84
|55. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Alexander the Great, repatriates Greek art from Persia • Apelles (artist) • Apelles, place among ancient artists • Art • Art, imitation of models • Art, interpretation of symbols • Art, need for explanation • Artist, works of art • Athenaeus, on eroticism in art • Epigonos, artist • Greek, art • Hadrian, as artist • Lysippus, place among ancient artists • Mercury/Hermes, and Cupid in art • Myron, his place among ancient artists • Neo-Hittite, art • Nero, artistic aspirations • Nikeratos, artist • Nile, subject matter of art • Petronius, and the decline of art • Phidias, his place among ancient artists • Phyromachos, artist • Pliny the Elder, on decline of art • Pliny the Elder, on ignorance of art • Pliny the Elder, on public art • Pliny the Younger, on artists • Polyclitus, his place among ancient artists • Porcius Cato the Elder, M., on Greek art and culture • Praxiteles, his place among ancient artists • Quintilian, judgment on artists • Tullius Cicero, M., on artists • Tullius Cicero, M., public versus private view of art • Valerius Maximus, and eroticism in art • Verres, C., appropriates art works in Syracuse • Vipsanius Agrippa, M., on public art • Vitruvius, on decline of art • Zeuxis, place among ancient artists • art • art expert, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art history, Petronius’ satire of • art, Roman • artist • artist, as critics • artist, canonization of • artist, styles of • artist, treatises by • artists and gods • eloquence, art of • erotic art • liberal arts or disciplines, contrasted or combined with the Bible, biblical culture • liberal arts or disciplines, listed or enumerated • offering, art work as • place among ancient artists • place among ancient artists, his realism • style art history, and rhetoric
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 905; Borg (2008), Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic, 106, 111, 114, 299; Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 42, 64, 65, 182, 183, 191, 192, 193, 293; Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 137, 179; Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 130; Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 244; McGinn (2004), The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman world: A study of Social History & The Brothel. 128, 129, 130, 131, 132; Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 151; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 159; Pandey (2018), The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome, 99; Pollmann and Vessey (2007), Augustine and the Disciplines: From Cassiciacum to Confessions, 143; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 31, 32, 33, 37, 38, 43, 49, 58, 83, 84, 90, 94, 99, 100, 104, 113, 226
|56. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, idol vs. image • Greeks, and Italian art
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 924; Parkins and Smith (1998), Trade, Traders and the Ancient City, 37
|57. Lucian, Essays In Portraiture, 6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Amazons, in art • nudity, art
Found in books: Hubbard (2014), A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities, 35; Sweeney (2013), Foundation Myths and Politics in Ancient Ionia, 140
6 Ly. Well, look; she is at work already. Observe her procedure. She begins with our Cnidian importation, from which she takes only the head; with the rest she is not concerned, as the statue is nude. The hair, the forehead, the exquisite eyebrows, she will keep as Praxiteles has rendered them; the eyes, too, those soft, yet bright glancing eyes, she leaves unaltered. But the cheeks and the front of the face are taken from the ‘Garden’ Goddess; and so are the lines of the hands, the shapely wrists, the delicately tapering fingers. Phidias and the Lemnian Athene will give the outline of the face, and the well proportioned nose, and lend new softness to the cheeks; and the same artist may shape her neck and closed lips, to resemble those of his Amazon. Calamis adorns her with Sosandra’s modesty, Sosandra’s grave half smile; the decent seemly dress is Sosandra’s too, save that the head must not be veiled. For her stature, let it be that ofCnidian Aphrodite; once more we have recourse to Praxiteles.— What think you, Polystratus? Is it a lovely portrait?'' None
|58. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 4.4.2, 7.18.9, 9.39.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Incubation (Greek), ram skins in reliefs an artistic convention(?) • Phrygia and Phrygians, art and monuments of • art discourse, art-historical • art discourse, ritualcentered • ritual, as focus of art discourse • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), at Rome • to the Kyklades by artist Babis Kritikos, and territory • to the Kyklades by artist Babis Kritikos, marking membership in cult community
Found in books: Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 119; Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 35; Kowalzig (2007), Singing for the Gods: Performances of Myth and Ritual in Archaic and Classical Greece, 336; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 224; Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 287
4.4.2 ἔστιν ἐπὶ τοῖς ὅροις τῆς Μεσσηνίας ἱερὸν Ἀρτέμιδος καλουμένης Λιμνάτιδος, μετεῖχον δὲ αὐτοῦ μόνοι Δωριέων οἵ τε Μεσσήνιοι καὶ οἱ Λακεδαιμόνιοι. Λακεδαιμόνιοι μὲν δή φασιν ὡς παρθένους αὑτῶν παραγενομένας ἐς τὴν ἑορτὴν αὐτάς τε βιάσαιντο ἄνδρες τῶν Μεσσηνίων καὶ τὸν βασιλέα σφῶν ἀποκτείναιεν πειρώμενον κωλύειν, Τήλεκλον Ἀρχελάου τοῦ Ἀγησιλάου τοῦ Δορύσσου τοῦ Λαβώτα τοῦ Ἐχεστράτου τοῦ Ἄγιδος, πρός τε δὴ τούτοις τὰς βιασθείσας τῶν παρθένων διεργάσασθαι λέγουσιν αὑτὰς ὑπὸ αἰσχύνης·
7.18.9 ὡσαύτως δὲ καὶ ὅσα ἄλλα ἀγάλματα ἔκ τε Αἰτωλίας καὶ παρὰ Ἀκαρνάνων, τὰ μὲν πολλὰ ἐς τὴν Νικόπολιν κομισθῆναι, Πατρεῦσι δὲ ὁ Αὔγουστος ἄλλα τε τῶν ἐκ Καλυδῶνος λαφύρων καὶ δὴ καὶ τῆς Λαφρίας ἔδωκε τὸ ἄγαλμα, ὃ δὴ καὶ ἐς ἐμὲ ἔτι ἐν τῇ ἀκροπόλει τῇ Πατρέων εἶχε τιμάς. γενέσθαι δὲ ἐπίκλησιν τῇ θεῷ Λαφρίαν ἀπὸ ἀνδρὸς Φωκέως φασί· Λάφριον γὰρ τὸν Κασταλίου τοῦ Δελφοῦ Καλυδωνίοις ἱδρύσασθαι τὸ ἄγαλμα τῆς Ἀρτέμιδος τὸ ἀρχαῖον, οἱ δὲ τῆς Ἀρτέμιδος τὸ μήνιμα τὸ
9.39.6 καθʼ ἑκάστην δὲ τῶν θυσιῶν ἀνὴρ μάντις παρὼν ἐς τοῦ ἱερείου τὰ σπλάγχνα ἐνορᾷ, ἐνιδὼν δὲ προθεσπίζει τῷ κατιόντι εἰ δὴ αὐτὸν εὐμενὴς ὁ Τροφώνιος καὶ ἵλεως δέξεται. τῶν μὲν δὴ ἄλλων ἱερείων τὰ σπλάγχνα οὐχ ὁμοίως δηλοῖ τοῦ Τροφωνίου τὴν γνώμην· ἐν δὲ νυκτὶ ᾗ κάτεισιν ἕκαστος, ἐν ταύτῃ κριὸν θύουσιν ἐς βόθρον, ἐπικαλούμενοι τὸν Ἀγαμήδην. θυμάτων δὲ τῶν πρότερον πεφηνότων αἰσίων λόγος ἐστὶν οὐδείς, εἰ μὴ καὶ τοῦδε τοῦ κριοῦ τὰ σπλάγχνα τὸ αὐτὸ θέλοι λέγειν· ὁμολογούντων δὲ καὶ τούτων, τότε ἕκαστος ἤδη κάτεισιν εὔελπις, κάτεισι δὲ οὕτω.'' None
4.4.2 There is a sanctuary of Artemis called Limnatis (of the Lake) on the frontier of Messenian, in which the Messenians and the Lacedaemonians alone of the Dorians shared. According to the Lacedaemonians their maidens coming to the festival were violated by Messenian men and their king was killed in trying to prevent it. He was Teleclus the son of Archelaus, son of Agesilaus, son of Doryssus, son of Labotas, son of Echestratus, son of Agis. In addition to this they say that the maidens who were violated killed themselves for shame.' "
7.18.9 Most of the images out of Aetolia and from Acaria were brought by Augustus' orders to Nicopolis, but to Patrae he gave, with other spoils from Calydon, the image of Laphria, which even in my time was still worshipped on the acropolis of Patrae . It is said that the goddess was surnamed Laphria after a man of Phocis, because the ancient image of Artemis was set up at Calydon by Laphrius, the son of Castalius, the son of Delphus." 9.39.6 At each sacrifice a diviner is present, who looks into the entrails of the victim, and after an inspection prophesies to the person descending whether Trophonius will give him a kind and gracious reception. The entrails of the other victims do not declare the mind of Trophonius so much as a ram, which each inquirer sacrifices over a pit on the night he descends, calling upon Agamedes. Even though the previous sacrifices have appeared propitious, no account is taken of them unless the entrails of this ram indicate the same; but if they agree, then the inquirer descends in good hope. The procedure of the descent is this.'' None
|59. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 2.22, 4.7, 4.28, 6.4, 6.19 (2nd cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Apollonius of Tyana, views on religious art • Art • Art theory • Art, funerary • Art, idol vs. image • Art, imitation of models • Art, interpretation of symbols • Art, loss of pagan meaning for Christians and Jews • Art, need for explanation • Art, religious art manufactured by Jews and Christians • Greek, art • Nile, subject matter of art • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • art and architecture, Roman appreciation • art discourse, art-historical • art discourse, ritualcentered • ritual, as focus of art discourse
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 895, 905, 909, 935; Demoen and Praet (2009), Theios Sophistes: Essays on Flavius Philostratus' Vita Apollonii, 147, 150, 154, 155; Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 37; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 240; Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 293, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 31
2.22 ὃν δὲ διέτριβεν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ χρόνον, πολὺς δὲ οὗτος ἐγένετο, ἔστ' ἂν ἀγγελθῇ τῷ βασιλεῖ ξένους ἥκειν, “ὦ Δάμι” ἔφη ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος, “ἔστι τι γραφική;” “εἴ γε” εἶπε “καὶ ἀλήθεια.” “πράττει δὲ τί ἡ τέχνη αὕτη;” “τὰ χρώματα” ἔφη “ξυγκεράννυσιν, ὁπόσα ἐστί, τὰ κυανᾶ τοῖς βατραχείοις καὶ τὰ λευκὰ τοῖς μέλασι καὶ τὰ πυρσὰ τοῖς ὠχροῖς.” “ταυτὶ δὲ” ἦ δ' ὃς “ὑπὲρ τίνος μίγνυσιν; οὐ γὰρ ὑπὲρ μόνου τοῦ ἄνθους, ὥσπερ αἱ κήριναι.” “ὑπὲρ μιμήσεως” ἔφη “καὶ τοῦ κύνα τε ἐξεικάσαι καὶ ἵππον καὶ ἄνθρωπον καὶ ναῦν καὶ ὁπόσα ὁρᾷ ὁ ἥλιος: ἤδη δὲ καὶ τὸν ἥλιον αὐτὸν ἐξεικάζει τοτὲ μὲν ἐπὶ τεττάρων ἵππων, οἷος ἐνταῦθα λέγεται φαίνεσθαι, τοτὲ δ' αὖ καὶ διαπυρσεύοντα τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, ἐπειδὰν αἰθέρα ὑπογράφῃ καὶ θεῶν οἶκον.” “μίμησις οὖν ἡ γραφική, ὦ Δάμι;” “τί δὲ ἄλλο;” εἶπεν “εἰ γὰρ μὴ τοῦτο πράττοι, γελοία δόξει χρώματα ποιοῦσα εὐήθως.” “τὰ δ' ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ” ἔφη “βλεπόμενα, ἐπειδὰν αἱ νεφέλαι διασπασθῶσιν ἀπ' ἀλλήλων, τοὺς κενταύρους καὶ τραγελάφους καὶ, νὴ Δί', οἱ λύκοι τε καὶ οἱ ἵπποι, τί φήσεις; ἆρ' οὐ μιμητικῆς εἶναι ἔργα;” “ἔοικεν,” ἔφη. “ζωγράφος οὖν ὁ θεός, ὦ Δάμι, καὶ καταλιπὼν τὸ πτηνὸν ἅρμα, ἐφ' οὗ πορεύεται διακοσμῶν τὰ θεῖά τε καὶ ἀνθρώπεια, κάθηται τότε ἀθύρων τε καὶ γράφων ταῦτα, ὥσπερ οἱ παῖδες ἐν τῇ ψάμμῳ;” ἠρυθρίασεν ὁ Δάμις ἐς οὕτως ἄτοπον ἐκπεσεῖν δόξαντος τοῦ λόγου. οὐχ ὑπεριδὼν οὖν αὐτὸν ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος, οὐδὲ γὰρ πικρὸς πρὸς τὰς ἐλέγξεις ἦν, “ἀλλὰ μὴ τοῦτο” ἔφη “βούλει λέγειν, ὦ Δάμι, τὸ ταῦτα μὲν ἄσημά τε καὶ ὡς ἔτυχε διὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ φέρεσθαι τόγε ἐπὶ τῷ θεῷ, ἡμᾶς δὲ φύσει τὸ μιμητικὸν ἔχοντας ἀναρρυθμίζειν τε αὐτὰ καὶ ποιεῖν;” “μᾶλλον” ἔφη “τοῦτο ἡγώμεθα, ὦ ̓Απολλώνιε, πιθανώτερον γὰρ καὶ πολλῷ βέλτιον.” “διττὴ ἄρα ἡ μιμητική, ὦ Δάμι, καὶ τὴν μὲν ἡγώμεθα οἵαν τῇ χειρὶ ἀπομιμεῖσθαι καὶ τῷ νῷ, γραφικὴν δὲ εἶναι ταύτην, τὴν δ' αὖ μόνῳ τῷ νῷ εἰκάζειν.” “οὐ διττήν,” ἔφη ὁ Δάμις “ἀλλὰ τὴν μὲν τελεωτέραν ἡγεῖσθαι προσήκει γραφικήν γε οὖσαν, ἣ δύναται καὶ τῷ νῷ καὶ τῇ χειρὶ ἐξεικάσαι, τὴν δὲ ἑτέραν ἐκείνης μόριον, ἐπειδὴ ξυνίησι μὲν καὶ μιμεῖται τῷ νῷ καὶ μὴ γραφικός τις ὤν, τῇ χειρὶ δὲ οὐκ ἂν ἐς τὸ γράφειν αὐτὰ χρήσαιτο.” “ἆρα,” ἔφη “ὦ Δάμι, πεπηρωμένος τὴν χεῖρα ὑπὸ πληγῆς τινος ἢ νόσου;” “μὰ Δί'” εἶπεν “ἀλλ' ὑπὸ τοῦ μήτε γραφίδος τινὸς ἧφθαι, μήτε ὀργάνου τινὸς ἢ χρώματος, ἀλλ' ἀμαθῶς ἔχειν τοῦ γράφειν.” “οὐκοῦν,” ἔφη “ὦ Δάμι, ἄμφω ὁμολογοῦμεν μιμητικὴν μὲν ἐκ φύσεως τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ἥκειν, τὴν γραφικὴν δὲ ἐκ τέχνης. τουτὶ δ' ἂν καὶ περὶ τὴν πλαστικὴν φαίνοιτο. τὴν δὲ δὴ ζωγραφίαν αὐτὴν οὔ μοι δοκεῖς μόνον τὴν διὰ τῶν χρωμάτων ἡγεῖσθαι, καὶ γὰρ ἓν χρῶμα ἐς αὐτὴν ἤρκεσε τοῖς γε ἀρχαιοτέροις τῶν γραφέων καὶ προϊοῦσα τεττάρων εἶτα πλειόνων ἥψατο, ἀλλὰ καὶ γραμμὴν καὶ τὸ ἄνευ χρώματος, ὃ δὴ σκιᾶς τε ξύγκειται καὶ φωτός, ζωγραφίαν προσήκει καλεῖν: καὶ γὰρ ἐν αὐτοῖς ὁμοιότης τε ὁρᾶται εἶδός τε καὶ νοῦς καὶ αἰδὼς καὶ θρασύτης, καίτοι χηρεύει χρωμάτων ταῦτα, καὶ οὔτε αἷμα ἐνσημαίνει οὔτε κόμης τινὸς ἢ ὑπήνης ἄνθος, ἀλλὰ μονοτρόπως ξυντιθέμενα τῷ τε ξανθῷ ἀνθρώπῳ ἔοικε καὶ τῷ λευκῷ, κἂν τούτων τινὰ τῶν ̓Ινδῶν λευκῇ τῇ γραμμῇ γράψωμεν, μέλας δήπου δόξει, τὸ γὰρ ὑπόσιμον τῆς ῥινὸς καὶ οἱ ὀρθοὶ βόστρυχοι καὶ ἡ περιττὴ γένυς καὶ ἡ περὶ τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς οἷον ἔκπληξις μελαίνει τὰ ὁρώμενα καὶ ̓Ινδὸν ὑπογράφει τοῖς γε μὴ ἀνοήτως ὁρῶσιν. ὅθεν εἴποιμ' ἂν καὶ τοὺς ὁρῶντας τὰ τῆς γραφικῆς ἔργα μιμητικῆς δεῖσθαι: οὐ γὰρ ἂν ἐπαινέσειέ τις τὸν γεγραμμένον ἵππον ἢ ταῦρον μὴ τὸ ζῷον ἐνθυμηθείς, ᾧ εἴκασται, οὐδ' ἂν τὸν Αἴαντά τις τὸν Τιμομάχου ἀγασθείη, ὃς δὴ ἀναγέγραπται αὐτῷ μεμηνώς, εἰ μὴ ἀναλάβοι τι ἐς τὸν νοῦν Αἴαντος εἴδωλον καὶ ὡς εἰκὸς αὐτὸν ἀπεκτονότα τὰ ἐν τῇ Τροίᾳ βουκόλια καθῆσθαι ἀπειρηκότα, βουλὴν ποιούμενον καὶ ἑαυτὸν κτεῖναι. ταυτὶ δέ, ὦ Δάμι, τὰ τοῦ Πώρου δαίδαλα μήτε χαλκευτικῆς μόνον ἀποφαινώμεθα, γεγραμμένοις γὰρ εἴκασται, μήτε γραφικῆς, ἐπειδὴ ἐχαλκεύθη, ἀλλ' ἡγώμεθα σοφίσασθαι αὐτὰ γραφικόν τε καὶ χαλκευτικὸν ἕνα ἄνδρα, οἷον δή τι παρ' ̔Ομήρῳ τὸ τοῦ ̔Ηφαίστου περὶ τὴν τοῦ ̓Αχιλλέως ἀσπίδα ἀναφαίνεται. μεστὰ γὰρ καὶ ταῦτα ὀλλύντων τε καὶ ὀλλυμένων, καὶ τὴν γῆν ᾑματῶσθαι φήσεις χαλκῆν οὖσαν.”" "
4.7 σπουδῇ δὲ ὁρῶν τοὺς Σμυρναίους ἁπάντων ἁπτομένους λόγων ἐπερρώννυε καὶ σπουδαιοτέρους ἐποίει, φρονεῖν τε ἐκέλευεν ἐφ' ἑαυτοῖς μᾶλλον ἢ τῷ τῆς πόλεως εἴδει, καὶ γάρ, εἰ καὶ καλλίστη πόλεων, ὁπόσαι ὑπὸ ἡλίῳ εἰσί, καὶ τὸ πέλαγος οἰκειοῦται, ζεφύρου τε πηγὰς ἔχει, ἀλλ' ἀνδράσιν ἐστεφανῶσθαι αὐτὴν ἥδιον ἢ στοαῖς τε καὶ γραφαῖς καὶ χρυσῷ πλείονι τοῦ ὄντος. τὰ μὲν γὰρ οἰκοδομήματα ἐπὶ ταὐτοῦ μένειν οὐδαμοῦ ὁρώμενα πλὴν ἐκείνου τοῦ μέρους τῆς γῆς, ἐν ᾧ ἐστιν, ἄνδρας δὲ ἀγαθοὺς πανταχοῦ μὲν ὁρᾶσθαι, πανταχοῦ δὲ φθέγγεσθαι, τὴν δὲ πόλιν, ἧς γεγόνασιν, ἀποφαίνειν τοσαύτην, ὅσοι περ αὐτοὶ γῆν ἐπελθεῖν δύνανται. ἔλεγε δὲ τὰς μὲν πόλεις τὰς οὕτω καλὰς ἐοικέναι τῷ τοῦ Διὸς ἀγάλματι, ὃς ἐν ̓Ολυμπίᾳ τῷ Φειδίᾳ ἐκπεποίηται, καθῆσθαι γὰρ αὐτὸ — οὕτως τῷ δημιουργῷ ἔδοξε — τοὺς δὲ ἄνδρας ἐπὶ πάντα ἥκοντας μηδὲν ἀπεοικέναι τοῦ ̔Ομηρείου Διός, ὃς ἐν πολλαῖς ἰδέαις ̔Ομήρῳ πεποίηται θαυμασιώτερον ξυγκείμενος τοῦ ἐλεφαντίνου: τὸν μὲν γὰρ ἐν γῇ φαίνεσθαι, τὸν δὲ ἐς πάντα ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ ὑπονοεῖσθαι." "
4.28 ἰδὼν δὲ ἐς τὸ ἕδος τὸ ἐν ̓Ολυμπίᾳ “χαῖρε,” εἶπεν “ἀγαθὲ Ζεῦ, σὺ γὰρ οὕτω τι ἀγαθός, ὡς καὶ σαυτοῦ κοινωνῆσαι τοῖς ἀνθρώποις.” ἐξηγήσατο δὲ καὶ τὸν χαλκοῦν Μίλωνα καὶ τὸν λόγον τοῦ περὶ αὐτὸν σχήματος. ὁ γὰρ Μίλων ἑστάναι μὲν ἐπὶ δίσκου δοκεῖ τὼ πόδε ἄμφω συμβεβηκώς, ῥόαν δὲ ξυνέχει τῇ ἀριστερᾷ, ἡ δεξιὰ δέ, ὀρθοὶ τῆς χειρὸς ἐκείνης οἱ δάκτυλοι καὶ οἷον διείροντες. οἱ μὲν δὴ κατ' ̓Ολυμπίαν τε καὶ ̓Αρκαδίαν λόγοι τὸν ἀθλητὴν ἱστοροῦσι τοῦτον ἄτρεπτον γενέσθαι καὶ μὴ ἐκβιβασθῆναί ποτε τοῦ χώρου, ἐν ᾧ ἔστη, δηλοῦσθαι δὲ τὸ μὲν ἀπρὶξ τῶν δακτύλων ἐν τῇ ξυνοχῇ τῆς ῥόας, τὸ δὲ μηδ' ἂν σχισθῆναί ποτ' ἀπ' ἀλλήλων αὐτούς, εἴ τις πρὸς ἕνα αὐτῶν ἁμιλλῷτο, τῷ τὰς διαφυὰς ἐν ὀρθοῖς τοῖς δακτύλοις εὖ ξυνηρμόσθαι, τὴν ταινίαν δέ, ἣν ἀναδεῖται, σωφροσύνης ἡγοῦνται ξύμβολον. ὁ δὲ ̓Απολλώνιος σοφῶς μὲν εἶπεν ἐπινενοῆσθαι ταῦτα, σοφώτερα δὲ εἶναι τὰ ἀληθέστερα. “ὡς δὲ γιγνώσκοιτε τὸν νοῦν τοῦ Μίλωνος, Κροτωνιᾶται τὸν ἀθλητὴν τοῦτον ἱερέα ἐστήσαντο τῆς ̔́Ηρας. τὴν μὲν δὴ μίτραν ὅ τι χρὴ νοεῖν, τί ἂν ἐξηγοίμην ἔτι, μνημονεύσας ἱερέως ἀνδρός; ἡ ῥόα δὲ μόνη φυτῶν τῇ ̔́Ηρᾳ φύεται, ὁ δὲ ὑπὸ τοῖς ποσὶ δίσκος, ἐπὶ ἀσπιδίου βεβηκὼς ὁ ἱερεὺς τῇ ̔́Ηρᾳ εὔχεται, τουτὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ δεξιὰ σημαίνει, τὸ δὲ ἔργον τῶν δακτύλων καὶ τὸ μήπω διεστὼς τῇ ἀρχαίᾳ ἀγαλματοποιίᾳ προσκείσθω.”" "
6.4 κἀκεῖνα ἀξιομνημόνευτα εὗρον τοῦ ἀνδρός: ἐρᾶν τις ἐδόκει τοῦ τῆς ̓Αφροδίτης ἕδους, ὃ ἐν Κνίδῳ γυμνὸν ἵδρυται, καὶ τὰ μὲν ἀνετίθει, τὰ δ' ἀναθήσειν ἔφασκεν ὑπὲρ τοῦ γάμου, ̓Απολλωνίῳ δὲ καὶ ἄλλως μὲν ἄτοπα ἐδόκει ταῦτα, ἐπεὶ δὲ μὴ παρῃτεῖτο ἡ Κνίδος, ἀλλ' ἐναργεστέραν ἔφασαν τὴν θεὸν δόξειν, εἰ ἐρῷτο, ἔδοξε τῷ ἀνδρὶ καθῆραι τὸ ἱερὸν τῆς ἀνοίας ταύτης, καὶ ἐρομένων τῶν Κνιδίων αὐτόν, εἴ τι βούλοιτο τῶν θυτικῶν ἢ εὐκτικῶν διορθοῦσθαι “ὀφθαλμοὺς” ἔφη “διορθώσομαι, τὰ δὲ τοῦ ἱεροῦ πάτρια ἐχέτω, ὡς ἔχει.” καλέσας οὖν τὸν θρυπτόμενον ἤρετο αὐτόν, εἰ θεοὺς νενόμικε, τοῦ δ' οὕτω νομίζειν θεοὺς φήσαντος, ὡς καὶ ἐρᾶν αὐτῶν, καὶ τῶν γάμων μνημονεύσαντος, οὓς θύσειν ἡγεῖτο, “σὲ μὲν ποιηταὶ” ἔφη “ἐπαίρουσι τοὺς ̓Αγχίσας τε καὶ τοὺς Πηλέας θεαῖς ξυζυγῆναι εἰπόντες, ἐγὼ δὲ περὶ τοῦ ἐρᾶν καὶ ἐρᾶσθαι τόδε γιγνώσκω: θεοὶ θεῶν ἄνθρωποι ἀνθρώπων θηρία θηρίων καὶ καθάπαξ ὅμοια ὁμοίων ἐρᾷ ἐπὶ τῷ ἔτυμα καὶ ξυγγενῆ τίκτειν, τὸ δὲ ἑτερογενὲς τῷ μὴ ὁμοίῳ ξυνελθὸν οὔτε ζυγὸς οὔτε ἔρως. εἰ δὲ ἐνεθυμοῦ τὰ ̓Ιξίονος, οὐδ' ἂν ἐς ἔννοιαν καθίστασο τοῦ μὴ ὁμοίων ἐρᾶν. ἀλλ' ἐκεῖνος μὲν τροχῷ εἰκασμένος δι' οὐρανοῦ κνάμπτεται, σὺ δ', εἰ μὴ ἄπει τοῦ ἱεροῦ, ἀπολεῖ ἐν ἁπάσῃ τῇ γῇ οὐδ' ἀντειπεῖν ἔχων τὸ μὴ οὐ δίκαια τοὺς θεοὺς ἐπὶ σοὶ γνῶναι.” ὧδε ἡ παροινία ἐσβέσθη καὶ ἀπῆλθεν ὁ φάσκων ἐρᾶν ὑπὲρ ξυγγνώμης θύσας." "
6.4 ὑπὸ τούτῳ ἡγεμόνι παρελθεῖν φασιν ἐς τὸ τέμενος τοῦ Μέμνονος. περὶ δὲ τοῦ Μέμνονος τάδε ἀναγράφει Δάμις: ̓Ηοῦς μὲν παῖδα γενέσθαι αὐτόν, ἀποθανεῖν δὲ οὐκ ἐν Τροίᾳ, ὅτι μηδὲ ἀφικέσθαι ἐς Τροίαν, ἀλλ' ἐν Αἰθιοπίᾳ τελευτῆσαι βασιλεύσαντα Αἰθιόπων γενεὰς πέντε. οἱ δ', ἐπειδὴ μακροβιώτατοι ἀνθρώπων εἰσίν, ὀλοφύρονται τὸν Μέμνονα ὡς κομιδῇ νέον καὶ ὅσα ἐπὶ ἀώρῳ κλαίουσι, τὸ δὲ χωρίον, ἐν ᾧ ἵδρυται, φασὶ μὲν προσεοικέναι ἀγορᾷ ἀρχαίᾳ, οἷαι τῶν ἀγορῶν ἐν πόλεσί ποτε οἰκηθείσαις λείπονται στηλῶν παρεχόμεναι τρύφη καὶ τειχῶν ἴχνη καὶ θάκους καὶ φλιὰς ἑρμῶν τε ἀγάλματα, τὰ μὲν ὑπὸ χειρῶν διεφθορότα, τὰ δὲ ὑπὸ χρόνου. τὸ δὲ ἄγαλμα τετράφθαι πρὸς ἀκτῖνα μήπω γενειάσκον, λίθου δὲ εἶναι μέλανος, ξυμβεβηκέναι δὲ τὼ πόδε ἄμφω κατὰ τὴν ἀγαλματοποιίαν τὴν ἐπὶ Δαιδάλου καὶ τὰς χεῖρας ἀπερείδειν ὀρθὰς ἐς τὸν θᾶκον, καθῆσθαι γὰρ ἐν ὁρμῇ τοῦ ὑπανίστασθαι. τὸ δὲ σχῆμα τοῦτο καὶ τὸν τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν νοῦν καὶ ὁπόσα τοῦ στόματος ὡς φθεγξομένου ᾅδουσι, τὸν μὲν ἄλλον χρόνον ἧττον θαυμάσαι φασίν, οὔπω γὰρ ἐνεργὰ φαίνεσθαι, προσβαλούσης δὲ τὸ ἄγαλμα τῆς ἀκτῖνος, τουτὶ δὲ γίγνεσθαι περὶ ἡλίου ἐπιτολάς, μὴ κατασχεῖν τὸ θαῦμα, φθέγξασθαι μὲν γὰρ παραχρῆμα τῆς ἀκτῖνος ἐλθούσης αὐτῷ ἐπὶ στόμα, φαιδροὺς δὲ ἱστάναι τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς δόξαι πρὸς τὸ φῶς, οἷα τῶν ἀνθρώπων οἱ εὐήλιοι. τότε ξυνεῖναι λέγουσιν, ὅτι τῷ ̔Ηλίῳ δοκεῖ ὑπανίστασθαι, καθάπερ οἱ τὸ κρεῖττον ὀρθοὶ θεραπεύοντες. θύσαντες οὖν ̔Ηλίῳ τε Αἰθίοπι καὶ ̓Ηῴῳ Μέμνονι, τουτὶ γὰρ ἔφραζον οἱ ἱερεῖς, τὸν μὲν ἀπὸ τοῦ αἴθειν τε καὶ θάλπειν, τὸν δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς μητρὸς ἐπονομάζοντες, ἐπορεύοντο ἐπὶ καμήλων ἐς τὰ τῶν Γυμνῶν ἤθη." "
6.19 “ἐρώτα,” ἔφασαν “ἕπεται γάρ που ἐρωτήσει λόγος.” καὶ ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος “περὶ θεῶν” εἶπεν “ὑμᾶς ἐρήσομαι πρῶτον, τί μαθόντες ἄτοπα καὶ γελοῖα θεῶν εἴδη παραδεδώκατε τοῖς δεῦρο ἀνθρώποις πλὴν ὀλίγων: ὀλίγων γάρ; πάνυ μέντοι ὀλίγων, ἃ σοφῶς καὶ θεοειδῶς ἵδρυται, τὰ λοιπὰ δ' ὑμῶν ἱερὰ ζῴων ἀλόγων καὶ ἀδόξων τιμαὶ μᾶλλον ἢ θεῶν φαίνονται.” δυσχεράνας δὲ ὁ Θεσπεσίων “τὰ δὲ παρ' ὑμῖν” εἶπεν “ἀγάλματα πῶς ἱδρῦσθαι φήσεις;” “ὥς γε” ἔφη “κάλλιστόν τε καὶ θεοφιλέστατον δημιουργεῖν θεούς.” “τὸν Δία που λέγεις” εἶπε “τὸν ἐν τῇ ̓Ολυμπίᾳ καὶ τὸ τῆς ̓Αθηνᾶς ἕδος καὶ τὸ τῆς Κνιδίας τε καὶ τὸ τῆς ̓Αργείας καὶ ὁπόσα ὧδε καλὰ καὶ μεστὰ ὥρας.” “οὐ μόνον” ἔφη “ταῦτα, ἀλλὰ καὶ καθάπαξ τὴν μὲν παρὰ τοῖς ἄλλοις ἀγαλματοποιίαν ἅπτεσθαί φημι τοῦ προσήκοντος, ὑμᾶς δὲ καταγελᾶν τοῦ θείου μᾶλλον ἢ νομίζειν αὐτό.” “οἱ Φειδίαι δὲ” εἶπε:“καὶ οἱ Πραξιτέλεις μῶν ἀνελθόντες ἐς οὐρανὸν καὶ ἀπομαξάμενοι τὰ τῶν θεῶν εἴδη τέχνην αὐτὰ ἐποιοῦντο, ἢ ἕτερόν τι ἦν, ὃ ἐφίστη αὐτοὺς τῷ πλάττειν;” “ἕτερον” ἔφη “καὶ μεστόν γε σοφίας πρᾶγμα.” “ποῖον;” εἶπεν “οὐ γὰρ ἄν τι παρὰ τὴν μίμησιν εἴποις.” “φαντασία” ἔφη “ταῦτα εἰργάσατο σοφωτέρα μιμήσεως δημιουργός: μίμησις μὲν γὰρ δημιουργήσει, ὃ εἶδεν, φαντασία δὲ καὶ ὃ μὴ εἶδεν, ὑποθήσεται γὰρ αὐτὸ πρὸς τὴν ἀναφορὰν τοῦ ὄντος, καὶ μίμησιν μὲν πολλάκις ἐκκρούει ἔκπληξις, φαντασίαν δὲ οὐδέν, χωρεῖ γὰρ ἀνέκπληκτος πρὸς ὃ αὐτὴ ὑπέθετο. δεῖ δέ που Διὸς μὲν ἐνθυμηθέντα εἶδος ὁρᾶν αὐτὸν ξὺν οὐρανῷ καὶ ὥραις καὶ ἄστροις, ὥσπερ ὁ Φειδίας τότε ὥρμησεν, ̓Αθηνᾶν δὲ δημιουργήσειν μέλλοντα στρατόπεδα ἐννοεῖν καὶ μῆτιν καὶ τέχνας καὶ ὡς Διὸς αὐτοῦ ἀνέθορεν. εἰ δὲ ἱέρακα ἢ γλαῦκα ἢ λύκον ἢ κύνα ἐργασάμενος ἐς τὰ ἱερὰ φέροις ἀντὶ ̔Ερμοῦ τε καὶ ̓Αθηνᾶς καὶ ̓Απόλλωνος, τὰ μὲν θηρία καὶ τὰ ὄρνεα ζηλωτὰ δόξει τῶν εἰκόνων, οἱ δὲ θεοὶ παραπολὺ τῆς αὑτῶν δόξης ἑστήξουσιν.” “ἔοικας” εἶπεν “ἀβασανίστως ἐξετάζειν τὰ ἡμέτερα: σοφὸν γάρ, εἴπερ τι Αἰγυπτίων, καὶ τὸ μὴ θρασύνεσθαι ἐς τὰ τῶν θεῶν εἴδη, ξυμβολικὰ δὲ αὐτὰ ποιεῖσθαι καὶ ὑπονοούμενα, καὶ γὰρ ἂν καὶ σεμνότερα οὕτω φαίνοιτο.” γελάσας οὖν ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος “ὦ ἄνθρωποι,” ἔφη “μεγάλα ὑμῖν ἀπολέλαυται τῆς Αἰγυπτίων τε καὶ Αἰθιόπων σοφίας, εἰ σεμνότερον ὑμῶν καὶ θεοειδέστερον κύων δόξει καὶ ἶβις καὶ τράγος, ταῦτα γὰρ Θεσπεσίωνος ἀκούω τοῦ σοφοῦ. σεμνὸν δὲ δὴ ἢ ἔμφοβον τί ἐν τούτοις; τοὺς γὰρ ἐπιόρκους καὶ τοὺς ἱεροσύλους καὶ τὰ βωμολόχα ἔθνη καταφρονεῖν τῶν τοιούτων ἱερῶν εἰκὸς μᾶλλον ἢ δεδιέναι αὐτά, εἰ δὲ σεμνότερα ταῦτα ὑπονοούμενα, πολλῷ σεμνότερον ἂν ἔπραττον οἱ θεοὶ κατ' Αἴγυπτον, εἰ μὴ ἵδρυτό τι αὐτῶν ἄγαλμα, ἀλλ' ἕτερον τρόπον σοφώτερόν τε καὶ ἀπορρητότερον τῇ θεολογίᾳ ἐχρῆσθε: ἦν γάρ που νεὼς μὲν αὐτοῖς ἐξοικοδομῆσαι καὶ βωμοὺς ὁρίζειν καὶ ἃ χρὴ θύειν καὶ ἃ μὴ χρὴ καὶ ὁπηνίκα καὶ ἐφ' ὅσον καὶ ὅ τι λέγοντας ἢ δρῶντας, ἄγαλμα δὲ μὴ ἐσφέρειν, ἀλλὰ τὰ εἴδη τῶν θεῶν καταλείπειν τοῖς τὰ ἱερὰ ἐσφοιτῶσιν, ἀναγράφει γάρ τι ἡ γνώμη καὶ ἀνατυποῦται δημιουργίας κρεῖττον, ὑμεῖς δὲ ἀφῄρησθε τοὺς θεοὺς καὶ τὸ ὁρᾶσθαι καλῶς καὶ τὸ ὑπονοεῖσθαι.” πρὸς ταῦτα ὁ Θεσπεσίων, “ἐγένετό τις” ἔφη “Σωκράτης ̓Αθηναῖος ἀνόητος, ὥσπερ ἡμεῖς, γέρων, ὃς τὸν κύνα καὶ τὸν χῆνα καὶ τὴν πλάτανον θεούς τε ἡγεῖτο καὶ ὤμνυ.” “οὐκ ἀνόητος,” εἶπεν “ἀλλὰ θεῖος καὶ ἀτεχνῶς σοφός, ὤμνυ γὰρ ταῦτα οὐχ' ὡς θεούς, ἀλλ' ἵνα μὴ θεοὺς ὀμνύοι.”"" None
2.22 While he was waiting in the Temple, — and it took a long time for the king to be informed that strangers had arrived, — Apollonius said: O Damis, is there such a thing as painting? Why yes, he answered, if there be any such thing as truth. And what does this art do? It mixes together, replied Damis, all the colors there are, blue with green, and white with black, and red with yellow. And for what reason, said the other, does it mix these? For it isn't merely to get a color, like dyed wax. It is, said Damis, for the sake of imitation, and to get a likeness of a dog, or a horse, or a man, or a ship, or of anything else under the sun; and what is more, you see the sun himself represented, sometimes borne upon a four horse car, as he is said to be seen here, and sometimes again traversing the heaven with his torch, in case you are depicting the ether and the home of the gods. Then, O Damis, painting is imitation? And what else could it be? said he: for if it did not effect that, it would voted to be an idle playing with colors. And, said the other, the things which are seen in heaven, whenever the clouds are torn away from one another, I mean the centaurs and stag-antelopes, yes, and the wolves too, and the horses, what have you got to say about them? Are we not to regard them as works of imitation? It would seem so, he replied. Then, Damis, God is a painter, and has left his winged chariot, upon which he travels, as he disposes of affairs human and divine, and he sits down on these occasions to amuse himself by drawing these pictures, as children make figures in the sand. Damis blushed, for he felt that his argument was reduced to such an absurdity. But Apollonius, on his side, had no wish to humiliate him, for he was not unfeeling in his refutations of people, and said: But I am sure, Damis, you did not mean that; rather that these figures flit through the heaven not only without meaning, but, so far as providence is concerned, by mere chance; while we who by nature are prone to imitation rearrange and create them in these regular figures. We may, he said, rather consider this to be the case, O Apollonius, for it is more probable, and a much sounder idea. Then, O Damis, the mimetic art is twofold, and we may regard the one kind as an employment of the hands and mind in producing imitations, and declare that this is painting, whereas the other kind consists in making likenesses with the mind alone. Not twofold, replied Damis, for we ought to regard the former as the more perfect and more complete kind, being anyhow painting and a faculty of making likenesses with the help both of mind and hand; but we must regard the other kind as a department that, since its possessor perceives and imitates with the mind, without having the delineative faculty, and would never use his hand in depicting its objects. Then, said Apollonius, you mean, Damis, that the hand may be disabled by a blow or by disease? No, he answered, but it is disabled, because it has never handled pencil nor any instrument or color, and has never learned to draw. Then, said the other, we are both of us, Damis, agreed that man owes his mimetic faculty to nature, but his power of painting to art. And the same would appear to be true of plastic art. But, methinks, you would not confine painting itself to the mere use of colors, for a single color was often found sufficient for this purpose by our older painters; and as the art advanced, it employed four, and later, yet more; but we must also concede the name of a painting to an outline drawn without any color at all, and composed merely of shadow and light. For in such designs we see a resemblance, we see form and expression, and modesty and bravery, although they are altogether devoid of color; and neither blood is represented, nor the color of a man's hair or beard; nevertheless these compositions in monochrome are likenesses of people either tawny or white, and if we drew one of these Indians with a pencil without color, yet he would be known for a negro, for his flat nose, and his stiff curling locks and prominent jaw, and a certain gleam about his eyes, would give a black look to the picture and depict an Indian to the eyes of all those who have intelligence. And for this reason I should say that those who look at works of painting and drawing require a mimetic faculty; for no one could appreciate or admire a picture of a horse or of a bull, unless he had formed an idea of the picture represented. Nor again could one admire a picture of Ajax, by the painter Timomachus, which represents him in a state of madness, unless one had conceived in one's mind first an idea or notion of Ajax, and had entertained the probability that after killing the flocks in Troy he would sit down exhausted and even meditate suicide. But these elaborate works of Porus we cannot, Damis, regard as works of brass founding alone, for they are cast in brass; so let us regard them as the chefs d'oeuvre of a man who is both painter and brass-founder at once, and as similar to the work of Hephaestus upon the shield of Achilles, as revealed in Homer. For they are crowded together in that work too men slaying and slain, and you would say that the earth was stained with gore, though it is made of brass." 4.7 And remarking the zeal with which the people of Smyrna devoted themselves to all sorts of compositions, he encouraged them and increased their zeal, and urged them to take pride rather in themselves than in the beauty of their city; for although they had the most beautiful of cities under the sun, and although they had a friendly sea at their doors, which held the springs of the zephyr, nevertheless, it was more pleasing for the city to be crowned with men than with porticos and pictures, or even with gold in excess of what they needed. For, he said, public edifices remain where they are, and are nowhere seen except in that particular part of the earth where they exist, but good men are conspicuous everywhere, and everywhere they utter their thoughts; and so they can magnify the city more to which they belong, in proportion to the numbers in which they are able to visit any part of the earth.And he said that cities which are beautiful in the same way as Smyrna was, resemble the statue of Zeus wrought in Olympia by Phidias; for there Zeus sits, just as it pleased the artist that he should, whereas men who visit all regions of the earth may be well compared with the Homeric Zeus, who is represented by Homer under many shapes, and is a more wonderful creation than the image made of ivory; for the latter is only to be seen upon earth, but the former is an ideal presence imagined everywhere in heaven.' "
4.28 And looking at the statue set up at Olympia, he said: Hail, O thou good Zeus, for thou art so good that thou dost impart thine own nature unto mankind. And he also gave them an account of the brazen statue of Milo and explained the attitude of this figure. For this Milo is seen standing on a disk with his two feet close together, and in his left hand he grasps a pomegranate, whole of his right hand the fingers are extended and pressed together as if to pass through a chink. Now among the people of Olympia and Arcadia the story told about this athlete is, that he was so inflexible that he could never be induced to leave the spot on which he stood; and they infer the grip of the clenched fingers from the way he grasps the pomegranate, and that they could never be separated from another, however much you struggled with any one of them, because the intervals between the extended fingers are very close; and they say that the fillet with which his head is bound is a symbol of temperance and sobriety. Apollonius while admitting that this account was wisely conceived, said that the truth was still wiser. In order that you may know, said he, the meaning of the statue of Milo, the people of Croton made this athlete a priest of Hera. As to the meaning then of this mitre, I need not explain it further than by reminding you that the hero was a priest. But the pomegranate is the only fruit which is grown in honor of Hera; and the disk beneath his feet means that the priest is standing on a small shield to offer his prayer to Hera; and this is also indicated by his right hand. As for the artist's rendering the fingers and feet, between which he has left no interval, that you may ascribe to the antique style of the sculpture." "
6.4 Under his guidance, they say, they went on to the sacred enclosure of Memnon, of whom Damis gives the following account. He says that he was the son of the Dawn, and that he did not meet his death in Troy, where indeed he never went; but that he died in Ethiopia after ruling the land for five generations. But his countrymen being the longest lived of men, still mourn him as a mere youth and deplore his untimely death. But the place in which his statue is set up resembles, they tell us, an ancient market-place, such as remain in cities that were long ago inhabited, and where we come on broken stumps and fragments of columns, and find traces of walls as well as seats and jambs of doors, and images of Hermes, some destroyed by the hand of man, others by that of time. Now this statue, says Damis, was turned towards the sunrise, and was that of a youth still unbearded; and it was made of a black stone, and the two feet were joined together after the style in which statues were made in the time of Daedalus; and the arms of the figure were perpendicular to the seat pressing upon it, for though the figure was still sitting it was represented in the very act of rising up. We hear much of this attitude of the statue, and of the expression of its eyes, and of how the lips seem about to speak; but they say that they had no opportunity of admiring these effects until they saw them realized; for when the sun's rays fell upon the statue, and this happened exactly at dawn, they could not restrain their admiration; for the lips spoke immediately the sun's ray touched them, and the eyes seemed to stand out and gleam against the light as do those of men who love to bask in the sun. Then they say they understood that the figure was of one in the act of rising and making obeisance to the sun, in the way those do who worship the powers above standing erect. They accordingly offered a sacrifice to the Sun of Ethiopia and to Memnon of the Dawn, for this the priests recommended them to do, explaining that one name was derived from the words signifying to burn and be warm 1 and the other from his mother. Having done this they set out upon camels for the home of the naked philosophers." "
6.19 Ask, they said, for you know question comes first and argument follows on it. It is about the gods that I would like to ask you a question first, namely, what induced you to impart, as your tradition, to the people of this country forms of the gods that are absurd and grotesque in all but a few cases? In a few cases, do I say? I would rather say that in very few are the gods' images fashioned in a wise and god-like manner, for the mass of your shrines seem to have been erected in honor rather of irrational and ignoble animals than of gods. Thespesion, resenting these remarks, said: And your own images in Greece, how are they fashioned? In the way, he replied, in which it is best and most reverent to construct images of the gods. I suppose you allude, said the other, to the statue of Zeus in Olympia, and to the image of Athena and to that of the Cnidian goddess and to that of the Argive goddess and to other images equally beautiful and full of charm? Not only to these, replied Apollonius, but without exception I maintain, that whereas in other lands statuary has scrupulously observed decency and fitness, you rather make ridicule of the gods than really believe in them. Your artists, then, like Phidias, said the other, and like Praxiteles, went up, I suppose, to heaven and took a copy of the forms of the gods, and then reproduced these by their art or was there any other influence which presided over and guided their molding? There was, said Apollonius, and an influence pregt with wisdom and genius. What was that? said the other, for I do not think you can adduce any except imitation. Imagination, said Apollonius, wrought these works, a wiser and subtler artist by far than imitation; for imitation can only create as its handiwork what it has seen, but imagination equally what it has not seen; for it will conceive of its ideal with reference to the reality, and imitation is often baffled by terror, but imagination by nothing; for it marches undismayed to the goal which it has itself laid down. When you entertain a notion of Zeus you must, I suppose, envisage him along with heaven and seasons and stars, as Phidias in his day endeavoured to do, and if you would fashion an image of Athena you must imagine in your mind armies and cunning, and handicrafts, and how she leapt out of Zeus himself. But if you make a hawk or an owl or a wolf or a dog, and put it in your temples instead of Hermes or Athena or Apollo, your animals and your birds may be esteemed and of much price as likenesses, but the gods will be very much lowered in their dignity. I think, said the other, that you criticize our religion very superficially; for if the Egyptians have any wisdom, they show it by their deep respect and reverence in the representation of the gods, and by the circumstance that they fashion their forms as symbols of a profound inner meaning, so as to enhance their solemnity and august character. Apollonius thereon merely laughed and said: My good friends, you have indeed greatly profited by the wisdom of Egypt and Ethiopia, if your dog and your ibis and your goat seem particularly august and god-like, for this is what I learn from Thespesion the sage.But what is there that is august or awe-inspiring in these images? Is it not likely that perjurers and temple-thieves and all the rabble of low jesters will despise such holy objects rather than dread them; and if they are to be held for the hidden meanings which they convey, surely the gods in Egypt would have met with much greater reverence, if no images of them had ever been set up at all, and if you had planned your theology along other lines wiser and more mysterious. For I imagine you might have built temples for them, and have fixed the altars and laid down rules about what to sacrifice and what not, and when and on what scale, and with what liturgies and rites, without introducing any image at all, but leaving it to those who frequented the temples to imagine the images of the gods; for the mind can more or less delineate and figure them to itself better than can any artist; but you have denied to the gods the privilege of beauty both of the outer eye and of an inner suggestion. Thespesion replied and said: There was a certain Athenian, called Socrates, a foolish old man like ourselves, who thought that the dog and the goose and the plane tree were gods and used to swear by them. He was not foolish, said Apollonius, but a divine and unfeignedly wise man; for he did not swear by these objects on the understanding that they were gods, but to save himself from swearing by the gods."" None
|60. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Artist, works of art • art
Found in books: Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 167; Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 426
|61. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Apelles (artist) • art, Roman
Found in books: Borg (2008), Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic, 114, 122; Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 293
|62. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • art • art and architecture, Roman appreciation
Found in books: Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 164; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 240
|63. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, as aphrodisiac • Art, idol vs. image • Art, loss of pagan meaning for Christians and Jews • Art, nudity • Art, religious art manufactured by Jews and Christians • art • art expert, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica • lover, as viewer of erotic art • nature and art, in the Greek novels • visual arts
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 908; Cueva et al. (2018a), Re-Wiring the Ancient Novel. Volume 1: Greek Novels, 133; Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 185, 189; Pinheiro et al. (2015), Philosophy and the Ancient Novel, 116; Repath and Whitmarsh (2022), Reading Heliodorus' Aethiopica, 11
|64. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Athenaeus, on eroticism in art • Lucian, and erotic response to art • Valerius Maximus, and eroticism in art • drapery, artistic treatment of
Found in books: Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 113, 114; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 231
|65. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • artistic motifs
Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 155; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 155
|36a דמדרינן ליה ברבים הניחא למאן דאמר נדר שהודר ברבים אין לו הפרה אלא למאן דאמר יש לו הפרה מאי איכא למימר,דמדרינן ליה על דעת רבים דאמר אמימר הלכתא אפילו למאן דאמר נדר שהודר ברבים יש לו הפרה על דעת רבים אין לו הפרה,והני מילי לדבר הרשות אבל לדבר מצוה יש לו הפרה כי ההוא מקרי דרדקי דאדריה רב אחא על דעת רבים דהוה פשע בינוקי ואהדריה רבינא דלא אישתכח דדייק כוותיה:,והעדים חותמין על הגט מפני תיקון העולם: מפני תיקון העולם דאורייתא הוא דכתיב (ירמיהו לב, מד) וכתוב בספר וחתום,אמר רבה לא צריכא לרבי אלעזר דאמר עדי מסירה כרתי תקינו רבנן עדי חתימה מפני תיקון העולם דזמנין דמייתי סהדי אי נמי זימנין דאזלי למדינת הים,רב יוסף אמר אפי' תימא לר' מאיר התקינו שיהא עדים מפרשין שמותיהן בגיטין מפני תיקון העולם,כדתניא בראשונה היה כותב אני פלוני חתמתי עד אם כתב ידו יוצא ממקום אחר כשר ואם לאו פסול,אמר רבן גמליאל תקנה גדולה התקינו שיהיו מפרשין שמותיהן בגיטין מפני תיקון העולם,ובסימנא לא והא רב צייר כורא ורבי חנינא צייר חרותא רב חסדא סמך ורב הושעיא עין רבה בר רב הונא צייר מכותא שאני רבנן דבקיאין סימנייהו,מעיקרא במאי אפקעינהו בדיסקי:,הלל התקין פרוסבול וכו': תנן התם פרוסבול אינו משמט זה אחד מן הדברים שהתקין הלל הזקן שראה את העם שנמנעו מלהלוות זה את זה ועברו על מה שכתוב בתורה (דברים טו, ט) השמר לך פן יהיה דבר עם לבבך בליעל וגו' עמד והתקין פרוסבול,וזה הוא גופו של פרוסבול מוסרני לכם פלוני דיינין שבמקום פלוני שכל חוב שיש לי אצל פלוני שאגבנו כל זמן שארצה והדיינים חותמים למטה או העדים,ומי איכא מידי דמדאורייתא משמטא שביעית והתקין הלל דלא משמטא אמר אביי בשביעית בזמן הזה ורבי היא,דתניא רבי אומר (דברים טו, ב) וזה דבר השמיטה שמוט בשתי שמיטות הכתוב מדבר אחת שמיטת קרקע ואחת שמיטת כספים בזמן שאתה משמט קרקע אתה משמט כספים בזמן שאי אתה משמט קרקע אי אתה משמט כספים" " None||36a The Gemara answers that we administer the vow to the priest in public. The Gemara asks: This works out well according to the one who says that a vow that was taken in public has no possibility of nullification by a halakhic authority, but according to the one who says it has the possibility of nullification, what can be said?,The Gemara answers that we administer the vow to the priest based on the consent of the public, making it a type of vow that cannot be dissolved without their consent. As Ameimar said, the halakha is as follows: Even according to the one who says that a vow that was taken in public has the possibility of nullification, if it was taken based on the consent of the public, it has no possibility of nullification.,The Gemara comments: And this matter applies only to when the nullification of a vow is in order to enable one to perform an optional matter, but to enable one to perform a matter of a mitzva, it has the possibility of nullification. This is like the incident involving a certain teacher of children, upon whom Rav Aḥa administered a vow based on the consent of the public to cease teaching, as he was negligent with regard to the children by hitting them too much. And Ravina had his vow nullified and reinstated him, as they did not find another teacher who was as meticulous as he was.,§ The mishna taught: And the witnesses sign the bill of divorce for the betterment of the world. The Gemara asks: Is the reason that the witnesses sign the bill of divorce for the betterment of the world? It is by Torah law that they must sign, as it is written: “And subscribe the deeds, and sign them, and call witnesses” (Jeremiah 32:44).,Rabba said: No, it is necessary according to the opinion of Rabbi Elazar, who says: Witnesses of the transmission of the bill of divorce effect the divorce, and not the witnesses who sign the bill of divorce, and by Torah law it does not need to be signed. Nevertheless, the Sages instituted signatory witnesses for the betterment of the world, as sometimes it occurs that the witnesses who witnessed the transmission of the bill of divorce die, or sometimes it occurs that they go overseas, and the validity of the bill of divorce may be contested. Since they are not present, there are no witnesses who can ratify the bill of divorce. Once the Sages instituted that the witnesses’ signatures appear on the bill of divorce, then the bill of divorce can be ratified by authenticating their signatures.,Rav Yosef said: You can even say that it is according to the opinion of Rabbi Meir, that signatory witnesses on the bill of divorce effect the divorce, and the mishna should be understood as follows: They instituted that the witnesses must specify their full names on bills of divorce and not merely sign the document, for the betterment of the world.,As it is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 9:13): At first, the witness would write only: I, so-and-so, signed as a witness, but they did not state their full names. Therefore, the only way to identify the witness was to see if an identical signature could be found on a different document that had been ratified in court. Therefore, if another copy of a witness’s signature is produced from elsewhere, i.e., another court document, it is valid, but if not, then the bill of divorce is invalid even though it is possible that he was a valid witness, and as a result of this women were left unable to remarry.,Rabban Gamliel said: They instituted a great ordice that the witnesses must specify their full names on bills of divorce, stating that they are so-and-so, son of so-and-so, and other identifying features, for the betterment of the world. This made it possible to easily clarify who the witnesses were and to ratify the bill of divorce by finding acquaintances of the witnesses who recognized their signatures.,The Gemara asks: But is it not sufficient to sign with a pictorial mark? But Rav drew a fish instead of a signature, and Rabbi Ḥanina drew a palm branch ḥaruta; Rav Ḥisda drew the letter samekh, and Rav Hoshaya drew the letter ayin; and Rabba bar Rav Huna drew a sail makota. None of these Sages would sign their actual names. The Gemara answers: The Sages are different, as everyone is well versed in their pictorial marks.,The Gemara asks: Initially, with what did they publicize these marks, as they could not use them in place of signatures before people were well versed in them? The Gemara answers: They initially used their marks in letters, where there is no legal requirement to sign their names. Once it became known that they would use these marks as their signatures, they were able to use them as signatures even on legal documents.,§ The mishna taught that Hillel the Elder instituted a document that prevents the Sabbatical Year from abrogating an outstanding debt prosbol. We learned in a mishna there (Shevi’it 10:3): If one writes a prosbol, the Sabbatical Year does not abrogate debt. This is one of the matters that Hillel the Elder instituted because he saw that the people of the nation were refraining from lending to one another around the time of the Sabbatical Year, as they were concerned that the debtor would not repay the loan, and they violated that which is written in the Torah: “Beware that there be not a base thought in your heart, saying: The seventh year, the year of release, is at hand; and your eye be evil against your needy brother, and you give him nothing” (Deuteronomy 15:9). He arose and instituted the prosbol so that it would also be possible to collect those debts in order to ensure that people would continue to give loans.,And this is the essence of the text of the prosbol: I transfer to you, so-and-so the judges, who are in such and such a place, so that I will collect any debt that I am owed by so-and-so whenever I wish, as the court now has the right to collect the debts. And the judges or the witnesses sign below, and this is sufficient. The creditor will then be able to collect the debt on behalf of the court, and the court can give it to him.,The Gemara asks about the prosbol itself: But is there anything like this, where by Torah law the Sabbatical Year cancels the debt but Hillel instituted that it does not cancel the debt? Abaye said: The baraita is referring to the Sabbatical Year in the present, and it is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi.,As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi says: The verse states in the context of the cancellation of debts: “And this is the manner of the abrogation: He shall abrogate” (Deuteronomy 15:2). The verse speaks of two types of abrogation: One is the release of land and one is the abrogation of monetary debts. Since the two are equated, one can learn the following: At a time when you release land, when the Jubilee Year is practiced, you abrogate monetary debts; at a time when you do not release land, such as the present time, when the Jubilee Year is no longer practiced, you also do not abrogate monetary debts.' ' None|
|66. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • art, in magic • artistic motifs
Found in books: Secunda (2014), The Iranian Talmud: Reading the Bavli in Its Sasanian Context. 156; Secunda (2020), The Talmud's Red Fence: Menstrual Impurity and Difference in Babylonian Judaism and its Sasanian Context , 156; Swartz (2018), The Mechanics of Providence: The Workings of Ancient Jewish Magic and Mysticism. 125
|110a מצוה באפי נפשה הוא,לא יעשה צרכיו תרי אמאי נמלך הוא אמר אביי הכי קאמר לא יאכל תרי וישתה תרי ולא יעשה צרכיו אפילו פעם אחת דילמא חליש ומיתרע,ת"ר שותה כפלים דמו בראשו אמר רב יהודה אימתי בזמן שלא ראה פני השוק אבל ראה פני השוק הרשות בידו אמר רב אשי חזינא ליה לרב חנניא בר ביבי דאכל כסא הוה נפיק וחזי אפי שוקא,ולא אמרן אלא לצאת לדרך אבל בביתו לא אמר ר\' זירא ולישן כלצאת לדרך דמי אמר רב פפא ולצאת לבית הכסא כלצאת לדרך דמי ובביתו לא והא רבא מני כשורי,ואביי כי שתי חד כסא מנקיט ליה אימיה תרי כסי בתרי ידיה ורב נחמן בר יצחק כי הוה שתי תרי כסי מנקיט ליה שמעיה חד כסא חד כסא מנקיט ליה תרי כסי בתרי ידיה אדם חשוב שאני,אמר עולא עשרה כוסות אין בהם משום זוגות עולא לטעמיה דאמר עולא ואמרי לה במתניתא תנא עשרה כוסות תיקנו חכמים בבית האבל ואי ס"ד עשרה כוסות יש בהן משום זוגות היכי קיימי רבנן ותקנו מילתא דאתי לידי סכנה אבל תמניא יש בהן משום זוגות,רב חסדא ורבה בר רב הונא דאמרי תרוייהו שלום לטובה מצטרף לרעה לא מצטרף אבל שיתא יש בהן משום זוגות,רבה ורב יוסף דאמרי תרוייהו ויחונך לטובה מצטרף לרעה לא מצטרף אבל ארבעה יש בהן משום זוגות,אביי ורבא דאמרי תרוייהו וישמרך לטובה מצטרף לרעה לא מצטרף,ואזדא רבא לטעמיה דרבא אפקינהו לרבנן בארבעה כוסות אע"ג דאיתזק רבא בר ליואי לא חש לה למילתא דאמר ההוא משום דאותבן בפירקא הוה,אמר רב יוסף אמר לי יוסף שידא אשמדאי מלכא דשידי ממונה הוא אכולהו זוגי ומלכא לא איקרי מזיק איכא דאמרי לה להאי גיסא אדרבה מלכא רתחנא הוא מאי דבעי עביד שהמלך פורץ גדר לעשות לו דרך ואין מוחין בידו,אמר רב פפא אמר לי יוסף שידא בתרי קטלינן בארבעה לא קטלינן בארבעה מזקינן בתרי בין בשוגג בין במזיד בארבעה במזיד אין בשוגג לא,ואי אישתלי ואיקרי ונפק מאי תקנתיה לינקוט זקפא דידיה דימיניה בידא דשמאליה וזקפא דשמאליה בידא דימיניה ונימא הכי אתון ואנא הא תלתא ואי שמיע ליה דאמר אתון ואנא הא ארבעה נימא ליה אתון ואנא הא חמשה ואי שמיע ליה דאמר אתון ואנא הא שיתא נימא ליה אתון ואנא הא שבעה הוה עובדא עד מאה וחד ופקע שידא,אמר אמימר אמרה לי רישתינהי דנשים כשפניות האי מאן דפגע בהו בנשים כשפניות נימא הכי חרי חמימי בדיקולא בזייא לפומייכו נשי דחרשייא קרח קרחייכי פרח פרחייכי'' None||110a is a distinct mitzva in its own right. In other words, each cup is treated separately and one is not considered to be drinking in pairs.,The baraita taught that one should not attend to his sexual needs in pairs. The Gemara asks: Why should one be concerned for this; he has changed his mind? One does not plan in advance to engage in marital relations twice, and therefore the two acts should not combine to form a dangerous pair. Abaye said: This is what the tanna is saying, i.e., the baraita should be understood in the following manner: One should not eat in pairs nor drink in pairs, and if he does so he should not attend to his sexual needs right afterward even once, lest he is weakened by the act and will be harmed for having eaten or drunk in pairs.,The Sages taught in another baraita: If one drinks in pairs his blood is upon his head, i.e., he bears responsibility for his own demise. Rav Yehuda said: When is that the case? When one did not leave the house and view the marketplace between cups. However, if he saw the marketplace after the first cup, he has permission to drink another cup without concern. Likewise, Rav Ashi said: I saw Rav Ḥaya bar Beivai follow this policy: Upon drinking each cup, he would leave the house and view the marketplace.,And we said that there is concern for the safety of one who drinks in pairs only when he intends to set out on the road after drinking, but if he intends to remain in his home there is no need for concern. Rabbi Zeira said: And one who plans to sleep is comparable to one who is setting out on the road. He should be concerned that he might be harmed. Rav Pappa said: And going to the bathroom is comparable to setting out on the road. The Gemara asks: And if one intends to remain in his home, is there no cause for concern? But Rava would count the beams of the house to keep track of the number of cups he had drunk so as to ensure that he would not consume an even number.,And likewise Abaye, when he would drink one cup, his mother would immediately place two cups in his two hands so that he would not inadvertently drink only one more cup and thereby expose himself to the danger of drinking in pairs. And similarly, when Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak would drink two cups, his attendant would immediately place one more cup in his hand, and if he would drink one cup, the attendant would place two cups in his two hands. These reports indicate that one should be concerned for his safety after drinking an even number of cups, even when he remains at home. The Gemara answers: An important person is different. The demons focus their attention on him, and he must therefore be more careful than the average person.,Ulla said: Ten cups contain no element of the danger associated with pairs. Ulla rules here in accordance with his reasoning stated elsewhere, as Ulla said, and some say it was taught in a baraita: The Sages instituted that one must drink ten cups of wine in the house of a mourner during the meal of comfort. And if it could enter your mind that ten cups do contain the element of danger associated with pairs, how could the Sages arise and institute something that might bring a person to a state of danger? However, eight cups do contain the element of danger associated with pairs.,Rav Ḥisda and Rabba bar Rav Huna both say that eight is also safe from the dangers of pairs, as the number seven, represented by the word shalom, combines with the previous cups for the good but does not combine for the bad. The final verse of the priestly benediction reads: “The Lord lift His countece upon you and give you peace shalom” (Numbers 6:26). The word shalom, the seventh Hebrew word in this verse, has a purely positive connotation. Rav Ḥisda and Rabba bar Rav Huna therefore maintain that the seventh cup combines with the previous six only for good purposes. After the seventh cup, i.e., from the eighth cup and on, the cups constitute pairs for the good but not for the bad. However, six cups do contain the element of danger associated with pairs.,Rabba and Rav Yosef both say that even drinking six cups is not dangerous. The reason is that the fifth cup, represented by the word viḥuneka in the second verse of the priestly benediction: “The Lord make His face to shine upon you, and be gracious to you viḥuneka” (Numbers 6:25), combines with the previous cups for the good but does not combine for the bad. However, four cups do contain the element of danger associated with pairs.,Abaye and Rava both say that even the number four is not dangerous, as veyishmerekha, the third word in the first verse of the priestly benediction, reads: “The Lord bless you and keep you veyishmerekha” (Numbers 6:24). It combines for the good but does not combine for the bad.,And Rava follows his standard line of reasoning in this regard, as Rava allowed the Sages to leave after having drunk four cups and was not concerned for their safety. Although Rava bar Livai was injured on one such occasion, Rava was not concerned that the matter had been caused by his consumption of an even number of cups, as he said: That injury occurred because Rava bar Livai challenged me during the public lecture. It is improper for a student to raise difficulties against his rabbi during a public lecture, lest the rabbi be embarrassed by his inability to answer.,Rav Yosef said: Yosef the Demon said to me: Ashmedai, the king of the demons, is appointed over all who perform actions in pairs, and a king is not called a harmful spirit. A king would not cause harm. Consequently, there is no reason to fear the harm of demons for having performed an action in pairs. Some say this statement in this manner: On the contrary, he is an angry king who does what he wants, as the halakha is that a king may breach the fence of an individual in order to form a path for himself, and none may protest his action. Similarly, the king of demons has full license to harm people who perform actions in pairs.,Rav Pappa said: Yosef the Demon said to me: If one drinks two cups, we demons kill him; if he drinks four, we do not kill him. But this person who drank four, we harm him. There is another difference between two and four: With regard to one who drinks two, whether he did so unwittingly or intentionally, we harm him. With regard to one who drinks four, if he does so intentionally, yes, he is harmed; if he does so unwittingly, no, he will not be harmed.,The Gemara asks: And if one forgets and it happens that he goes outside after having drunk an even number of cups, what is his solution? The Gemara answers: He should take his right thumb in his left hand, and his left thumb in his right hand, and say as follows: You, my thumbs, and I are three, which is not a pair. And if he hears a voice that says: You and I are four, which makes a pair, he should say to it: You and I are five. And if he hears it say: You and I are six, he should say to it: You and I are seven. The Gemara relates that there was an incident in which someone kept counting after the demon until he reached a hundred and one, and the demon burst in anger.,Ameimar said: The chief of witches said to me: One who encounters witches should say this incantation: Hot feces in torn date baskets in your mouth, witches; may your hairs fall out because you use them for witchcraft; your crumbs, which you use for witchcraft, should scatter in the wind;'' None|
|67. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • art, • art, Qumran • art, priests
Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 30, 31; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 247
|5a ותניא ר\' יוסי אומר מעולם לא ירדה שכינה למטה ולא עלו משה ואליהו למרום שנאמר (תהלים קטו, טז) השמים שמים לה\' והארץ נתן לבני אדם,ולא ירדה שכינה למטה והכתיב (שמות יט, כ) וירד ה\' על הר סיני למעלה מעשרה טפחים והכתיב (זכריה יד, ד) ועמדו רגליו ביום ההוא על הר הזיתים למעלה מעשרה טפחים,ולא עלו משה ואליהו למרום והכתיב (שמות יט, ג) ומשה עלה אל האלהים למטה מעשרה והכתיב (מלכים ב ב, יא) ויעל אליהו בסערה השמים למטה מעשרה והכתיב (איוב כו, ט) מאחז פני כסא פרשז עליו עננו ואמר ר\' תנחום מלמד שפירש שדי מזיו שכינתו ועננו עליו למטה מעשרה,מכל מקום מאחז פני כסא כתיב אישתרבובי אישתרבב ליה כסא עד עשרה ונקט ביה,בשלמא ארון תשעה דכתיב (שמות כה, י) ועשו ארון עצי שטים אמתים וחצי ארכו ואמה וחצי רחבו ואמה וחצי קומתו אלא כפורת טפח מנלן דתני רבי חנינא כל הכלים שעשה משה נתנה בהן תורה מדת ארכן ומדת רחבן ומדת קומתן כפורת מדת ארכה ומדת רחבה נתנה מדת קומתה לא נתנה,צא ולמד מפחות שבכלים שנאמר (שמות כה, כה) ועשית לו מסגרת טפח סביב מה להלן טפח אף כאן טפח ונילף מכלים גופייהו תפשת מרובה לא תפשת תפשת מועט תפשת,ונילף מציץ דתניא ציץ דומה כמין טס של זהב ורחב ב\' אצבעות ומוקף מאזן לאזן וכתוב עליו ב\' שיטין יו"ד ה"א מלמעלה וקדש למ"ד מלמטה וא"ר אליעזר בר\' יוסי אני ראיתיו ברומי וכתוב עליו קדש לה\' בשיטה אחת,דנין כלי מכלי ואין דנין כלי מתכשיט,ונילף מזר דאמר מר זר משהו דנין כלי מכלי ואין דנין כלי מהכשר כלי אי הכי מסגרת נמי הכשר כלי הוא מסגרתו למטה היתה,הניחא למאן דאמר מסגרתו למטה היתה אלא למאן דאמר מסגרתו למעלה היתה מאי איכא למימר האי הכשר כלי הוא,אלא דנין דבר שנתנה בו תורה מדה מדבר שנתנה בו תורה מדה ואל יוכיחו ציץ וזר שלא נתנה בהן תורה מדה כלל,רב הונא אמר מהכא (ויקרא טז, יד) על פני הכפורת קדמה ואין פנים פחות מטפח,ואימא כאפי'' None||5a and it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: The Divine Presence never actually descended below, and Moses and Elijah never actually ascended to heaven on high, as it is stated: “The heavens are the heavens of the Lord, and the earth He gave to the children of man” (Psalms 115:16), indicating that these are two distinct domains. Apparently, from ten handbreadths upward is considered a separate domain. Consequently, any sukka that is not at least ten handbreadths high is not considered an independent domain and is unfit.,The Gemara asks: And did the Divine Presence never descend below ten handbreadths? But isn’t it written: “And God descended onto Mount Sinai” (Exodus 19:20)? rThe Gemara answers: Although God descended below, He always remained ten handbreadths above the ground. Since from ten handbreadths and above it is a separate domain, in fact, the Divine Presence never descended to the domain of this world. rThe Gemara asks: But isn’t it written: “And on that day His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives” (Zechariah 14:4)? The Gemara answers: Here, too, He will remain ten handbreadths above the ground.,The Gemara asks: And did Moses and Elijah never ascend to the heavens on high? But isn’t it written: “And Moses went up to God” (Exodus 19:3)? rThe Gemara answers: Nevertheless, he remained below ten handbreadths adjacent to the ground. rThe Gemara asks: But isn’t it written: “And Elijah went up by a whirlwind heavenward” (II Kings 2:11)? rThe Gemara answers: Here, too, it was below ten handbreadths. rThe Gemara asks: But isn’t it written: “He grasps the face of the throne, and spreads His cloud upon him” (Job 26:9)? And Rabbi Tanḥum said: This teaches that the Almighty spread of the radiance of His Divine Presence and of His cloud upon him. Apparently, Moses was in the cloud with God. rThe Gemara answers: Here, too, it was below ten handbreadths.,The Gemara asks: In any case: “He grasps the face of the throne,” is written, indicating that Moses took hold of the Throne of Glory. The Gemara rejects this: The throne was extended for him down to ten handbreadths and Moses grasped it; however, he remained below ten handbreadths. And since the Divine Presence speaks to Moses from above the Ark cover ten handbreadths above the ground, clearly a height of ten handbreadths is a distinct domain.,The Gemara wonders about the proof offered: Granted, the height of the Ark was nine handbreadths, as it is written: “And they shall make an Ark of acacia wood; two cubits and a half shall be its length, and a cubit and a half its breadth, and a cubit and a half its height” (Exodus 25:10), and one and a half cubits equal nine handbreadths. However, from where do we derive the fact that the thickness of the Ark cover was one handbreadth? The Torah never states its dimensions explicitly, as Rabbi Ḥanina taught: For all the vessels that Moses crafted for the Tabernacle, the Torah provided in their regard the dimension of their length, the dimension of their width, and the dimension of their height. However, for the Ark cover, the Torah provided the dimension of its length and the dimension of its width; but the Torah did not provide the dimension of its height.,The Gemara answers: Go out and learn from the smallest dimension mentioned in connection with any of the Tabernacle vessels, as it is stated with regard to the shewbread table: “And you shall make unto it a border of a handbreadth around” (Exodus 25:25). Just as there, the frame measures one handbreadth, so too, here, the thickness of the Ark cover measures a single handbreadth. The Gemara asks: And let us derive the thickness of the Ark cover from the vessels themselves, the smallest of which measures a cubit. The Gemara answers: If you grasped many, you did not grasp anything; if you grasped few, you grasped something. If there are two possible sources from which to derive the dimension of the Ark cover, then without conclusive proof one may not presume that the Torah intended to teach the larger dimension. Rather, the presumption is that the Torah is teaching the smaller dimension, which is included in the larger measure.,The Gemara asks: If so, let us derive the thickness of the Ark cover from the frontplate, which is even smaller than a handbreadth, as it is taught in a baraita: The frontplate is a type of plate made of gold that is two fingerbreadths wide and stretches from ear to ear. And written upon it are two lines: The letters yod, heh, vav, heh, the name of God, above; and the word kodesh, spelled kuf, dalet, shin, followed by the letter lamed, below. Together it spelled kodesh laHashem, meaning: Sacred to the Lord, with yod, heh, vav, heh written on the upper line in deference to the name of God. Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, said: I saw the frontplate in the emperor’s treasury in Rome, where it was taken together with the other Temple vessels when the Temple was destroyed, and upon it was written: Sacred to the Lord, on one line. Why not derive the thickness of the Ark cover from the frontplate and say that it was only two fingerbreadths?,The Gemara answers: One derives the dimension of a vessel from the dimension of a vessel, and one does not derive the dimension of a vessel from the dimension of an ornament. The frontplate is not one of the Tabernacle vessels but one of the ornaments of the High Priest.,The Gemara suggests: Let us derive the thickness of the Ark cover from the crown featured atop several of the Tabernacle vessels, as the Master said: This crown, with regard to which the Torah did not specify its dimensions, could be any size. The Gemara answers: One derives the dimension of a vessel from the dimension of a vessel, and one does not derive the dimension of a vessel from the dimension of the finish of a vessel that serves decorative purposes. The Gemara asks: If it is so that one does not derive the dimensions of a vessel from the dimensions of the finish of a vessel, then how can dimensions be derived from the border of the table, which is also the finish of a vessel and not an integral part of the table? The Gemara answers: The border of the table was below, between the legs of the table, and the tabletop rested upon it. As it supports the table, it is an integral part of the table and not merely decoration.,The Gemara asks: This works out well according to the one who said that its border was below the tabletop; however, according to the one who said that its border was above the tabletop, what can be said? According to that opinion, this border is indeed the finish of a vessel.,Rather, the thickness of the Ark cover must be derived from a different source. One derives the missing dimensions of an object for which the Torah provided part of its dimension, e.g., the Ark cover, for which the Torah provided the dimensions of length and width, from an object for which the Torah provided its dimension, e.g., the border of the table. And the frontplate and the crown, for which the Torah did not provide any dimension at all, and their dimensions were determined by the Sages, will not prove anything. It is certainly appropriate to derive the dimension of the thickness of the Ark cover from that which was stated clearly in the Torah.,Rav Huna said that the thickness of the Ark cover is derived from here: “Upon the face of penei the Ark cover on the east” (Leviticus 16:14), and there is no face panim of a person that measures less than one handbreadth.,The Gemara asks: And why say that the face in the verse is specifically the face of a person? Say that the Ark cover is like the face'' None|
|68. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, idol vs. image • Art, imitation of models • Art, loss of pagan meaning for Christians and Jews • Art, religious art manufactured by Jews and Christians • art, early Christian • art, mosaics and ivory carving • art, sculpture in the round
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 907, 911, 924; Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 762
|69. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • theurgy (hieratic art) • theurgy and hieratic art (ἱερατικὴ τέχνη)
Found in books: Dillon and Timotin (2015), Platonic Theories of Prayer, 15, 16, 152, 170, 171, 176, 181; d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 237
|70. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art, artistic representation • Artistic metaphor, for training in virtue • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica
Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 331; Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 187; Gray (2021), Gregory of Nyssa as Biographer: Weaving Lives for Virtuous Readers, 209
|71. Ammianus Marcellinus, History, 16.10.13-16.10.15 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Pliny the Elder, on ignorance of art • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • art and architecture, Roman appreciation • art, Roman imperial
Found in books: Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 35; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 263; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 104
16.10.13 So then he entered Rome, the home of empire and of every virtue, and when he had come to the Rostra, the most renowned forum of ancient dominion, he stood amazed; and on every side on which his eyes rested he was dazzled by the array of marvellous sights. He addressed the nobles in the senate-house and the populace from the tribunal, and being welcomed to the palace with manifold attentions, he enjoyed a longed-for pleasure; and on several occasions, when holding equestrian games, he took delight in the sallies of the commons, who were neither presumptuous nor regardless of their old-time freedom, while he himself also respectfully observed the due mean. 16.10.14 For he did not (as in the case of other cities) permit the contests to be terminated at his own discretion, but left them (as the custom is) to various chances. Then, as he surveyed the sections of the city and its suburbs, lying within the summits of the seven hills, along their slopes, or on level ground, he thought that whatever first met his gaze towered above all the rest: the sanctuaries of Tarpeian Jove so far surpassing as things divine excel those of earth; the baths built up to the measure of provinces; the huge bulk of the amphitheatre, strengthened by its framework of Tiburtine stone, Travertine. to whose top human eyesight barely ascends; the Pantheon like a rounded city-district, Regio here refers to one of the regions, or districts, into which the city was divided. vaulted over in lofty beauty; and the exalted heights which rise with platforms to which one may mount, and bear the likenesses of former emperors; The columns of Trajan, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. The platform at the top was reached by a stairway within the column. the Temple of the City, The double temple of Venus and Roma, built by Hadriian and dedicated in A.D. 135 the Forum of Peace, The Forum Pacis, or Vespasiani, was begun by Vespasian in A.D. 71, after the taking of Jerusalem, and dedicated in 75. It lay behind the basilica Aemilia. the Theatre of Pompey, Built in 55 B.C. in the Campus Martius. the Oleum, A building for musical performances, erected by Domitian, probably near his Stadium. the Stadium, The Stadium of Domitian in the Campus Martius, the shape and size of which is almost exactly preserved by the modern Piazza Navona. and amongst these the other adornments of the Eternal City. 16.10.15 But when he came to the Forum of Trajan, a construction unique under the heavens, as we believe, and admirable even in the uimous opinion of the gods, he stood fast in amazement, turning his attention to the gigantic complex about him, beggaring description and never again to be imitated by mortal men. Therefore abandoning all hope of attempting anything like it, he said that he would and could copy Trajan’s steed alone, which stands in the centre of the vestibule, carrying the emperor himself.'' None
|72. Augustine, On Christian Doctrine, 2.16.26, 2.18.28 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Augustine, survey of ‘liberal arts’ in Book • music, liberal art of music (musica)
Found in books: Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 780; Pollmann and Vessey (2007), Augustine and the Disciplines: From Cassiciacum to Confessions, 129, 130
2.16.26 23. In the case of figurative signs, again, if ignorance of any of them should chance to bring the reader to a stand-still, their meaning is to be traced partly by the knowledge of languages, partly by the knowledge of things. The pool of Siloam, for example, where the man whose eyes our Lord had anointed with clay made out of spittle was commanded to wash, has a figurative significance, and undoubtedly conveys a secret sense; but yet if the evangelist had not interpreted that name, John 9:7 a meaning so important would lie unnoticed. And we cannot doubt that, in the same way, many Hebrew names which have not been interpreted by the writers of those books, would, if any one could interpret them, be of great value and service in solving the enigmas of Scripture. And a number of men skilled in that language have conferred no small benefit on posterity by explaining all these words without reference to their place in Scripture, and telling us what Adam means, what Eve, what Abraham, what Moses, and also the names of places, what Jerusalem signifies, or Sion, or Sinai, or Lebanon, or Jordan, and whatever other names in that language we are not acquainted with. And when these names have been investigated and explained, many figurative expressions in Scripture become clear. 24. Ignorance of things, too, renders figurative expressions obscure, as when we do not know the nature of the animals, or minerals, or plants, which are frequently referred to in Scripture by way of comparison. The fact so well known about the serpent, for example, that to protect its head it will present its whole body to its assailants - how much light it throws upon the meaning of our Lord's command, that we should be wise as serpents; Matthew 10:16 that is to say, that for the sake of our head, which is Christ, we should willingly offer our body to the persecutors, lest the Christian faith should, as it were, be destroyed in us, if to save the body we deny our God! Or again, the statement that the serpent gets rid of its old skin by squeezing itself through a narrow hole, and thus acquires new strength - how appropriately it fits in with the direction to imitate the wisdom of the serpent, and to put off the old man, as the apostle says, that we may put on the new; Ephesians 4:22 and to put it off, too, by coming through a narrow place, according to the saying of our Lord, Enter ye in at the strait gate! Matthew 7:13 As, then, knowledge of the nature of the serpent throws light upon many metaphors which Scripture is accustomed to draw from that animal, so ignorance of other animals, which are no less frequently mentioned by way of comparison, is a very great drawback to the reader. And so in regard to minerals and plants: knowledge of the carbuncle, for instance, which shines in the dark, throws light upon many of the dark places in books too, where it is used metaphorically; and ignorance of the beryl or the adamant often shuts the doors of knowledge. And the only reason why we find it easy to understand that perpetual peace is indicated by the olive branch which the dove brought with it when it returned to the ark, Genesis 8:11 is that we know both that the smooth touch of olive oil is not easily spoiled by a fluid of another kind, and that the tree itself is an evergreen. Many, again, by reason of their ignorance of hyssop, not knowing the virtue it has in cleansing the lungs, nor the power it is said to have of piercing rocks with its roots, although it is a small and insignificant plant, cannot make out why it is said, Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean. 25. Ignorance of numbers, too, prevents us from understanding things that are set down in Scripture in a figurative and mystical way. A candid mind, if I may so speak, cannot but be anxious, for example, to ascertain what is meant by the fact that Moses and Elijah, and our Lord Himself, all fasted for forty days. And except by knowledge of and reflection upon the number, the difficulty of explaining the figure involved in this action cannot be got over. For the number contains ten four times, indicating the knowledge of all things, and that knowledge interwoven with time. For both the diurnal and the annual revolutions are accomplished in periods numbering four each; the diurnal in the hours of the morning, the noontide, the evening, and the night; the annual in the spring, summer, autumn, and winter months. Now while we live in time, we must abstain and fast from all joy in time, for the sake of that eternity in which we wish to live; al though by the passage of time we are taught this very lesson of despising time and seeking eternity. Further, the number ten signifies the knowledge of the Creator and the creature, for there is a trinity in the Creator; and the number seven indicates the creature, because of the life and the body. For the life consists of three parts, whence also God is to be loved with the whole heart, the whole soul, and the whole mind; and it is very clear that in the body there are four elements of which it is made up. In this number ten, therefore, when it is placed before us in connection with time, that is, when it is taken four times we are admonished to live unstained by, and not partaking of, any delight in time, that is, to fast for forty days. of this we are admonished by the law personified in Moses, by prophecy personified in Elijah, and by our Lord Himself, who, as if receiving the witness both of the law and the prophets, appeared on the mount between the other two, while His three disciples looked on in amazement. Next, we have to inquire in the same way, how out of the number forty springs the number fifty, which in our religion has no ordinary sacredness attached to it on account of the Pentecost, and how this number taken thrice on account of the three divisions of time, before the law, under the law, and under grace, or perhaps on account of the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and the Trinity itself being added over and above, has reference to the mystery of the most Holy Church, and reaches to the number of the one hundred and fifty-three fishes which were taken after the resurrection of our Lord, when the nets were cast out on the right-hand side of the boat. John 21:11 And in the same way, many other numbers and combinations of numbers are used in the sacred writings, to convey instruction under a figurative guise, and ignorance of numbers often shuts out the reader from this instruction. 26. Not a few things, too, are closed against us and obscured by ignorance of music. One man, for example, has not unskillfully explained some metaphors from the difference between the psaltery and the harp. And it is a question which it is not out of place for learned men to discuss, whether there is any musical law that compels the psaltery of ten chords to have just so many strings; or whether, if there be no such law, the number itself is not on that very account the more to be considered as of sacred significance, either with reference to the ten commandments of the law (and if again any question is raised about that number, we can only refer it to the Creator and the creature), or with reference to the number ten itself as interpreted above. And the number of years the temple was in building, which is mentioned in the gospel John 2:20 - viz., forty-six - has a certain undefinable musical sound, and when referred to the structure of our Lord's body, in relation to which the temple was mentioned, compels many heretics to confess that our Lord put on, not a false, but a true and human body. And in several places in the Holy Scriptures we find both numbers and music mentioned with honor. " 2.18.28 28. But whether the fact is as Varro has related, or is not so, still we ought not to give up music because of the superstition of the heathen, if we can derive anything from it that is of use for the understanding of Holy Scripture; nor does it follow that we must busy ourselves with their theatrical trumpery because we enter upon an investigation about harps and other instruments, that may help us to lay hold upon spiritual things. For we ought not to refuse to learn letters because they say that Mercury discovered them; nor because they have dedicated temples to Justice and Virtue, and prefer to worship in the form of stones things that ought to have their place in the heart, ought we on that account to forsake justice and virtue. Nay, but let every good and true Christian understand that wherever truth may be found, it belongs to his Master; and while he recognizes and acknowledges the truth, even in their religious literature, let him reject the figments of superstition, and let him grieve over and avoid men who, when they knew God, glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools, and changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and four-footed beasts, and creeping things. Romans 1:21-23 '" None
|73. None, None, nan (7th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Noah, non-artistic proofs • Savior, šarīʿa (Ar. “law”) • ʿiṣma (Ar. “infallibility of prophets”, “impeccability,” “immunity from sin”)
Found in books: Gwynne (2004), Logic, Rhetoric and Legal Reasoning in the Qur'an: God's Arguments, 99; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022), The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King, 286
|74. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, idol vs. image • Art, religious art manufactured by Jews and Christians • art, pagan
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 923; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 483
|43a הני אין צורת דרקון לא,אלא פשיטא במוצא וכדתנן המוצא כלים ועליהם צורת חמה,רישא וסיפא במוצא ומציעתא בעושה,אמר אביי אין רישא וסיפא במוצא ומציעתא בעושה,רבא אמר כולה במוצא ומציעתא רבי יהודה היא דתניא רבי יהודה מוסיף אף דמות מניקה וסר אפיס מניקה על שם חוה שמניקה כל העולם כולו סר אפיס על שם יוסף שסר ומפיס את כל העולם כולו והוא דנקיט גריוא וקא כייל והיא דנקטא בן וקא מניקה:,תנו רבנן איזהו צורת דרקון פירש רשב"א כל שיש לו ציצין בין פרקיו מחוי רבי אסי בין פרקי צואר אמר ר\' חמא ברבי חנינא הלכה כר"ש בן אלעזר,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי פעם אחת הייתי מהלך אחר ר\' אלעזר הקפר בריבי בדרך ומצא שם טבעת ועליה צורת דרקון ומצא עובד כוכבים קטן ולא אמר לו כלום מצא עובד כוכבים גדול ואמר לו בטלה ולא בטלה סטרו ובטלה,ש"מ תלת ש"מ עובד כוכבים מבטל עבודת כוכבים שלו ושל חבירו וש"מ יודע בטיב של עבודת כוכבים ומשמשיה מבטל ושאינו יודע בטיב עבודת כוכבים ומשמשיה אינו מבטל וש"מ עובד כוכבים מבטל בעל כרחו,מגדף בה רבי חנינא ולית ליה לרבי אלעזר הקפר בריבי הא דתנן המציל מן הארי ומן הדוב ומן הנמר ומן הגייס ומן הנהר ומזוטו של ים ומשלוליתו של נהר והמוצא בסרטיא ופלטיא גדולה ובכל מקום שהרבים מצוין שם הרי אלו שלו מפני שהבעלים מתייאשין מהן,אמר אביי נהי דמינה מייאש מאיסורא מי מייאש מימר אמר אי עובד כוכבים משכח לה מפלח פלח לה אי ישראל משכח לה איידי דדמיה יקרין מזבין לה לעובד כוכבים ופלח לה:,תנן התם דמות צורות לבנות היה לו לר"ג בעלייתו בטבלא בכותל שבהן מראה את ההדיוטות ואומר להן כזה ראיתם או כזה ראיתם,ומי שרי והכתיב (שמות כ, כג) לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשי המשמשים לפני,אמר אביי לא אסרה תורה אלא שמשין שאפשר לעשות כמותן,כדתניא לא יעשה אדם בית תבנית היכל אכסדרה תבנית אולם חצר תבנית עזרה שולחן תבנית שולחן מנורה תבנית מנורה אבל הוא עושה של ה\' ושל ו\' ושל ח\' ושל ז\' לא יעשה אפילו של שאר מיני מתכות,רבי יוסי בר יהודה אומר אף של עץ לא יעשה כדרך שעשו בית חשמונאי,אמרו לו משם ראיה שפודין של ברזל היו וחופין בבעץ העשירו עשאום של כסף חזרו והעשירו עשאום של זהב,ושמשין שאי אפשר לעשות כמותן מי שרי והתניא לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשי המשמשים לפני במרום,אמר אביי'43b לא אסרה תורה אלא בדמות ד\' פנים בהדי הדדי,אלא מעתה פרצוף אדם לחודיה תשתרי אלמה תניא כל הפרצופות מותרין חוץ מפרצוף אדם,אמר רב יהודה בריה דרב יהושע מפרקיה דרבי יהושע שמיע לי לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון אותי אבל שאר שמשין שרי,ושאר שמשין מי שרי והתניא (שמות כ, כג) לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשי המשמשין לפני במרום כגון אופנים ושרפים וחיות הקדש ומלאכי השרת,אמר אביי לא אסרה תורה אלא שמשין שבמדור העליון,ושבמדור התחתון מי שרי והתניא אשר בשמים לרבות חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות ממעל לרבות מלאכי השרת,כי תניא ההיא לעובדם,אי לעובדם אפילו שילשול קטן נמי אין הכי נמי ומסיפיה דקרא נפקא דתניא אשר בארץ לרבות ימים ונהרות הרים וגבעות מתחת לרבות שילשול קטן,ועשייה גרידתא מי שרי והתניא לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשי המשמשין לפני במרום כגון חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות,שאני ר"ג דאחרים עשו לו,והא רב יהודה דאחרים עשו לו וא"ל שמואל לרב יהודה שיננא סמי עיניה דדין,התם בחותמו בולט ומשום חשדא דתניא טבעת שחותמה בולט אסור להניחה ומותר לחתום בה חותמה שוקע מותר להניחה ואסור לחתום בה,ומי חיישינן לחשדא והא בי כנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעא דאוקמי ביה אנדרטא והוו עיילי ביה אבוה דשמואל ולוי ומצלו בגויה ולא חיישי לחשדא רבים שאני,והא רבן גמליאל דיחיד הוה כיון דנשיא הוא שכיחי רבים גביה ואיבעית אימא דפרקים הואי,ואיבעית אימא להתלמד שאני דתניא (דברים יח, ט) לא תלמד לעשות אבל אתה למד להבין ולהורות:,רשב"ג אומר וכו\': איזו הן מכובדין ואיזו הן מבוזין,אמר רב מכובדין למעלה מן המים מבוזין למטה מן המים ושמואל אמר אלו ואלו מבוזין הן אלא אלו הן מכובדין שעל השירין ועל הנזמים ועל הטבעות,תניא כוותיה דשמואל מכובדין שעל השירין ועל הנזמים ועל הטבעות מבוזין שעל היורות ועל הקומקמסין ועל מחמי חמים ושעל הסדינין ועל המטפחות:,||43a The Sages interpret this verse as referring to the heavenly constellations, which indicates that it is prohibited to form only these figures, but it is not prohibited to form a figure of a dragon.,Rather, the Gemara concludes, it is obvious that this halakha is referring to a case where one finds a vessel with the figure of a dragon, and this is as we learned in the mishna: In the case of one who finds vessels, and upon them is a figure of the sun, a figure of the moon, or a figure of a dragon, he must take them and cast them into the Dead Sea.,The Gemara asks about the lack of consistency between the clauses of Rav Sheshet’s statement: Can it be that the first clause and the last clause are referring to a case where one finds vessels with the specified figures, and the middle clause is referring to a case where one forms these figures?,Abaye said: Indeed, the first clause and the last clause are referring to cases where one finds vessels with figures, and the middle clause is referring to a case where one forms figures.,Rava said: The entire statement of Rav Sheshet is referring to a case where one finds vessels with these figures, and the middle clause is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda adds to the list of forbidden figures even a figure of a nursing woman and Sar Apis. The figure of a nursing woman is worshipped as it symbolizes Eve, who nurses the entire world. The figure of Sar Apis is worshipped as it symbolizes Joseph, who ruled over sar and appeased mefis the entire world by distributing food during the seven years of famine (see Genesis, chapter 41). But the figure of Sar Apis is forbidden only when it is holding a dry measure and measuring with it; and the figure of a nursing woman is forbidden only when she is holding a child and nursing it.,§ The Sages taught: What is a figure of a dragon? Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar explained: It is any figure that has scales between its joints. Rabbi Asi motioned with his hands to depict scales between the joints of the neck. Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar.,Rabba bar bar Ḥana says that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Once, I was following Rabbi Elazar HaKappar the Distinguished on the road, and he found a ring there, and there was a figure of a dragon on it. And he then encountered a minor gentile boy, but did not say anything to him. He then encountered an adult gentile, and said to him: Revoke the ring’s idolatrous status. But the gentile did not revoke it. Rabbi Elazar HaKappar then slapped him across his face, whereupon the gentile succumbed and revoked its idolatrous status.,The Gemara comments: Learn from this incident the following three halakhot: Learn from it that a gentile can revoke the idolatrous status of both his object of idol worship and that of another gentile. And learn from the fact that Rabbi Elazar HaKappar waited to find an adult gentile, that only one who is aware of the nature of idol worship and its accessories can revoke the idol’s status, but one who is not aware of the nature of idol worship and its accessories, such as a minor, cannot revoke the idol’s status. And finally, learn from it that a gentile can revoke the status of an idol even against his will.,Rabbi Ḥanina ridiculed this ruling and asked: But why was it necessary to have a gentile actively revoke the idolatrous status of the ring? Doesn’t Rabbi Elazar HaKappar the Distinguished maintain in accordance with that which we learned in a baraita: In the case of one who saves an object from a lion, or from a bear, or from a cheetah, or from a troop of soldiers, or from a river, or from the tide of the sea, or from the flooding of a river, or similarly one who finds an object in a main thoroughfare or in a large plaza, or for that matter, anywhere frequented by the public, in all these cases, the objects belong to him, because the owners despair of recovering them? Therefore, in the case of a lost ring with an idolatrous figure on it, its idolatrous status is automatically revoked, as its owner despairs of recovering it.,Abaye said: Granted, the owner despairs of recovering the object itself, but does he despair of its forbidden me’issura idolatrous status? The owner does not assume that the object will never be worshipped again; rather, he says to himself: If a gentile finds it, he will worship it. If a Jew finds it, since it is valuable, he will sell it to a gentile who will then worship it. Therefore, Rabbi Elazar HaKappar had to have the ring’s idolatrous status revoked.,§ We learned in a mishna there (Rosh HaShana 24a): Rabban Gamliel had diagrams of the different figures of moons drawn on a tablet that hung on the wall of his attic, which he would show to the ordinary people hahedyotot who came to testify about sighting the new moon but who were unable to adequately describe what they had seen. And he would say to them: Did you see an image like this, or did you see an image like that?,The Gemara asks: And is it permitted to form these figures? But isn’t it written: “You shall not make with Me gods of silver, or gods of gold” (Exodus 20:20), which is interpreted to mean: You shall not make figures of My attendants who serve before Me, i.e., those celestial bodies that were created to serve God, including the sun and the moon.,In answering, Abaye said: The Torah prohibited only the figures of those attendants that one can possibly reproduce something that is truly in their likeness. Since it is impossible to reproduce the sun and the moon, the prohibition does not apply to these entities.,As it is taught in a baraita: A person may not construct a house in the exact image of the Sanctuary, nor a portico in the exact image of the Entrance Hall of the Sanctuary, nor a courtyard corresponding to the Temple courtyard, nor a table corresponding to the Table in the Temple, nor a candelabrum corresponding to the Candelabrum in the Temple. But one may fashion a candelabrum of five or of six or of eight lamps. And one may not fashion a candelabrum of seven lamps even if he constructs it from other kinds of metal rather than gold, as in extenuating circumstances the Candelabrum in the Temple may be fashioned from other metals.,The baraita continues: Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: One may not fashion a candelabrum of wood either, in the manner that the kings of the Hasmonean monarchy fashioned it. When they first purified the Temple they had to fashion the Candelabrum out of wood as no other material was available. Since a wooden candelabrum is fit for the Temple, it is prohibited to fashion one of this kind for oneself.,The Rabbis said to Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda: Do you seek to cite a proof from there, i.e., from the Hasmonean era, that a candelabrum fashioned of wood is fit for the Temple? During that era the branches of the Candelabrum were fashioned from spits shappudin of iron, and they covered them with tin beva’atz. Later, when they grew richer and could afford a Candelabrum of higher-quality material, they fashioned the Candelabrum from silver. When they grew even richer, they fashioned the Candelabrum from gold. In any event, Abaye proves from this baraita that the prohibition against forming a figure applies only to items that can be reconstructed in an accurate manner. Since this is not possible in the case of the moon, Rabban Gamliel’s figures were permitted.,The Gemara asks: And is it actually permitted to fashion figures of those attendants of God concerning which it is impossible to reproduce their likeness? But isn’t it taught in a baraita that the verse: “You shall not make with Me gods of silver” (Exodus 20:20), is interpreted to mean: You shall not make figures of My attendants who serve before Me on high? Apparently, this includes the sun and the moon.,Abaye said:'43b This does not include the sun and the moon, as the Torah prohibits the fashioning only of a figure of all four faces of the creatures of the Divine Chariot together (see Ezekiel 1:10). All other figures, which are not in the likeness of the ministering angels, are permitted.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: If that is so, let the fashioning of a figure of a human face alone be permitted. Why then is it taught in a baraita: Figures of all faces are permitted, except for the human face?,Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: I heard in a lecture of Rabbi Yehoshua that there is a different reason why one may not fashion a figure of a human face; the verse states: “You shall not make with Me iti” (Exodus 20:20). This can be read as: You shall not make Me oti. Since the human being was created in the image of God (see Genesis 1:27), it is prohibited to fashion an image of a human being. But fashioning figures of other attendants of God is permitted.,The Gemara asks: And is it permitted to fashion figures of other attendants of God? But isn’t it taught in another baraita that the verse: “You shall not make with Me gods of silver” (Exodus 20:20), is interpreted to mean that you shall not make figures of My attendants who serve before Me on high, for example, ofanim, and seraphim, and the sacred ḥayyot, and the ministering angels?,Abaye said: The Torah prohibits fashioning figures of only those attendants that are in the upper heaven, i.e., the supreme angels in the highest firmament, but it does not prohibit fashioning the celestial bodies, e.g., the sun and the moon, despite the fact that they too are located in heaven.,The Gemara asks: And is it permitted to fashion figures of those bodies that are in the lower heaven? But isn’t it taught in a baraita with regard to the verse: “You shall not make for yourself any graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth” (Exodus 20:4): The phrase “that is in heaven” serves to include the sun, and the moon, the stars, and the constellations. The term “above” serves to include the ministering angels. Apparently, it is prohibited to fashion a figure even of the celestial bodies that are in the lower heaven.,The Gemara answers: When that baraita is taught, it is in reference to the prohibition against worshipping them. There is no prohibition against forming a figure in their likeness.,The Gemara asks: If that baraita is referring to the prohibition against worshipping them, then why does it mention only celestial bodies? It is prohibited to worship even a tiny worm. The Gemara answers: Yes, it is indeed so; and this prohibition is derived from the latter clause of that verse, as it is taught in a baraita: “That is in the earth” serves to include seas, and rivers, mountains, and hills. The word “beneath” serves to include a tiny worm.,The Gemara asks: And is the mere fashioning of figures of the celestial bodies permitted? But isn’t it taught in another baraita that the verse: “You shall not make with Me gods of silver” (Exodus 20:20), is interpreted to mean that you shall not make figures of My attendants who serve before Me on high, for example: The sun, and the moon, the stars, and the constellations. This is proof that it is prohibited to fashion figures of the sun and the moon. Consequently, the solution proposed by Abaye is rejected, leaving the difficulty of Rabban Gamliel’s diagram unresolved.,The Gemara proposes an alternative resolution: The case of Rabban Gamliel is different, as others, i.e., gentiles, fashioned those figures for him, and it is prohibited for a Jew only to fashion such figures; there is no prohibition against having them in one’s possession.,The Gemara asks: But there is the case of Rav Yehuda, where others fashioned for him a seal with a figure of a person on it, and Shmuel said to Rav Yehuda, who was his student: Sharp-witted one shina, destroy this one’s eyes, i.e., disfigure it, as it is prohibited even to have a figure of a human being in one’s possession.,The Gemara answers: There, in the case of Rav Yehuda, his was a protruding seal, i.e., the figure projected from the ring, and Shmuel prohibited it due to the potential suspicion that he had an object of idol worship in his possession. As it is taught in a baraita: In the case of a ring whose seal protrudes, it is prohibited to place it on one’s finger due to suspicion of idol worship, but it is permitted to seal objects with it. In this case, the act of sealing forms a figure that is sunken below the surface of the object upon which the seal was impressed, which is not prohibited. If its seal is sunken, it is permitted to place it on one’s finger, but it is prohibited to seal objects with it, as that forms a protruding figure.,The Gemara asks: And are we concerned about arousing suspicion due to the use of a human figure? But what about that synagogue that had been destroyed in Eretz Yisrael and was reestablished in Neharde’a, and they erected a statue of the king in it? And nevertheless, Shmuel’s father and Levi would enter and pray in it, and they were not concerned about arousing suspicion. The Gemara answers: A public institution is different; the public is not suspected of having idolatrous intentions. Rather, it is assumed that the statue is there exclusively for ornamental purposes.,The Gemara asks: But wasn’t Rabban Gamliel an individual? According to this reasoning, his figures of the moon should have been forbidden as they would have aroused suspicion. The Gemara answers: Since he was the Nasi, the head of the Sanhedrin, members of the public would often be found with him, and therefore there was no room for suspicion. And if you wish, say there is an alternative answer, namely, that these figures were not whole; rather, they were formed from pieces of figures that had to be assembled. Only complete figures are forbidden.,And if you wish, say there is yet another answer: Fashioning figures in order to teach oneself is different, as it is taught in a baraita with regard to the verse: “You shall not learn to do like the abominations of those nations” (Deuteronomy 18:9): But you may learn in order to understand the matter yourself and teach it to others. In other words, it is permitted to perform certain acts for the sake of Torah study that would otherwise be prohibited.,§ The mishna (42b) teaches that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Those figures that are upon respectable vessels are forbidden. Those that are upon disgraceful vessels are permitted. The Gemara asks: Which vessels are considered respectable and which are considered disgraceful?,Rav says: These terms do not represent different types of vessels, but rather the location of the figure upon the vessel. A respectable location for an idolatrous figure is on the side of the vessel above the level of the water or food contents; a disgraceful location is below the water level. And Shmuel says: Both these and those locations on eating utensils are disgraceful. Rather, these are respectable locations: Upon bracelets, or upon nose rings, or upon rings.,The Gemara comments: It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel (Tosefta 5:1): Respectable locations for idolatrous figures are upon bracelets, or upon nose rings, or upon rings. Disgraceful locations are upon large pots, or upon small kettles hakumkemasin, or upon samovars, or upon sheets, or upon towels.,Rabbi Yosei says: When one encounters an idol, he should grind the idol and throw the dust to the wind or cast it into the sea. The Rabbis said to him: What is the good of that? That also gives a Jew benefit from the idol, as it becomes fertilizer for his crops, and deriving any kind of benefit is prohibited, as it is stated: “And nothing of the proscribed items shall cleave to your hand” (Deuteronomy 13:18).,It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 3:16): Rabbi Yosei said to them: But isn’t it already stated: “And your sin, ' None|
|75. Strabo, Geography, 7.7.6, 8.6.23
Tagged with subjects: • Epigonos, artist • Greek, art • Nikeratos, artist • Nile, subject matter of art • Phyromachos, artist • technitai (Artists of Dionysus) • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), at Rome
Found in books: Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 118, 119; Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 32; Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 244; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 37
7.7.6 Next comes the mouth of the Ambracian Gulf. Although the mouth of this gulf is but slightly more than four stadia wide, the circumference is as much as three hundred stadia; and it has good harbors everywhere. That part of the country which is on the right as one sails in is inhabited by the Greek Acarians. Here too, near the mouth, is the sacred precinct of the Actian Apollo — a hill on which the sanctuary stands; and at the foot of the hill is a plain which contains a sacred grove and a naval station, the naval station where Caesar dedicated as first fruits of his victory the squadron of ten ships — from vessel with single bank of oars to vessel with ten; however, not only the boats, it is said, but also the boat-houses have been wiped out by fire. On the left of the mouth are Nicopolis and the country of the Epeirote Cassopaeans, which extends as far as the recess of the gulf near Ambracia. Ambracia lies only a short distance above the recess; it was founded by Gorgus, the son of Cypselus. The River Aracthus flows past Ambracia; it is navigable inland for only a few stadia, from the sea to Ambracia, although it rises in Mount Tymphe and the Paroraea. Now this city enjoyed an exceptional prosperity in earlier times (at any rate the gulf was named after it), and it was adorned most of all by Pyrrhus, who made the place his royal residence. In later times, however, the Macedonians and the Romans, by their continuous wars, so completely reduced both this and the other Epeirote cities because of their disobedience that finally Augustus, seeing that the cities had utterly failed, settled what inhabitants were left in one city together the city on this gulf which was called by him Nicopolis; and he so named it after the victory which he won in the naval battle before the mouth of the gulf over Antonius and Cleopatra the queen of the Egyptians, who was also present at the fight. Nicopolis is populous, and its numbers are increasing daily, since it has not only a considerable territory and the adornment taken from the spoils of the battle, but also, in its suburbs, the thoroughly equipped sacred precinct — one part of it being in a sacred grove that contains a gymnasium and a stadium for the celebration of the quinquennial games, the other part being on the hill that is sacred to Apollo and lies above the grove. These games — the Actia, sacred to Actian Apollo — have been designated as Olympian, and they are superintended by the Lacedemonians. The other settlements are dependencies of Nicopolis. In earlier times also the Actian Games were wont to be celebrated in honor of the god by the inhabitants of the surrounding country — games in which the prize was a wreath — but at the present time they have been set in greater honor by Caesar.' "
8.6.23 The Corinthians, when they were subject to Philip, not only sided with him in his quarrel with the Romans, but individually behaved so contemptuously towards the Romans that certain persons ventured to pour down filth upon the Roman ambassadors when passing by their house. For this and other offences, however, they soon paid the penalty, for a considerable army was sent thither, and the city itself was razed to the ground by Leucius Mummius; and the other countries as far as Macedonia became subject to the Romans, different commanders being sent into different countries; but the Sikyonians obtained most of the Corinthian country. Polybius, who speaks in a tone of pity of the events connected with the capture of Corinth, goes on to speak of the disregard shown by the army for the works of art and votive offerings; for he says that he was present and saw paintings that had been flung to the ground and saw the soldiers playing dice on these. Among the paintings he names that of Dionysus by Aristeides, to which, according to some writers, the saying, Nothing in comparison with the Dionysus, referred; and also the painting of Heracles in torture in the robe of Deianeira. Now I have not seen the latter, but I saw the Dionysus, a most beautiful work, on the walls of the sanctuary of Ceres in Rome; but when recently the temple was burned, the painting perished with it. And I may almost say that the most and best of the other dedicatory offerings at Rome came from there; and the cities in the neighborhood of Rome also obtained some; for Mummius, being magimous rather than fond of art, as they say, readily shared with those who asked. And when Lucullus built the sanctuary of Good Fortune and a portico, he asked Mummius for the use of the statues which he had, saying that he would adorn the sanctuary with them until the dedication and then give them back. However, he did not give them back, but dedicated them to the goddess, and then bade Mummius to take them away if he wished. But Mummius took it lightly, for he cared nothing about them, so that he gained more repute than the man who dedicated them. Now after Corinth had remained deserted for a long time, it was restored again, because of its favorable position, by the deified Caesar, who colonized it with people that belonged for the most part to the freedmen class. And when these were removing the ruins and at the same time digging open the graves, they found numbers of terra-cotta reliefs, and also many bronze vessels. And since they admired the workmanship they left no grave unransacked; so that, well supplied with such things and disposing of them at a high price, they filled Rome with Corinthian mortuaries, for thus they called the things taken from the graves, and in particular the earthenware. Now at the outset the earthenware was very highly prized, like the bronzes of Corinthian workmanship, but later they ceased to care much for them, since the supply of earthen vessels failed and most of them were not even well executed. The city of the Corinthians, then, was always great and wealthy, and it was well equipped with men skilled both in the affairs of state and in the craftsman's arts; for both here and in Sikyon the arts of painting and modelling and all such arts of the craftsman flourished most. The city had territory, however, that was not very fertile, but rifted and rough; and from this fact all have called Corinth beetling, and use the proverb, Corinth is both beetle-browed and full of hollows."' None
|76. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.464, 5.704, 6.847-6.853, 8.608-8.728
Tagged with subjects: • Orpheus,, as symbol of failure of art • Vespasian, patronizes artists • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • art and architecture, Roman appreciation • art expert, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art history, Petronius’ satire of • art work, as object of gaze • arts, Roman anxiety about Greek • arts, mimetic • city, as locus of art • ethical qualities, artifice, skill (ars) • gaze, focused on work of art • power, of artists and authors • response, emotional, to work of art, in Virgil’s Aeneid • sexual subjects in art, as customary entertainment • sexual subjects in art, in Vergil’s Aeneid • wonder, inspired by gazing at work of art
Found in books: Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 79, 81, 195; Farrell (2021), Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity, 180, 232; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 262; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 31; Oksanish (2019), Benedikt Eckhardt, and Meret Strothmann, Law in the Roman Provinces, 60; Pandey (2018), The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome, 80; Perkell (1989), The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics, 43, 83; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 299
1.464 Sic ait, atque animum pictura pascit ii,
5.704 Tum senior Nautes, unum Tritonia Pallas
6.847 Excudent alii spirantia mollius aera, 6.848 credo equidem, vivos ducent de marmore voltus, 6.849 orabunt causas melius, caelique meatus 6.850 describent radio, et surgentia sidera dicent: 6.851 tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento; 6.852 hae tibi erunt artes; pacisque imponere morem, 6.853 parcere subiectis, et debellare superbos.
8.608 At Venus aetherios inter dea candida nimbos 8.609 dona ferens aderat; natumque in valle reducta 8.610 ut procul egelido secretum flumine vidit, 8.611 talibus adfata est dictis seque obtulit ultro: 8.612 En perfecta mei promissa coniugis arte 8.613 munera, ne mox aut Laurentis, nate, superbos 8.614 aut acrem dubites in proelia poscere Turnum. 8.615 Dixit et amplexus nati Cytherea petivit, 8.616 arma sub adversa posuit radiantia quercu. 8.617 Ille, deae donis et tanto laetus honore, 8.618 expleri nequit atque oculos per singula volvit 8.619 miraturque interque manus et bracchia versat 8.620 terribilem cristis galeam flammasque vomentem 8.621 fatiferumque ensem, loricam ex aere rigentem 8.622 sanguineam ingentem, qualis cum caerula nubes 8.623 solis inardescit radiis longeque refulget; 8.625 hastamque et clipei non enarrabile textum. 8.626 Illic res Italas Romanorumque triumphos 8.627 haud vatum ignarus venturique inscius aevi 8.628 fecerat ignipotens, illic genus omne futurae 8.629 stirpis ab Ascanio. pugnataque in ordine bella. 8.630 Fecerat et viridi fetam Mavortis in antro 8.631 procubuisse lupam, geminos huic ubera circum 8.632 ludere pendentis pueros et lambere matrem 8.633 impavidos, illam tereti cervice reflexa 8.634 mulcere alternos et corpora fingere lingua. 8.635 Nec procul hinc Romam et raptas sine more Sabinas 8.636 consessu caveae magnis circensibus actis 8.637 addiderat subitoque novum consurgere bellum 8.638 Romulidis Tatioque seni Curibusque severis. 8.639 Post idem inter se posito certamine reges 8.640 armati Iovis ante aram paterasque tenentes 8.641 stabant et caesa iungebant foedera porca. 8.642 Haud procul inde citae Mettum in diversa quadrigae 8.643 distulerant, at tu dictis, Albane, maneres, 8.644 raptabatque viri mendacis viscera Tullus 8.645 per silvam, et sparsi rorabant sanguine vepres. 8.646 Nec non Tarquinium eiectum Porsenna iubebat 8.647 accipere ingentique urbem obsidione premebat: 8.648 Aeneadae in ferrum pro libertate ruebant. 8.649 Illum indigti similem similemque miti 8.650 aspiceres, pontem auderet quia vellere Cocles 8.651 et fluvium vinclis innaret Cloelia ruptis. 8.652 In summo custos Tarpeiae Manlius arcis 8.653 stabat pro templo et Capitolia celsa tenebat, 8.654 Romuleoque recens horrebat regia culmo. 8.655 Atque hic auratis volitans argenteus anser 8.656 porticibus Gallos in limine adesse canebat. 8.657 Galli per dumos aderant arcemque tenebant, 8.658 defensi tenebris et dono noctis opacae: 8.659 aurea caesaries ollis atque aurea vestis, 8.660 virgatis lucent sagulis, tum lactea colla 8.661 auro innectuntur, duo quisque Alpina coruscant 8.662 gaesa manu, scutis protecti corpora longis. 8.663 Hic exsultantis Salios nudosque Lupercos 8.664 lanigerosque apices et lapsa ancilia caelo 8.665 extuderat, castae ducebant sacra per urbem 8.666 pilentis matres in mollibus. Hinc procul addit 8.667 Tartareas etiam sedes, alta ostia Ditis, 8.668 et scelerum poenas et te, Catilina, minaci 8.669 pendentem scopulo Furiarumque ora trementem, 8.670 secretosque pios, his dantem iura Catonem. 8.671 Haec inter tumidi late maris ibat imago 8.672 aurea, sed fluctu spumabant caerula cano; 8.673 et circum argento clari delphines in orbem 8.674 aequora verrebant caudis aestumque secabant. 8.675 In medio classis aeratas, Actia bella, 8.676 cernere erat, totumque instructo Marte videres 8.677 fervere Leucaten auroque effulgere fluctus. 8.678 Hinc Augustus agens Italos in proelia Caesar 8.679 cum patribus populoque, penatibus et magnis dis, 8.680 stans celsa in puppi; geminas cui tempora flammas 8.681 laeta vomunt patriumque aperitur vertice sidus. 8.682 Parte alia ventis et dis Agrippa secundis 8.683 arduus agmen agens; cui, belli insigne superbum, 8.684 tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona. 8.685 Hinc ope barbarica variisque Antonius armis, 8.686 victor ab Aurorae populis et litore rubro, 8.687 Aegyptum viresque Orientis et ultima secum 8.688 Bactra vehit, sequiturque (nefas) Aegyptia coniunx. 8.689 Una omnes ruere, ac totum spumare reductis 8.690 convolsum remis rostrisque tridentibus aequor. 8.691 alta petunt: pelago credas innare revolsas 8.692 Cycladas aut montis concurrere montibus altos, 8.693 tanta mole viri turritis puppibus instant. 8.694 stuppea flamma manu telisque volatile ferrum 8.695 spargitur, arva nova Neptunia caede rubescunt. 8.696 Regina in mediis patrio vocat agmina sistro 8.697 necdum etiam geminos a tergo respicit anguis. 8.698 omnigenumque deum monstra et latrator Anubis 8.699 contra Neptunum et Venerem contraque Minervam 8.700 tela tenent. Saevit medio in certamine Mavors 8.701 caelatus ferro tristesque ex aethere Dirae, 8.702 et scissa gaudens vadit Discordia palla, 8.703 quam cum sanguineo sequitur Bellona flagello. 8.704 Actius haec cernens arcum tendebat Apollo 8.705 desuper: omnis eo terrore Aegyptus et Indi, 8.706 omnis Arabs, omnes vertebant terga Sabaei. 8.707 Ipsa videbatur ventis regina vocatis 8.708 vela dare et laxos iam iamque inmittere funis. 8.709 Illam inter caedes pallentem morte futura 8.710 fecerat Ignipotens undis et Iapyge ferri, 8.711 contra autem magno maerentem corpore Nilum 8.712 pandentemque sinus et tota veste vocantem 8.713 caeruleum in gremium latebrosaque flumina victos. 8.714 At Caesar, triplici invectus Romana triumpho 8.715 moenia, dis Italis votum inmortale sacrabat, 8.716 maxuma tercentum totam delubra per urbem. 8.717 Laetitia ludisque viae plausuque fremebant; 8.718 omnibus in templis matrum chorus, omnibus arae; 8.719 ante aras terram caesi stravere iuvenci. 8.720 Ipse, sedens niveo candentis limine Phoebi, 8.721 dona recognoscit populorum aptatque superbis 8.722 postibus; incedunt victae longo ordine gentes, 8.723 quam variae linguis, habitu tam vestis et armis. 8.725 hic Lelegas Carasque sagittiferosque Gelonos 8.726 finxerat; Euphrates ibat iam mollior undis, 8.727 extremique hominum Morini, Rhenusque bicornis, 8.728 indomitique Dahae, et pontem indignatus Araxes.' ' None
1.464 lace up in purple buskin. Yonder lies
5.704 of game and contest, summoned to his side
6.847 Lo! on the left and right at feast reclined 6.848 Are other blessed souls, whose chorus sings 6.849 Victorious paeans on the fragrant air 6.850 of laurel groves; and hence to earth outpours 6.851 Eridanus, through forests rolling free. 6.852 Here dwell the brave who for their native land 6.853 Fell wounded on the field; here holy priests
8.608 ummoned Evander. From his couch arose ' "8.609 the royal sire, and o'er his aged frame " '8.610 a tunic threw, tying beneath his feet 8.611 the Tuscan sandals: an Arcadian sword, 8.612 girt at his left, was over one shoulder slung, 8.613 his cloak of panther trailing from behind. 8.614 A pair of watch-dogs from the lofty door 8.615 ran close, their lord attending, as he sought 8.616 his guest Aeneas; for his princely soul 8.617 remembered faithfully his former word, 8.618 and promised gift. Aeneas with like mind ' "8.619 was stirring early. King Evander's son " '8.620 Pallas was at his side; Achates too 8.621 accompanied his friend. All these conjoin 8.622 in hand-clasp and good-morrow, taking seats 8.623 in midcourt of the house, and give the hour 8.625 “Great leader of the Teucrians, while thy life 8.626 in safety stands, I call not Trojan power 8.627 vanquished or fallen. But to help thy war 8.628 my small means match not thy redoubled name. 8.629 Yon Tuscan river is my bound. That way 8.630 Rutulia thrusts us hard and chafes our wall 8.631 with loud, besieging arms. But I propose 8.632 to league with thee a numerous array 8.633 of kings and mighty tribes, which fortune strange 8.634 now brings to thy defence. Thou comest here 8.635 because the Fates intend. Not far from ours 8.636 a city on an ancient rock is seen, 8.637 Agylla, which a warlike Lydian clan 8.638 built on the Tuscan hills. It prospered well 8.639 for many a year, then under the proud yoke 8.640 of King Mezentius it came and bore 8.641 his cruel sway. Why tell the loathsome deeds 8.642 and crimes unspeakable the despot wrought? 8.643 May Heaven requite them on his impious head 8.644 and on his children! For he used to chain 8.645 dead men to living, hand on hand was laid 8.646 and face on face,—torment incredible! 8.647 Till, locked in blood-stained, horrible embrace, 8.648 a lingering death they found. But at the last 8.649 his people rose in furious despair, 8.650 and while he blasphemously raged, assailed 8.651 his life and throne, cut down his guards 8.652 and fired his regal dwellings; he, the while, 8.653 escaped immediate death and fied away 8.654 to the Rutulian land, to find defence 8.655 in Turnus hospitality. To-day 8.656 Etruria, to righteous anger stirred, 8.657 demands with urgent arms her guilty King. 8.658 To their large host, Aeneas, I will give 8.659 an added strength, thyself. For yonder shores 8.660 re-echo with the tumult and the cry 8.661 of ships in close array; their eager lords 8.662 are clamoring for battle. But the song 8.663 of the gray omen-giver thus declares 8.664 their destiny: ‘O goodly princes born 8.665 of old Maeonian lineage! Ye that are 8.666 the bloom and glory of an ancient race, 8.667 whom just occasions now and noble rage 8.668 enflame against Mezentius your foe, 8.669 it is decreed that yonder nation proud 8.670 hall never submit to chiefs Italian-born. 8.671 Seek ye a king from far!’ So in the field ' "8.672 inert and fearful lies Etruria's force, " '8.673 disarmed by oracles. Their Tarchon sent 8.674 envoys who bore a sceptre and a crown 8.675 even to me, and prayed I should assume ' "8.676 the sacred emblems of Etruria's king, " '8.677 and lead their host to war. But unto me 8.678 cold, sluggish age, now barren and outworn, 8.679 denies new kingdoms, and my slow-paced powers 8.680 run to brave deeds no more. Nor could I urge ' "8.681 my son, who by his Sabine mother's line " '8.682 is half Italian-born. Thyself art he, 8.683 whose birth illustrious and manly prime 8.684 fate favors and celestial powers approve. 8.685 Therefore go forth, O bravest chief and King 8.686 of Troy and Italy ! To thee I give 8.687 the hope and consolation of our throne, 8.688 pallas, my son, and bid him find in thee 8.689 a master and example, while he learns ' "8.690 the soldier's arduous toil. With thy brave deeds " '8.691 let him familiar grow, and reverence thee 8.692 with youthful love and honor. In his train 8.693 two hundred horsemen of Arcadia, 8.694 our choicest men-at-arms, shall ride; and he 8.695 in his own name an equal band shall bring 8.696 to follow only thee.” Such the discourse. 8.697 With meditative brows and downcast eyes 8.698 Aeneas and Achates, sad at heart, 8.699 mused on unnumbered perils yet to come. ' "8.700 But out of cloudless sky Cythera's Queen " "8.701 gave sudden signal: from th' ethereal dome " '8.702 a thunder-peal and flash of quivering fire 8.703 tumultuous broke, as if the world would fall, 8.704 and bellowing Tuscan trumpets shook the air. 8.705 All eyes look up. Again and yet again 8.706 crashed the terrible din, and where the sky 8.707 looked clearest hung a visionary cloud, 8.708 whence through the brightness blazed resounding arms. ' "8.709 All hearts stood still. But Troy 's heroic son " '8.710 knew that his mother in the skies redeemed 8.711 her pledge in sound of thunder: so he cried, 8.712 “Seek not, my friend, seek not thyself to read ' "8.713 the meaning of the omen. 'T is to me " '8.714 Olympus calls. My goddess-mother gave 8.715 long since her promise of a heavenly sign 8.716 if war should burst; and that her power would bring 8.717 a panoply from Vulcan through the air, 8.718 to help us at our need. Alas, what deaths ' "8.719 over Laurentum's ill-starred host impend! " '8.720 O Turnus, what a reckoning thou shalt pay 8.721 to me in arms! O Tiber, in thy wave 8.722 what helms and shields and mighty soldiers slain 8.723 hall in confusion roll! Yea, let them lead 8.725 He said: and from the lofty throne uprose. 8.726 Straightway he roused anew the slumbering fire 8.727 acred to Hercules, and glad at heart 8.728 adored, as yesterday, the household gods ' ' None
|77. Vergil, Eclogues, 10.69
Tagged with subjects: • Ars Amatoria (Ovid),, as cause of exile • Ovid, Ars and Remedia as philosophical in their own right • anxiety, artistic • audience, power dynamic between artist and • death, triumph of art over • ideology, as function of art • power, artist /audience relationship and
Found in books: Bowditch (2001), Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination, 122, 128, 129; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 5, 151; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 136
10.69 and you, my love, grow with them. And meanwhile' ' None
|78. Vergil, Georgics, 2.174-2.175, 3.7, 3.11-3.36, 4.464-4.466, 4.469-4.472, 4.475-4.477, 4.481-4.484, 4.488, 4.490-4.493, 4.495, 4.507-4.520, 4.523-4.527
Tagged with subjects: • Muses, artistic presentation of works of the • Orpheus,, as symbol of failure of art • Ovid, Ars amatoria • anxiety, artistic • ars • artists and gods • city, as locus of art • hubris,, artistic arrogance • ivory, as artistic medium • nature, transgressed by art • power, of artists and authors • sexual subjects in art, Orpheus and • sexual subjects in art, eroticdidacticism
Found in books: Clay and Vergados (2022), Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry, 218; Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 127; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 35, 100, 101; Pandey (2018), The Poetics of Power in Augustan Rome, 216, 221, 222, 223, 227, 228; Perkell (1989), The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics, 42, 43, 81, 82, 83; Thorsen et al. (2021), Greek and Latin Love: The Poetic Connection, 106
2.174 magna virum; tibi res antiquae laudis et artem 2.175 ingredior, sanctos ausus recludere fontis,
3.7 Hippodameque umeroque Pelops insignis eburno,
3.11 Aonio rediens deducam vertice Musas; 3.12 primus Idumaeas referam tibi, Mantua, palmas, 3.13 et viridi in campo templum de marmore ponam 3.14 propter aquam. Tardis ingens ubi flexibus errat 3.15 Mincius et tenera praetexit arundine ripas. 3.16 In medio mihi Caesar erit templumque tenebit: 3.17 illi victor ego et Tyrio conspectus in ostro 3.18 centum quadriiugos agitabo ad flumina currus. 3.19 Cuncta mihi Alpheum linquens lucosque Molorchi 3.20 cursibus et crudo decernet Graecia caestu. 3.21 Ipse caput tonsae foliis ornatus olivae 3.22 dona feram. Iam nunc sollemnis ducere pompas 3.23 ad delubra iuvat caesosque videre iuvencos, 3.24 vel scaena ut versis discedat frontibus utque 3.25 purpurea intexti tollant aulaea Britanni. 3.26 In foribus pugnam ex auro solidoque elephanto 3.27 Gangaridum faciam victorisque arma Quirini, 3.28 atque hic undantem bello magnumque fluentem 3.29 Nilum ac navali surgentis aere columnas. 3.30 Addam urbes Asiae domitas pulsumque Niphaten 3.31 fidentemque fuga Parthum versisque sagittis, 3.32 et duo rapta manu diverso ex hoste tropaea 3.33 bisque triumphatas utroque ab litore gentes. 3.34 Stabunt et Parii lapides, spirantia signa, 3.35 Assaraci proles demissaeque ab Iove gentis 3.36 nomina, Trosque parens et Troiae Cynthius auctor.
4.464 Ipse cava solans aegrum testudine amorem 4.465 te, dulcis coniunx, te solo in litore secum, 4.466 te veniente die, te decedente canebat.
4.469 ingressus manesque adiit regemque tremendum 4.470 nesciaque humanis precibus mansuescere corda. 4.471 At cantu commotae Erebi de sedibus imis 4.472 umbrae ibant tenues simulacraque luce carentum,
4.475 matres atque viri defunctaque corpora vita 4.476 magimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae, 4.477 impositique rogis iuvenes ante ora parentum,
4.481 Quin ipsae stupuere domus atque intima Leti 4.482 tartara caeruleosque implexae crinibus angues 4.483 Eumenides, tenuitque inhians tria Cerberus ora 4.484 atque Ixionii vento rota constitit orbis.
4.488 cum subita incautum dementia cepit amantem,
4.490 Restitit Eurydicenque suam iam luce sub ipsa 4.491 immemor heu! victusque animi respexit. Ibi omnis 4.492 effusus labor atque immitis rupta tyranni 4.493 foedera, terque fragor stagnis auditus Avernis.
4.495 quis tantus furor? En iterum crudelia retro
4.507 Septem illum totos perhibent ex ordine menses 4.508 rupe sub aeria deserti ad Strymonis undam 4.509 flesse sibi et gelidis haec evolvisse sub antris 4.510 mulcentem tigres et agentem carmine quercus; 4.511 qualis populea maerens philomela sub umbra 4.512 amissos queritur fetus, quos durus arator 4.513 observans nido implumes detraxit; at illa 4.514 flet noctem ramoque sedens miserabile carmen 4.515 integrat et maestis late loca questibus implet. 4.516 Nulla Venus, non ulli animum flexere hymenaei. 4.517 Solus Hyperboreas glacies Tanaimque nivalem 4.518 arvaque Rhipaeis numquam viduata pruinis 4.519 lustrabat raptam Eurydicen atque inrita Ditis 4.520 dona querens; spretae Ciconum quo munere matres
4.523 Tum quoque marmorea caput a cervice revulsum 4.524 gurgite cum medio portans Oeagrius Hebrus 4.525 volveret, Eurydicen vox ipsa et frigida lingua 4.526 “ah miseram Eurydicen!” anima fugiente vocabat: 4.527 “Eurydicen” toto referebant flumine ripae.”'' None
2.174 And ease the panting breathlessness of age. 2.175 But no, not Mede-land with its wealth of woods,
3.7 Busiris, and his altars? or by whom
3.11 Keen charioteer? Needs must a path be tried, 3.12 By which I too may lift me from the dust, 3.13 And float triumphant through the mouths of men. 3.14 Yea, I shall be the first, so life endure, 3.15 To lead the Muses with me, as I pa 3.16 To mine own country from the Aonian height; 3.17 I, 3.18 of Idumaea, and raise a marble shrine 3.19 On thy green plain fast by the water-side, 3.20 Where Mincius winds more vast in lazy coils, 3.21 And rims his margent with the tender reed.' "3.22 Amid my shrine shall Caesar's godhead dwell." '3.23 To him will I, as victor, bravely dight 3.24 In Tyrian purple, drive along the bank 3.25 A hundred four-horse cars. All 3.27 On foot shall strive, or with the raw-hide glove; 3.28 Whilst I, my head with stripped green olive crowned,' "3.29 Will offer gifts. Even 'tis present joy" '3.30 To lead the high processions to the fane, 3.31 And view the victims felled; or how the scene 3.32 Sunders with shifted face, and 3.33 Inwoven thereon with those proud curtains rise. 3.34 of gold and massive ivory on the door' "3.35 I'll trace the battle of the Gangarides," "3.36 And our Quirinus' conquering arms, and there" 4.464 Arched mountain-wise closed round him, and within 4.465 Its mighty bosom welcomed, and let speed 4.466 To the deep river-bed. And now, with eye
4.469 And echoing groves, he went, and, stunned by that 4.470 Stupendous whirl of waters, separate saw 4.471 All streams beneath the mighty earth that glide, 4.472 Phasis and Lycus, and that fountain-head
4.475 And Hypanis that roars amid his rocks, 4.476 And Mysian Caicus, and, bull-browed' "4.477 'Twixt either gilded horn, 4.492 Thrice Vesta's fire with nectar clear she dashed," '4.493 Thrice to the roof-top shot the flame and shone:' "
4.495 “In Neptune's gulf Carpathian dwells a seer," 4.507 And grant a prosperous end. For save by force 4.508 No rede will he vouchsafe, nor shalt thou bend 4.509 His soul by praying; whom once made captive, ply 4.510 With rigorous force and fetters; against these 4.511 His wiles will break and spend themselves in vain. 4.512 I, when the sun has lit his noontide fires, 4.513 When the blades thirst, and cattle love the shade,' "4.514 Myself will guide thee to the old man's haunt," '4.515 Whither he hies him weary from the waves, 4.516 That thou mayst safelier steal upon his sleep. 4.517 But when thou hast gripped him fast with hand and gyve, 4.518 Then divers forms and bestial semblance 4.519 Shall mock thy grasp; for sudden he will change 4.520 To bristly boar, fell tigress, dragon scaled,
4.523 The fetters, or in showery drops anon 4.524 Dissolve and vanish. But the more he shift 4.525 His endless transformations, thou, my son, 4.526 More straitlier clench the clinging bands, until' "4.527 His body's shape return to that thou sawest,"' None
|79. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Artists • women, occupations/functions/titles, artists
Found in books: Eckhardt (2019), Benedict, Private Associations and Jewish Communities in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities, 171; Marek (2019), In the Land of a Thousand Gods: A History of Asia Minor in the Ancient World, 465
|80. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Cicero, influence of De officiis on Ars amatoria • art of life
Found in books: Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 30; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 80
|81. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Artists • Dionysiac artists,
Found in books: Eckhardt (2019), Benedict, Private Associations and Jewish Communities in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities, 134; Gabrielsen and Paganini (2021), Private Associations in the Ancient Greek World: Regulations and the Creation of Group Identity, 146
|82. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Artists • Artists of Dionysus/Dionysiac Guilds (Dionysiakoi Technitai) • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), Athenian association • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), Cyprian association (Paphos) • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), Egyptian association (Alexandria, Ptolemais, Cyprus) • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), Ionian-Hellespontine association (Pergamum, Teos) • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), Isthmian-Nemean association (Argos, Chalcis, Corinth, Opus, Thebes) • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), benefactors of (φιλοτεχνῖται) • technitai (Artists of Dionysus), supporting royal ideology
Found in books: Csapo et al. (2022), Theatre and Autocracy in the Ancient World, 39, 43, 45, 46, 49, 50; Eckhardt (2019), Benedict, Private Associations and Jewish Communities in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities, 134; Liapis and Petrides (2019), Greek Tragedy After the Fifth Century: A Survey from ca, 165, 166
|83. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Artists • Dionysiac artists,
Found in books: Eckhardt (2019), Benedict, Private Associations and Jewish Communities in the Hellenistic and Roman Cities, 132, 142; Gabrielsen and Paganini (2021), Private Associations in the Ancient Greek World: Regulations and the Creation of Group Identity, 55
|84. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Ars Amatoria (Ovid) • ars
Found in books: Clay and Vergados (2022), Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry, 227; Green (2014), Carthage in Virgil's Aeneid: Staging the Enemy under Augustus, 57