|1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.15-4.19, 17.10, 31.9, 32.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, idol vs. image • Art, official character • Moses, art • ahl al-raʾy (Ar. “people of [legal] opinion”) • ahl al-ḥadīṯ (Ar. “scholars of Tradition”) • art, Qumran • art, pagan • art, priests • catacombs, Bet Shearim, figural art • church fathers, figural art • figural art • ijtihād (Ar. “diligent efforts”)
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 897, 920, 930; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 53, 79, 247, 248, 252; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 236, 481; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022), The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King, 141
4.15 וְנִשְׁמַרְתֶּם מְאֹד לְנַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי לֹא רְאִיתֶם כָּל־תְּמוּנָה בְּיוֹם דִּבֶּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם בְּחֹרֵב מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ׃ 4.16 פֶּן־תַּשְׁחִתוּן וַעֲשִׂיתֶם לָכֶם פֶּסֶל תְּמוּנַת כָּל־סָמֶל תַּבְנִית זָכָר אוֹ נְקֵבָה׃ 4.17 תַּבְנִית כָּל־בְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ תַּבְנִית כָּל־צִפּוֹר כָּנָף אֲשֶׁר תָּעוּף בַּשָּׁמָיִם׃ 4.18 תַּבְנִית כָּל־רֹמֵשׂ בָּאֲדָמָה תַּבְנִית כָּל־דָּגָה אֲשֶׁר־בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ׃ 4.19 וּפֶן־תִּשָּׂא עֵינֶיךָ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְאֶת־הַיָּרֵחַ וְאֶת־הַכּוֹכָבִים כֹּל צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וְנִדַּחְתָּ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לָהֶם וַעֲבַדְתָּם אֲשֶׁר חָלַק יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֹתָם לְכֹל הָעַמִּים תַּחַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃' 31.9 וַיִּכְתֹּב מֹשֶׁה אֶת־הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת וַיִּתְּנָהּ אֶל־הַכֹּהֲנִים בְּנֵי לֵוִי הַנֹּשְׂאִים אֶת־אֲרוֹן בְּרִית יְהוָה וְאֶל־כָּל־זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
32.11 כְּנֶשֶׁר יָעִיר קִנּוֹ עַל־גּוֹזָלָיו יְרַחֵף יִפְרֹשׂ כְּנָפָיו יִקָּחֵהוּ יִשָּׂאֵהוּ עַל־אֶבְרָתוֹ׃'' None
4.15 Take ye therefore good heed unto yourselves—for ye saw no manner of form on the day that the LORD spoke unto you in Horeb out of the midst of the fire— 4.16 lest ye deal corruptly, and make you a graven image, even the form of any figure, the likeness of male or female, 4.17 the likeness of any beast that is on the earth, the likeness of any winged fowl that flieth in the heaven, 4.18 the likeness of any thing that creepeth on the ground, the likeness of any fish that is in the water under the earth; . 4.19 and lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun and the moon and the stars, even all the host of heaven, thou be drawn away and worship them, and serve them, which the LORD thy God hath allotted unto all the peoples under the whole heaven.
17.10 And thou shalt do according to the tenor of the sentence, which they shall declare unto thee from that place which the LORD shall choose; and thou shalt observe to do according to all that they shall teach thee.
31.9 And Moses wrote this law, and delivered it unto the priests the sons of Levi, that bore the ark of the covet of the LORD, and unto all the elders of Israel.
32.11 As an eagle that stirreth up her nest, Hovereth over her young, Spreadeth abroad her wings, taketh them, Beareth them on her pinions—'' None
|2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 3.6, 3.15, 14.19, 16.7-16.10, 17.6, 20.4, 21.28 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, funerary • Art, idol vs. image • Art, official character • Jews, as blind to identity of Christ, depicted in art • Moses, art • art and architecture • art, • art, Qumran • art, early Christian • art, medieval Christian, depiction of Jews • art, origins anddevelopment • art, priests • clothing, signification of, in medieval Christian art • hypostasis (of God), ʿibāda (Ar. “piety”) • ijmāʿ (Ar. “consensus”) • maʿrifat Allāh (Ar. “knowledge of God”) • pallium, signification in medieval Christian art • priests, Jewish, depiction in medieval Jewish art • synagogues, art • taqlīd (Ar. “tradition”)
Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 94, 97; Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 897, 920, 934; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 31, 40, 52, 63, 122, 218, 249, 274, 322; Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 95, 747; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 247; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022), The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King, 140
3.6 וַיֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי אֱלֹהֵי אָבִיךָ אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב וַיַּסְתֵּר מֹשֶׁה פָּנָיו כִּי יָרֵא מֵהַבִּיט אֶל־הָאֱלֹהִים׃
3.15 וַיֹּאמֶר עוֹד אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כֹּה־תֹאמַר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵיכֶם אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אֱלֹהֵי יִצְחָק וֵאלֹהֵי יַעֲקֹב שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם זֶה־שְּׁמִי לְעֹלָם וְזֶה זִכְרִי לְדֹר דֹּר׃
14.19 וַיִּסַּע מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים הַהֹלֵךְ לִפְנֵי מַחֲנֵה יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֵּלֶךְ מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם וַיִּסַּע עַמּוּד הֶעָנָן מִפְּנֵיהֶם וַיַּעֲמֹד מֵאַחֲרֵיהֶם׃
16.7 וּבֹקֶר וּרְאִיתֶם אֶת־כְּבוֹד יְהוָה בְּשָׁמְעוֹ אֶת־תְּלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם עַל־יְהוָה וְנַחְנוּ מָה כִּי תלונו תַלִּינוּ עָלֵינוּ׃ 16.8 וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה בְּתֵת יְהוָה לָכֶם בָּעֶרֶב בָּשָׂר לֶאֱכֹל וְלֶחֶם בַּבֹּקֶר לִשְׂבֹּעַ בִּשְׁמֹעַ יְהוָה אֶת־תְּלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם מַלִּינִם עָלָיו וְנַחְנוּ מָה לֹא־עָלֵינוּ תְלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם כִּי עַל־יְהוָה׃ 16.9 וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן אֱמֹר אֶל־כָּל־עֲדַת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל קִרְבוּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה כִּי שָׁמַע אֵת תְּלֻנֹּתֵיכֶם׃' 17.6 הִנְנִי עֹמֵד לְפָנֶיךָ שָּׁם עַל־הַצּוּר בְּחֹרֵב וְהִכִּיתָ בַצּוּר וְיָצְאוּ מִמֶּנּוּ מַיִם וְשָׁתָה הָעָם וַיַּעַשׂ כֵּן מֹשֶׁה לְעֵינֵי זִקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃
20.4 לֹא תַעֲשֶׂה־לְךָ פֶסֶל וְכָל־תְּמוּנָה אֲשֶׁר בַּשָּׁמַיִם מִמַּעַל וַאֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ מִתַָּחַת וַאֲשֶׁר בַּמַּיִם מִתַּחַת לָאָרֶץ
21.28 וְכִי־יִגַּח שׁוֹר אֶת־אִישׁ אוֹ אֶת־אִשָּׁה וָמֵת סָקוֹל יִסָּקֵל הַשּׁוֹר וְלֹא יֵאָכֵל אֶת־בְּשָׂרוֹ וּבַעַל הַשּׁוֹר נָקִי׃'' None
3.6 Moreover He said: ‘I am the God of thy father, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob.’ And Moses hid his face; for he was afraid to look upon God.
3.15 And God said moreover unto Moses: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: The LORD, the God of your fathers, the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob, hath sent me unto you; this is My name for ever, and this is My memorial unto all generations.
14.19 And the angel of God, who went before the camp of Israel, removed and went behind them; and the pillar of cloud removed from before them, and stood behind them;
16.7 and in the morning, then ye shall see the glory of the LORD; for that He hath heard your murmurings against the LORD; and what are we, that ye murmur against us?’ 16.8 And Moses said: ‘This shall be, when the LORD shall give you in the evening flesh to eat, and in the morning bread to the full; for that the LORD heareth your murmurings which ye murmur against Him; and what are we? your murmurings are not against us, but against the LORD.’ 16.9 And Moses said unto Aaron: ‘Say unto all the congregation of the children of Israel: Come near before the LORD; for He hath heard your murmurings.’ 16.10 And it came to pass, as Aaron spoke unto the whole congregation of the children of Israel, that they looked toward the wilderness, and, behold, the glory of the LORD appeared in the cloud.
17.6 Behold, I will stand before thee there upon the rock in Horeb; and thou shalt smite the rock, and there shall come water out of it, that the people may drink.’ And Moses did so in the sight of the elders of Israel.
20.4 Thou shalt not make unto thee a graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of any thing that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth;
21.28 And if an ox gore a man or a woman, that they die, the ox shall be surely stoned, and its flesh shall not be eaten; but the owner of the ox shall be quit.' ' None
|3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares • Artagnes Heracles Ares astronomy, astrology, and astral lore • Moses, art • art, Qumran • art, priests • popular culture See reception history, and art
Found in books: Beck (2006), The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire: Mysteries of the Unconquered Sun, 165; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022), Why We Sing: Music, Word, and Liturgy in Early Christianity, 327; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51, 55, 299; Sneed (2022), Taming the Beast: A Reception History of Behemoth and Leviathan, 239
1.14 וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים יְהִי מְאֹרֹת בִּרְקִיעַ הַשָּׁמַיִם לְהַבְדִּיל בֵּין הַיּוֹם וּבֵין הַלָּיְלָה וְהָיוּ לְאֹתֹת וּלְמוֹעֲדִים וּלְיָמִים וְשָׁנִים׃' ' None
1.14 And God said: ‘Let there be lights in the firmament of the heaven to divide the day from the night; and let them be for signs, and for seasons, and for days and years;' ' None
|4. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 23.40, 23.43 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Samaritans, art • art, • lulav, in synagogue art
Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 216; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 247, 308
23.43 לְמַעַן יֵדְעוּ דֹרֹתֵיכֶם כִּי בַסֻּכּוֹת הוֹשַׁבְתִּי אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל בְּהוֹצִיאִי אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃' ' None
23.40 And ye shall take you on the first day the fruit of goodly trees, branches of palm-trees, and boughs of thick trees, and willows of the brook, and ye shall rejoice before the LORD your God seven days.
23.43 that your generations may know that I made the children of Israel to dwell in booths, when I brought them out of the land of Egypt: I am the LORD your God.'' None
|5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 21.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • art and architecture • seals, figural art
Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 321; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 225
21.9 וַיַּעַשׂ מֹשֶׁה נְחַשׁ נְחֹשֶׁת וַיְשִׂמֵהוּ עַל־הַנֵּס וְהָיָה אִם־נָשַׁךְ הַנָּחָשׁ אֶת־אִישׁ וְהִבִּיט אֶל־נְחַשׁ הַנְּחֹשֶׁת וָחָי׃'' None
21.9 And Moses made a serpent of brass, and set it upon the pole; and it came to pass, that if a serpent had bitten any man, when he looked unto the serpent of brass, he lived.'' None
|6. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 24.7, 24.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • art, Qumran • art, pagan • art, priests • zabūr (Ar. “Psalms”, concept)
Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 53, 66; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 32; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022), The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King, 222
24.7 שְׂאוּ שְׁעָרִים רָאשֵׁיכֶם וְהִנָּשְׂאוּ פִּתְחֵי עוֹלָם וְיָבוֹא מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד׃
24.9 שְׂאוּ שְׁעָרִים רָאשֵׁיכֶם וּשְׂאוּ פִּתְחֵי עוֹלָם וְיָבֹא מֶלֶךְ הַכָּבוֹד׃' ' None
24.7 Lift up your heads, O ye gates, and be ye lifted up, ye everlasting doors; that the King of glory may come in.
24.9 Lift up your heads, O ye gates, Yea, lift them up, ye everlasting doors; That the King of glory may come in.' ' None
|7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 6.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, funerary • Art, loss of pagan meaning for Christians and Jews • Moses, art • art, Qumran • art, priests
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 935; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 34, 49, 50, 52, 250
6.3 וְקָרָא זֶה אֶל־זֶה וְאָמַר קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ קָדוֹשׁ יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת מְלֹא כָל־הָאָרֶץ כְּבוֹדוֹ׃'' None
6.3 And one called unto another, and said: Holy, holy, holy, is the LORD of hosts; The whole earth is full of His glory.'' None
|8. Hesiod, Works And Days, 151, 174-175, 202-212 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares • Georgics , art in • Golden Age, art in • Orpheus,, as symbol of failure of art • Phrygia and Phrygians, art and monuments of • ars
Found in books: Demoen and Praet (2009), Theios Sophistes: Essays on Flavius Philostratus' Vita Apollonii, 299; Keith and Myers (2023), Vergil and Elegy. 79; Kirichenko (2022), Greek Literature and the Ideal: The Pragmatics of Space from the Archaic to the Hellenistic Age, 80; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 86; Perkell (1989), The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics, 81, 82, 83, 136, 137, 139, 140
151 χαλκῷ δʼ εἰργάζοντο· μέλας δʼ οὐκ ἔσκε σίδηρος.174 μηκέτʼ ἔπειτʼ ὤφελλον ἐγὼ πέμπτοισι μετεῖναι 175 ἀνδράσιν, ἀλλʼ ἢ πρόσθε θανεῖν ἢ ἔπειτα γενέσθαι.
202 νῦν δʼ αἶνον βασιλεῦσιν ἐρέω φρονέουσι καὶ αὐτοῖς· 203 ὧδʼ ἴρηξ προσέειπεν ἀηδόνα ποικιλόδειρον 204 ὕψι μάλʼ ἐν νεφέεσσι φέρων ὀνύχεσσι μεμαρπώς· 205 ἣ δʼ ἐλεόν, γναμπτοῖσι πεπαρμένη ἀμφʼ ὀνύχεσσι, 206 μύρετο· τὴν ὅγʼ ἐπικρατέως πρὸς μῦθον ἔειπεν· 207 δαιμονίη, τί λέληκας; ἔχει νύ σε πολλὸν ἀρείων· 208 τῇ δʼ εἶς, ᾗ σʼ ἂν ἐγώ περ ἄγω καὶ ἀοιδὸν ἐοῦσαν· 209 δεῖπνον δʼ, αἴ κʼ ἐθέλω, ποιήσομαι ἠὲ μεθήσω. 210 ἄφρων δʼ, ὅς κʼ ἐθέλῃ πρὸς κρείσσονας ἀντιφερίζειν· 211 νίκης τε στέρεται πρός τʼ αἴσχεσιν ἄλγεα πάσχει. 212 ὣς ἔφατʼ ὠκυπέτης ἴρηξ, τανυσίπτερος ὄρνις. ' None
151 They ate no corn, encased about174 And affluent, by the deep-swirling sea. 175 Sweet grain, blooming three times a year, was sent
202 Might will be right and shame shall cease to be, 203 The bad will harm the good whom they shall maim 204 With crooked words, swearing false oaths. We’ll see 205 Envy among the wretched, foul of face 206 And voice, adoring villainy, and then 207 Into Olympus from the endless space 208 Mankind inhabits, leaving mortal men, 209 Fair flesh veiled by white robes, shall Probity 210 And Shame depart, and there’ll be grievous pain 211 For men: against all evil there shall be 212 No safeguard. Now I’ll tell, for lords who know ' None
|9. Hesiod, Theogony, 71, 81-96, 923, 934-935, 937, 940-944 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aphrodite, Ares and • Ares • Ares, Aphrodite and • Ares, Dionysus and • Ares, as father of heroes • Ares, dragon of Thebes, slaying of • Ares, images and iconography • Ares, origins and development • Birth of Dionysus, in Christian art • Boeotia, Ares and • Christianity, birth scenes in art of • Dionysus, Ares and • Phrygia and Phrygians, art and monuments of • Thebes, association of Ares, Dionysus, and Aphrodite with • dragons, Ares slaying dragon of Thebes • patrons of the arts • weddings and marriages, Ares and Aphrodite
Found in books: Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 59; Lyons (1997), Gender and Immortality: Heroines in Ancient Greek Myth and Cult, 93; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 88; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 29, 51, 242, 244; Segev (2017), Aristotle on Religion, 134; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 206, 286, 287
71 νισσομένων πατέρʼ εἰς ὅν· ὃ δʼ οὐρανῷ ἐμβασιλεύει,81 ὅν τινα τιμήσωσι Διὸς κοῦραι μεγάλοιο 82 γεινόμενόν τε ἴδωσι διοτρεφέων βασιλήων, 83 τῷ μὲν ἐπὶ γλώσσῃ γλυκερὴν χείουσιν ἐέρσην, 84 τοῦ δʼ ἔπεʼ ἐκ στόματος ῥεῖ μείλιχα· οἱ δέ τε λαοὶ 85 πάντες ἐς αὐτὸν ὁρῶσι διακρίνοντα θέμιστας 86 ἰθείῃσι δίκῃσιν· ὃ δʼ ἀσφαλέως ἀγορεύων 87 αἶψά κε καὶ μέγα νεῖκος ἐπισταμένως κατέπαυσεν· 88 τοὔνεκα γὰρ βασιλῆες ἐχέφρονες, οὕνεκα λαοῖς 89 βλαπτομένοις ἀγορῆφι μετάτροπα ἔργα τελεῦσι 90 ῥηιδίως, μαλακοῖσι παραιφάμενοι ἐπέεσσιν. 91 ἐρχόμενον δʼ ἀνʼ ἀγῶνα θεὸν ὣς ἱλάσκονται 92 αἰδοῖ μειλιχίῃ, μετὰ δὲ πρέπει ἀγρομένοισιν· 93 τοίη Μουσάων ἱερὴ δόσις ἀνθρώποισιν. 94 ἐκ γάρ τοι Μουσέων καὶ ἑκηβόλου Ἀπόλλωνος 95 ἄνδρες ἀοιδοὶ ἔασιν ἐπὶ χθόνα καὶ κιθαρισταί, 96 ἐκ δὲ Διὸς βασιλῆες· ὃ δʼ ὄλβιος, ὅν τινα Μοῦσαι
923 μιχθεῖσʼ ἐν φιλότητι θεῶν βασιλῆι καὶ ἀνδρῶν.
934 ῥινοτόρῳ Κυθέρεια Φόβον καὶ Δεῖμον ἔτικτε 935 δεινούς, οἵτʼ ἀνδρῶν πυκινὰς κλονέουσι φάλαγγας
937 Ἁρμονίην θʼ, ἣν Κάδμος ὑπέρθυμος θέτʼ ἄκοιτιν.
940 Καδμείη δʼ ἄρα οἱ Σεμέλη τέκε φαίδιμον υἱὸν 941 μιχθεῖσʼ ἐν φιλότητι, Διώνυσον πολυγηθέα, 942 ἀθάνατον θνητή· νῦν δʼ ἀμφότεροι θεοί εἰσιν. 943 Ἀλκμήνη δʼ ἄρʼ ἔτικτε βίην Ἡρακληείην 944 μιχθεῖσʼ ἐν φιλότητι Διὸς νεφεληγερέταο. ' None
71 The Graces and Desire dwelt quite free81 In heaven, once Cronus he’d subjugated 82 As to the immortals he disseminated 83 Their rights. Lord Zeus begat this company 84 of Muses, Thalia, Melpomene, 85 Clio, Euterpe and Terpsichory, 86 And Polyhymnia, Calliope, 87 Urania, Erato: but the best 88 of all of them, deferred to by the rest 89 of all the Muses is Calliope 90 Because the kings blest by divinity 91 She serves. Each god-nursed king whom they adore, 92 Beholding him at birth, for him they pour 93 Sweet dew upon his tongue that there may flow 94 Kind words from hm; thus all the people go 95 To see him arbitrate successfully 96 Their undertakings and unswervingly
923 Who are deceased, shook, and the Titan horde
934 And from the thunder-stricken lord a flame 935 Shot forth in the dim, mountain-hollows when
937 Scorched by a terrible vapour, liquefied
940 The hardest of all things, which men subdue 941 With fire in mountain-glens and with the glow 942 Causes the sacred earth to melt: just so 943 The earth now fused, and to wide Tartaru 944 In bitter anger Zeus cast Typhoeus, ' None
|10. Homer, Iliad, 1.194-1.218, 1.400, 3.408-3.409, 5.330-5.340, 5.385-5.391, 5.592-5.593, 5.722, 5.730, 5.732, 5.736, 5.755-5.766, 5.784, 5.832, 5.846-5.863, 5.875-5.876, 5.880-5.881, 5.888-5.897, 5.902-5.906, 6.303, 14.153, 14.292, 14.325, 14.338, 18.110, 18.394-18.401, 18.516-18.517, 18.535, 18.590-18.594, 19.16-19.18, 21.284-21.298, 21.407 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Achilles, Ares and • Aphrodite, Ares and • Apollo, Ares and • Ares • Ares, • Ares, Achilles and • Ares, Aphrodite and • Ares, Apollo and • Ares, Artemis and • Ares, Athena and • Ares, Hephaestus and • Ares, Hera and • Ares, Homer on • Ares, Zeus and • Ares, as one of the θεοὶ πολιάοχοι χθονός • Ares, as war god • Ares, on Hephaesteum, east frieze, Athens • Ares, origins and development • Aristotle, Pleasures of art and drama • Artemis, Ares and • Athena, Ares and • Hephaestus, Ares and • Hera, Ares and • Homer, on Ares • Mimetic art • Minoan-Mycenaean religion and art, Artemis and • Minoan-Mycenaean religion and art, Athena in • Naxos, amphora with Aphrodite and Ares from • Nilsson, Martin, on Ares • Pleasure, Aristotle on pleasures of art and drama • Thebes, association of Ares, Dionysus, and Aphrodite with • Zeus, Ares and • and Ares, in lagrante • art, gestures in • gestures, in art • theurgy (hieratic art) • weddings and marriages, Ares and Aphrodite
Found in books: Bednarek (2021), The Myth of Lycurgus in Aeschylus, Naevius, and beyond, 10, 22; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 476; Bloch (2022), Ancient Jewish Diaspora: Essays on Hellenism, 167; Boeghold (2022), When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature. 17; Braund and Most (2004), Ancient Anger: Perspectives from Homer to Galen, 42; Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 59; Del Lucchese (2019), Monstrosity and Philosophy: Radical Otherness in Greek and Latin Culture, 14, 33; Dillon and Timotin (2015), Platonic Theories of Prayer, 178; Gorain (2019), Language in the Confessions of Augustine, 126; Henderson (2020), The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus, 149; Jim (2022), Saviour Gods and Soteria in Ancient Greece, 48; Lalone (2019), Athena Itonia: Geography and Meaning of an Ancient Greek War Goddess, 34; Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 19, 42; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 28, 31; Maciver (2012), Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica: Engaging Homer in Late Antiquity, 166; Meister (2019), Greek Praise Poetry and the Rhetoric of Divinity, 72; Mikalson (2010), Greek Popular Religion in Greek Philosophy, 69; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 90; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 37, 46, 51, 53, 68, 82; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 12, 180, 199, 205, 238, 248, 281, 282, 288; Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 80; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 163, 164; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 332; de Bakker, van den Berg, and Klooster (2022), Emotions and Narrative in Ancient Literature and Beyond, 421
1.194 ἕλκετο δʼ ἐκ κολεοῖο μέγα ξίφος, ἦλθε δʼ Ἀθήνη 1.195 οὐρανόθεν· πρὸ γὰρ ἧκε θεὰ λευκώλενος Ἥρη 1.196 ἄμφω ὁμῶς θυμῷ φιλέουσά τε κηδομένη τε· 1.197 στῆ δʼ ὄπιθεν, ξανθῆς δὲ κόμης ἕλε Πηλεΐωνα 1.198 οἴῳ φαινομένη· τῶν δʼ ἄλλων οὔ τις ὁρᾶτο· 1.199 θάμβησεν δʼ Ἀχιλεύς, μετὰ δʼ ἐτράπετʼ, αὐτίκα δʼ ἔγνω 1.200 Παλλάδʼ Ἀθηναίην· δεινὼ δέ οἱ ὄσσε φάανθεν· 1.201 καί μιν φωνήσας ἔπεα πτερόεντα προσηύδα· 1.202 τίπτʼ αὖτʼ αἰγιόχοιο Διὸς τέκος εἰλήλουθας; 1.203 ἦ ἵνα ὕβριν ἴδῃ Ἀγαμέμνονος Ἀτρεΐδαο; 1.204 ἀλλʼ ἔκ τοι ἐρέω, τὸ δὲ καὶ τελέεσθαι ὀΐω· 1.205 ᾗς ὑπεροπλίῃσι τάχʼ ἄν ποτε θυμὸν ὀλέσσῃ. 1.206 τὸν δʼ αὖτε προσέειπε θεὰ γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη· 1.207 ἦλθον ἐγὼ παύσουσα τὸ σὸν μένος, αἴ κε πίθηαι, 1.208 οὐρανόθεν· πρὸ δέ μʼ ἧκε θεὰ λευκώλενος Ἥρη 1.210 ἀλλʼ ἄγε λῆγʼ ἔριδος, μηδὲ ξίφος ἕλκεο χειρί· 1.211 ἀλλʼ ἤτοι ἔπεσιν μὲν ὀνείδισον ὡς ἔσεταί περ· 1.212 ὧδε γὰρ ἐξερέω, τὸ δὲ καὶ τετελεσμένον ἔσται· 1.213 καί ποτέ τοι τρὶς τόσσα παρέσσεται ἀγλαὰ δῶρα 1.214 ὕβριος εἵνεκα τῆσδε· σὺ δʼ ἴσχεο, πείθεο δʼ ἡμῖν. 1.215 τὴν δʼ ἀπαμειβόμενος προσέφη πόδας ὠκὺς Ἀχιλλεύς· 1.216 χρὴ μὲν σφωΐτερόν γε θεὰ ἔπος εἰρύσσασθαι 1.217 καὶ μάλα περ θυμῷ κεχολωμένον· ὧς γὰρ ἄμεινον· 1.218 ὅς κε θεοῖς ἐπιπείθηται μάλα τʼ ἔκλυον αὐτοῦ.
1.400 Ἥρη τʼ ἠδὲ Ποσειδάων καὶ Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη·
3.408 ἀλλʼ αἰεὶ περὶ κεῖνον ὀΐζυε καί ἑ φύλασσε, 3.409 εἰς ὅ κέ σʼ ἢ ἄλοχον ποιήσεται ἢ ὅ γε δούλην.
5.330 ἐμμεμαώς· ὃ δὲ Κύπριν ἐπῴχετο νηλέϊ χαλκῷ 5.331 γιγνώσκων ὅ τʼ ἄναλκις ἔην θεός, οὐδὲ θεάων 5.332 τάων αἵ τʼ ἀνδρῶν πόλεμον κάτα κοιρανέουσιν, 5.333 οὔτʼ ἄρʼ Ἀθηναίη οὔτε πτολίπορθος Ἐνυώ. 5.334 ἀλλʼ ὅτε δή ῥʼ ἐκίχανε πολὺν καθʼ ὅμιλον ὀπάζων, 5.335 ἔνθʼ ἐπορεξάμενος μεγαθύμου Τυδέος υἱὸς 5.336 ἄκρην οὔτασε χεῖρα μετάλμενος ὀξέϊ δουρὶ 5.337 ἀβληχρήν· εἶθαρ δὲ δόρυ χροὸς ἀντετόρησεν 5.338 ἀμβροσίου διὰ πέπλου, ὅν οἱ Χάριτες κάμον αὐταί, 5.339 πρυμνὸν ὕπερ θέναρος· ῥέε δʼ ἄμβροτον αἷμα θεοῖο 5.340 ἰχώρ, οἷός πέρ τε ῥέει μακάρεσσι θεοῖσιν·
5.385 τλῆ μὲν Ἄρης ὅτε μιν Ὦτος κρατερός τʼ Ἐφιάλτης 5.386 παῖδες Ἀλωῆος, δῆσαν κρατερῷ ἐνὶ δεσμῷ· 5.387 χαλκέῳ δʼ ἐν κεράμῳ δέδετο τρισκαίδεκα μῆνας· 5.388 καί νύ κεν ἔνθʼ ἀπόλοιτο Ἄρης ἆτος πολέμοιο, 5.389 εἰ μὴ μητρυιὴ περικαλλὴς Ἠερίβοια 5.390 Ἑρμέᾳ ἐξήγγειλεν· ὃ δʼ ἐξέκλεψεν Ἄρηα 5.391 ἤδη τειρόμενον, χαλεπὸς δέ ἑ δεσμὸς ἐδάμνα.
5.592 καρτεραί· ἦρχε δʼ ἄρα σφιν Ἄρης καὶ πότνιʼ Ἐνυώ, 5.593 ἣ μὲν ἔχουσα Κυδοιμὸν ἀναιδέα δηϊοτῆτος,
5.722 Ἥβη δʼ ἀμφʼ ὀχέεσσι θοῶς βάλε καμπύλα κύκλα
5.730 δῆσε χρύσειον καλὸν ζυγόν, ἐν δὲ λέπαδνα
5.732 ἵππους ὠκύποδας, μεμαυῖʼ ἔριδος καὶ ἀϋτῆς.
5.736 ἣ δὲ χιτῶνʼ ἐνδῦσα Διὸς νεφεληγερέταο
5.755 ἔνθʼ ἵππους στήσασα θεὰ λευκώλενος Ἥρη 5.756 Ζῆνʼ ὕπατον Κρονίδην ἐξείρετο καὶ προσέειπε· 5.757 Ζεῦ πάτερ οὐ νεμεσίζῃ Ἄρῃ τάδε καρτερὰ ἔργα 5.758 ὁσσάτιόν τε καὶ οἷον ἀπώλεσε λαὸν Ἀχαιῶν 5.759 μὰψ ἀτὰρ οὐ κατὰ κόσμον ἐμοὶ δʼ ἄχος, οἳ δὲ ἕκηλοι 5.760 τέρπονται Κύπρίς τε καὶ ἀργυρότοξος Ἀπόλλων 5.761 ἄφρονα τοῦτον ἀνέντες, ὃς οὔ τινα οἶδε θέμιστα; 5.762 Ζεῦ πάτερ ἦ ῥά τί μοι κεχολώσεαι, αἴ κεν Ἄρηα 5.763 λυγρῶς πεπληγυῖα μάχης ἐξαποδίωμαι; 5.764 τὴν δʼ ἀπαμειβόμενος προσέφη νεφεληγερέτα Ζεύς· 5.765 ἄγρει μάν οἱ ἔπορσον Ἀθηναίην ἀγελείην, 5.766 ἥ ἑ μάλιστʼ εἴωθε κακῇς ὀδύνῃσι πελάζειν.
5.784 ἔνθα στᾶσʼ ἤϋσε θεὰ λευκώλενος Ἥρη
5.832 ὃς πρῴην μὲν ἐμοί τε καὶ Ἥρῃ στεῦτʼ ἀγορεύων
5.846 ὡς δὲ ἴδε βροτολοιγὸς Ἄρης Διομήδεα δῖον, 5.847 ἤτοι ὃ μὲν Περίφαντα πελώριον αὐτόθʼ ἔασε 5.848 κεῖσθαι ὅθι πρῶτον κτείνων ἐξαίνυτο θυμόν, 5.849 αὐτὰρ ὃ βῆ ῥʼ ἰθὺς Διομήδεος ἱπποδάμοιο. 5.850 οἳ δʼ ὅτε δὴ σχεδὸν ἦσαν ἐπʼ ἀλλήλοισιν ἰόντες, 5.851 πρόσθεν Ἄρης ὠρέξαθʼ ὑπὲρ ζυγὸν ἡνία θʼ ἵππων 5.852 ἔγχεϊ χαλκείῳ μεμαὼς ἀπὸ θυμὸν ἑλέσθαι· 5.853 καὶ τό γε χειρὶ λαβοῦσα θεὰ γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη 5.854 ὦσεν ὑπὲκ δίφροιο ἐτώσιον ἀϊχθῆναι. 5.855 δεύτερος αὖθʼ ὡρμᾶτο βοὴν ἀγαθὸς Διομήδης 5.856 ἔγχεϊ χαλκείῳ· ἐπέρεισε δὲ Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη 5.857 νείατον ἐς κενεῶνα ὅθι ζωννύσκετο μίτρῃ· 5.858 τῇ ῥά μιν οὖτα τυχών, διὰ δὲ χρόα καλὸν ἔδαψεν, 5.859 ἐκ δὲ δόρυ σπάσεν αὖτις· ὃ δʼ ἔβραχε χάλκεος Ἄρης 5.860 ὅσσόν τʼ ἐννεάχιλοι ἐπίαχον ἢ δεκάχιλοι 5.861 ἀνέρες ἐν πολέμῳ ἔριδα ξυνάγοντες Ἄρηος. 5.862 τοὺς δʼ ἄρʼ ὑπὸ τρόμος εἷλεν Ἀχαιούς τε Τρῶάς τε 5.863 δείσαντας· τόσον ἔβραχʼ Ἄρης ἆτος πολέμοιο.
5.875 σοὶ πάντες μαχόμεσθα· σὺ γὰρ τέκες ἄφρονα κούρην 5.876 οὐλομένην, ᾗ τʼ αἰὲν ἀήσυλα ἔργα μέμηλεν.
5.880 ἀλλʼ ἀνιεῖς, ἐπεὶ αὐτὸς ἐγείναο παῖδʼ ἀΐδηλον· 5.881 ἣ νῦν Τυδέος υἱὸν ὑπερφίαλον Διομήδεα
5.888 τὸν δʼ ἄρʼ ὑπόδρα ἰδὼν προσέφη νεφεληγερέτα Ζεύς. 5.889 μή τί μοι ἀλλοπρόσαλλε παρεζόμενος μινύριζε. 5.890 ἔχθιστος δέ μοί ἐσσι θεῶν οἳ Ὄλυμπον ἔχουσιν· 5.891 αἰεὶ γάρ τοι ἔρις τε φίλη πόλεμοί τε μάχαι τε. 5.892 μητρός τοι μένος ἐστὶν ἀάσχετον οὐκ ἐπιεικτὸν 5.893 Ἥρης· τὴν μὲν ἐγὼ σπουδῇ δάμνημʼ ἐπέεσσι· 5.894 τώ σʼ ὀΐω κείνης τάδε πάσχειν ἐννεσίῃσιν. 5.895 ἀλλʼ οὐ μάν σʼ ἔτι δηρὸν ἀνέξομαι ἄλγεʼ ἔχοντα· 5.896 ἐκ γὰρ ἐμεῦ γένος ἐσσί, ἐμοὶ δέ σε γείνατο μήτηρ· 5.897 εἰ δέ τευ ἐξ ἄλλου γε θεῶν γένευ ὧδʼ ἀΐδηλος
5.902 ὡς δʼ ὅτʼ ὀπὸς γάλα λευκὸν ἐπειγόμενος συνέπηξεν 5.903 ὑγρὸν ἐόν, μάλα δʼ ὦκα περιτρέφεται κυκόωντι, 5.904 ὣς ἄρα καρπαλίμως ἰήσατο θοῦρον Ἄρηα. 5.905 τὸν δʼ Ἥβη λοῦσεν, χαρίεντα δὲ εἵματα ἕσσε· 5.906 πὰρ δὲ Διὶ Κρονίωνι καθέζετο κύδεϊ γαίων.
6.303 θῆκεν Ἀθηναίης ἐπὶ γούνασιν ἠϋκόμοιο,
14.153 Ἥρη δʼ εἰσεῖδε χρυσόθρονος ὀφθαλμοῖσι
14.292 Ἥρη δὲ κραιπνῶς προσεβήσετο Γάργαρον ἄκρον
14.325 ἣ δὲ Διώνυσον Σεμέλη τέκε χάρμα βροτοῖσιν·
14.338 ἔστιν τοι θάλαμος, τόν τοι φίλος υἱὸς ἔτευξεν
18.110 ἀνδρῶν ἐν στήθεσσιν ἀέξεται ἠΰτε καπνός·
18.394 ἦ ῥά νύ μοι δεινή τε καὶ αἰδοίη θεὸς ἔνδον, 18.395 ἥ μʼ ἐσάωσʼ ὅτε μʼ ἄλγος ἀφίκετο τῆλε πεσόντα 18.396 μητρὸς ἐμῆς ἰότητι κυνώπιδος, ἥ μʼ ἐθέλησε 18.397 κρύψαι χωλὸν ἐόντα· τότʼ ἂν πάθον ἄλγεα θυμῷ, 18.398 εἰ μή μʼ Εὐρυνόμη τε Θέτις θʼ ὑπεδέξατο κόλπῳ 18.399 Εὐρυνόμη θυγάτηρ ἀψορρόου Ὠκεανοῖο. 18.400 τῇσι παρʼ εἰνάετες χάλκευον δαίδαλα πολλά, 18.401 πόρπας τε γναμπτάς θʼ ἕλικας κάλυκάς τε καὶ ὅρμους
18.516 οἳ δʼ ἴσαν· ἦρχε δʼ ἄρά σφιν Ἄρης καὶ Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη 18.517 ἄμφω χρυσείω, χρύσεια δὲ εἵματα ἕσθην,
18.535 ἐν δʼ Ἔρις ἐν δὲ Κυδοιμὸς ὁμίλεον, ἐν δʼ ὀλοὴ Κήρ,
18.590 ἐν δὲ χορὸν ποίκιλλε περικλυτὸς ἀμφιγυήεις, 18.591 τῷ ἴκελον οἷόν ποτʼ ἐνὶ Κνωσῷ εὐρείῃ 18.592 Δαίδαλος ἤσκησεν καλλιπλοκάμῳ Ἀριάδνῃ. 18.593 ἔνθα μὲν ἠΐθεοι καὶ παρθένοι ἀλφεσίβοιαι 18.594 ὀρχεῦντʼ ἀλλήλων ἐπὶ καρπῷ χεῖρας ἔχοντες.
19.16 ὡς εἶδʼ, ὥς μιν μᾶλλον ἔδυ χόλος, ἐν δέ οἱ ὄσσε 19.17 δεινὸν ὑπὸ βλεφάρων ὡς εἰ σέλας ἐξεφάανθεν· 19.18 τέρπετο δʼ ἐν χείρεσσιν ἔχων θεοῦ ἀγλαὰ δῶρα.
21.284 ὣς φάτο, τῷ δὲ μάλʼ ὦκα Ποσειδάων καὶ Ἀθήνη 21.285 στήτην ἐγγὺς ἰόντε, δέμας δʼ ἄνδρεσσιν ἐΐκτην, 21.286 χειρὶ δὲ χεῖρα λαβόντες ἐπιστώσαντʼ ἐπέεσσι. 21.287 τοῖσι δὲ μύθων ἦρχε Ποσειδάων ἐνοσίχθων· 21.288 Πηλεΐδη μήτʼ ἄρ τι λίην τρέε μήτέ τι τάρβει· 21.289 τοίω γάρ τοι νῶϊ θεῶν ἐπιταρρόθω εἰμὲν 21.290 Ζηνὸς ἐπαινήσαντος ἐγὼ καὶ Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη· 21.291 ὡς οὔ τοι ποταμῷ γε δαμήμεναι αἴσιμόν ἐστιν, 21.292 ἀλλʼ ὅδε μὲν τάχα λωφήσει, σὺ δὲ εἴσεαι αὐτός· 21.293 αὐτάρ τοι πυκινῶς ὑποθησόμεθʼ αἴ κε πίθηαι· 21.294 μὴ πρὶν παύειν χεῖρας ὁμοιΐου πολέμοιο 21.295 πρὶν κατὰ Ἰλιόφι κλυτὰ τείχεα λαὸν ἐέλσαι 21.296 Τρωϊκόν, ὅς κε φύγῃσι· σὺ δʼ Ἕκτορι θυμὸν ἀπούρας 21.297 ἂψ ἐπὶ νῆας ἴμεν· δίδομεν δέ τοι εὖχος ἀρέσθαι. 21.298 τὼ μὲν ἄρʼ ὣς εἰπόντε μετʼ ἀθανάτους ἀπεβήτην·
21.407 ἑπτὰ δʼ ἐπέσχε πέλεθρα πεσών, ἐκόνισε δὲ χαίτας,'' None
1.194 and break up the assembly, and slay the son of Atreus, or stay his anger and curb his spirit. While he pondered this in mind and heart, and was drawing from its sheath his great sword, Athene came from heaven. The white-armed goddess Hera had sent her forth, 1.195 for in her heart she loved and cared for both men alike.She stood behind him, and seized the son of Peleus by his fair hair, appearing to him alone. No one of the others saw her. Achilles was seized with wonder, and turned around, and immediately recognized Pallas Athene. Terribly her eyes shone. 1.200 Then he addressed her with winged words, and said:Why now, daughter of aegis-bearing Zeus, have you come? Is it so that you might see the arrogance of Agamemnon, son of Atreus? One thing I will tell you, and I think this will be brought to pass: through his own excessive pride shall he presently lose his life. 1.205 / 1.206 / 1.209 Him then the goddess, bright-eyed Athene, answered:I have come from heaven to stay your anger, if you will obey, The goddess white-armed Hera sent me forth, for in her heart she loves and cares for both of you. But come, cease from strife, and do not grasp the sword with your hand. 1.210 With words indeed taunt him, telling him how it shall be. For thus will I speak, and this thing shall truly be brought to pass. Hereafter three times as many glorious gifts shall be yours on account of this arrogance. But refrain, and obey us. In answer to her spoke swift-footed Achilles: 1.215 It is necessary, goddess, to observe the words of you two, however angered a man be in his heart, for is it better so. Whoever obeys the gods, to him do they gladly give ear. He spoke, and stayed his heavy hand on the silver hilt, and back into its sheath thrust the great sword, and did not disobey
1.400 But you came, goddess, and freed him from his bonds, when you had quickly called to high Olympus him of the hundred hands, whom the gods call Briareus, but all men Aegaeon; for he is mightier than his father. He sat down by the side of the son of Cronos, exulting in his glory,
3.408 It is for this cause that thou art now come hither with guileful thought. Go thou, and sit by his side, and depart from the way of the gods, neither let thy feet any more bear thee back to Olympus; but ever be thou troubled for him, and guard him, until he make thee his wife, or haply his slave.
5.330 He the while had gone in pursuit of Cypris with his pitiless bronze, discerning that she was a weakling goddess, and not one of those that lord it in the battle of warriors,—no Athene she, nor Enyo, sacker of cities. But when he had come upon her as he pursued her through the great throng, 5.335 then the son of great-souled Tydeus thrust with his sharp spear and leapt upon her, and wounded the surface of her delicate hand, and forthwith through the ambrosial raiment that the Graces themselves had wrought for her the spear pierced the flesh upon the wrist above the palm and forth flowed the immortal blood of the goddess, 5.340 the ichor, such as floweth in the blessed gods; for they eat not bread neither drink flaming wine, wherefore they are bloodless, and are called immortals. She then with a loud cry let fall her son, and Phoebus Apollo took him in his arms
5.385 So suffered Ares, when Otus and mighty Ephialtes, the sons of Aloeus, bound him in cruel bonds, and in a brazen jar he lay bound for thirteen months; and then would Ares, insatiate of war, have perished, had not the stepmother of the sons of Aloeus, the beauteous Eëriboea, 5.390 brought tidings unto Hermes; and he stole forth Ares, that was now sore distressed, for his grievous bonds were overpowering him. So suffered Hera, when the mighty son of Amphitryon smote her on the right breast with a three-barbed arrow; then upon her too came pain that might in no wise be assuaged.
5.592 But Hector marked them across the ranks, and rushed upon them shouting aloud, and with him followed the strong battalions of the Trojans; and Ares led them and the queen Enyo, she bringing ruthless Din of War, while Ares wielded in his hands a monstrous spear,
5.722 Then Hera, the queenly goddess, daughter of great Cronos, went to and fro harnessing the horses of golden frontlets. and Hebe quickly put to the car on either side the curved wheels of bronze, eight-spoked, about the iron axle-tree. of these the felloe verily is of gold imperishable, ' "
5.730 thereof she bound the fair golden yoke, and cast thereon the fair golden breast-straps; and Hera led beneath the yoke the swift-footed horses, and was eager for strife and the war-cry.But Athene, daughter of Zeus that beareth the aegis, let fall upon her father's floor her soft robe, " "
5.732 thereof she bound the fair golden yoke, and cast thereon the fair golden breast-straps; and Hera led beneath the yoke the swift-footed horses, and was eager for strife and the war-cry.But Athene, daughter of Zeus that beareth the aegis, let fall upon her father's floor her soft robe, " 5.736 richly broidered, that herself had wrought and her hands had fashioned, and put on her the tunic of Zeus, the cloud-gatherer, and arrayed her in armour for tearful war. About her shoulders she flung the tasselled aegis, fraught with terror, all about which Rout is set as a crown,
5.755 Then the goddess, white-armed Hera, stayed the horses, and made question of Zeus most high, the son of Cronos, and spake to him:Father Zeus, hast thou no indignation with Ares for these violent deeds, that he hath destroyed so great and so goodly a host of the Achaeans recklessly and in no seemly wise to my sorrow; 5.760 while at their ease Cypris and Apollo of the silver bow take their joy, having set on this madman that regardeth not any law? Father Zeus, wilt thou in any wise be wroth with me if I smite Ares in sorry fashion and drive him out of the battle? 5.764 while at their ease Cypris and Apollo of the silver bow take their joy, having set on this madman that regardeth not any law? Father Zeus, wilt thou in any wise be wroth with me if I smite Ares in sorry fashion and drive him out of the battle? Then in answer spake to her Zeus, the cloud-gatherer: 5.765 Nay, come now, rouse against him Athene, driver of the spoil, who has ever been wont above others to bring sore pain upon him. So spake he, and the goddess, white-armed Hera, failed not to hearken, but touched her horses with the the lash; and nothing loath the pair flew on between earth and starry heaven.
5.784 And when they were come where the most and the bravest stood close thronging about mighty Diomedes, tamer of horses, in semblance like ravening lions or wild boars, whose is no weakling strength, there the goddess, white-armed Hera,
5.832 and smite him in close fight, neither have thou awe of furious Ares that raveth here a full-wrought bane, a renegade, that but now spake with me and Hera, and made as though he would fight against the Trojans but give aid to the Argives; yet now he consorteth with the Trojans and hath forgotten these.
5.846 put on the cap of Hades, to the end that mighty Ares should not see her.Now when Ares, the bane of mortals, was ware of goodly Diomedes, he let be huge Periphas to lie where he was, even where at the first he had slain him and taken away his life but made straight for Diomedes, tamer of horses. 5.849 put on the cap of Hades, to the end that mighty Ares should not see her.Now when Ares, the bane of mortals, was ware of goodly Diomedes, he let be huge Periphas to lie where he was, even where at the first he had slain him and taken away his life but made straight for Diomedes, tamer of horses. ' "5.850 And when they were now come near as they advanced one against the other, Ares first let drive over the yoke and the reins of the horses with his spear of bronze, eager to take away the other's life; but the spear the goddess, flashing-eyed Athene, caught in her hand and thrust above the car to fly its way in vain. " "5.854 And when they were now come near as they advanced one against the other, Ares first let drive over the yoke and the reins of the horses with his spear of bronze, eager to take away the other's life; but the spear the goddess, flashing-eyed Athene, caught in her hand and thrust above the car to fly its way in vain. " '5.855 Next Diomedes, good at the war-cry, drave at Ares with his spear of bronze, and Pallas Athene sped it mightily against his nethermost belly, where he was girded with his taslets. There did he thrust and smite him, rending the fair flesh, and forth he drew the spear again. Then brazen Ares bellowed 5.860 loud as nine thousand warriors or ten thousand cry in battle, when they join in the strife of the War-god; and thereat trembling came upon Achaeans alike and Trojans, and fear gat hold of them; so mightily bellowed Ares insatiate of war.
5.875 With thee are we all at strife, for thou art father to that mad and baneful maid, whose mind is ever set on deeds of lawlessness. For all the other gods that are in Olympus are obedient unto thee, and subject to thee, each one of us; but to her thou payest no heed whether in word or in deed,
5.880 but rather settest her on, for that this pestilent maiden is thine own child. Now hath she set on the son of Tydeus, Diomedes high of heart, to vent his rage upon immortal gods. Cypris first he wounded with a thrust in close fight upon the hand at the wrist, and thereafter rushed upon mine own self as he had been a god.
5.888 Howbeit my swift feet bare me away; otherwise had I long suffered woes there amid the gruesome heaps of the dead, or else had lived strengthless by reason of the smitings of the spear. Then with an angry glance from beneath his brows spake to him Zeus, the cloud-gatherer:Sit thou not in any wise by me and whine, thou renegade. 5.890 Most hateful to me art thou of all gods that hold Olympus, for ever is strife dear to thee and wars and fightings. Thou hast the unbearable, unyielding spirit of thy mother, even of Hera; her can I scarce control by my words. Wherefore it is by her promptings, meseems, that thou sufferest thus. 5.895 Howbeit I will no longer endure that thou shouldest be in pain, for thou art mine offspring, and it was to me that thy mother bare thee; but wert thou born of any other god, thus pestilent as thou art, then long ere this hadst thou been lower than the sons of heaven.
5.902 and Paeëon spread thereon simples that slay pain, and healed him; for verily he was in no wise of mortal mould. Even as the juice of the fig speedily maketh to grow thick the white milk that is liquid, but is quickly curdled as a man stirreth it, even so swiftly healed he furious Ares. 5.905 And Hebe bathed him, and clad him in beautiful raiment, and he sate him down by the side of Zeus, son of Cronos, exulting in his glory.Then back to the palace of great Zeus fared Argive Hera and Alalcomenean Athene, when they had made Ares, the bane of mortals, to cease from his man-slaying.
6.303 for her had the Trojans made priestess of Athene. Then with sacred cries they all lifted up their hands to Athene; and fair-cheeked Theano took the robe and laid it upon the knees of fair-haired Athene, and with vows made prayer to the daughter of great Zeus:
14.153 even so mighty a shout did the lord, the Shaker of Earth, send forth from his breast. and in the heart of each man of the Achaeans he put great strength, to war and fight unceasingly.
14.292 in the likeness of a clear-voiced mountain bird, that the gods call Chalcis, and men Cymindis.But Hera swiftly drew nigh to topmost Gargarus, the peak of lofty Ida, and Zeus, the cloud-gatherer, beheld her. And when he beheld her, then love encompassed his wise heart about,
14.325 and Semele bare Dionysus, the joy of mortals; nor of Demeter, the fair-tressed queen; nor of glorious Leto; nay, nor yet of thine own self, as now I love thee, and sweet desire layeth hold of me. Then with crafty mind the queenly Hera spake unto him: ' "
14.338 Then verily could not I arise from the couch and go again to thy house; that were a shameful thing. But if thou wilt, and it is thy heart's good pleasure, thou hast a chamber, that thy dear son Hephaestus fashioned for thee, and fitted strong doors upon the door-posts. " 18.110 waxeth like smoke in the breasts of men; even as but now the king of men, Agamemnon, moved me to wrath. Howbeit these things will we let be as past and done, for all our pain, curbing the heart in our breasts, because we must. But now will I go forth that I may light on the slayer of the man I loved,
18.394 a beautiful chair, richly-wrought, and beneath was a footstool for the feet; and she called to Hephaestus, the famed craftsman, and spake to him, saying:Hephaestus, come forth hither; Thetis hath need of thee. And the famous god of the two strong arms answered her:Verily then a dread and honoured goddess is within my halls, 18.395 even she that saved me when pain was come upon me after I had fallen afar through the will of my shameless mother, that was fain to hide me away by reason of my lameness. Then had I suffered woes in heart, had not Eurynome and Thetis received me into their bosom—Eurynome, daughter of backward-flowing Oceanus. 18.399 even she that saved me when pain was come upon me after I had fallen afar through the will of my shameless mother, that was fain to hide me away by reason of my lameness. Then had I suffered woes in heart, had not Eurynome and Thetis received me into their bosom—Eurynome, daughter of backward-flowing Oceanus. ' "18.400 With them then for nine years' space I forged much cunning handiwork, brooches, and spiral arm-bands, and rosettes and necklaces, within their hollow cave; and round about me flowed, murmuring with foam, the stream of Oceanus, a flood unspeakable. Neither did any other know thereof, either of gods or of mortal men, " "18.401 With them then for nine years' space I forged much cunning handiwork, brooches, and spiral arm-bands, and rosettes and necklaces, within their hollow cave; and round about me flowed, murmuring with foam, the stream of Oceanus, a flood unspeakable. Neither did any other know thereof, either of gods or of mortal men, " 18.516 as they stood thereon, and therewithal the men that were holden of old age; but the rest were faring forth, led of Ares and Pallas Athene, both fashioned in gold, and of gold was the raiment wherewith they were clad. Goodly were they and tall in their harness, as beseemeth gods, clear to view amid the rest, and the folk at their feet were smaller.
18.535 And amid them Strife and Tumult joined in the fray, and deadly Fate, grasping one man alive, fresh-wounded, another without a wound, and another she dragged dead through the mellay by the feet; and the raiment that she had about her shoulders was red with the blood of men. Even as living mortals joined they in the fray and fought;
18.590 Therein furthermore the famed god of the two strong arms cunningly wrought a dancing-floor like unto that which in wide Cnosus Daedalus fashioned of old for fair-tressed Ariadne. There were youths dancing and maidens of the price of many cattle, holding their hands upon the wrists one of the other.
19.16 neither dared any man to look thereon, but they shrank in fear. Howbeit, when Achilles saw the arms, then came wrath upon him yet the more, and his eyes blazed forth in terrible wise from beneath their lids, as it had been flame; and he was glad as he held in his arms the glorious gifts of the god. But when in his soul he had taken delight in gazing on the glory of them,
21.284 then had a brave man been the slayer, and a brave man had he slain. But now by a miserable death was it appointed me to be cut off, pent in the great river, like a swine-herd boy whom a torrent sweepeth away as he maketh essay to cross it in winter. So spake he, and forthwith Poseidon and Pallas Athene 21.285 drew nigh and stood by his side, being likened in form to mortal men, and they clasped his hand in theirs and pledged him in words. And among them Poseidon, the Shaker of Earth, was first to speak:Son of Peleus, tremble not thou overmuch, neither be anywise afraid, such helpers twain are we from the gods— 21.290 and Zeus approveth thereof —even I and Pallas Athene. Therefore is it not thy doom to be vanquished by a river; nay, he shall soon give respite, and thou of thyself shalt know it. But we will give thee wise counsel, if so be thou wilt hearken. Make not thine hands to cease from evil battle 21.295 until within the famed walls of Ilios thou hast pent the Trojan host, whosoever escapeth. But for thyself, when thou hast bereft Hector of life, come thou back to the ships; lo, we grant thee to win glory.
21.407 that men of former days had set to be the boundary mark of a field. Therewith she smote furious Ares on the neck, and loosed his limbs. Over seven roods he stretched in his fall, and befouled his hair with dust, and about him his armour clanged. But Pallas Athene broke into a laugh, and vaunting over him she spake winged words: '' None
|11. Homeric Hymns, To Aphrodite, 209 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aphrodite, Ares and • Ares, Aphrodite and • Naxos, amphora with Aphrodite and Ares from • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica • lover, as viewer of erotic art • weddings and marriages, Ares and Aphrodite
Found in books: Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 184; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 268
209 High-stepping horses such as carry men.'' None
|12. Hymn To Dionysus, To Dionysus, 7.11 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares
Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 246; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 274
7.11 Whereupon the people of Antioch, when they had failed of success in this their first request, made him a second; for they desired that he would order those tables of brass to be removed on which the Jews’ privileges were engraven.7.11 yet, he said, that he would immediately bestow rewards and dignities on those that had fought the most bravely, and with greater force, and had signalized their conduct in the most glorious manner, and had made his army more famous by their noble exploits; and that no one who had been willing to take more pains than another should miss of a just retribution for the same; ' None
|13. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares, • Art, pottery, vase • Divine being, Ares
Found in books: Bowie (2021), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, 776; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun (2014), The History of Religions School Today : Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts 103
|14. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aphrodite, Ares and • Aphrodite, Song of Ares and Aphrodite • Aphrodite, and Ares • Ares • Ares, • Ares, Aphrodite and • Ares, Artemis and • Ares, Hera and • Ares, Homer on • Ares, Zeus and • Ares, as war god • Ares, images and iconography • Ares, origins and development • Artemis, Ares and • Gods (Egyptian, Greek, and Roman), Ares • Hera, Ares and • Homer, on Ares • Lay of Ares and Aphrodite • Minoan-Mycenaean religion and art, Aphrodite in • Minoan-Mycenaean religion and art, Artemis and • Neo-Hittite, art • Orestes,, gestures in art • Phrygia and Phrygians, art and monuments of • Thrace, Ares and • Zeus, Ares and • and Ares, in lagrante • art work, as object of gaze • gaze, focused on work of art • response, emotional, to work of art, in Virgil’s Aeneid • weddings and marriages, Ares and Aphrodite • wonder, inspired by gazing at work of art
Found in books: Boeghold (2022), When a Gesture Was Expected: A Selection of Examples from Archaic and Classical Greek Literature. 31; Bowie (2021), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, 98, 136; Demoen and Praet (2009), Theios Sophistes: Essays on Flavius Philostratus' Vita Apollonii, 301; Edelmann-Singer et al. (2020), Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions, 198; Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 80; Hunter (2018), The Measure of Homer: The Ancient Reception of the Iliad, 94, 113; Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 33; Maciver (2012), Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica: Engaging Homer in Late Antiquity, 136, 157, 164, 165, 167, 168; Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 83; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 107; Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013), Anton Bierl? and Roger Beck?, Intende, Lector - Echoes of Myth, Religion and Ritual in the Ancient Novel, 187; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 37, 51, 274; Segev (2017), Aristotle on Religion, 128; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 165, 166, 180, 265, 283; Steiner (2001), Images in Mind: Statues in Archaic and Classical Greek Literature and Thought, 163; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020), Athens II: Athens in Late Antiquity, 332; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 395
|15. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 8th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares • Ares, Ares Enyalios • Minoan-Mycenaean religion and art, Apollo and
Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 88; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 154
|16. None, None, nan (7th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aphrodite, Ares and • Ares • Ares, Aphrodite and • Ares, images and iconography • Cyclades, amphora fragment with Ares and Aphrodite • Naxos, amphora with Aphrodite and Ares from • weddings and marriages, Ares and Aphrodite
Found in books: Meister (2019), Greek Praise Poetry and the Rhetoric of Divinity, 28, 42, 72; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 256, 289
|17. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 437-444, 453-455 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares • Ares, gold-changer epithet
Found in books: McClay (2023), The Bacchic Gold Tablets and Poetic Tradition: Memory and Performance. 158; Seaford (2018), Tragedy, Ritual and Money in Ancient Greece: Selected Essays, 72
|sup>441 φίλοισι πέμπει βαρὺ 442 ψῆγμα δυσδάκρυτον ἀν- |
453 θήκας Ἰλιάδος γᾶς 454 εὔμορφοι κατέχουσιν· ἐχ- 455 θρὰ δʼ ἔχοντας ἔκρυψεν. Χορός' ' None
|sup>441 A charred scrap to the friends: 442 Filling with well-packed ashes every urn, |
453 In Ilian earth, each one his grave: 454 All fair-formed as at birth, 455 It hid them — what they have and hold — the hostile earth. ' ' None
|18. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares
Found in books: Henderson (2020), The Springtime of the People: The Athenian Ephebeia and Citizen Training from Lykourgos to Augustus, 149; Hitch (2017), Animal sacrifice in the ancient Greek world, 223
|19. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares, • Phrygia and Phrygians, art and monuments of
Found in books: Edmonds (2019), Drawing Down the Moon: Magic in the Ancient Greco-Roman World, 70; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 92
|20. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Aphrodite, Ares and • Apollo, Ares and • Ares • Ares, Aphrodite and • Ares, Apollo and • Ares, Homer on • Ares, images and iconography • Ares, origins and development • Cyclades, amphora fragment with Ares and Aphrodite • Homer, on Ares • Naxos, amphora with Aphrodite and Ares from • Nilsson, Martin, on Ares • Thebes, association of Ares, Dionysus, and Aphrodite with • weddings and marriages, Ares and Aphrodite
Found in books: Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 309; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 288, 289
|21. Euripides, Bacchae, 6 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares • Ares, Ares Enyalios • Thebes, association of Ares, Dionysus, and Aphrodite with
Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 88; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 301
6 ὁρῶ δὲ μητρὸς μνῆμα τῆς κεραυνίας'' None
6 I am here at the fountains of Dirke and the water of Ismenus. And I see the tomb of my thunder-stricken mother here near the palace, and the remts of her house, smouldering with the still living flame of Zeus’ fire, the everlasting insult of Hera against my mother.'' None
|22. Euripides, Phoenician Women, 784-785, 931-933 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Achilles, Ares and • Aphrodite, Ares and • Ares • Ares Borghese • Ares, Achilles and • Ares, Aphrodite and • Ares, Artemis and • Ares, Athena and • Ares, Demeter and • Ares, Dionysus and • Ares, images and iconography • Ares, spring of at Thebes • Artemis, Ares and • Athena, Ares and • Demeter, Ares and • Dionysus, Ares and • Parthenon, east frieze, Ares on
Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 376; Hawes (2021), Pausanias in the World of Greek Myth, 169, 170; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 306; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 292
784 ὦ πολύμοχθος ̓́Αρης, τί ποθ' αἵματι"785 καὶ θανάτῳ κατέχῃ Βρομίου παράμουσος ἑορταῖς;
931 δεῖ τόνδε θαλάμαις, οὗ δράκων ὁ γηγενὴς 932 ἐγένετο Δίρκης ναμάτων ἐπίσκοπος, 933 σφαγέντα φόνιον αἷμα γῇ δοῦναι χοὰς' "' None
784 O Ares, god of much suffering! Why, why are you possessed by a love of blood and'785 death, out of harmony with the festivals of Bromius? Not for young girls crowned in the lovely dance do you toss your curls, singing to the flute’s breath a song to charm the dancers’ feet; no, with warriors clad in armor you inspire the Argive army with a lust
931 You do right to ask me and to test what I have said. In the chamber where the earth-born dragon kept watch over Dirce’s springs, he must be offered as a sacrifice and shed his blood on the ground, a libation of Cadmus, because of the ancient wrath of Ares, ' None
|23. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 28.2, 28.11-28.13, 28.19 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • Qiṣaṣ al-anbiyāʾ (Ar. “Tales of the Prophets”, genre), al-Quds (Ar. “Jerusalem,” “Temple”) • art, Qumran • art, priests • faṣl (dual. faṣlayn, Ar. “[thematic] unit,” “episode”) • qiṣṣa (Ar. „story”) • tawqīf (Ar. “instruction from God”) • ʿiṣma (Ar. “infallibility of prophets”, “impeccability,” “immunity from sin”)
Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 66, 102, 106, 274; Zawanowska and Wilk (2022), The Character of David in Judaism, Christianity and Islam: Warrior, Poet, Prophet and King, 89, 90, 96, 99
28.2 וַיָּקָם דָּוִיד הַמֶּלֶךְ עַל־רַגְלָיו וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמָעוּנִי אַחַי וְעַמִּי אֲנִי עִם־לְבָבִי לִבְנוֹת בֵּית מְנוּחָה לַאֲרוֹן בְּרִית־יְהוָה וְלַהֲדֹם רַגְלֵי אֱלֹהֵינוּ וַהֲכִינוֹתִי לִבְנוֹת׃
28.2 וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד לִשְׁלֹמֹה בְנוֹ חֲזַק וֶאֱמַץ וַעֲשֵׂה אַל־תִּירָא וְאַל־תֵּחָת כִּי יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֱלֹהַי עִמָּךְ לֹא יַרְפְּךָ וְלֹא יַעַזְבֶךָּ עַד־לִכְלוֹת כָּל־מְלֶאכֶת עֲבוֹדַת בֵּית־יְהוָה׃
28.11 וַיִּתֵּן דָּוִיד לִשְׁלֹמֹה בְנוֹ אֶת־תַּבְנִית הָאוּלָם וְאֶת־בָּתָּיו וְגַנְזַכָּיו וַעֲלִיֹּתָיו וַחֲדָרָיו הַפְּנִימִים וּבֵית הַכַּפֹּרֶת׃ 28.12 וְתַבְנִית כֹּל אֲשֶׁר הָיָה בָרוּחַ עִמּוֹ לְחַצְרוֹת בֵּית־יְהוָה וּלְכָל־הַלְּשָׁכוֹת סָבִיב לְאֹצְרוֹת בֵּית הָאֱלֹהִים וּלְאֹצְרוֹת הַקֳּדָשִׁים׃ 28.13 וּלְמַחְלְקוֹת הַכֹּהֲנִים וְהַלְוִיִּם וּלְכָל־מְלֶאכֶת עֲבוֹדַת בֵּית־יְהוָה וּלְכָל־כְּלֵי עֲבוֹדַת בֵּית־יְהוָה׃
28.19 הַכֹּל בִּכְתָב מִיַּד יְהוָה עָלַי הִשְׂכִּיל כֹּל מַלְאֲכוֹת הַתַּבְנִית׃'' None
28.2 Then David the king stood up upon his feet, and said: ‘Hear me, my brethren, and my people; as for me, it was in my heart to build a house of rest for the ark of the covet of the LORD, and for the footstool of our God; and I had made ready for the building.
28.11 Then David gave to Solomon his son the pattern of the porch of the temple, and of the houses thereof, and of the treasuries thereof, and of the upper rooms thereof, and of the inner chambers thereof, and of the place of the ark-cover; 28.12 and the pattern of all that he had by the spirit, for the courts of the house of the LORD, and for all the chambers round about, for the treasuries of the house of God, and for the treasuries of the hallowed things; 28.13 also for the courses of the priests and the Levites, and for all the work of the service of the house of the LORD, and for all the vessels of service in the house of the LORD:
28.19 ’All this do I give thee in writing, as the LORD hath made me wise by His hand upon me, even all the works of this pattern.’'' None
|24. Herodotus, Histories, 1.131-1.132, 4.59, 4.62, 4.127, 5.7 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares • Ares, Artemis and • Ares, Homer on • Ares, Zeus and • Ares, of Egypt • Ares, of Scythia • Ares, of Thrace • Ares, origins and development • Ares, sacrifice/ sacrificial rituals • Artemis, Ares and • Homer, on Ares • Minoan-Mycenaean religion and art, Ares and • Thrace, Ares and • Zeus, Ares and • sacrifice/sacrificial rituals, for Ares
Found in books: Gaifman (2012), Aniconism in Greek Antiquity, 100, 111, 305; Mikalson (2003), Herodotus and Religion in the Persian Wars, 78, 79, 179, 188; Morrison (2020), Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography, 165; Simon, Zeyl, and Shapiro, (2021), The Gods of the Greeks, 23, 166, 181, 284
1.131 Πέρσας δὲ οἶδα νόμοισι τοιοῖσιδε χρεωμένους, ἀγάλματα μὲν καὶ νηοὺς καὶ βωμοὺς οὐκ ἐν νόμῳ ποιευμένους ἱδρύεσθαι, ἀλλὰ καὶ τοῖσι ποιεῦσι μωρίην ἐπιφέρουσι, ὡς μὲν ἐμοὶ δοκέειν, ὅτι οὐκ ἀνθρωποφυέας ἐνόμισαν τοὺς θεοὺς κατά περ οἱ Ἕλληνες εἶναι· οἳ δὲ νομίζουσι Διὶ μὲν ἐπὶ τὰ ὑψηλότατα τῶν ὀρέων ἀναβαίνοντες θυσίας ἔρδειν, τὸν κύκλον πάντα τοῦ οὐρανοῦ Δία καλέοντες· θύουσι δὲ ἡλίῳ τε καὶ σελήνῃ καὶ γῇ καὶ πυρὶ καὶ ὕδατι καὶ ἀνέμοισι. τούτοισι μὲν δὴ θύουσι μούνοισι ἀρχῆθεν, ἐπιμεμαθήκασι δὲ καὶ τῇ Οὐρανίῃ θύειν, παρά τε Ἀσσυρίων μαθόντες καὶ Ἀραβίων. καλέουσι δὲ Ἀσσύριοι τὴν Ἀφροδίτην Μύλιττα, Ἀράβιοι δὲ Ἀλιλάτ, Πέρσαι δὲ Μίτραν. 1.132 θυσίη δὲ τοῖσι Πέρσῃσι περὶ τοὺς εἰρημένους θεοὺς ἥδε κατέστηκε· οὔτε βωμοὺς ποιεῦνται οὔτε πῦρ ἀνακαίουσι μέλλοντες θύειν, οὐ σπονδῇ χρέωνται, οὐκὶ αὐλῷ, οὐ στέμμασι, οὐκὶ οὐλῇσι· τῶν δὲ ὡς ἑκάστῳ θύειν θέλῃ, ἐς χῶρον καθαρὸν ἀγαγὼν τὸ κτῆνος καλέει τὸν θεόν, ἐστεφανωμένος τὸν τιάραν μυρσίνῃ μάλιστα. ἑωυτῷ μὲν δὴ τῷ θύοντι ἰδίῃ μούνῳ οὔ οἱ ἐγγίνεται ἀρᾶσθαι ἀγαθά, ὁ δὲ τοῖσι πᾶσι Πέρσῃσι κατεύχεται εὖ γίνεσθαι καὶ τῷ βασιλέι· ἐν γὰρ δὴ τοῖσι ἅπασι Πέρσῃσι καὶ αὐτὸς γίνεται. ἐπεὰν δὲ διαμιστύλας κατὰ μέλεα τὸ ἱρήιον ἑψήσῃ τὰ κρέα ὑποπάσας ποίην ὡς ἁπαλωτάτην, μάλιστα δὲ τὸ τρίφυλλον, ἐπὶ ταύτης ἔθηκε ὦν πάντα τὰ κρέα. διαθέντος δὲ αὐτοῦ Μάγος ἀνὴρ παρεστεὼς ἐπαείδει θεογονίην, οἵην δὴ ἐκεῖνοι λέγουσι εἶναι τὴν ἐπαοιδήν· ἄνευ γὰρ δὴ Μάγου οὔ σφι νόμος ἐστὶ θυσίας ποιέεσθαι. ἐπισχὼν δὲ ὀλίγον χρόνον ἀποφέρεται ὁ θύσας τὰ κρέα καὶ χρᾶται ὅ τι μιν λόγος αἱρέει.
4.59 τὰ μὲν δὴ μέγιστα οὕτω σφι εὔπορα ἐστί, τὰ δὲ λοιπὰ νόμαια κατὰ τάδε σφι διακέεται. θεοὺς μὲν μούνους τούσδε ἱλάσκονται, Ἱστίην μὲν μάλιστα, ἐπὶ δὲ Δία καὶ Γῆν, νομίζοντες τὴν Γῆν τοῦ Διὸς εἶναι γυναῖκα, μετὰ δὲ τούτους, Ἀπόλλωνά τε καὶ οὐρανίην Ἀφροδίτην καὶ Ἡρακλέα καὶ Ἄρεα. τούτους μὲν πάντες Σκύθαι νενομίκασι, οἱ δὲ καλεόμενοι βασιλήιοι Σκύθαι καὶ τῷ Ποσειδέωνι θύουσι. ὀνομάζεται δὲ σκυθιστὶ Ἱστίη μὲν Ταβιτί, Ζεὺς δὲ ὀρθότατα κατὰ γνώμην γε τὴν ἐμὴν καλεόμενος Παπαῖος, Γῆ δὲ Ἀπί. Ἀπόλλων δὲ Γοιτόσυρος, οὐρανίη δὲ Ἀφροδίτη Ἀργίμπασα, Ποσειδέων δὲ Θαγιμασάδας. ἀγάλματα δὲ καὶ βωμοὺς καὶ νηοὺς οὐ νομίζουσι ποιέειν πλὴν Ἄρεϊ. τούτῳ δὲ νομίζουσι.
4.62 τοῖσι μὲν δὴ ἄλλοισι τῶν θεῶν οὕτω θύουσι καὶ ταῦτα τῶν κτηνέων, τῷ δὲ Ἄρεϊ ὧδε. κατὰ νομοὺς ἑκάστους τῶν ἀρχέων ἐσίδρυται σφι Ἄρεος ἱρὸν τοιόνδε φρυγάνων φάκελοι συννενέαται ὅσον τʼ ἐπὶ σταδίους τρεῖς μῆκος καὶ εὖρος, ὕψος δὲ ἔλασσον· ἄνω δὲ τούτου τετράγωνον ἄπεδον πεποίηται, καὶ τὰ μὲν τρία τῶν κώλων ἐστὶ ἀπότομα, κατὰ δὲ τὸ ἓν ἐπιβατόν. ἔτεος δὲ ἑκάστου ἁμάξας πεντήκοντα καὶ ἑκατὸν ἐπινέουσι φρυγάνων· ὑπονοστέει γὰρ δὴ αἰεὶ ὑπὸ τῶν χειμώνων. ἐπὶ τούτου δὴ τοῦ σηκοῦ ἀκινάκης σιδήρεος ἵδρυται ἀρχαῖος ἑκάστοισι, καὶ τοῦτʼ ἐστὶ τοῦ Ἄρεος τὸ ἄγαλμα. τούτῳ δὲ τῷ ἀκινάκῃ θυσίας ἐπετείους προσάγουσι προβάτων καὶ ἵππων, καὶ δὴ καὶ τοῖσιδʼ ἔτι πλέω θύουσι ἢ τοῖσι ἄλλοισι θεοῖσι· ὅσους ἂν τῶν πολεμίων ζωγρήσωσι, ἀπὸ τῶν ἑκατὸν ἀνδρῶν ἄνδρα θύουσι τρόπῳ οὐ τῷ αὐτῷ καὶ τὰ πρόβατα, ἀλλʼ ἑτεροίῳ. ἐπεὰν γὰρ οἶνον ἐπισπείσωσι κατὰ τῶν κεφαλέων, ἀποσφάζουσι τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἐς ἄγγος καὶ ἔπειτα ἀνενείκαντες ἄνω ἐπὶ τὸν ὄγκον τῶν φρυγάνων καταχέουσι τὸ αἷμα τοῦ ἀκινάκεω. ἄνω μὲν δὴ φορέουσι τοῦτο, κάτω δὲ παρὰ τὸ ἱρὸν ποιεῦσι τάδε· τῶν ἀποσφαγέντων ἀνδρῶν τοὺς δεξιοὺς ὤμους πάντας ἀποταμόντες σὺν τῇσι χερσὶ ἐς τὸν ἠέρα ἱεῖσι, καὶ ἔπειτα καὶ τὰ ἄλλα ἀπέρξαντες ἱρήια ἀπαλλάσσονται. χεὶρ δὲ τῇ ἂν πέσῃ κέεται, καὶ χωρὶς ὁ νεκρός.
4.127 πρὸς ταῦτα ὁ Σκυθέων βασιλεὺς Ἰδάνθυρσος λέγει τάδε. “οὕτω τὸ ἐμὸν ἔχει, ὦ Πέρσα. ἐγὼ οὐδένα κω ἀνθρώπων δείσας ἔφυγον οὔτε πρότερον οὔτε νῦν σὲ φεύγω, οὐδέ τι νεώτερον εἰμὶ ποιήσας νῦν ἢ καὶ ἐν εἰρήνη ἐώθεα ποιέειν. ὅ τι δὲ οὐκ αὐτίκα μάχομαι τοι, ἐγὼ καὶ τοῦτο σημανέω. ἡμῖν οὔτε ἄστεα οὔτε γῆ πεφυτευμένη ἐστί, τῶν πέρι δείσαντες μὴ ἁλῷ, ἢ καρῇ ταχύτερον ἂν ὑμῖν συμμίσγοιμεν ἐς μάχην. εἰ δὲ δέοι πάντως ἐς τοῦτο κατὰ τάχος ἀπικνέεσθαι, τυγχάνουσι ἡμῖν ἐόντες τάφοι πατρώιοι· φέρετε, τούτους ἀνευρόντες συγχέειν πειρᾶσθε αὐτούς, καὶ γνώσεσθε τότε εἴτε ὑμῖν μαχησόμεθα περὶ τῶν τάφων εἴτε καὶ οὐ μαχησόμεθα. πρότερον δέ, ἢν μὴ ἡμέας λόγος αἱρέῃ, οὐ συμμίξομεν τοι. ἀμφὶ μὲν μάχῃ τοσαῦτα εἰρήσθω, δεσπότας δὲ ἐμοὺς ἐγὼ Δία τε νομίζω τὸν ἐμὸν πρόγονον καὶ Ἱστίην τὴν Σκυθέων βασίλειαν μούνους εἶναι. σοὶ δὲ ἀντὶ μὲν δώρων γῆς τε καὶ ὕδατος δῶρα πέμψω τοιαῦτα οἷα σοὶ πρέπει ἐλθεῖν, ἀντὶ δὲ τοῦ ὅτι δεσπότης ἔφησας εἶναι ἐμός, κλαίειν λέγω.” τοῦτο ἐστὶ ἡ ἀπὸ Σκυθέων ῥῆσις. 1
5.7 οὗτοι μὲν σφέων οἱ ἐπιφανέστατοι νόμοι εἰσί, θεοὺς δὲ σέβονται μούνους τούσδε, Ἄρεα καὶ Διόνυσον καὶ Ἄρτεμιν. οἱ δὲ βασιλέες αὐτῶν, πάρεξ τῶν ἄλλων πολιητέων, σέβονται Ἑρμέην μάλιστα θεῶν, καὶ ὀμνύουσι μοῦνον τοῦτον, καὶ λέγουσι γεγονέναι ἀπὸ Ἑρμέω ἑωυτούς.'' None
1.131 As to the customs of the Persians, I know them to be these. It is not their custom to make and set up statues and temples and altars, but those who do such things they think foolish, because, I suppose, they have never believed the gods to be like men, as the Greeks do; ,but they call the whole circuit of heaven Zeus, and to him they sacrifice on the highest peaks of the mountains; they sacrifice also to the sun and moon and earth and fire and water and winds. ,From the beginning, these are the only gods to whom they have ever sacrificed; they learned later to sacrifice to the “heavenly” Aphrodite from the Assyrians and Arabians. She is called by the Assyrians Mylitta, by the Arabians Alilat, by the Persians Mitra. 1.132 And this is their method of sacrifice to the aforesaid gods: when about to sacrifice, they do not build altars or kindle fire, employ libations, or music, or fillets, or barley meal: when a man wishes to sacrifice to one of the gods, he leads a beast to an open space and then, wearing a wreath on his tiara, of myrtle usually, calls on the god. ,To pray for blessings for himself alone is not lawful for the sacrificer; rather, he prays that the king and all the Persians be well; for he reckons himself among them. He then cuts the victim limb from limb into portions, and, after boiling the flesh, spreads the softest grass, trefoil usually, and places all of it on this. ,When he has so arranged it, a Magus comes near and chants over it the song of the birth of the gods, as the Persian tradition relates it; for no sacrifice can be offered without a Magus. Then after a little while the sacrificer carries away the flesh and uses it as he pleases.
4.59 The most important things are thus provided them. It remains now to show the customs which are established among them. The only gods whom they propitiate are these: Hestia in particular, and secondly Zeus and Earth, whom they believe to be the wife of Zeus; after these, Apollo, and the Heavenly Aphrodite, and Heracles, and Ares. All the Scythians worship these as gods; the Scythians called Royal sacrifice to Poseidon also. ,In the Scythian tongue, Hestia is called Tabiti; Zeus (in my judgment most correctly so called) Papaeus; Earth is Apia; Apollo Goetosyrus; the Heavenly Aphrodite Argimpasa; Poseidon Thagimasadas. It is their practice to make images and altars and shrines for Ares, but for no other god. ' "
4.62 This is their way of sacrificing to other gods and these are the beasts offered; but their sacrifices to Ares are of this sort. Every district in each of the governments has a structure sacred to Ares; namely, a pile of bundles of sticks three eighths of a mile wide and long, but of a lesser height, on the top of which there is a flattened four-sided surface; three of its sides are sheer, but the fourth can be ascended. ,Every year a hundred and fifty wagon-loads of sticks are heaped upon this; for the storms of winter always make it sink down. On this sacred pile an ancient scimitar of iron is set for each people: their image of Ares. They bring yearly sacrifice of sheep and goats and horses to this scimitar, offering to these symbols even more than they do to the other gods. ,of enemies that they take alive, they sacrifice one man in every hundred, not as they sacrifice sheep and goats, but differently. They pour wine on the men's heads and cut their throats over a bowl; then they carry the blood up on to the pile of sticks and pour it on the scimitar. ,They carry the blood up above, but down below by the sacred pile they cut off all the slain men's right arms and hands and throw these into the air, and depart when they have sacrificed the rest of the victims; the arm lies where it has fallen, and the body apart from it. " 4.127 Idanthyrsus the Scythian king replied: “It is like this with me, Persian: I never ran from any man before out of fear, and I am not running from you now; I am not doing any differently now than I am used to doing in time of peace, too. ,As to why I do not fight with you at once, I will tell you why. We Scythians have no towns or cultivated land, out of fear for which, that the one might be taken or the other wasted, we would engage you sooner in battle. But if all you want is to come to that quickly, we have the graves of our fathers. ,Come on, find these and try to destroy them: you shall know then whether we will fight you for the graves or whether we will not fight. Until then, unless we have reason, we will not engage with you. ,As to fighting, enough; as to masters, I acknowledge Zeus my forefather and Hestia queen of the Scythians only. As for you, instead of gifts of earth and water I shall send such as ought to come to you; and for your boast that you are my master, I say ‘Weep!’” Such is the proverbial “Scythian speech.”
5.7 These are most notable of their usages. They worship no gods but Ares, Dionysus, and Artemis. Their princes, however, unlike the rest of their countrymen, worship Hermes above all gods and swear only by him, claiming him for their ancestor. '' None
|25. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares, imitation of in the Phaedrus • comedy, Ares and Hera absent from
Found in books: Bartninkas (2023), Traditional and Cosmic Gods in Later Plato and the Early Academy. 15; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014), Oaths and Swearing in Ancient Greece, 327
|247a κατὰ ἕνδεκα μέρη κεκοσμημένη. μένει γὰρ Ἑστία ἐν θεῶν οἴκῳ μόνη· τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ὅσοι ἐν τῷ τῶν δώδεκα ἀριθμῷ τεταγμένοι θεοὶ ἄρχοντες ἡγοῦνται κατὰ τάξιν ἣν ἕκαστος ἐτάχθη. πολλαὶ μὲν οὖν καὶ μακάριαι θέαι τε καὶ διέξοδοι ἐντὸς οὐρανοῦ, ἃς θεῶν γένος εὐδαιμόνων ἐπιστρέφεται πράττων ἕκαστος αὐτῶν τὸ αὑτοῦ, ἕπεται δὲ ὁ ἀεὶ ἐθέλων τε καὶ δυνάμενος· φθόνος γὰρ ἔξω θείου χοροῦ ἵσταται. ὅταν δὲ δὴ πρὸς δαῖτα καὶ ἐπὶ θοίνην ἴωσιν, ἄκραν ἐπὶ τὴν'' None||247a He is followed by an army of gods and spirits, arrayed in eleven squadrons; Hestia alone remains in the house of the gods. of the rest, those who are included among the twelve great gods and are accounted leaders, are assigned each to his place in the army. There are many blessed sights and many ways hither and thither within the heaven, along which the blessed gods go to and fro attending each to his own duties; and whoever wishes, and is able, follows, for jealousy is excluded from the celestial band. But when they go to a feast and a banquet,'' None|
|26. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art, artistic representation • Artagnes Heracles Ares astronomy, astrology, and astral lore • Paradigm and art • political art (technê, τέχνη) • rhetoric, art of, Aristotle’s definition • theurgy (hieratic art)
Found in books: Beck (2006), The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire: Mysteries of the Unconquered Sun, 181; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 332; Dillon and Timotin (2015), Platonic Theories of Prayer, 127, 172; Hoenig (2018), Plato's Timaeus and the Latin Tradition, 60; d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 273, 284
|28a ἀεί, ὂν δὲ οὐδέποτε; τὸ μὲν δὴ νοήσει μετὰ λόγου περιληπτόν, ἀεὶ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ὄν, τὸ δʼ αὖ δόξῃ μετʼ αἰσθήσεως ἀλόγου δοξαστόν, γιγνόμενον καὶ ἀπολλύμενον, ὄντως δὲ οὐδέποτε ὄν. πᾶν δὲ αὖ τὸ γιγνόμενον ὑπʼ αἰτίου τινὸς ἐξ ἀνάγκης γίγνεσθαι· παντὶ γὰρ ἀδύνατον χωρὶς αἰτίου γένεσιν σχεῖν. ὅτου μὲν οὖν ἂν ὁ δημιουργὸς πρὸς τὸ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἔχον βλέπων ἀεί, τοιούτῳ τινὶ προσχρώμενος παραδείγματι, τὴν ἰδέαν καὶ δύναμιν αὐτοῦ ἀπεργάζηται, καλὸν ἐξ ἀνάγκης' 29a ἀπηργάζετο, πότερον πρὸς τὸ κατὰ ταὐτὰ καὶ ὡσαύτως ἔχον ἢ πρὸς τὸ γεγονός. εἰ μὲν δὴ καλός ἐστιν ὅδε ὁ κόσμος ὅ τε δημιουργὸς ἀγαθός, δῆλον ὡς πρὸς τὸ ἀίδιον ἔβλεπεν· εἰ δὲ ὃ μηδʼ εἰπεῖν τινι θέμις, πρὸς γεγονός. παντὶ δὴ σαφὲς ὅτι πρὸς τὸ ἀίδιον· ὁ μὲν γὰρ κάλλιστος τῶν γεγονότων, ὁ δʼ ἄριστος τῶν αἰτίων. οὕτω δὴ γεγενημένος πρὸς τὸ λόγῳ καὶ φρονήσει περιληπτὸν καὶ κατὰ ταὐτὰ ἔχον δεδημιούργηται· ' None||28a and has no Becoming? And what is that which is Becoming always and never is Existent? Now the one of these is apprehensible by thought with the aid of reasoning, since it is ever uniformly existent; whereas the other is an object of opinion with the aid of unreasoning sensation, since it becomes and perishes and is never really existent. Again, everything which becomes must of necessity become owing to some Cause; for without a cause it is impossible for anything to attain becoming. But when the artificer of any object, in forming its shape and quality, keeps his gaze fixed on that which is uniform, using a model of this kind, that object, executed in this way, must of necessity' 29a Was it after that which is self-identical and uniform, or after that which has come into existence; Now if so be that this Cosmos is beautiful and its Constructor good, it is plain that he fixed his gaze on the Eternal; but if otherwise (which is an impious supposition), his gaze was on that which has come into existence. But it is clear to everyone that his gaze was on the Eternal; for the Cosmos is the fairest of all that has come into existence, and He the best of all the Causes. So having in this wise come into existence, it has been constructed after the pattern of that which is apprehensible by reason and thought and is self-identical. ' None|
|27. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares • Ares,
Found in books: Bowie (2021), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, 196; Brodd and Reed (2011), Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult, 91
|28. Anon., 1 Enoch, 1 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • art • art, Metatron • art, interpreters • art, stars
Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 112, 189, 191, 197; Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 161
1 The words of the blessing of Enoch, wherewith he blessed the elect and righteous, who will be,living in the day of tribulation, when all the wicked and godless are to be removed. And he took up his parable and said -Enoch a righteous man, whose eyes were opened by God, saw the vision of the Holy One in the heavens, which the angels showed me, and from them I heard everything, and from them I understood as I saw, but not for this generation, but for a remote one which is,for to come. Concerning the elect I said, and took up my parable concerning them:The Holy Great One will come forth from His dwelling,,And the eternal God will tread upon the earth, (even) on Mount Sinai, And appear from His camp And appear in the strength of His might from the heaven of heavens.,And all shall be smitten with fear And the Watchers shall quake, And great fear and trembling shall seize them unto the ends of the earth.,And the high mountains shall be shaken, And the high hills shall be made low, And shall melt like wax before the flame,And the earth shall be wholly rent in sunder, And all that is upon the earth shall perish, And there shall be a judgement upon all (men).,But with the righteous He will make peace.And will protect the elect, And mercy shall be upon them.And they shall all belong to God, And they shall be prospered, And they shall all be blessed.And He will help them all, And light shall appear unto them, And He will make peace with them'.,And behold! He cometh with ten thousands of His holy ones To execute judgement upon all, And to destroy all the ungodly:And to convict all flesh of all the works of their ungodliness which they have ungodly committed, And of all the hard things which ungodly sinners have spoken against Him."" None
|29. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares
Found in books: Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 46, 47; Gaifman (2012), Aniconism in Greek Antiquity, 110, 305; Morrison (2020), Apollonius Rhodius, Herodotus and Historiography, 89
|30. Anon., Jubilees, 2.2-2.3 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • art, Qumran • art, priests • healing and medicines, exorcism as healing art
Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 51; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 332
2.2 Write the complete history of the creation, how in six days the Lord God finished all His works and all that He created, and kept Sabbath on the seventh day and hallowed it for all ages, and appointed it as a sign for all His works. 2.3 For on the first day He created the heavens which are above and the earth and the waters and all the spirits which serve before Him'' None
|31. Cicero, On Divination, 1.12, 1.24, 1.92 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • ars • cosmos,, craft, art, techne • haruspices, haruspicina (ars), • history of divinatory arts
Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001), Traditions of Theology: Studies in Hellenistic Theology, its Background and Aftermath, 244; Luck (2006), Arcana mundi: magic and the occult in the Greek and Roman worlds: a collection of ancient texts, 309, 310; Santangelo (2013), Roman Frugality: Modes of Moderation from the Archaic Age to the Early Empire and Beyond, 63; Wynne (2019), Horace and the Gift Economy of Patronage, 208, 245
1.12 Quae est autem gens aut quae civitas, quae non aut extispicum aut monstra aut fulgora interpretantium aut augurum aut astrologorum aut sortium (ea enim fere artis sunt) aut somniorum aut vaticinationum (haec enim duo naturalia putantur) praedictione moveatur? Quarum quidem rerum eventa magis arbitror quam causas quaeri oportere. Est enim vis et natura quaedam, quae tum observatis longo tempore significationibus, tum aliquo instinctu inflatuque divino futura praenuntiat. Quare omittat urguere Carneades, quod faciebat etiam Panaetius requirens, Iuppiterne cornicem a laeva, corvum ab dextera canere iussisset. Observata sunt haec tempore inmenso et in significatione eventis animadversa et notata. Nihil est autem, quod non longinquitas temporum excipiente memoria prodendisque monumentis efficere atque adsequi possit.
1.24 At non numquam ea, quae praedicta sunt, minus eveniunt. Quae tandem id ars non habet? earum dico artium, quae coniectura continentur et sunt opinabiles. An medicina ars non putanda est? quam tamen multa fallunt. Quid? gubernatores nonne falluntur? An Achivorum exercitus et tot navium rectores non ita profecti sunt ab Ilio, ut profectione laeti piscium lasciviam intuerentur, ut ait Pacuvius, nec tuendi satietas capere posset? Ínterea prope iam óccidente sóle inhorrescít mare, Ténebrae conduplicántur noctisque ét nimbum occaecát nigror. Num igitur tot clarissimorum ducum regumque naufragium sustulit artem guberdi? aut num imperatorum scientia nihil est, quia summus imperator nuper fugit amisso exercitu? aut num propterea nulla est rei publicae gerendae ratio atque prudentia, quia multa Cn. Pompeium, quaedam M. Catonem, non nulla etiam te ipsum fefellerunt? Similis est haruspicum responsio omnisque opinabilis divinatio; coniectura enim nititur, ultra quam progredi non potest.
1.92 Etruria autem de caelo tacta scientissume animadvertit eademque interpretatur, quid quibusque ostendatur monstris atque portentis. Quocirca bene apud maiores nostros senatus tum, cum florebat imperium, decrevit, ut de principum filiis x ex singulis Etruriae populis in disciplinam traderentur, ne ars tanta propter tenuitatem hominum a religionis auctoritate abduceretur ad mercedem atque quaestum. Phryges autem et Pisidae et Cilices et Arabum natio avium significationibus plurimum obtemperant, quod idem factitatum in Umbria accepimus.'' None
1.12 Now — to mention those almost entirely dependent on art — what nation or what state disregards the prophecies of soothsayers, or of interpreters of prodigies and lightnings, or of augurs, or of astrologers, or of oracles, or — to mention the two kinds which are classed as natural means of divination — the forewarnings of dreams, or of frenzy? of these methods of divining it behoves us, I think, to examine the results rather than the causes. For there is a certain natural power, which now, through long-continued observation of signs and now, through some divine excitement and inspiration, makes prophetic announcement of the future. 7 Therefore let Carneades cease to press the question, which Panaetius also used to urge, whether Jove had ordered the crow to croak on the left side and the raven on the right. Such signs as these have been observed for an unlimited time, and the results have been checked and recorded. Moreover, there is nothing which length of time cannot accomplish and attain when aided by memory to receive and records to preserve.
1.12 The Divine Will accomplishes like results in the case of birds, and causes those known as alites, which give omens by their flight, to fly hither and thither and disappear now here and now there, and causes those known as oscines, which give omens by their cries, to sing now on the left and now on the right. For if every animal moves its body forward, sideways, or backward at will, it bends, twists, extends, and contracts its members as it pleases, and performs these various motions almost mechanically; how much easier it is for such results to be accomplished by a god, whose divine will all things obey!
1.24 But, it is objected, sometimes predictions are made which do not come true. And pray what art — and by art I mean the kind that is dependent on conjecture and deduction — what art, I say, does not have the same fault? Surely the practice of medicine is an art, yet how many mistakes it makes! And pilots — do they not make mistakes at times? For example, when the armies of the Greeks and the captains of their mighty fleet set sail from Troy, they, as Pacuvius says,Glad at leaving Troy behind them, gazed upon the fish at play,Nor could get their fill of gazing — thus they whiled the time away.Meantime, as the sun was setting, high uprose the angry main:Thick and thicker fell the shadows; night grew black with blinding rain.Then, did the fact that so many illustrious captains and kings suffered shipwreck deprive navigation of its right to be called an art? And is military science of no effect because a general of the highest renown recently lost his army and took to flight? Again, is statecraft devoid of method or skill because political mistakes were made many times by Gnaeus Pompey, occasionally by Marcus Cato, and once or twice even by yourself? So it is with the responses of soothsayers, and, indeed, with every sort of divination whose deductions are merely probable; for divination of that kind depends on inference and beyond inference it cannot go.
1.92 Again, the Etruscans are very skilful in observing thunderbolts, in interpreting their meaning and that of every sign and portent. That is why, in the days of our forefathers, it was wisely decreed by the Senate, when its power was in full vigour, that, of the sons of the chief men, six should be handed over to each of the Etruscan tribes for the study of divination, in order that so important a profession should not, on account of the poverty of its members, be withdrawn from the influence of religion, and converted into a means of mercenary gain. On the other hand the Phrygians, Pisidians, Cilicians, and Arabians rely chiefly on the signs conveyed by the flights of birds, and the Umbrians, according to tradition, used to do the same. 42'' None
|32. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.14 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, funerary • Art, sculpture
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 934; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun (2014), The History of Religions School Today : Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts 37
2.14 third, the awe inspired by lightning, storms, rain, snow, hail, floods, pestilences, earthquakes and occasionally subterranean rumblings, showers of stones and raindrops the colour of blood, also landslips and chasms suddenly opening in the ground, also unnatural monstrosities human and animal, and also the appearance of meteoric lights and what are called by the Greeks 'comets,' and in our language 'long-haired stars,' such as recently during the Octavian War appeared as harbingers of dire disasters, and the doubling of the sun, which my father told me had happened in the consulship of Tuditanus and Aquilius, the year in which the light was quenched of Publius Africanus, that second sun of Rome: all of which alarming portents have suggested to mankind the idea of the existence of some celestial and divine power. "" None
|33. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art (τέχνη) • ars (“art”)
Found in books: Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 47; Nijs (2023), The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus. 235
|34. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Augustine of Hippo, on liberal arts • Boethius, seven liberal arts, closed system of • Cicero, liberal arts and • Libanius, liberal arts, systems or cycles of • Neoplatonism, liberal arts, cycle of • Verres, C., appropriates art works in Syracuse • ars • ars, oratoris • education and pedagogy, paideia, seven liberal arts, development of closed system of • liberal arts • proprietas properties of individual arts
Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 665, 666; Keeline (2018), The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy, 219, 220, 221; Oksanish (2019), Benedikt Eckhardt, and Meret Strothmann, Law in the Roman Provinces, 130, 131, 142; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 118
|35. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Verres, C., appropriates art works in Syracuse • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • art and architecture, Roman appreciation
Found in books: Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 242, 262; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 49
|36. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Augustine of Hippo, on liberal arts • Boethius, seven liberal arts, closed system of • Libanius, liberal arts, systems or cycles of • Neoplatonism, liberal arts, cycle of • artes liberales • education and pedagogy, paideia, seven liberal arts, development of closed system of • liberal arts
Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 666; Keeline (2018), The Cambridge Companion to Cicero's Philosophy, 218, 219; Oksanish (2019), Benedikt Eckhardt, and Meret Strothmann, Law in the Roman Provinces, 38
|37. Ovid, Ars Amatoria, 1.1-1.2, 1.4, 1.7-1.10, 1.17, 1.31-1.38, 2.599-2.600, 2.643-2.644, 2.657-2.662, 2.683-2.684, 3.57-3.58, 3.807-3.808 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Alcinous, Middle Platonist author of Didasklikos, Art of love • Ares/Mars • Ars Amatoria (Ovid) • Ars Amatoria (Ovid),, audience disclaimer and • Cicero, influence of De officiis on Ars amatoria • Love, Art of falling out of love (Ovid) • Love, Art of love • Ovid on relabelling, On Art of Love and Falling out of love • Ovid, Ars amatoria • Ovid, Ars and Remedia as philosophical in their own right • Ovid, philosophy as ars uitae • Plato, Art of love and its three objectives • sexual subjects in art, Orpheus and • sexual subjects in art, eroticdidacticism • sexual subjects in art, homoeroticism • sexual subjects in art, pederasty
Found in books: Green (2014), Carthage in Virgil's Aeneid: Staging the Enemy under Augustus, 61; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 109, 120; Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 222, 279; Thorsen et al. (2021), Greek and Latin Love: The Poetic Connection, 92, 95, 162, 196, 202, 203, 204, 205, 208; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 72, 78, 80, 125, 126, 132, 137, 138
1.1 Siquis in hoc artem populo non novit amandi, 1.2 rend=
1.7 Me Venus artificem tenero praefecit Amori; 1.9 Ille quidem ferus est et qui mihi saepe repugnet:
1.17 Aeacidae Chiron, ego sum praeceptor Amoris:
1.31 Este procul, vittae tenues, insigne pudoris, 1.33 Nos venerem tutam concessaque furta canemus, 1.35 Principio, quod amare velis, reperire labora, 1.37 Proximus huic labor est placitam exorare puellam:
2.599 En, iterum testor: nihil hic, nisi lege remissum
2.643 Nec suus Andromedae color est obiectus ab illo,
2.657 Nominibus mollire licet mala: fusca vocetur, 2.659 Si straba, sit Veneri similis: si rava, Minervae: 2.661 Dic habilem, quaecumque brevis, quae turgida, plenam,
2.683 Odi concubitus, qui non utrumque resolvunt;
3.57 Dum facit ingenium, petite hinc praecepta, puellae,
3.807 Nec lucem in thalamos totis admitte fenestris; 3.808 rend='' None
1.1 In Cupid's school The poet here lays down the proposition of the work, which he comprehends in the two first verses: he then invokes the assistance of the gods and begins his narration. , whoe'er would take degree" '1.2 Must learn his rudiments by reading me, One must learn to love, and what to love: for love is so far from being forbidden, that there is nothing so commendable, provided the object is good.
1.4 Art guides the chariot: art instructs to love.
1.7 Cupid indeed is obstinate and wild,' "1.8 A stubborn god He speaks of love who is very seldom guided by reason. ; but yet the god's a child:" '1.9 Easy to govern in his tender age,
1.10 Like fierce Achilles in his pupilage:
1.17 To teach her softer arts; to sooth the mind,
1.31 Nor Clio , nor her sisters, have I seen,' "1.32 As Hesiod saw them on the shady green: Ovid names Clio only, of all the nine, in this place. The fable tells us, she and her sisters were born of Jupiter 's caresses of Mnemosyne, that is, memory." '1.33 Experience makes my work a truth so tried, 1.34 You may believe; and Venus be my guide. It has been before observed, that Ovid invokes the goddess of love to assist his song, as Lucretius does the same divinity for his world of nature, as being the mother of all generations, and all productions. 1.35 Far hence ye vestals be, who bind your hair; The author forewarns all virgins, and chaste persons, not to follow, in all things, the precepts of his book. 1.36 And wives, who gowns below your ancles wear.' "1.37 I sing the brothels loose and unconfin'd," "1.38 Th' unpunishable pleasures of the kind;" 2.599 Shall I, with patience, the known signal hear, 2.600 Retire, and leave a happy rival there!
2.643 She wants that cover for another place. 2.644 To burly Mars a gay spectator said,' "
2.657 Tho' in your pow'r, a rival ne'er expose," "2.658 Never his intercepted joys disclose: He means intercepting a rival's letter, and discovering the contents. To intercept letters, and divulge a secret, was a crime punishable by the laws, by banishment, or interdiction of fire and water, by which was understood exile." '2.659 This I command, Venus commands the same,' "2.660 Who hates the snares she once sustain'd with shame." "2.661 What impious wretch will Ceres ' rites expose, This is a simile, and shows us it was not lawful to reveal the mysteries of Ceres . Macrobius in the 11th chapter of his first book upon Scipio's dream, writes that the philosopher Numenius, being too curious to know the secrets of hidden things, incurred the wrath of the gods by divulging the Eleusinian mysteries, which were the same with those of Ceres ." "2.662 Or Juno's solemn mysteries disclose!" 2.683 For light too modest, and unshaded air!' "2.684 From public view they decently retir'd," 3.57 Why Phyllis by a fate untimely fell. Phyllis despairing of the return of Demophoon, to whom she had granted her last favours, was about to hang herself, when, as the fable says. the gods, in compassion to her, turned her to an almond tree without leaves: Demophoon, some time after this. returning, went and embraced his metamorphosed mistress, and the tree afterwards put forth leaves.' "3.58 Nine times, in vain, upon the promis'd day," 3.807 There rosemary and bays their odours join,' "3.808 And with the fragrant myrtle's scent combine."" None
|38. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 5.369-5.372, 10.244, 10.248, 10.251, 10.253-10.269, 10.275-10.276, 10.283, 10.289 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ovid, Ars amatoria • imperialism, art as critique of • nature, transgressed by art • sexual subjects in art, selfcensorship and
Found in books: Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 127, 128; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 10, 64; Thorsen et al. (2021), Greek and Latin Love: The Poetic Connection, 196
|sup>5.370 victa domas ipsumque, regit qui numina ponti. 5.371 Tartara quid cessant? cur non matrisque tuumque 5.372 imperium profers? agitur pars tertia mundi. |
10.244 viderat, offensus vitiis, quae plurima menti
10.248 sculpsit ebur formamque dedit, qua femina nasci
10.251 et, si non obstet reverentia, velle moveri:
10.253 pectore Pygmalion simulati corporis ignes. 10.254 Saepe manus operi temptantes admovet, an sit 10.255 corpus an illud ebur: nec adhuc ebur esse fatetur. 10.256 Oscula dat reddique putat loquiturque tenetque, 10.257 et credit tactis digitos insidere membris, 10.258 et metuit, pressos veniat ne livor in artus. 10.259 Et modo blanditias adhibet, modo grata puellis 10.260 munera fert illi conchas teretesque lapillos 10.261 et parvas volucres et flores mille colorum 10.262 liliaque pictasque pilas et ab arbore lapsas 10.263 Heliadum lacrimas; ornat quoque vestibus artus, 10.264 dat digitis gemmas, dat longa monilia collo: 10.265 aure leves bacae, redimicula pectore pendent. 10.266 Cuncta decent: nec nuda minus formosa videtur. 10.267 Conlocat hanc stratis concha Sidonide tinctis 10.269 mollibus in plumis, tamquam sensura, reponit.
10.275 sit coniunx, opto” (non ausus “eburnea virgo” 10.276 dicere) Pygmalion “similis mea” dixit “eburnae.”
10.283 temptatum mollescit ebur positoque rigore
10.289 Corpus erat: saliunt temptatae pollice venae.' ' None
|sup>5.370 where Phineus had turned his trembling face: 5.371 and as he struggled to avert his gaze 5.372 his neck grew stiff; the moisture of his eye |
10.244 tole and flew off with that loved Trojan boy:
10.248 You also, Hyacinthus, would have been
10.251 But in a way you are immortal too.
10.253 drives winter out, and Aries (the Ram) 10.254 ucceeds to Pisces (watery Fish), you rise 10.255 and blossom on the green turf. And the love 10.256 my father had for you was deeper than he felt 10.257 for others. Delphi center of the world, 10.258 had no presiding guardian, while the God 10.259 frequented the Eurotas and the land 10.260 of Sparta , never fortified with walls. 10.261 His zither and his bow no longer fill 10.262 his eager mind and now without a thought 10.263 of dignity, he carried nets and held 10.264 the dogs in leash, and did not hesitate 10.265 to go with Hyacinthus on the rough, 10.266 teep mountain ridges; and by all of such 10.267 associations, his love was increased. 10.269 the coming and the banished night, and stood
10.275 and cleft the clouds beyond with its broad weight; 10.276 from which at length it fell down to the earth,' "
10.283 the God's face went — as pallid as the boy's." 10.289 is past all art of cure. As if someone,' ' None
|39. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.2 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • art, medieval Christian, depiction of Jews • clothing, signification of, in medieval Christian art • pallium, signification in medieval Christian art
Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 94; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 143
2.2 For some persons say, and not without some reason and propriety, that this is the only way by which cities can be expected to advance in improvement, if either the kings cultivate philosophy, or if philosophers exercise the kingly power. But Moses will be seen not only to have displayed all these powers--I mean the genius of the philosopher and of the king--in an extraordinary degree at the same time, but three other powers likewise, one of which is conversant about legislation, the second about the way of discharging the duties of high priest, and the last about the prophetic office; '' None
|40. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • art and architecture, Roman appreciation • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica
Found in books: Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 187; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 240
|41. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ovid, Ars amatoria • ars
Found in books: Clay and Vergados (2022), Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry, 280; Thorsen et al. (2021), Greek and Latin Love: The Poetic Connection, 208
|42. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Petronius, and the decline of art • Pliny the Elder, on decline of art • Vitruvius, on decline of art • art expert, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art history, Petronius’ satire of
Found in books: Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 192; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 84
|43. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Horace, Ars Poetica • Horace, Ars poetica • Horace, Empedocles in Ars poetica • Nile, subject matter of art • ekphrasis,, literary arts excluded from traditional use of • ekphrasis,, nonvisual arts and
Found in books: Goldschmidt (2019), Biofiction and the Reception of Latin Poetry, 134, 135; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 32, 33; Keith and Myers (2023), Vergil and Elegy. 139, 140, 141; Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 292; Mayor (2017), Religion and Memory in Tacitus’ Annals, 245; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 303
|44. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ars Amatoria (Ovid) • Ovid, Ars Amatoria • aesthetic approach to art and architecture • architecture and art, aesthetic approach • art and architecture, aesthetic approach
Found in books: Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 314; Johnson and Parker (2009), ?Ancient Literacies: The Culture of Reading in Greece and Rome, 160
|45. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ars Amatoria (Ovid) • Ars Amatoria (Ovid),, as cause of exile • Ars Amatoria (Ovid),, contexts of composition • Greek, art • ars • death, triumph of art over • sexual subjects in art, Orpheus and • sexual subjects in art, eroticdidacticism • sexual subjects in art, homoeroticism • sexual subjects in art, pederasty
Found in books: Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 4, 5, 16, 110, 113, 123; Oksanish (2019), Benedikt Eckhardt, and Meret Strothmann, Law in the Roman Provinces, 131; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 38
|46. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares • Golden Fleece, and Ares
Found in books: Bremmer (2008), Greek Religion and Culture, the Bible, and the Ancient Near East, 311; Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 202
|47. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Greek, art • Ovid, Ars amatoria • Porcius Cato the Elder, M., on Greek art and culture • ars (“art”) • art • war, art plundering
Found in books: Nelsestuen (2015), Varro the Agronomist: Political Philosophy, Satire, and Agriculture in the Late Republic. 40; Nuno et al. (2021), SENSORIVM: The Senses in Roman Polytheism, 396; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 10, 33, 36, 38, 45; Rüpke (2011), The Roman Calendar from Numa to Constantine Time, History and the Fasti 88
|48. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ars vivendi • Ars vivendi, Conjectural • Art (τέχνη) • Cicero, influence of De officiis on Ars amatoria • Georgics , art in • Golden Age, art in • Love, Art of falling out of love (Ovid) • Love, Art of love • Lucretius, on fine arts • Ovid on relabelling, On Art of Love and Falling out of love • Ovid, Ars amatoria • ars
Found in books: Clay and Vergados (2022), Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry, 211, 212, 218; Nijs (2023), The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus. 85, 87; Perkell (1989), The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics, 36, 136; Sorabji (2000), Emotion and Peace of Mind: From Stoic Agitation to Christian Temptation, 222; Thorsen et al. (2021), Greek and Latin Love: The Poetic Connection, 64; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 80
|49. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ovid, Ars Amatoria • aesthetic approach to art and architecture • architecture and art, aesthetic approach • art and architecture, aesthetic approach
Found in books: Fabre-Serris et al. (2021), Identities, Ethnicities and Gender in Antiquity, 159; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 319
|50. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ars Amatoria (Ovid),, as cause of exile • Ars Amatoria (Ovid),, audience disclaimer and • Augustus, misjudgment of Ars amatoria • Ovid, Ars amatoria • Ovid’s poems, Ars Amatoria • erotic art • sexual subjects in art, Orpheus and • sexual subjects in art, as customary entertainment • sexual subjects in art, eroticdidacticism • sexual subjects in art, incest
Found in books: Erker (2023), Ambiguity and Religion in Ovid’s Fasti: Religious Innovation and the Imperial Family, 20, 21, 238; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 4, 12, 112, 120; McGinn (2004), The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman world: A study of Social History & The Brothel. 120, 128; Thorsen et al. (2021), Greek and Latin Love: The Poetic Connection, 220; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 329, 330
|51. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • aesthetic approach to art and architecture • architecture and art, aesthetic approach • art and architecture, aesthetic approach • patrons of the arts,, recusatio and
Found in books: Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 316; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 58
|52. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.18-1.26, 3.91, 3.181-3.186, 3.203, 16.164, 17.150, 18.55 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares • Art • Art and Artists • Art, idol vs. image • Jews, as blind to identity of Christ, depicted in art • Moses, art • Naaran basilical synagogue, basilical synagogue, mosaic (figural art and Jewish symbols) • Yafia, figural art • art, • art, medieval Christian, depiction of Jews • art, pagan • catacombs, Bet Shearim, figural art • church fathers, figural art • clothing, signification of, in medieval Christian art • pallium, signification in medieval Christian art • priests, Jewish, depiction in medieval Jewish art
Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 94, 97; Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 920, 937; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 129, 131, 132, 134, 136, 146, 147; Ekroth (2013), The Sacrificial Rituals of Greek Hero-Cults in the Archaic to the Early Hellenistic Period, 46; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 182; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 128, 224, 481; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 247
1.18 ̓Επειδὴ δὲ πάντα σχεδὸν ἐκ τῆς τοῦ νομοθέτου σοφίας ἡμῖν ἀνήρτηται Μωυσέος, ἀνάγκη μοι βραχέα περὶ ἐκείνου προειπεῖν, ὅπως μή τινες τῶν ἀναγνωσομένων διαπορῶσι, πόθεν ἡμῖν ὁ λόγος περὶ νόμων καὶ πράξεων ἔχων τὴν ἀναγραφὴν ἐπὶ τοσοῦτον φυσιολογίας κεκοινώνηκεν.
1.18 ἔνθα ὁ τῆς Σολυμᾶ ὑποδέχεται βασιλεὺς αὐτὸν Μελχισεδέκ: σημαίνει δὲ τοῦτο βασιλεὺς δίκαιος: καὶ ἦν δὲ τοιοῦτος ὁμολογουμένως, ὡς διὰ ταύτην αὐτὸν τὴν αἰτίαν καὶ ἱερέα γενέσθαι τοῦ θεοῦ: τὴν μέντοι Σολυμᾶ ὕστερον ἐκάλεσεν ̔Ιεροσόλυμα.' "1.19 ἰστέον οὖν, ὅτι πάντων ἐκεῖνος ἀναγκαιότατον ἡγήσατο τῷ καὶ τὸν ἑαυτοῦ μέλλοντι βίον οἰκονομήσειν καλῶς καὶ τοῖς ἄλλοις νομοθετεῖν θεοῦ πρῶτον φύσιν κατανοῆσαι καὶ τῶν ἔργων τῶν ἐκείνου θεατὴν τῷ νῷ γενόμενον οὕτως παράδειγμα τὸ πάντων ἄριστον μιμεῖσθαι καθ' ὅσον οἷόν τε καὶ πειρᾶσθαι κατακολουθεῖν." "1.19 παρακούουσαν μὲν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ προσωτέρω χωροῦσαν ἔλεγεν ἀπολεῖσθαι, νοστήσασαν δὲ αὐτὴν ὀπίσω γενήσεσθαι μητέρα παιδὸς τῆς γῆς ἐκείνης βασιλεύσοντος. τούτοις πείθεται καὶ ἐπανελθοῦσα πρὸς τοὺς δεσπότας συγγνώμης ἔτυχε: τίκτει δὲ μετ' οὐ πολὺ ̓Ισμαῆλον, θεόκλυτον ἄν τις εἴποι, διὰ τὸ εἰσακοῦσαι τὸν θεὸν τῆς ἱκεσίας." "1.21 παρακαλεῖ τε πρᾴως ἔχειν πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ τὸν θεὸν εὐμενῆ ποιεῖν, παρ' αὐτῷ τε μένειν βουλομένῳ πᾶσαν ἀφθονίαν ὑπάρξειν ἀπιέναι τε προαιρούμενον τεύξεσθαι πομπῆς καὶ πάντων ὅσων καὶ χρῄζων πρὸς αὐτὸν ἀφίκοιτο." '1.21 τοῦτο δὴ παιδεῦσαι βουληθεὶς Μωυσῆς τὸ παίδευμα τοὺς ἑαυτοῦ πολίτας τῆς τῶν νόμων θέσεως οὐκ ἀπὸ συμβολαίων καὶ τῶν πρὸς ἀλλήλους δικαίων ἤρξατο τοῖς ἄλλοις παραπλησίως, ἀλλ' ἐπὶ τὸν θεὸν καὶ τὴν τοῦ κόσμου κατασκευὴν τὰς γνώμας αὐτῶν ἀναγαγὼν καὶ πείσας, ὅτι τῶν ἐπὶ γῆς ἔργων τοῦ θεοῦ κάλλιστόν ἐσμεν ἄνθρωποι, ὅτε πρὸς τὴν εὐσέβειαν ἔσχεν ὑπακούοντας, ῥᾳδίως ἤδη περὶ πάντων ἔπειθεν." "1.22 ̓Ανδρωθέντι δὲ τῷ παιδὶ γύναιον ἄγεται τὸ γένος Αἰγύπτιον, ἐνθένδε ἦν καὶ αὐτὴ τὸ ἀρχαῖον, ἐξ οὗ παῖδες ̓Ισμαήλῳ γίνονται δώδεκα πάντες, Ναβαιώθης Κήδαρος ̓Αβδεῆλος Μάσσαμος Μάσμασος ̓Ιδουμᾶς Μάσμησος Χόδαμος Θέμανος ̓Ιετοῦρος Νάφαισος Κάδμασος.' "1.22 οἱ μὲν γὰρ ἄλλοι νομοθέται τοῖς μύθοις ἐξακολουθήσαντες τῶν ἀνθρωπίνων ἁμαρτημάτων εἰς τοὺς θεοὺς τῷ λόγῳ τὴν αἰσχύνην μετέθεσαν καὶ πολλὴν ὑποτίμησιν τοῖς πονηροῖς ἔδωκαν: 1.23 ἐπεὶ δ' ἐγεννήθης * ἀποθάνῃς οὐ τὸν κοινὸν ἐκ τοῦ ζῆν τρόπον, ἀλλ' ὑπὸ πατρὸς ἰδίου θεῷ τῷ πάντων πατρὶ νόμῳ θυσίας προπεμπόμενος, ἄξιον οἶμαί σε κρίναντος αὐτοῦ μήτε νόσῳ μήτε πολέμῳ μήτε ἄλλῳ τινὶ τῶν παθῶν, ἃ συμπίπτειν πέφυκεν ἀνθρώποις, ἀπαλλαγῆναι τοῦ βίου," "1.23 ὁ δ' ἡμέτερος νομοθέτης ἀκραιφνῆ τὴν ἀρετὴν ἔχοντα τὸν θεὸν ἀποφήνας ᾠήθη δεῖν τοὺς ἀνθρώπους ἐκείνης πειρᾶσθαι μεταλαμβάνειν καὶ τοὺς μὴ ταῦτα φρονοῦντας μηδὲ μὴν πιστεύοντας ἀπαραιτήτως ἐκόλασε." "1.24 μαρτυρεῖ δέ μου τῷ λόγῳ ̓Αλέξανδρος ὁ πολυίστωρ λέγων οὕτως: “Κλεόδημος δέ φησιν ὁ προφήτης ὁ καὶ Μάλχος ἱστορῶν τὰ περὶ ̓Ιουδαίων, καθὼς καὶ Μωυσῆς ἱστόρησεν ὁ νομοθέτης αὐτῶν, ὅτι ἐκ τῆς Κατούρας ̔Αβράμῳ ἐγένοντο παῖδες ἱκανοί.' "1.24 πρὸς ταύτην οὖν τὴν ὑπόθεσιν ποιεῖσθαι τὴν ἐξέτασιν τοὺς ἀναγνωσομένους παρακαλῶ: φανεῖται γὰρ σκοπουμένοις οὕτως οὐδὲν οὔτ' ἄλογον αὐτοῖς οὔτε πρὸς τὴν μεγαλειότητα τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ τὴν φιλανθρωπίαν ἀνάρμοστον: πάντα γὰρ τῇ τῶν ὅλων φύσει σύμφωνον ἔχει τὴν διάθεσιν, τὰ μὲν αἰνιττομένου τοῦ νομοθέτου δεξιῶς, τὰ δ' ἀλληγοροῦντος μετὰ σεμνότητος, ὅσα δ' ἐξ εὐθείας λέγεσθαι συνέφερε, ταῦτα ῥητῶς ἐμφανίζοντος." '1.25 ἠξίου τε παρ' αὐτοῖς καταχθῆναι τοῦ προσωτέρω χωρεῖν τῆς νυκτὸς αὐτὸν ἀφαιρουμένης, κόσμον τε φέρων γυναικεῖον πολυτελῆ πιστεύειν αὐτὸν οὐκ ἀσφαλεστέροις ἔφασκεν ἢ τούτοις, οἷς αὐτὸς ἐπειράθη. τεκμαίρεσθαι δὲ καὶ τὴν τῆς μητρὸς καὶ τἀδελφοῦ φιλανθρωπίαν αὐτῆς ἔλεγεν, ὡς οὐ δυσχερανοῦσιν, ἐκ τῆς περὶ αὐτὴν ἀρετῆς: οὐδὲ γὰρ ἔσεσθαι βαρὺς μισθόν τε τῆς φιλοξενίας τελέσας καὶ δαπάναις ἰδίαις χρησάμενος." "1.25 τοῖς μέντοι βουλομένοις καὶ τὰς αἰτίας ἑκάστου σκοπεῖν πολλὴ γένοιτ' ἂν ἡ θεωρία καὶ λίαν φιλόσοφος, ἣν ἐγὼ νῦν μὲν ὑπερβάλλομαι, θεοῦ δὲ διδόντος ἡμῖν χρόνον πειράσομαι μετὰ ταύτην γράψαι τὴν πραγματείαν." "1.26 ὁρῶν γὰρ τὸν θεὸν τῷ ̓Ισάκῳ συμπαρόντα καὶ τοσαύτῃ περὶ αὐτὸν σπουδῇ χρώμενον ἀπώσατο αὐτόν. ὁ δὲ τοιούτου πάλιν ἐκ μεταβολῆς τῆς ἀπὸ τοῦ βασκάνου πειραθεὶς ̓Αβιμελέχου τότε μὲν ἀνεχώρησεν εἰς τὴν λεγομένην Φάραγγα χωρίον οὐ μακρὰν Γεράρων, ὀρύσσοντι δ' αὐτῷ φρέαρ ποιμένες ἐπιπεσόντες εἰς μάχην ἐχώρησαν κωλύοντες τὸ ἔργον, καὶ μὴ βουληθέντος φιλονικεῖν ἔδοξαν κεκρατηκέναι." '1.26 τρέψομαι δὲ ἐπὶ τὴν ἀφήγησιν ἤδη τῶν πραγμάτων μνησθεὶς πρότερον ὧν περὶ τῆς τοῦ κόσμου κατασκευῆς εἶπε Μωυσῆς: ταῦτα δ' ἐν ταῖς ἱεραῖς βίβλοις εὗρον ἀναγεγραμμένα. ἔχει δὲ οὕτως:" "
3.91 Διδάσκει μὲν οὖν ἡμᾶς ὁ πρῶτος λόγος, ὅτι θεός ἐστιν εἷς καὶ τοῦτον δεῖ σέβεσθαι μόνον: ὁ δὲ δεύτερος κελεύει μηδενὸς εἰκόνα ζῴου ποιήσαντας προσκυνεῖν: ὁ τρίτος δὲ ἐπὶ μηδενὶ φαύλῳ τὸν θεὸν ὀμνύναι: ὁ δὲ τέταρτος παρατηρεῖν τὰς ἑβδομάδας ἀναπαυομένους ἀπὸ παντὸς ἔργου:
3.181 τήν τε γὰρ σκηνὴν τριάκοντα πηχῶν οὖσαν νείμας εἰς τρία καὶ δύο μέρη πᾶσιν ἀνεὶς τοῖς ἱερεῦσιν ὥσπερ βέβηλόν τινα καὶ κοινὸν τόπον, τὴν γῆν καὶ τὴν θάλασσαν ἀποσημαίνει: καὶ γὰρ ταῦτα πᾶσίν ἐστιν ἐπιβατά. τὴν δὲ τρίτην μοῖραν μόνῳ περιέγραψε τῷ θεῷ διὰ τὸ καὶ τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀνεπίβατον εἶναι ἀνθρώποις. 3.182 ἐπί τε τῇ τραπέζῃ τοὺς δώδεκα τιθεὶς ἄρτους ἀποσημαίνει τὸν ἐνιαυτὸν εἰς τοσούτους μῆνας διῃρημένον. τὴν δὲ λυχνίαν ἐξ ἑβδομήκοντα μορίων ποιήσας συγκειμένην τὰς τῶν πλανητῶν δεκαμοιρίας ᾐνίξατο: καὶ λύχνους ὑπὲρ αὐτῆς ἑπτά, τῶν πλανητῶν τὴν φοράν: τοσοῦτοι γάρ εἰσι τὸν ἀριθμόν.' "3.183 τά τε φάρση ἐκ τεσσάρων ὑφανθέντα τὴν τῶν στοιχείων φύσιν δηλοῖ: ἥ τε γὰρ βύσσος τὴν γῆν ἀποσημαίνειν ἔοικε διὰ τὸ ἐξ αὐτῆς ἀνεῖσθαι τὸ λίνον, ἥ τε πορφύρα τὴν θάλασσαν τῷ πεφοινῖχθαι τῶν ἰχθύων τῷ αἵματι, τὸν δὲ ἀέρα βούλεται δηλοῦν ὁ ὑάκινθος, καὶ ὁ φοῖνιξ δ' ἂν εἴη τεκμήριον τοῦ πυρός." "3.184 ἀποσημαίνει δὲ καὶ ὁ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως χιτὼν τὴν γῆν λίνεος ὤν, ὁ δὲ ὑάκινθος τὸν πόλον, ἀστραπαῖς μὲν κατὰ τοὺς ῥοί̈σκους ἀπεικασμένος βρονταῖς δὲ κατὰ τὸν τῶν κωδώνων ψόφον. καὶ τὴν ἐφαπτίδα τοῦ παντὸς τὴν φύσιν ἐκ τεσσάρων δοχθεῖσαν γενέσθαι τῷ θεῷ χρυσῷ συνυφασμένην κατ' ἐπίνοιαν οἶμαι τῆς προσούσης ἅπασιν αὐγῆς." '3.185 καὶ τὸν ἐσσῆνα μέσον ὄντα τῆς ἐφαπτίδος ἐν τρόπῳ γῆς ἔταξε: καὶ γὰρ αὕτη τὸν μεσαίτατον τόπον ἔχει: ζώνῃ τε περιοδεύσας τὸν ὠκεανὸν ἀποσημαίνει: καὶ γὰρ οὗτος ἐμπεριείληφε τὰ πάντα. δηλοῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν ἥλιον καὶ τὴν σελήνην τῶν σαρδονύχων ἑκάτερος, οἷς ἐνεπόρπωσε τὸν ἀρχιερέα.' "3.186 τήν τε δωδεκάδα τῶν λίθων εἴτε τοὺς μῆνάς τις θέλοι νοεῖν, εἴτε τὸν οὕτως ἀριθμὸν τῶν ἀστέρων, ὃν ζωδιακὸν κύκλον ̔́Ελληνες καλοῦσι, τῆς κατ' ἐκεῖνο γνώμης οὐκ ἂν ἁμάρτοι: καὶ ὁ πῖλος δέ μοι δοκεῖ τὸν οὐρανὸν τεκμηριοῦν ὑακίνθινος πεποιημένος," "
3.203 ὁ μὲν οὐρανὸς καθαρὸς ἦν, ὑπὲρ δὲ τὴν σκηνὴν μόνην ἤχλυσεν οὔτε βαθεῖ πάνυ νέφει καὶ πυκνῷ περιλαβὼν αὐτήν, ὥστ' εἶναι δόξαι χειμέριον, οὔτε μὴν λεπτὸν οὕτως, ὥστε τὴν ὄψιν ἰσχύσαι τι δι' αὐτοῦ κατανοῆσαι: ἡδεῖα δὲ ἀπ' αὐτοῦ δρόσος ἔρρει καὶ θεοῦ δηλοῦσα παρουσίαν τοῖς τοῦτο καὶ βουλομένοις καὶ πεπιστευκόσι." 16.164 ἐὰν δέ τις φωραθῇ κλέπτων τὰς ἱερὰς βίβλους αὐτῶν ἢ τὰ ἱερὰ χρήματα ἔκ τε σαββατείου ἔκ τε ἀνδρῶνος, εἶναι αὐτὸν ἱερόσυλον καὶ τὸν βίον αὐτοῦ ἐνεχθῆναι εἰς τὸ δημόσιον τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων.
18.55 Πιλᾶτος δὲ ὁ τῆς ̓Ιουδαίας ἡγεμὼν στρατιὰν ἐκ Καισαρείας ἀγαγὼν καὶ μεθιδρύσας χειμαδιοῦσαν ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις ἐπὶ καταλύσει τῶν νομίμων τῶν ̓Ιουδαϊκῶν ἐφρόνησε, προτομὰς Καίσαρος, αἳ ταῖς σημαίαις προσῆσαν, εἰσαγόμενος εἰς τὴν πόλιν, εἰκόνων ποίησιν ἀπαγορεύοντος ἡμῖν τοῦ νόμου.' ' None
1.18 4. But because almost all our constitution depends on the wisdom of Moses, our legislator, I cannot avoid saying somewhat concerning him beforehand, though I shall do it briefly; I mean, because otherwise those that read my book may wonder how it comes to pass, that my discourse, which promises an account of laws and historical facts, contains so much of philosophy.
1.18 where Melchisedec, king of the city Salem, received him. That name signifies, the righteous king: and such he was, without dispute, insomuch that, on this account, he was made the priest of God: however, they afterward called Salem Jerusalem. 1.19 He also told her, that if she disobeyed God, and went on still in her way, she should perish; but if she would return back, she should become the mother of a son who should reign over that country. These admonitions she obeyed, and returned to her master and mistress, and obtained forgiveness. A little while afterwards, she bare Ismael; which may be interpreted Heard of God, because God had heard his mother’s prayer. 1.19 The reader is therefore to know, that Moses deemed it exceeding necessary, that he who would conduct his own life well, and give laws to others, in the first place should consider the divine nature; and, upon the contemplation of God’s operations, should thereby imitate the best of all patterns, so far as it is possible for human nature to do, and to endeavor to follow after it: 1.21 He also entreated him to be at peace with him, and to make God propitious to him; and that if he thought fit to continue with him, he should have what he wanted in abundance; but that if he designed to go away, he should be honorably conducted, and have whatsoever supply he wanted when he came thither. 1.21 Now when Moses was desirous to teach this lesson to his countrymen, he did not begin the establishment of his laws after the same manner that other legislators did; I mean, upon contracts and other rights between one man and another, but by raising their minds upwards to regard God, and his creation of the world; and by persuading them, that we men are the most excellent of the creatures of God upon earth. Now when once he had brought them to submit to religion, he easily persuaded them to submit in all other things: 1.22 4. When the lad was grown up, he married a wife, by birth an Egyptian, from whence the mother was herself derived originally. of this wife were born to Ismael twelve sons; Nabaioth, Kedar, Abdeel, Mabsam, Idumas, Masmaos, Masaos, Chodad, Theman, Jetur, Naphesus, Cadmas. 1.22 for as to other legislators, they followed fables, and by their discourses transferred the most reproachful of human vices unto the gods, and so afforded wicked men the most plausible excuses for their crimes; 1.23 Accordingly thou, my son, wilt now die, not in any common way of going out of the world, but sent to God, the Father of all men, beforehand, by thy own father, in the nature of a sacrifice. I suppose he thinks thee worthy to get clear of this world neither by disease, neither by war, nor by any other severe way, by which death usually comes upon men, 1.23 but as for our legislator, when he had once demonstrated that God was possessed of perfect virtue, he supposed that men also ought to strive after the participation of it; and on those who did not so think, and so believe, he inflicted the severest punishments. 1.24 And indeed Alexander Polyhistor gives his attestation to what I here say; who speaks thus: “Cleodemus the prophet, who was also called Malchus, who wrote a History of the Jews, in agreement with the History of Moses, their legislator, relates, that there were many sons born to Abraham by Keturah: 1.24 I exhort, therefore, my readers to examine this whole undertaking in that view; for thereby it will appear to them, that there is nothing therein disagreeable either to the majesty of God, or to his love to mankind; for all things have here a reference to the nature of the universe; while our legislator speaks some things wisely, but enigmatically, and others under a decent allegory, but still explains such things as required a direct explication plainly and expressly. 1.25 However, those that have a mind to know the reasons of every thing, may find here a very curious philosophical theory, which I now indeed shall wave the explication of; but if God afford me time for it, I will set about writing it after I have finished the present work. 1.25 She desired also that he would come and lodge with them, since the approach of the night gave him not time to proceed farther. And producing his precious ornaments for women, he said he desired to trust them to none more safely than to such as she had shown herself to be; and that he believed he might guess at the humanity of her mother and brother, that they would not be displeased, from the virtue he found in her; for he would not be burdensome, but would pay the hire for his entertainment, and spend his own money. 1.26 I shall now betake myself to the history before me, after I have first mentioned what Moses says of the creation of the world, which I find described in the sacred books after the manner following. 1.26 for when he saw that God was with Isaac, and took such great care of him, he drove him away from him. But Isaac, when he saw how envy had changed the temper of Abimelech retired to a place called the Valley, not far from Gerar: and as he was digging a well, the shepherds fell upon him, and began to fight, in order to hinder the work; and because he did not desire to contend, the shepherds seemed to get the better of him,
3.91 5. The first commandment teaches us that there is but one God, and that we ought to worship him only. The second commands us not to make the image of any living creature to worship it. The third, that we must not swear by God in a false matter. The fourth, that we must keep the seventh day, by resting from all sorts of work.
3.181 When Moses distinguished the tabernacle into three parts, and allowed two of them to the priests, as a place accessible and common, he denoted the land and the sea, these being of general access to all; but he set apart the third division for God, because heaven is inaccessible to men. 3.182 And when he ordered twelve loaves to be set on the table, he denoted the year, as distinguished into so many months. By branching out the candlestick into seventy parts, he secretly intimated the Decani, or seventy divisions of the planets; and as to the seven lamps upon the candlesticks, they referred to the course of the planets, of which that is the number. 3.183 The veils, too, which were composed of four things, they declared the four elements; for the fine linen was proper to signify the earth, because the flax grows out of the earth; the purple signified the sea, because that color is dyed by the blood of a sea shell-fish; the blue is fit to signify the air; and the scarlet will naturally be an indication of fire. 3.184 Now the vestment of the high priest being made of linen, signified the earth; the blue denoted the sky, being like lightning in its pomegranates, and in the noise of the bells resembling thunder. And for the ephod, it showed that God had made the universe of four elements; and as for the gold interwoven, I suppose it related to the splendor by which all things are enlightened. 3.185 He also appointed the breastplate to be placed in the middle of the ephod, to resemble the earth, for that has the very middle place of the world. And the girdle which encompassed the high priest round, signified the ocean, for that goes round about and includes the universe. Each of the sardonyxes declares to us the sun and the moon; those, I mean, that were in the nature of buttons on the high priest’s shoulders. 3.186 And for the twelve stones, whether we understand by them the months, or whether we understand the like number of the signs of that circle which the Greeks call the Zodiac, we shall not be mistaken in their meaning. And for the mitre, which was of a blue color, it seems to me to mean heaven;
3.203 The sky was clear, but there was a mist over the tabernacle only, encompassing it, but not with such a very deep and thick cloud as is seen in the winter season, nor yet in so thin a one as men might be able to discern any thing through it, but from it there dropped a sweet dew, and such a one as showed the presence of God to those that desired and believed it.
16.164 But if any one be caught stealing their holy books, or their sacred money, whether it be out of the synagogue or public school, he shall be deemed a sacrilegious person, and his goods shall be brought into the public treasury of the Romans.
18.55 1. But now Pilate, the procurator of Judea, removed the army from Caesarea to Jerusalem, to take their winter quarters there, in order to abolish the Jewish laws. So he introduced Caesar’s effigies, which were upon the ensigns, and brought them into the city; whereas our law forbids us the very making of images;' ' None
|53. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.128-2.131, 2.145, 2.154, 3.352, 5.181, 5.213 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art and Artists • Art, funerary • Art, interpretation of symbols • Art, need for explanation • Judas the Essene, predictive art of (Josephus) • Moses, art • art, pagan • blessings, figural art • churches, art • healing and medicines, exorcism as healing art • seals, figural art
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 934, 937, 942; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 80, 138, 139, 146; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 171; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 65, 226; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 61, 76, 199
2.128 Πρός γε μὴν τὸ θεῖον εὐσεβεῖς ἰδίως: πρὶν γὰρ ἀνασχεῖν τὸν ἥλιον οὐδὲν φθέγγονται τῶν βεβήλων, πατρίους δέ τινας εἰς αὐτὸν εὐχὰς ὥσπερ ἱκετεύοντες ἀνατεῖλαι. 2.129 καὶ μετὰ ταῦτα πρὸς ἃς ἕκαστοι τέχνας ἴσασιν ὑπὸ τῶν ἐπιμελητῶν διαφίενται, καὶ μέχρι πέμπτης ὥρας ἐργασάμενοι συντόνως πάλιν εἰς ἓν συναθροίζονται χωρίον, ζωσάμενοί τε σκεπάσμασιν λινοῖς οὕτως ἀπολούονται τὸ σῶμα ψυχροῖς ὕδασιν, καὶ μετὰ ταύτην τὴν ἁγνείαν εἰς ἴδιον οἴκημα συνίασιν, ἔνθα μηδενὶ τῶν ἑτεροδόξων ἐπιτέτραπται παρελθεῖν: αὐτοί τε καθαροὶ καθάπερ εἰς ἅγιόν τι τέμενος παραγίνονται τὸ δειπνητήριον.' "2.131 προκατεύχεται δ' ὁ ἱερεὺς τῆς τροφῆς, καὶ γεύσασθαί τινα πρὶν τῆς εὐχῆς ἀθέμιτον: ἀριστοποιησάμενος δ' ἐπεύχεται πάλιν: ἀρχόμενοί τε καὶ παυόμενοι γεραίρουσι θεὸν ὡς χορηγὸν τῆς ζωῆς. ἔπειθ' ὡς ἱερὰς καταθέμενοι τὰς ἐσθῆτας πάλιν ἐπ' ἔργα μέχρι δείλης τρέπονται." "
2.145 Περὶ δὲ τὰς κρίσεις ἀκριβέστατοι καὶ δίκαιοι, καὶ δικάζουσι μὲν οὐκ ἐλάττους τῶν ἑκατὸν συνελθόντες, τὸ δ' ὁρισθὲν ὑπ' αὐτῶν ἀκίνητον. σέβας δὲ μέγα παρ' αὐτοῖς μετὰ τὸν θεὸν τοὔνομα τοῦ νομοθέτου, κἂν βλασφημήσῃ τις εἰς τοῦτον κολάζεται θανάτῳ." "
2.154 Καὶ γὰρ ἔρρωται παρ' αὐτοῖς ἥδε ἡ δόξα, φθαρτὰ μὲν εἶναι τὰ σώματα καὶ τὴν ὕλην οὐ μόνιμον αὐτῶν, τὰς δὲ ψυχὰς ἀθανάτους ἀεὶ διαμένειν, καὶ συμπλέκεσθαι μὲν ἐκ τοῦ λεπτοτάτου φοιτώσας αἰθέρος ὥσπερ εἱρκταῖς τοῖς σώμασιν ἴυγγί τινι φυσικῇ κατασπωμένας," 3.352 ἦν δὲ καὶ περὶ κρίσεις ὀνείρων ἱκανὸς συμβαλεῖν τὰ ἀμφιβόλως ὑπὸ τοῦ θείου λεγόμενα, τῶν γε μὴν ἱερῶν βίβλων οὐκ ἠγνόει τὰς προφητείας ὡς ἂν αὐτός τε ὢν ἱερεὺς καὶ ἱερέων ἔγγονος:' "
5.181 καὶ ποικίλαι μὲν ὕλαι μακροὶ δὲ δι' αὐτῶν περίπατοι καὶ περὶ τούτους εὔριποι βαθεῖς δεξαμεναί τε πανταχοῦ χαλκουργημάτων περίπλεοι, δι' ὧν τὸ ὕδωρ ἐξεχεῖτο, καὶ πολλοὶ περὶ τὰ νάματα πύργοι πελειάδων ἡμέρων." "
5.213 ἐδόκει γὰρ αἰνίττεσθαι τῇ κόκκῳ μὲν τὸ πῦρ, τῇ βύσσῳ δὲ τὴν γῆν, τῇ δ' ὑακίνθῳ τὸν ἀέρα, καὶ τῇ πορφύρᾳ τὴν θάλασσαν, τῶν μὲν ἐκ τῆς χροίας ὁμοιουμένων, τῆς δὲ βύσσου καὶ τῆς πορφύρας διὰ τὴν γένεσιν, ἐπειδὴ τὴν μὲν ἀναδίδωσιν ἡ γῆ, τὴν δ' ἡ θάλασσα." ' None
2.128 5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising. 2.129 After this every one of them are sent away by their curators, to exercise some of those arts wherein they are skilled, in which they labor with great diligence till the fifth hour. After which they assemble themselves together again into one place; and when they have clothed themselves in white veils, they then bathe their bodies in cold water. And after this purification is over, they every one meet together in an apartment of their own, into which it is not permitted to any of another sect to enter; while they go, after a pure manner, into the dining-room, as into a certain holy temple, 2.131 but a priest says grace before meat; and it is unlawful for anyone to taste of the food before grace be said. The same priest, when he hath dined, says grace again after meat; and when they begin, and when they end, they praise God, as he that bestows their food upon them; after which they lay aside their white garments, and betake themselves to their labors again till the evening;
2.145 9. But in the judgments they exercise they are most accurate and just, nor do they pass sentence by the votes of a court that is fewer than a hundred. And as to what is once determined by that number, it is unalterable. What they most of all honor, after God himself, is the name of their legislator Moses, whom, if anyone blaspheme, he is punished capitally.
2.154 11. For their doctrine is this: That bodies are corruptible, and that the matter they are made of is not permanent; but that the souls are immortal, and continue forever; and that they come out of the most subtile air, and are united to their bodies as to prisons, into which they are drawn by a certain natural enticement;
3.352 Now Josephus was able to give shrewd conjectures about the interpretation of such dreams as have been ambiguously delivered by God. Moreover, he was not unacquainted with the prophecies contained in the sacred books, as being a priest himself, and of the posterity of priests:
5.181 There were, moreover, several groves of trees, and long walks through them, with deep canals, and cisterns, that in several parts were filled with brazen statues, through which the water ran out. There were withal many dove-courts of tame pigeons about the canals.
5.213 for by the scarlet there seemed to be enigmatically signified fire, by the fine flax the earth, by the blue the air, and by the purple the sea; two of them having their colors the foundation of this resemblance; but the fine flax and the purple have their own origin for that foundation, the earth producing the one, and the sea the other.' ' None
|54. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.279, 2.75, 2.168, 2.218 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, funerary • Art, idol vs. image • Judas the Essene, predictive art of (Josephus) • Moses, art • art, pagan • catacombs, Bet Shearim, figural art • church fathers, figural art • lulav, in synagogue art
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 920, 932; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 133, 175, 178; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 68, 481; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 92
1.279 Λοιπόν μοι πρὸς αὐτὸν εἰπεῖν περὶ Μωυσέως. τοῦτον δὲ τὸν ἄνδρα θαυμαστὸν μὲν Αἰγύπτιοι καὶ θεῖον νομίζουσι, βούλονται δὲ προσποιεῖν αὐτοῖς μετὰ βλασφημίας ἀπιθάνου, λέγοντες ̔Ηλιοπολίτην εἶναι τῶν ἐκεῖθεν ἱερέων ἕνα διὰ τὴν λέπραν συνεξεληλαμένον.
2.75 ηονορεμ πραεβερε υιδεαντυρ? πορρο νοστερ λεγισλατορ, νον θυασι προπηετανς ρομανορυμ ποτεντιαμ νον ηονορανδαμ, σεδ ταμθυαμ ξαυσαμ νεθυε δεο νεθυε ηομινιβυς υτιλεμ δεσπιξιενς, ετ θυονιαμ τοτιυς ανιματι, μυλτο μαγις δει ινανιματυ προβατυρ ινφεριυς ιντερδιχιτ ιμαγινες φαβριξαρι.' "
2.168 ὁποῖος δὲ κατ' οὐσίαν ἐστὶν ἄγνωστον. ταῦτα περὶ θεοῦ φρονεῖν οἱ σοφώτατοι παρ' ̔́Ελλησιν ὅτι μὲν ἐδιδάχθησαν ἐκείνου τὰς ἀρχὰς παρασχόντος, ἐῶ νῦν λέγειν, ὅτι δ' ἐστὶ καλὰ καὶ πρέποντα τῇ τοῦ θεοῦ φύσει καὶ μεγαλειότητι, σφόδρα μεμαρτυρήκασι: καὶ γὰρ Πυθαγόρας καὶ ̓Αναξαγόρας καὶ Πλάτων οἵ τε μετ' ἐκεῖνον ἀπὸ τῆς στοᾶς φιλόσοφοι καὶ μικροῦ δεῖν ἅπαντες οὕτως" "
2.218 καὶ τοιαύτη τις ἀνακήρυξις, ἀλλ' αὐτὸς ἕκαστος αὑτῷ τὸ συνειδὸς ἔχων μαρτυροῦν πεπίστευκεν, τοῦ μὲν νομοθέτου προφητεύσαντος, τοῦ δὲ θεοῦ τὴν πίστιν ἰσχυρὰν παρεσχηκότος, ὅτι τοῖς τοὺς νόμους διαφυλάξασι κἂν εἰ δέοι θνήσκειν ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν προθύμως ἀποθανεῖν ἔδωκεν ὁ θεὸς γενέσθαι τε πάλιν καὶ βίον ἀμείνω λαβεῖν ἐκ περιτροπῆς."' None
1.279 31. It now remains that I debate with Manetho about Moses. Now the Egyptians acknowledge him to have been a wonderful, and a divine person; nay they would willingly lay claim to him themselves, though after a most abusive and incredible manner; and pretend that he was of Heliopolis, and one of the priests of that place, and was ejected out of it among the rest, on account of his leprosy;
2.75 But then our legislator hath forbidden us to make images, not by way of denunciation beforehand, that the Roman authority was not to be honored, but as despising a thing that was neither necessary nor useful for either God or man; and he forbade them, as we shall prove hereafter, to make these images for any part of the animal creation,
2.168 I do not now explain how these notions of God are the sentiments of the wisest among the Grecians, and how they were taught them upon the principles that he afforded them. However, they testify, with great assurance, that these notions are just, and agreeable to the nature of God, and to his majesty; for Pythagoras, and Anaxagoras, and Plato, and the Stoic philosophers that succeeded them, and almost all the rest, are of the same sentiments, and had the same notions of the nature of God;
2.218 but every good man hath his own conscience bearing witness to himself, and by virtue of our legislator’s prophetic spirit, and of the firm security God himself affords such a one, he believes that God hath made this grant to those that observe these laws, even though they be obliged readily to die for them, that they shall come into being again, and at a certain revolution of things shall receive a better life than they had enjoyed before. '' None
|55. Mishnah, Avodah Zarah, 3.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, idol vs. image • Art, imitation of models • Art, loss of pagan meaning for Christians and Jews • Art, religious art manufactured by Jews and Christians • art, pagan • seals, figural art
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 907; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 229, 478
3.4 שָׁאַל פְּרוֹקְלוֹס בֶּן פִלוֹסְפוֹס אֶת רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל בְּעַכּוֹ, שֶׁהָיָה רוֹחֵץ בַּמֶּרְחָץ שֶׁל אַפְרוֹדִיטִי, אָמַר לוֹ, כָּתוּב בְּתוֹרַתְכֶם, וְלֹא יִדְבַּק בְּיָדְךָ מְאוּמָה מִן הַחֵרֶם. מִפְּנֵי מָה אַתָּה רוֹחֵץ בַּמֶּרְחָץ שֶׁל אַפְרוֹדִיטִי. אָמַר לוֹ, אֵין מְשִׁיבִין בַּמֶּרְחָץ. וּכְשֶׁיָּצָא אָמַר לוֹ, אֲנִי לֹא בָאתִי בִגְבוּלָהּ, הִיא בָאתָה בִגְבוּלִי, אֵין אוֹמְרִים, נַעֲשֶׂה מֶרְחָץ לְאַפְרוֹדִיטִי נוֹי, אֶלָּא אוֹמְרִים, נַעֲשֶׂה אַפְרוֹדִיטִי נוֹי לַמֶּרְחָץ. דָּבָר אַחֵר, אִם נוֹתְנִין לְךָ מָמוֹן הַרְבֵּה, אִי אַתָּה נִכְנָס לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה שֶׁלְּךָ עָרוֹם וּבַעַל קֶרִי וּמַשְׁתִּין בְּפָנֶיהָ, וְזוֹ עוֹמֶדֶת עַל פִּי הַבִּיב וְכָל הָעָם מַשְׁתִּינִין לְפָנֶיהָ. לֹא נֶאֱמַר אֶלָּא אֱלֹהֵיהֶם. אֶת שֶׁנּוֹהֵג בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם אֱלוֹהַּ, אָסוּר. וְאֶת שֶׁאֵינוֹ נוֹהֵג בּוֹ מִשּׁוּם אֱלוֹהַּ, מֻתָּר:'' None
3.4 Proclos, son of a plosphos, asked Rabban Gamaliel in Acco when the latter was bathing in the bathhouse of aphrodite. He said to him, “It is written in your torah, ‘let nothing that has been proscribed stick to your hand (Deuteronomy 13:18)’; why are you bathing in the bathhouse of Aphrodite?” He replied to him, “We do not answer questions relating to torah in a bathhouse.” When he came out, he said to him, “I did not come into her domain, she has come into mine. People do not say, ‘the bath was made as an adornment for Aphrodite’; rather they say, ‘Aphrodite was made as an adornment for the bath.’ Another reason is, even if you were given a large sum of money, you would not enter the presence of your idol while you were nude or had experienced seminal emission, nor would you urinate before it. But this statue of Aphrodite stands by a sewer and all people urinate before it. In the torah it is only stated, “their gods” (Deuteronomy 12:3) what is treated as a god is prohibited, what is not treated as a deity is permitted.'' None
|56. New Testament, 1 Peter, 5.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • art • crown, in Christian art
Found in books: Brodd and Reed (2011), Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult, 165; Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 161
5.4 καὶ φανερωθέντος τοῦ ἀρχιποίμενος κομιεῖσθε τὸν ἀμαράντινον τῆς δόξης στέφανον.'' None
5.4 When the chief Shepherd is revealed, you will receive the crown of glory that doesn't fade away. "" None
|57. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 13.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ars Nova (style of musical composition) • Moses, art
Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 248; Gee (2020), Mapping the Afterlife: From Homer to Dante, 307
13.12 βλέπομεν γὰρ ἄρτι διʼ ἐσόπτρου ἐν αἰνίγματι, τότε δὲ πρόσωπον πρὸς πρόσωπον· ἄρτι γινώσκω ἐκ μέρους, τότε δὲ ἐπιγνώσομαι καθὼς καὶ ἐπεγνώσθην.'' None
13.12 For now we see in a mirror, dimly, butthen face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, evenas I was also fully known.'' None
|58. New Testament, Apocalypse, 4.6-4.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • Roman art • art, • art, Qumran • art, priests • crown, in Christian art
Found in books: Brodd and Reed (2011), Rome and Religion: A Cross-Disciplinary Dialogue on the Imperial Cult, 166; Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 52; Dijkstra (2020), The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman, 136; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 9
4.6 καὶ ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου ὡς θάλασσα ὑαλίνηὁμοία κρυστάλλῳ. καὶ ἐν μέσῳ τοῦ θρόνουκαὶκύκλῳ τοῦ θρόνου τέσσερα ζῷα γέμοντα ὀφθαλμῶνἔμπροσθεν καὶ ὄπισθεν· 4.7 καὶ τὸ ζῷοντὸ πρῶτονὅμοιονλέοντι, καὶ τὸ δεύτερονζῷον ὅμοιονμόσχῳ, καὶ τὸ τρίτονζῷον ἔχωντὸ πρόσωπονὡςἀνθρώπου, καὶ τὸ τέταρτονζῷον ὅμοιονἀετῷπετομένῳ· 4.8 καὶ τὰ τέσσερα ζῷα,ἓν καθʼ ἓναὐτῶν ἔχωνἀνὰ πτέρυγας ἕξ, κυκλόθενκαὶ ἔσωθενγέμουσιν ὀφθαλμῶν·καὶ ἀνάπαυσιν οὐκ ἔχουσιν ἡμέρας καὶ νυκτὸς λέγοντες Ἅγιος ἅγιος ἅγιος Κύριος, ὁ θεός, ὁ παντοκράτωρ, ὁ ἦν καὶ ὁ ὤν καὶ ὁ ἐρχόμενος. 4.9 Καὶ ὅταν δώσουσιν τὰ ζῷα δόξαν καὶ τιμὴν καὶ εὐχαριστίαν τῷκαθημένῳ ἐπὶ τοῦ θρόνου, τῷ ζῶντι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶναςτῶν αἰώνων, 4.10 πεσοῦνται οἱ εἴκοσι τέσσαρες πρεσβύτεροι ἐνώπιον τοῦκαθημένου ἐπὶ τοῦ θρόνου,καὶ προσκυνήσουσιντῷ ζῶντι εἰς τοὺς αἰῶναςτῶν αἰώνων, καὶ βαλοῦσιν τοὺς στεφάνους αὐτῶν ἐνώπιον τοῦ θρόνου, λέγοντες 4.11 ' ' None
4.6 Before the throne was something like a sea of glass, like a crystal. In the midst of the throne, and around the throne were four living creatures full of eyes before and behind. 4.7 The first creature was like a lion, and the second creature like a calf, and the third creature had a face like a man, and the fourth was like a flying eagle. 4.8 The four living creatures, having each one of them six wings, are full of eyes around about and within. They have no rest day and night, saying, "Holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy, holy is the Lord God, the Almighty, who was and who is and who is to come!" 4.9 When the living creatures give glory, honor, and thanks to him who sits on the throne, to him who lives forever and ever, 4.10 the twenty-four elders fall down before him who sits on the throne, and worship him who lives forever and ever, and throw their crowns before the throne, saying, 4.11 "Worthy are you, our Lord and our God, the Holy One, to receive the glory, the honor, and the power, for you created all things, and because of your desire they existed, and were created!" ' ' None
|59. New Testament, Mark, 14.26 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Roman art • music, liberal art of music (musica)
Found in books: Dijkstra (2020), The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman, 121; Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 781
14.26 Καὶ ὑμνήσαντες ἐξῆλθον εἰς τὸ Ὄρος τῶν Ἐλαιῶν.'' None
14.26 When they had sung a hymn, they went out to the Mount of Olives. '' None
|60. New Testament, Matthew, 2.4-2.6, 26.33 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Artagnes Heracles Ares astronomy, astrology, and astral lore • Jews, as blind to identity of Christ, depicted in art • Roman art • art • art, medieval Christian, depiction of Jews • clothing, signification of, in medieval Christian art
Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 96, 98; Beck (2006), The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire: Mysteries of the Unconquered Sun, 166; Dijkstra (2020), The Early Reception and Appropriation of the Apostle Peter (60-800 CE): The Anchors of the Fisherman, 121; Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 161
2.4 καὶ συναγαγὼν πάντας τοὺς ἀρχιερεῖς καὶ γραμματεῖς τοῦ λαοῦ ἐπυνθάνετο παρʼ αὐτῶν ποῦ ὁ χριστὸς γεννᾶται. 2.5 οἱ δὲ εἶπαν αὐτῷ Ἐν Βηθλεὲμ τῆς Ἰουδαίας· οὕτως γὰρ γέγραπται διὰ τοῦ προφήτου 2.6 Καὶ σύ, Βηθλεὲμ γῆ Ἰούδα, οὐδαμῶς ἐλαχίστη εἶ ἐν τοῖς ἡγεμόσιν Ἰούδα· ἐκ σοῦ γὰρ ἐξελεύσεται ἡγούμενος, ὅστις ποιμανεῖ τὸν λαόν μου τὸν Ἰσραήλ.
26.33 ἀποκριθεὶς δὲ ὁ Πέτρος εἶπεν αὐτῷ Εἰ πάντες σκανδαλισθήσονται ἐν σοί, ἐγὼ οὐδέποτε σκανδαλισθήσομαι.'' None
2.4 Gathering together all the chief priests and scribes of the people, he asked them where the Christ would be born. 2.5 They said to him, "In Bethlehem of Judea, for thus it is written through the prophet, 2.6 \'You Bethlehem, land of Judah, Are in no way least among the princes of Judah: For out of you shall come forth a governor, Who shall shepherd my people, Israel.\'"
26.33 But Peter answered him, "Even if all will be made to stumble because of you, I will never be made to stumble."'' None
|61. Tacitus, Annals, 2.61, 15.37 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares • Art • Art, interpretation of symbols • Artist, works of art • aesthetic approach to art and architecture • architecture and art, aesthetic approach • art and architecture, aesthetic approach
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 899; Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 352; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 314; Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 62
2.61 Ceterum Germanicus aliis quoque miraculis intendit animum, quorum praecipua fuere Memnonis saxea effigies, ubi radiis solis icta est, vocalem sonum reddens, disiectasque inter et vix pervias arenas instar montium eductae pyramides certamine et opibus regum, lacusque effossa humo, superfluentis Nili receptacula; atque alibi angustiae et profunda altitudo, nullis inquirentium spatiis penetrabilis. exim ventum Elephantinen ac Syenen, claustra olim Romani imperii, quod nunc rubrum ad mare patescit.
15.37 Ipse quo fidem adquireret nihil usquam perinde laetum sibi, publicis locis struere convivia totaque urbe quasi domo uti. et celeberrimae luxu famaque epulae fuere quas a Tigellino paratas ut exemplum referam, ne saepius eadem prodigentia narranda sit. igitur in stagno Agrippae fabricatus est ratem cui superpositum convivium navium aliarum tractu moveretur. naves auro et ebore distinctae, remiges- que exoleti per aetates et scientiam libidinum componebantur. volucris et feras diversis e terris et animalia maris Oceano abusque petiverat. crepidinibus stagni lupanaria adstabant inlustribus feminis completa et contra scorta visebantur nudis corporibus. iam gestus motusque obsceni; et postquam tenebrae incedebant, quantum iuxta nemoris et circumiecta tecta consonare cantu et luminibus clarescere. ipse per licita atque inlicita foedatus nihil flagitii reliquerat quo corruptior ageret, nisi paucos post dies uni ex illo contaminatorum grege (nomen Pythagorae fuit) in modum sollemnium coniugiorum denupsisset. inditum imperatori flammeum, missi auspices, dos et genialis torus et faces nuptiales, cuncta denique spectata quae etiam in femina nox operit.'' None
2.61 \xa0But other marvels, too, arrested the attention of Germanicus: in especial, the stone colossus of Memnon, which emits a vocal sound when touched by the rays of the sun; the pyramids reared mountain high by the wealth of emulous kings among wind-swept and all but impassable sands; the excavated lake which receives the overflow of Nile; and, elsewhere, narrow gorges and deeps impervious to the plummet of the explorer. Then he proceeded to Elephantine and Syene, once the limits of the Roman Empire, which now stretches to the Persian Gulf. <
15.37 \xa0He himself, to create the impression that no place gave him equal pleasure with Rome, began to serve banquets in the public places and to treat the entire city as his palace. In point of extravagance and notoriety, the most celebrated of the feasts was that arranged by Tigellinus; which I\xa0shall describe as a type, instead of narrating time and again the monotonous tale of prodigality. He constructed, then, a raft on the Pool of Agrippa, and superimposed a banquet, to be set in motion by other craft acting as tugs. The vessels were gay with gold and ivory, and the oarsmen were catamites marshalled according to their ages and their libidinous attainments. He had collected birds and wild beasts from the ends of the earth, and marine animals from the ocean itself. On the quays of the lake stood brothels, filled with women of high rank; and, opposite, naked harlots met the view. First came obscene gestures and dances; then, as darkness advanced, the whole of the neighbouring grove, together with the dwelling-houses around, began to echo with song and to glitter with lights. Nero himself, defiled by every natural and unnatural lust had left no abomination in reserve with which to crown his vicious existence; except that, a\xa0few days later, he became, with the full rites of legitimate marriage, the wife of one of that herd of degenerates, who bore the name of Pythagoras. The veil was drawn over the imperial head, witnesses were despatched to the scene; the dowry, the couch of wedded love, the nuptial torches, were there: everything, in fine, which night enshrouds even if a woman is the bride, was left open to the view. <'' None
|62. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art and Artists • erotic art
Found in books: Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 211; McGinn (2004), The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman world: A study of Social History & The Brothel. 121
|63. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, idol vs. image • Art, imitation of models • blessings, figural art • seals, figural art
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 912, 920, 937; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 226, 478
|64. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares • Ares,, temple of
Found in books: Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 719; Stephens and Winkler (1995), Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary, 275
|65. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art and Artists • Art, idol vs. image • blessings, figural art • seals, figural art
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 920; Eliav (2023), A Jew in the Roman Bathhouse: Cultural Interaction in the Ancient Mediterranean, 171; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 226
|66. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Artist, works of art • Vipsanius Agrippa, M., on public art • connoisseurship, art historical
Found in books: Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 62; Rojas(2019), The Remains of the Past and the Invention of Archaeology in Roman Anatolia: Interpreters, Traces, Horizons, 164; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 58
|67. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art, sculpture • Moses, art
Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 150; Rothschold, Blanton and Calhoun (2014), The History of Religions School Today : Essays on the New Testament and Related Ancient Mediterranean Texts 48
|68. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Artist, works of art • Petronius, and the decline of art • Pliny the Elder, on decline of art • Vitruvius, on decline of art • art expert, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art history, Petronius’ satire of • liberal arts or disciplines, listed or enumerated
Found in books: Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 188, 192; Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 137; Pollmann and Vessey (2007), Augustine and the Disciplines: From Cassiciacum to Confessions, 158; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 84
|69. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Alexander the Great, repatriates Greek art from Persia • Art • Art, imitation of models • Art, interpretation of symbols • Art, need for explanation • Artist, works of art • Athenaeus, on eroticism in art • Greek, art • Mercury/Hermes, and Cupid in art • Neo-Hittite, art • Nile, subject matter of art • Petronius, and the decline of art • Pliny the Elder, on decline of art • Pliny the Elder, on ignorance of art • Pliny the Elder, on public art • Porcius Cato the Elder, M., on Greek art and culture • Tullius Cicero, M., public versus private view of art • Valerius Maximus, and eroticism in art • Verres, C., appropriates art works in Syracuse • Vipsanius Agrippa, M., on public art • Vitruvius, on decline of art • art • art expert, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art history, Petronius’ satire of • art, Roman • eloquence, art of • erotic art • liberal arts or disciplines, contrasted or combined with the Bible, biblical culture • liberal arts or disciplines, listed or enumerated • offering, art work as • style art history, and rhetoric
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 905; Borg (2008), Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic, 106, 111, 114, 299; Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 42, 64, 182, 191, 192; Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 137, 179; Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 130; McGinn (2004), The Economy of Prostitution in the Roman world: A study of Social History & The Brothel. 128, 129, 130, 131, 132; Miller and Clay (2019), Tracking Hermes, Pursuing Mercury, 151; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 159; Pollmann and Vessey (2007), Augustine and the Disciplines: From Cassiciacum to Confessions, 143; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 31, 32, 33, 37, 38, 43, 49, 58, 83, 84, 94, 104, 113, 226
|70. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, idol vs. image • Greeks, and Italian art
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 924; Parkins and Smith (1998), Trade, Traders and the Ancient City, 37
|71. Lucian, Essays In Portraiture, 6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Amazons, in art • nudity, art
Found in books: Hubbard (2014), A Companion to Greek and Roman Sexualities, 35; Sweeney (2013), Foundation Myths and Politics in Ancient Ionia, 140
6 Ly. Well, look; she is at work already. Observe her procedure. She begins with our Cnidian importation, from which she takes only the head; with the rest she is not concerned, as the statue is nude. The hair, the forehead, the exquisite eyebrows, she will keep as Praxiteles has rendered them; the eyes, too, those soft, yet bright glancing eyes, she leaves unaltered. But the cheeks and the front of the face are taken from the ‘Garden’ Goddess; and so are the lines of the hands, the shapely wrists, the delicately tapering fingers. Phidias and the Lemnian Athene will give the outline of the face, and the well proportioned nose, and lend new softness to the cheeks; and the same artist may shape her neck and closed lips, to resemble those of his Amazon. Calamis adorns her with Sosandra’s modesty, Sosandra’s grave half smile; the decent seemly dress is Sosandra’s too, save that the head must not be veiled. For her stature, let it be that ofCnidian Aphrodite; once more we have recourse to Praxiteles.— What think you, Polystratus? Is it a lovely portrait?'' None
|72. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.8.4, 2.7.6, 5.14.8 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares • Ares, Ares, temple of • Phrygia and Phrygians, art and monuments of • art discourse, art-historical • art discourse, ritualcentered • festivals, Ares • ritual, as focus of art discourse • statue, Ares
Found in books: Athanassaki and Titchener (2022), Plutarch's Cities, 90, 91; Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022), Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas, 85; Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 35; Munn (2006), The Mother of the Gods, Athens, and the Tyranny of Asia: A Study of Sovereignty in Ancient Religion. 224; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022), The Hera of Zeus: Intimate Enemy, Ultimate Spouse, 156, 274
1.8.4 τῆς δὲ τοῦ Δημοσθένους εἰκόνος πλησίον Ἄρεώς ἐστιν ἱερόν, ἔνθα ἀγάλματα δύο μὲν Ἀφροδίτης κεῖται, τὸ δὲ τοῦ Ἄρεως ἐποίησεν Ἀλκαμένης, τὴν δὲ Ἀθηνᾶν ἀνὴρ Πάριος, ὄνομα δὲ αὐτῷ Λόκρος . ἐνταῦθα καὶ Ἐνυοῦς ἄγαλμά ἐστιν, ἐποίησαν δὲ οἱ παῖδες οἱ Πραξιτέλους · περὶ δὲ τὸν ναὸν ἑστᾶσιν Ἡρακλῆς καὶ Θησεὺς καὶ Ἀπόλλων ἀναδούμενος ταινίᾳ τὴν κόμην, ἀνδριάντες δὲ Καλάδης Ἀθηναίοις ὡς λέγεται νόμους γράψας καὶ Πίνδαρος ἄλλα τε εὑρόμενος παρὰ Ἀθηναίων καὶ τὴν εἰκόνα, ὅτι σφᾶς ἐπῄνεσεν ᾆσμα ποιήσας.
2.7.6 ἡγεῖται μὲν οὖν ὃν Βάκχειον ὀνομάζουσιν—Ἀνδροδάμας σφίσιν ὁ Φλάντος τοῦτον ἱδρύσατο—, ἕπεται δὲ ὁ καλούμενος Λύσιος, ὃν Θηβαῖος Φάνης εἰπούσης τῆς Πυθίας ἐκόμισεν ἐκ Θηβῶν. ἐς δὲ Σικυῶνα ἦλθεν ὁ Φάνης, ὅτε Ἀριστόμαχος ὁ Κλεοδαίου τῆς γενομένης μαντείας ἁμαρτὼν διʼ αὐτὸ καὶ καθόδου τῆς ἐς Πελοπόννησον ἥμαρτεν. ἐκ δὲ τοῦ Διονυσίου βαδίζουσιν ἐς τὴν ἀγοράν, ἔστι ναὸς Ἀρτέμιδος ἐν δεξιᾷ Λιμναίας. καὶ ὅτι μὲν κατερρύηκεν ὁ ὄροφος, δῆλά ἐστιν ἰδόντι· περὶ δὲ τοῦ ἀγάλματος οὔτε ὡς κομισθέντος ἑτέρωσε οὔτε ὅντινα αὐτοῦ διεφθάρη τρόπον εἰπεῖν ἔχουσιν.
5.14.8 τὰ δὲ ἐς τὸν μέγαν βωμὸν ὀλίγῳ μέν τι ἡμῖν πρότερόν ἐστιν εἰρημένα, καλεῖται δὲ Ὀλυμπίου Διός· πρὸς αὐτῷ δέ ἐστιν Ἀγνώστων θεῶν βωμὸς καὶ μετὰ τοῦτον Καθαρσίου Διὸς καὶ Νίκης καὶ αὖθις Διὸς ἐπωνυμίαν Χθονίου. εἰσὶ δὲ καὶ θεῶν πάντων βωμοὶ καὶ Ἥρας ἐπίκλησιν Ὀλυμπίας, πεποιημένος τέφρας καὶ οὗτος· Κλυμένου δέ φασιν αὐτὸν ἀνάθημα εἶναι. μετὰ δὲ τοῦτον Ἀπόλλωνος καὶ Ἑρμοῦ βωμός ἐστιν ἐν κοινῷ, διότι Ἑρμῆν λύρας, Ἀπόλλωνα δὲ εὑρέτην εἶναι κιθάρας Ἑλλήνων ἐστὶν ἐς αὐτοὺς λόγος.'' None
1.8.4 Near the statue of Demosthenes is a sanctuary of Ares, where are placed two images of Aphrodite, one of Ares made by Alcamenes, and one of Athena made by a Parian of the name of Locrus. There is also an image of Enyo, made by the sons of Praxiteles. About the temple stand images of Heracles, Theseus, Apollo binding his hair with a fillet, and statues of Calades, Nothing more is known of this person. who it is said framed laws Or “tunes.” for the Athenians, and of Pindar, the statue being one of the rewards the Athenians gave him for praising them in an ode.
2.7.6 The first is the one named Baccheus, set up by Androdamas, the son of Phlias, and this is followed by the one called Lysius (Deliverer), brought from Thebes by the Theban Phanes at the command of the Pythian priestess. Phanes came to Sicyon when Aristomachus, the son of Cleodaeus, failed to understand the oracle I To wait for “the third fruit,” i.e. the third generation. It was interpreted to mean the third year. given him, and therefore failed to return to the Peloponnesus . As you walk from the temple of Dionysus to the market-place you see on the right a temple of Artemis of the lake. A look shows that the roof has fallen in, but the inhabitants cannot tell whether the image has been removed or how it was destroyed on the spot.
5.14.8 An account of the great altar I gave a little way back; it is called the altar of Olympian Zeus. By it is an altar of Unknown Gods, and after this an altar of Zeus Purifier, one of Victory, and another of Zeus—this time surnamed Underground. There are also altars of all gods, and of Hera surnamed Olympian, this too being made of ashes. They say that it was dedicated by Clymenus. After this comes an altar of Apollo and Hermes in common, because the Greeks have a story about them that Hermes invented the lyre and Apollo the lute.'' None
|73. Philostratus The Athenian, Life of Apollonius, 2.22, 4.7, 4.28, 6.4, 6.11, 6.19 (2nd cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Apollonius of Tyana, views on religious art • Ares • Art • Art theory • Art, funerary • Art, idol vs. image • Art, imitation of models • Art, interpretation of symbols • Art, loss of pagan meaning for Christians and Jews • Art, need for explanation • Art, religious art manufactured by Jews and Christians • Greek, art • Nile, subject matter of art • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • art and architecture, Roman appreciation • art discourse, art-historical • art discourse, ritualcentered • ritual, as focus of art discourse
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 895, 905, 909, 935; Demoen and Praet (2009), Theios Sophistes: Essays on Flavius Philostratus' Vita Apollonii, 147, 150, 154, 155, 301; Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 37; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 240; Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 293, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 31
2.22 ὃν δὲ διέτριβεν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ χρόνον, πολὺς δὲ οὗτος ἐγένετο, ἔστ' ἂν ἀγγελθῇ τῷ βασιλεῖ ξένους ἥκειν, “ὦ Δάμι” ἔφη ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος, “ἔστι τι γραφική;” “εἴ γε” εἶπε “καὶ ἀλήθεια.” “πράττει δὲ τί ἡ τέχνη αὕτη;” “τὰ χρώματα” ἔφη “ξυγκεράννυσιν, ὁπόσα ἐστί, τὰ κυανᾶ τοῖς βατραχείοις καὶ τὰ λευκὰ τοῖς μέλασι καὶ τὰ πυρσὰ τοῖς ὠχροῖς.” “ταυτὶ δὲ” ἦ δ' ὃς “ὑπὲρ τίνος μίγνυσιν; οὐ γὰρ ὑπὲρ μόνου τοῦ ἄνθους, ὥσπερ αἱ κήριναι.” “ὑπὲρ μιμήσεως” ἔφη “καὶ τοῦ κύνα τε ἐξεικάσαι καὶ ἵππον καὶ ἄνθρωπον καὶ ναῦν καὶ ὁπόσα ὁρᾷ ὁ ἥλιος: ἤδη δὲ καὶ τὸν ἥλιον αὐτὸν ἐξεικάζει τοτὲ μὲν ἐπὶ τεττάρων ἵππων, οἷος ἐνταῦθα λέγεται φαίνεσθαι, τοτὲ δ' αὖ καὶ διαπυρσεύοντα τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, ἐπειδὰν αἰθέρα ὑπογράφῃ καὶ θεῶν οἶκον.” “μίμησις οὖν ἡ γραφική, ὦ Δάμι;” “τί δὲ ἄλλο;” εἶπεν “εἰ γὰρ μὴ τοῦτο πράττοι, γελοία δόξει χρώματα ποιοῦσα εὐήθως.” “τὰ δ' ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ” ἔφη “βλεπόμενα, ἐπειδὰν αἱ νεφέλαι διασπασθῶσιν ἀπ' ἀλλήλων, τοὺς κενταύρους καὶ τραγελάφους καὶ, νὴ Δί', οἱ λύκοι τε καὶ οἱ ἵπποι, τί φήσεις; ἆρ' οὐ μιμητικῆς εἶναι ἔργα;” “ἔοικεν,” ἔφη. “ζωγράφος οὖν ὁ θεός, ὦ Δάμι, καὶ καταλιπὼν τὸ πτηνὸν ἅρμα, ἐφ' οὗ πορεύεται διακοσμῶν τὰ θεῖά τε καὶ ἀνθρώπεια, κάθηται τότε ἀθύρων τε καὶ γράφων ταῦτα, ὥσπερ οἱ παῖδες ἐν τῇ ψάμμῳ;” ἠρυθρίασεν ὁ Δάμις ἐς οὕτως ἄτοπον ἐκπεσεῖν δόξαντος τοῦ λόγου. οὐχ ὑπεριδὼν οὖν αὐτὸν ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος, οὐδὲ γὰρ πικρὸς πρὸς τὰς ἐλέγξεις ἦν, “ἀλλὰ μὴ τοῦτο” ἔφη “βούλει λέγειν, ὦ Δάμι, τὸ ταῦτα μὲν ἄσημά τε καὶ ὡς ἔτυχε διὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ φέρεσθαι τόγε ἐπὶ τῷ θεῷ, ἡμᾶς δὲ φύσει τὸ μιμητικὸν ἔχοντας ἀναρρυθμίζειν τε αὐτὰ καὶ ποιεῖν;” “μᾶλλον” ἔφη “τοῦτο ἡγώμεθα, ὦ ̓Απολλώνιε, πιθανώτερον γὰρ καὶ πολλῷ βέλτιον.” “διττὴ ἄρα ἡ μιμητική, ὦ Δάμι, καὶ τὴν μὲν ἡγώμεθα οἵαν τῇ χειρὶ ἀπομιμεῖσθαι καὶ τῷ νῷ, γραφικὴν δὲ εἶναι ταύτην, τὴν δ' αὖ μόνῳ τῷ νῷ εἰκάζειν.” “οὐ διττήν,” ἔφη ὁ Δάμις “ἀλλὰ τὴν μὲν τελεωτέραν ἡγεῖσθαι προσήκει γραφικήν γε οὖσαν, ἣ δύναται καὶ τῷ νῷ καὶ τῇ χειρὶ ἐξεικάσαι, τὴν δὲ ἑτέραν ἐκείνης μόριον, ἐπειδὴ ξυνίησι μὲν καὶ μιμεῖται τῷ νῷ καὶ μὴ γραφικός τις ὤν, τῇ χειρὶ δὲ οὐκ ἂν ἐς τὸ γράφειν αὐτὰ χρήσαιτο.” “ἆρα,” ἔφη “ὦ Δάμι, πεπηρωμένος τὴν χεῖρα ὑπὸ πληγῆς τινος ἢ νόσου;” “μὰ Δί'” εἶπεν “ἀλλ' ὑπὸ τοῦ μήτε γραφίδος τινὸς ἧφθαι, μήτε ὀργάνου τινὸς ἢ χρώματος, ἀλλ' ἀμαθῶς ἔχειν τοῦ γράφειν.” “οὐκοῦν,” ἔφη “ὦ Δάμι, ἄμφω ὁμολογοῦμεν μιμητικὴν μὲν ἐκ φύσεως τοῖς ἀνθρώποις ἥκειν, τὴν γραφικὴν δὲ ἐκ τέχνης. τουτὶ δ' ἂν καὶ περὶ τὴν πλαστικὴν φαίνοιτο. τὴν δὲ δὴ ζωγραφίαν αὐτὴν οὔ μοι δοκεῖς μόνον τὴν διὰ τῶν χρωμάτων ἡγεῖσθαι, καὶ γὰρ ἓν χρῶμα ἐς αὐτὴν ἤρκεσε τοῖς γε ἀρχαιοτέροις τῶν γραφέων καὶ προϊοῦσα τεττάρων εἶτα πλειόνων ἥψατο, ἀλλὰ καὶ γραμμὴν καὶ τὸ ἄνευ χρώματος, ὃ δὴ σκιᾶς τε ξύγκειται καὶ φωτός, ζωγραφίαν προσήκει καλεῖν: καὶ γὰρ ἐν αὐτοῖς ὁμοιότης τε ὁρᾶται εἶδός τε καὶ νοῦς καὶ αἰδὼς καὶ θρασύτης, καίτοι χηρεύει χρωμάτων ταῦτα, καὶ οὔτε αἷμα ἐνσημαίνει οὔτε κόμης τινὸς ἢ ὑπήνης ἄνθος, ἀλλὰ μονοτρόπως ξυντιθέμενα τῷ τε ξανθῷ ἀνθρώπῳ ἔοικε καὶ τῷ λευκῷ, κἂν τούτων τινὰ τῶν ̓Ινδῶν λευκῇ τῇ γραμμῇ γράψωμεν, μέλας δήπου δόξει, τὸ γὰρ ὑπόσιμον τῆς ῥινὸς καὶ οἱ ὀρθοὶ βόστρυχοι καὶ ἡ περιττὴ γένυς καὶ ἡ περὶ τοῖς ὀφθαλμοῖς οἷον ἔκπληξις μελαίνει τὰ ὁρώμενα καὶ ̓Ινδὸν ὑπογράφει τοῖς γε μὴ ἀνοήτως ὁρῶσιν. ὅθεν εἴποιμ' ἂν καὶ τοὺς ὁρῶντας τὰ τῆς γραφικῆς ἔργα μιμητικῆς δεῖσθαι: οὐ γὰρ ἂν ἐπαινέσειέ τις τὸν γεγραμμένον ἵππον ἢ ταῦρον μὴ τὸ ζῷον ἐνθυμηθείς, ᾧ εἴκασται, οὐδ' ἂν τὸν Αἴαντά τις τὸν Τιμομάχου ἀγασθείη, ὃς δὴ ἀναγέγραπται αὐτῷ μεμηνώς, εἰ μὴ ἀναλάβοι τι ἐς τὸν νοῦν Αἴαντος εἴδωλον καὶ ὡς εἰκὸς αὐτὸν ἀπεκτονότα τὰ ἐν τῇ Τροίᾳ βουκόλια καθῆσθαι ἀπειρηκότα, βουλὴν ποιούμενον καὶ ἑαυτὸν κτεῖναι. ταυτὶ δέ, ὦ Δάμι, τὰ τοῦ Πώρου δαίδαλα μήτε χαλκευτικῆς μόνον ἀποφαινώμεθα, γεγραμμένοις γὰρ εἴκασται, μήτε γραφικῆς, ἐπειδὴ ἐχαλκεύθη, ἀλλ' ἡγώμεθα σοφίσασθαι αὐτὰ γραφικόν τε καὶ χαλκευτικὸν ἕνα ἄνδρα, οἷον δή τι παρ' ̔Ομήρῳ τὸ τοῦ ̔Ηφαίστου περὶ τὴν τοῦ ̓Αχιλλέως ἀσπίδα ἀναφαίνεται. μεστὰ γὰρ καὶ ταῦτα ὀλλύντων τε καὶ ὀλλυμένων, καὶ τὴν γῆν ᾑματῶσθαι φήσεις χαλκῆν οὖσαν.”" "
4.7 σπουδῇ δὲ ὁρῶν τοὺς Σμυρναίους ἁπάντων ἁπτομένους λόγων ἐπερρώννυε καὶ σπουδαιοτέρους ἐποίει, φρονεῖν τε ἐκέλευεν ἐφ' ἑαυτοῖς μᾶλλον ἢ τῷ τῆς πόλεως εἴδει, καὶ γάρ, εἰ καὶ καλλίστη πόλεων, ὁπόσαι ὑπὸ ἡλίῳ εἰσί, καὶ τὸ πέλαγος οἰκειοῦται, ζεφύρου τε πηγὰς ἔχει, ἀλλ' ἀνδράσιν ἐστεφανῶσθαι αὐτὴν ἥδιον ἢ στοαῖς τε καὶ γραφαῖς καὶ χρυσῷ πλείονι τοῦ ὄντος. τὰ μὲν γὰρ οἰκοδομήματα ἐπὶ ταὐτοῦ μένειν οὐδαμοῦ ὁρώμενα πλὴν ἐκείνου τοῦ μέρους τῆς γῆς, ἐν ᾧ ἐστιν, ἄνδρας δὲ ἀγαθοὺς πανταχοῦ μὲν ὁρᾶσθαι, πανταχοῦ δὲ φθέγγεσθαι, τὴν δὲ πόλιν, ἧς γεγόνασιν, ἀποφαίνειν τοσαύτην, ὅσοι περ αὐτοὶ γῆν ἐπελθεῖν δύνανται. ἔλεγε δὲ τὰς μὲν πόλεις τὰς οὕτω καλὰς ἐοικέναι τῷ τοῦ Διὸς ἀγάλματι, ὃς ἐν ̓Ολυμπίᾳ τῷ Φειδίᾳ ἐκπεποίηται, καθῆσθαι γὰρ αὐτὸ — οὕτως τῷ δημιουργῷ ἔδοξε — τοὺς δὲ ἄνδρας ἐπὶ πάντα ἥκοντας μηδὲν ἀπεοικέναι τοῦ ̔Ομηρείου Διός, ὃς ἐν πολλαῖς ἰδέαις ̔Ομήρῳ πεποίηται θαυμασιώτερον ξυγκείμενος τοῦ ἐλεφαντίνου: τὸν μὲν γὰρ ἐν γῇ φαίνεσθαι, τὸν δὲ ἐς πάντα ἐν τῷ οὐρανῷ ὑπονοεῖσθαι." "
4.28 ἰδὼν δὲ ἐς τὸ ἕδος τὸ ἐν ̓Ολυμπίᾳ “χαῖρε,” εἶπεν “ἀγαθὲ Ζεῦ, σὺ γὰρ οὕτω τι ἀγαθός, ὡς καὶ σαυτοῦ κοινωνῆσαι τοῖς ἀνθρώποις.” ἐξηγήσατο δὲ καὶ τὸν χαλκοῦν Μίλωνα καὶ τὸν λόγον τοῦ περὶ αὐτὸν σχήματος. ὁ γὰρ Μίλων ἑστάναι μὲν ἐπὶ δίσκου δοκεῖ τὼ πόδε ἄμφω συμβεβηκώς, ῥόαν δὲ ξυνέχει τῇ ἀριστερᾷ, ἡ δεξιὰ δέ, ὀρθοὶ τῆς χειρὸς ἐκείνης οἱ δάκτυλοι καὶ οἷον διείροντες. οἱ μὲν δὴ κατ' ̓Ολυμπίαν τε καὶ ̓Αρκαδίαν λόγοι τὸν ἀθλητὴν ἱστοροῦσι τοῦτον ἄτρεπτον γενέσθαι καὶ μὴ ἐκβιβασθῆναί ποτε τοῦ χώρου, ἐν ᾧ ἔστη, δηλοῦσθαι δὲ τὸ μὲν ἀπρὶξ τῶν δακτύλων ἐν τῇ ξυνοχῇ τῆς ῥόας, τὸ δὲ μηδ' ἂν σχισθῆναί ποτ' ἀπ' ἀλλήλων αὐτούς, εἴ τις πρὸς ἕνα αὐτῶν ἁμιλλῷτο, τῷ τὰς διαφυὰς ἐν ὀρθοῖς τοῖς δακτύλοις εὖ ξυνηρμόσθαι, τὴν ταινίαν δέ, ἣν ἀναδεῖται, σωφροσύνης ἡγοῦνται ξύμβολον. ὁ δὲ ̓Απολλώνιος σοφῶς μὲν εἶπεν ἐπινενοῆσθαι ταῦτα, σοφώτερα δὲ εἶναι τὰ ἀληθέστερα. “ὡς δὲ γιγνώσκοιτε τὸν νοῦν τοῦ Μίλωνος, Κροτωνιᾶται τὸν ἀθλητὴν τοῦτον ἱερέα ἐστήσαντο τῆς ̔́Ηρας. τὴν μὲν δὴ μίτραν ὅ τι χρὴ νοεῖν, τί ἂν ἐξηγοίμην ἔτι, μνημονεύσας ἱερέως ἀνδρός; ἡ ῥόα δὲ μόνη φυτῶν τῇ ̔́Ηρᾳ φύεται, ὁ δὲ ὑπὸ τοῖς ποσὶ δίσκος, ἐπὶ ἀσπιδίου βεβηκὼς ὁ ἱερεὺς τῇ ̔́Ηρᾳ εὔχεται, τουτὶ δὲ καὶ ἡ δεξιὰ σημαίνει, τὸ δὲ ἔργον τῶν δακτύλων καὶ τὸ μήπω διεστὼς τῇ ἀρχαίᾳ ἀγαλματοποιίᾳ προσκείσθω.”" "
6.4 κἀκεῖνα ἀξιομνημόνευτα εὗρον τοῦ ἀνδρός: ἐρᾶν τις ἐδόκει τοῦ τῆς ̓Αφροδίτης ἕδους, ὃ ἐν Κνίδῳ γυμνὸν ἵδρυται, καὶ τὰ μὲν ἀνετίθει, τὰ δ' ἀναθήσειν ἔφασκεν ὑπὲρ τοῦ γάμου, ̓Απολλωνίῳ δὲ καὶ ἄλλως μὲν ἄτοπα ἐδόκει ταῦτα, ἐπεὶ δὲ μὴ παρῃτεῖτο ἡ Κνίδος, ἀλλ' ἐναργεστέραν ἔφασαν τὴν θεὸν δόξειν, εἰ ἐρῷτο, ἔδοξε τῷ ἀνδρὶ καθῆραι τὸ ἱερὸν τῆς ἀνοίας ταύτης, καὶ ἐρομένων τῶν Κνιδίων αὐτόν, εἴ τι βούλοιτο τῶν θυτικῶν ἢ εὐκτικῶν διορθοῦσθαι “ὀφθαλμοὺς” ἔφη “διορθώσομαι, τὰ δὲ τοῦ ἱεροῦ πάτρια ἐχέτω, ὡς ἔχει.” καλέσας οὖν τὸν θρυπτόμενον ἤρετο αὐτόν, εἰ θεοὺς νενόμικε, τοῦ δ' οὕτω νομίζειν θεοὺς φήσαντος, ὡς καὶ ἐρᾶν αὐτῶν, καὶ τῶν γάμων μνημονεύσαντος, οὓς θύσειν ἡγεῖτο, “σὲ μὲν ποιηταὶ” ἔφη “ἐπαίρουσι τοὺς ̓Αγχίσας τε καὶ τοὺς Πηλέας θεαῖς ξυζυγῆναι εἰπόντες, ἐγὼ δὲ περὶ τοῦ ἐρᾶν καὶ ἐρᾶσθαι τόδε γιγνώσκω: θεοὶ θεῶν ἄνθρωποι ἀνθρώπων θηρία θηρίων καὶ καθάπαξ ὅμοια ὁμοίων ἐρᾷ ἐπὶ τῷ ἔτυμα καὶ ξυγγενῆ τίκτειν, τὸ δὲ ἑτερογενὲς τῷ μὴ ὁμοίῳ ξυνελθὸν οὔτε ζυγὸς οὔτε ἔρως. εἰ δὲ ἐνεθυμοῦ τὰ ̓Ιξίονος, οὐδ' ἂν ἐς ἔννοιαν καθίστασο τοῦ μὴ ὁμοίων ἐρᾶν. ἀλλ' ἐκεῖνος μὲν τροχῷ εἰκασμένος δι' οὐρανοῦ κνάμπτεται, σὺ δ', εἰ μὴ ἄπει τοῦ ἱεροῦ, ἀπολεῖ ἐν ἁπάσῃ τῇ γῇ οὐδ' ἀντειπεῖν ἔχων τὸ μὴ οὐ δίκαια τοὺς θεοὺς ἐπὶ σοὶ γνῶναι.” ὧδε ἡ παροινία ἐσβέσθη καὶ ἀπῆλθεν ὁ φάσκων ἐρᾶν ὑπὲρ ξυγγνώμης θύσας." "
6.4 ὑπὸ τούτῳ ἡγεμόνι παρελθεῖν φασιν ἐς τὸ τέμενος τοῦ Μέμνονος. περὶ δὲ τοῦ Μέμνονος τάδε ἀναγράφει Δάμις: ̓Ηοῦς μὲν παῖδα γενέσθαι αὐτόν, ἀποθανεῖν δὲ οὐκ ἐν Τροίᾳ, ὅτι μηδὲ ἀφικέσθαι ἐς Τροίαν, ἀλλ' ἐν Αἰθιοπίᾳ τελευτῆσαι βασιλεύσαντα Αἰθιόπων γενεὰς πέντε. οἱ δ', ἐπειδὴ μακροβιώτατοι ἀνθρώπων εἰσίν, ὀλοφύρονται τὸν Μέμνονα ὡς κομιδῇ νέον καὶ ὅσα ἐπὶ ἀώρῳ κλαίουσι, τὸ δὲ χωρίον, ἐν ᾧ ἵδρυται, φασὶ μὲν προσεοικέναι ἀγορᾷ ἀρχαίᾳ, οἷαι τῶν ἀγορῶν ἐν πόλεσί ποτε οἰκηθείσαις λείπονται στηλῶν παρεχόμεναι τρύφη καὶ τειχῶν ἴχνη καὶ θάκους καὶ φλιὰς ἑρμῶν τε ἀγάλματα, τὰ μὲν ὑπὸ χειρῶν διεφθορότα, τὰ δὲ ὑπὸ χρόνου. τὸ δὲ ἄγαλμα τετράφθαι πρὸς ἀκτῖνα μήπω γενειάσκον, λίθου δὲ εἶναι μέλανος, ξυμβεβηκέναι δὲ τὼ πόδε ἄμφω κατὰ τὴν ἀγαλματοποιίαν τὴν ἐπὶ Δαιδάλου καὶ τὰς χεῖρας ἀπερείδειν ὀρθὰς ἐς τὸν θᾶκον, καθῆσθαι γὰρ ἐν ὁρμῇ τοῦ ὑπανίστασθαι. τὸ δὲ σχῆμα τοῦτο καὶ τὸν τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν νοῦν καὶ ὁπόσα τοῦ στόματος ὡς φθεγξομένου ᾅδουσι, τὸν μὲν ἄλλον χρόνον ἧττον θαυμάσαι φασίν, οὔπω γὰρ ἐνεργὰ φαίνεσθαι, προσβαλούσης δὲ τὸ ἄγαλμα τῆς ἀκτῖνος, τουτὶ δὲ γίγνεσθαι περὶ ἡλίου ἐπιτολάς, μὴ κατασχεῖν τὸ θαῦμα, φθέγξασθαι μὲν γὰρ παραχρῆμα τῆς ἀκτῖνος ἐλθούσης αὐτῷ ἐπὶ στόμα, φαιδροὺς δὲ ἱστάναι τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς δόξαι πρὸς τὸ φῶς, οἷα τῶν ἀνθρώπων οἱ εὐήλιοι. τότε ξυνεῖναι λέγουσιν, ὅτι τῷ ̔Ηλίῳ δοκεῖ ὑπανίστασθαι, καθάπερ οἱ τὸ κρεῖττον ὀρθοὶ θεραπεύοντες. θύσαντες οὖν ̔Ηλίῳ τε Αἰθίοπι καὶ ̓Ηῴῳ Μέμνονι, τουτὶ γὰρ ἔφραζον οἱ ἱερεῖς, τὸν μὲν ἀπὸ τοῦ αἴθειν τε καὶ θάλπειν, τὸν δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς μητρὸς ἐπονομάζοντες, ἐπορεύοντο ἐπὶ καμήλων ἐς τὰ τῶν Γυμνῶν ἤθη." "
6.11 ταῦτα εἰπόντος ἐστράφησαν ἐς τὸν ̓Απολλώνιον πάντες, οἱ μὲν ἀμφ' αὐτόν, ὡς ἀντιλέξοι, γιγνώσκοντες, οἱ δὲ ἀμφὶ τὸν Θεσπεσίωνα θαυμάζοντες, ὅ τι ἀντερεῖ. ὁ δὲ ἐπαινέσας αὐτὸν τῆς εὐροίας καὶ τοῦ τόνου “μή τι” ἔφη “προστίθης;” “μὰ Δί',” εἶπεν “εἴρηκα γάρ.” τοῦ δ' αὖ ἐρομένου “μὴ τῶν ἄλλων τις Αἰγυπτίων;” “πάντων” ἔφη “δἰ ἐμοῦ ἤκουσας.” ἐπισχὼν οὖν ὀλίγον καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς ἐρείσας ἐς τὰ εἰρημένα οὑτωσὶ ἔλεξεν: “ἡ μὲν ̔Ηρακλέους αἵρεσις, ἥν φησι Πρόδικος ἐν ἐφήβῳ ἑλέσθαι αὐτόν, ὑγιῶς τε ὑμῖν λέλεκται καὶ κατὰ τὸν φιλοσοφίας νοῦν, ὦ σοφοὶ Αἰγυπτίων, προσήκει δέ μοι οὐδέν: οὔτε γὰρ ξυμβούλους ὑμάς βίου ποιησόμενος ἥκω πάλαι γε ᾑρημένος τὸν ἐμαυτῷ δόξαντα, πρεσβύτατός τε ὑμῶν πλὴν Θεσπεσίωνος ἀφιγμένος αὐτὸς ἂν μᾶλλον εἰκότως ξυνεβούλευον ὑμῖν σοφίας αἵρεσιν, εἰ μήπω ᾑρημένοις ἐνέτυχον. ὢν δ' ὅμως τηλικόσδε καὶ σοφίας ἐπὶ τοσόνδε ἀφιγμένος οὐκ ὀκνήσω λογισταῖς ὑμῖν τῆς ἐμαυτοῦ βουλῆς χρήσασθαι διδάσκων, ὡς ὀρθῶς εἱλόμην ταῦτα, ὧν μήπω βελτίω ἐπὶ νοῦν ἦλθέ μοι. κατιδὼν γάρ τι ἐν Πυθαγόρου μέγα καὶ ὡς ὑπὸ σοφίας ἀρρήτου μὴ μόνον γιγνώσκοι ἑαυτόν, ὅστις εἴη, ἀλλὰ καὶ ὅστις γένοιτο, βωμῶν τε ὡς καθαρὸς ἅψαιτο καὶ ὡς ἀχράντῳ μὲν ἐμψύχου βρώσεως γαστρὶ χρήσαιτο, καθαρῷ δὲ σώματι πάντων ἐσθημάτων, ὁπόσα θνησειδίων ξύγκειται, γλῶττάν τε ὡς πρῶτος ἀνθρώπων ξυνέσχε βοῦν ἐπ' αὐτῇ σιωπῆς εὑρὼν δόγμα, καὶ τὴν ἄλλην φιλοσοφίαν ὡς χρησμώδη καὶ ἀληθῆ κατεστήσατο, ἔδραμον ἐπὶ τὰς ἐκείνου δόξας, οὐ μίαν σοφίαν ἐκ δυοῖν ἑλόμενος, ὡς σύ, βέλτιστε Θεσπεσίων, ξυμβουλεύεις. παραστήσασα γάρ μοι φιλοσοφία τὰς ἑαυτῆς δόξας, ὁπόσαι εἰσί, περιβαλοῦσά τε αὐταῖς κόσμον, ὃς ἑκάστῃ οἰκεῖος, ἐκέλευσεν ἐς αὐτὰς βλέπειν καὶ ὑγιῶς αἱρεῖσθαι: ὥρα μὲν οὖν σεμνή τε ἁπασῶν ἦν καὶ θεία, καὶ κατέμυσεν ἄν τις πρὸς ἐνίας αὐτῶν ὑπ' ἐκπλήξεως, ἐμοὶ δὲ εἱστήκει τὸ ὄμμα ἐς πάσας, καὶ γάρ με καὶ παρεθάρρυνον αὐταὶ προσαγόμεναί τε καὶ προκηρύττουσαι, ὁπόσα δώσουσιν, ἐπεὶ δ' ἡ μέν τις αὐτῶν οὐδὲν μοχθήσαντι πολὺν ἐπαντλήσειν ἔφασκεν ἡδονῶν ἐσμόν, ἡ δ' αὖ μοχθήσαντα ἀναπαύσειν, ἡ δ' ἐγκαταμίξειν εὐφροσύνας τῷ μόχθῳ, πανταχοῦ δὲ ἡδοναὶ διεφαίνοντο καὶ ἄνετοι μὲν ἡνίαι γαστρός, ἑτοίμη δὲ χεὶρ ἐς πλοῦτον, χαλινὸς δὲ οὐδεὶς ὀμμάτων, ἀλλ' ἔρωτές τε καὶ ἵμεροι καὶ τὰ τοιαῦτα πάθη ξυνεχωρεῖτο, μία δὲ αὐτῶν ἴσχειν μὲν τῶν τοιούτων ἐκόμπαζε, θρασεῖα δὲ ἦν καὶ φιλολοίδορος καὶ ἀπηγκωνισμένη πάντα, εἶδον σοφίας εἶδος ἄρρητον, οὗ καὶ Πυθαγόρας ποτὲ ἡττήθη, καὶ εἱστήκει δὲ ἄρα οὐκ ἐν ταῖς πολλαῖς, ἀλλ' ἀπετέτακτο αὐτῶν καὶ ἐσιώπα, ξυνεῖσα δέ, ὡς ταῖς μὲν ἄλλαις οὐ ξυντίθεμαι, τὰ δὲ ἐκείνης οὔπω οἶδα “μειράκιον,” εἶπεν, “ἀηδὴς ἐγὼ καὶ μεστὴ πόνων:” εἰ γὰρ ἀφίκοιτό τις ἐς ἤθη τὰ ἐμά, τράπεζαν μέν, ὁπόση ἐμψύχων, ἀνῃρῆσθαι πᾶσαν ̔ἂν' ἕλοιτο, οἴνου δὲ ἐκλελῆσθαι καὶ τὸν σοφίας μὴ ἐπιθολοῦν κρατῆρα, ὃς ἐν ταῖς ἀοίνοις ψυχαῖς ἕστηκεν, οὐδὲ χλαῖνα θάλψει αὐτόν, οὐδὲ ἔριον, ὃ ἀπ' ἐμψύχου ἐπέχθη, ὑπόδημα δὲ αὐτοῖς βύβλου δίδωμι καὶ καθεύδειν ὡς ἔτυχε, κἂν ἀφροδισίων ἡττηθέντας αἴσθωμαι, βάραθρά ἐστί μοι, καθ' ὧν σοφίας ὀπαδὸς δίκη φέρει τε αὐτοὺς καὶ ὠθεῖ, χαλεπὴ δ' οὕτως ἐγὼ τοῖς τἀμὰ αἱρουμένοις, ὡς καὶ δεσμὰ γλώττης ἐπ' αὐτοὺς ἔχειν. ἃ δ' ἐστί σοι καρτερήσαντι ταῦτα, ἐμοῦ μάθε: σωφροσύνη μὲν καὶ δικαιοσύνη αὐτόθεν, ζηλωτὸν δὲ ἡγεῖσθαι μηδένα τυράννοις τε φοβερὸν εἶναι μᾶλλον ἢ ὑπ' αὐτοῖς κεῖσθαι, θεοῖς τε ἡδίω φαίνεσθαι μικρὰ θύσαντα ἢ οἱ προχέοντες αὐτοῖς τὸ τῶν ταύρων αἷμα, καθαρῷ δὲ ὄντι σοι καὶ προγιγνώσκειν δώσω καὶ τοὺς ὀφθαλμοὺς οὕτω τι ἐμπλήσω ἀκτῖνος, ὡς διαγιγνώσκειν μὲν θεόν, γιγνώσκειν δὲ ἥρωα, σκιοειδῆ δ' ἐλέγχειν φαντάσματα, ὅτε ψεύδοιντο εἴδη ἀνθρώπων.” ἥδε μοι βίου αἵρεσις, ὦ σοφοὶ Αἰγυπτίων, ἣν ὑγιῶς τε καὶ κατὰ τὸν Πυθαγόραν ἑλόμενος οὔτε ἐψευσάμην οὔτε ἐψεύσθην, ἐγενόμην μὲν γὰρ ἃ χρὴ τὸν φιλοσοφήσαντα, φιλοσοφοῦντι δὲ ὁπόσα δώσειν ἔφη, πάντ' ἔχω. ἐφιλοσόφησα γὰρ ὑπὲρ γενέσεως τῆς τέχνης καὶ ὁπόθεν αὐτῆς αἱ ἀρχαί, καί μοι ἔδοξεν ἀνδρῶν εἶναι περιττῶν τὰ θεῖα ψυχήν τε ἄριστα ἐσκεμμένων, ἧς τὸ ἀθάνατόν τε καὶ ἀγέννητον πηγαὶ γενέσεως. ̓Αθηναίοις μὲν οὖν οὐ πάνυ προσήκων ἐφαίνετό μοι ὅδε ὁ λόγος, τὸν γὰρ Πλάτωνος λόγον, ὃν θεσπεσίως ἐκεῖ καὶ πανσόφως ὑπὲρ ψυχῆς ἀνεφθέγξατο, αὐτοὶ διέβαλλον ἐναντίας ταύτῃ καὶ οὐκ ἀληθεῖς δόξας ὑπὲρ ψυχῆς προσέμενοι, ἔδει δὲ σκοπεῖν, τίς μὲν εἴη πόλις, ποίων δὲ ἀνδρῶν ἔθνος, παρ' οἷς οὐχ ὁ μέν τίς, ὁ δὲ οὔ, πᾶσα δὲ ἡλικία ταὐτὸν ὑπὲρ ψυχῆς φθέγγοιτο κἀγὼ μὲν νεότητός τε οὕτως ἀγούσης καὶ τοῦ μήπω ξυνιέναι πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἔβλεψα, ἐπειδὴ πλεῖστα ἐλέγεσθε ὑπερφυῶς εἰδέναι, καὶ πρὸς τὸν διδάσκαλον τὸν ἐμαυτοῦ διῄειν ταῦτα, ὁ δὲ ἐφιστάς με “εἰ τῶν ἐρώντων” εἶπεν “ἐτύγχανες ὢν ἢ τὴν ἡλικίαν ἐχόντων τοῦ ἐρᾶν, εἶτα μειρακίῳ καλῷ ἐντυχὼν καὶ ἀγασθεὶς αὐτὸ τῆς ὥρας σὺ δὲ καὶ ὅτου εἴη παῖς ἐζήτεις, ἦν δὲ ὁ μὲν ἱπποτρόφου καὶ στρατηγοῦ πατρὸς καὶ χορηγοὶ οἱ πάπποι, σὺ δ' αὐτὸν τριηράρχου τινὸς ἢ φυλάρχου ἐκάλεις, ἆρά γ' ἂν οἴει προσάγεσθαι τὰ παιδικὰ τούτοις, ἢ κἂν ἀηδὴς δόξαι μὴ πατρόθεν ὀνομάζων τὸ μειράκιον, ἀλλ' ἀπ' ἐκφύλου σπορᾶς καὶ νόθου; σοφίας οὖν ἐρῶν, ἣν ̓Ινδοὶ εὗρον, οὐκ ἀπὸ τῶν φύσει πατέρων ὀνομάζεις αὐτήν, ἀλλ' ἀπὸ τῶν θέσει καὶ δίδως τι μεῖζον Αἰγυπτίοις, ἢ εἰ πάλιν αὐτοῖς, ὡς αὐτοὶ ᾅδουσι, μέλιτι ξυγκεκραμένος ἀναβαίη ὁ Νεῖλος; ταῦτά με πρὸ ὑμῶν ἐπ' ̓Ινδοὺς ἔτρεψεν ἐνθυμηθέντα περὶ αὐτῶν, ὡς λεπτότεροι μὲν τὴν ξύνεσιν οἱ τοιοίδε ἄνθρωποι καθαρωτέραις ὁμιλοῦντες ἀκτῖσιν, ἀληθέστεροι δὲ τὰς περὶ φύσεώς τε καὶ θεῶν δόξας, ἅτε ἀγχίθεοι καὶ πρὸς ἀρχαῖς τῆς ζῳογόνου καὶ θερμῆς οὐσίας οἰκοῦντες: ἐντυχών τε αὐτοῖς ἔπαθόν τι πρὸς τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν τῶν ἀνδρῶν, ὁποῖον λέγονται πρὸς τὴν Αἰσχύλου σοφίαν παθεῖν ̓Αθηναῖοι: ποιητὴς μὲν γὰρ οὗτος τραγῳδίας ἐγένετο, τὴν τέχνην δὲ ὁρῶν ἀκατάσκευόν τε καὶ μήπω κεκοσμημένην εἰ μὲν ξυνέστειλε τοὺς χοροὺς ἀποτάδην ὄντας, ἢ τὰς τῶν ὑποκριτῶν ἀντιλέξεις εὗρε παραιτησάμενος τὸ τῶν μονῳδιῶν μῆκος, ἢ τὸ ὑπὸ σκηνῆς ἀποθνήσκειν ἐπενόησεν, ὡς μὴ ἐν φανερῷ σφάττοι, σοφίας μὲν μηδὲ ταῦτα ἀπηλλάχθω, δοκείτω δὲ κἂν ἑτέρῳ παρασχεῖν ἔννοιαν ἧττον δεξιῷ τὴν ποίησιν, ὁ δ' ἐνθυμηθεὶς μὲν ἑαυτόν, ὡς ἐπάξιον τοῦ τραγῳδίαν ποιεῖν φθέγγοιτο, ἐνθυμηθεὶς δὲ καὶ τὴν τέχνην, ὡς προσφυᾶ τῷ μεγαλείῳ μᾶλλον ἢ τῷ καταβεβλημένῳ τε καὶ ὑπὸ πόδα, σκευοποιίας μὲν ἥψατο εἰκασμένης τοῖς τῶν ἡρώων εἴδεσιν, ὀκρίβαντος δὲ τοὺς ὑποκριτὰς ἐνεβίβασεν, ὡς ἴσα ἐκείνοις βαίνοιεν, ἐσθήμασί τε πρῶτος ἐκόσμησεν, ἃ πρόσφορον ἥρωσί τε καὶ ἡρωίσιν ἠσθῆσθαι, ὅθεν ̓Αθηναῖοι πατέρα μὲν αὐτὸν τῆς τραγῳδίας ἡγοῦντο, ἐκάλουν δὲ καὶ τεθνεῶτα ἐς Διονύσια, τὰ γὰρ τοῦ Αἰσχύλου ψηφισαμένων ἀνεδιδάσκετο καὶ ἐνίκα ἐκ καινῆς: καίτοι τραγῳδίας μὲν εὖ κεκοσμημένης ὀλίγη χάρις, εὐφραίνει γὰρ ἐν σμικρῷ τῆς ἡμέρας, ὥσπερ ἡ τῶν Διονυσίων ὥρα, φιλοσοφίας δὲ ξυγκειμένης μέν, ὡς Πυθαγόρας ἐδικαίωσεν, ὑποθειαζούσης δέ, ὡς πρὸ Πυθαγόρου ̓Ινδοί, οὐκ ἐς βραχὺν χρόνον ἡ χάρις, ἀλλ' ἐς ἄπειρόν τε καὶ ἀριθμοῦ πλείω. οὐ δὴ ἀπεικός τι παθεῖν μοι δοκῶ φιλοσοφίας ἡττηθεὶς εὖ κεκοσμημένης, ἣν ἐς τὸ πρόσφορον ̓Ινδοὶ στείλαντες ἐφ' ὑψηλῆς τε καὶ θείας μηχανῆς ἐκκυκλοῦσιν: ὡς δὲ ἐν δίκῃ μὲν ἠγάσθην αὐτούς, ἐν δίκῃ δὲ ἡγοῦμαι σοφούς τε καὶ μακαρίους, ὥρα μανθάνειν: εἶδον ἄνδρας οἰκοῦντας ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς καὶ οὐκ ἐπ' αὐτῆς καὶ ἀτειχίστως τετειχισμένους καὶ οὐδὲν κεκτημένους ἢ τὰ πάντων. εἰ δ' αἰνιγμάτων ἅπτομαι, σοφία Πυθαγόρου ξυγχωρεῖ ταῦτα, παρέδωκε γὰρ καὶ τὸ αἰνίττειν διδάσκαλον εὑρὼν σιωπῆς λόγον: σοφίας δὲ ταύτης ἐγένεσθε μὲν καὶ αὐτοὶ Πυθαγόρᾳ ξύμβουλοι χρόνον, ὃν τὰ ̓Ινδῶν ἐπῃνεῖτε, ̓Ινδοὶ τὸ ἀρχαῖον πάλαι ὄντες: ἐπεὶ δ' αἰδοῖ τοῦ λόγου, δι' ὃν ἐκ μηνιμάτων τῆς γῆς ἀφίκεσθε δεῦρο, ἕτεροι μᾶλλον ἐβούλεσθε δοκεῖν ἢ Αἰθίοπες οἱ ἀπὸ ̓Ινδῶν ἥκοντες, πάντα ὑμῖν ἐς τοῦτο ἐδρᾶτο: ὅθεν ἐγυμνώθητε μὲν σκευῆς, ὁπόση ἐκεῖθεν, ὥσπερ ξυναποδυόμενοι τὸ Αἰθίοπες εἶναι, θεοὺς δὲ θεραπεύειν ἐψηφίσασθε τὸν Αἰγύπτιον μᾶλλον ἢ τὸν ὑμέτερον τρόπον, ἐς λόγους τε οὐκ ἐπιτηδείους ὑπὲρ ̓Ινδῶν κατέστητε, ὥσπερ οὐκ αὐτοὶ διαβεβλημένοι τῷ ἀφ' οἵων διαβεβλῆσθαι ἥκειν, καὶ οὐδὲ μετερρύθμισθέ πώ γε τοῦτο, οἳ καὶ τήμερον ἐπίδειξιν αὐτοῦ πεποίησθε φιλολοίδορόν τε καὶ ἰαμβώδη, χρηστὸν οὐδὲν ἐπιτηδεύειν ̓Ινδοὺς φάσκοντες, ἀλλ' ἢ ἐκπλήξεις καὶ ἀγωγάς, καὶ τὰς μὲν ὀφθαλμῶν, τὰς δὲ ὤτων, σοφίαν δὲ οὔπω ἐμὴν εἰδότες ἀναίσθητοι φαίνεσθε τῆς ἐπ' αὐτῇ δόξης, ἐγὼ δ' ὑπὲρ ἐμαυτοῦ μὲν λέξω οὐδέν, εἴην γάρ, ὅ με ̓Ινδοὶ ἡγοῦνται, ̓Ινδῶν δὲ οὐ ξυγχωρῶ ἅπτεσθαι. ἀλλ' εἰ μέν τις ὑγιῶς καὶ ὑμᾶς ἔχει σοφία ̔Ιμεραίου ἀνδρός, ὃς ᾅδων ἐς τὴν ̔Ελένην ἐναντίον τῷ προτέρῳ λόγῳ παλινῳδίαν αὐτὸν ἐκάλεσεν οὐκ ἔστιν ἔτυμος ὁ λόγος οὗτος ἤδη καὶ αὐτοὺς ὥρα λέγειν, ἀμείνω τῆς νῦν παρεστηκυίας μεταλαβόντας περὶ αὐτῶν δόξαν. εἰ δὲ καὶ ἄμουσοι πρὸς παλινῳδίαν ὑμεῖς, ἀλλὰ φείδεσθαί γε χρὴ ἀνδρῶν, οὓς ἀξιοῦντες θεοὶ τῶν αὐτοῖς ὄντων οὐδὲ ἑαυτοὺς ἀπαξιοῦσιν ὧν ἐκεῖνοι πέπανται. διῆλθές τινα, Θεσπεσίων, καὶ περὶ τῆς Πυθοῦς λόγον ὡς ἁπλῶς τε καὶ ἀκατασκεύως χρώσης, καὶ παράδειγμα ἐγένετό σοι τοῦ λόγου νεὼς κηροῦ καὶ πτερῶν ξυντεθείς: ἐμοὶ δὲ ἀκατάσκευα μὲν δοκεῖ οὐδὲ ταῦτα, τὸ γὰρ ξυμφέρετε πτερά τ' οἰωνοὶ κηρόν τε μέλιτται κατασκευαζομένου ἦν οἶκον καὶ οἴκου σχῆμα, ὁ δ', οἶμαι, μικρὰ ταῦτα ἡγούμενος καὶ τῆς ἑαυτοῦ σοφίας ἥττω καὶ ἄλλου ἐδεήθη νεὼ καὶ ἄλλου καὶ μεγάλων ἤδη καὶ ἑκατομπέδων, ἑνὸς δὲ αὐτῶν καὶ χρυσᾶς ἴυγγας ἀνάψαι λέγεται Σειρήνων τινὰ ἐπεχούσας πειθώ, ξυνελέξατό τε τὰ εὐδοκιμώτατα τῶν ἀναθημάτων ἐς τὴν Πυθὼ κόσμου ἕνεκα, καὶ οὔτ' ἀγαλματοποιίαν ἀπήλασεν ἀπάγουσαν αὐτῷ κολοσσοὺς ἐς τὸ ἱερὸν τοὺς μὲν θεῶν, τοὺς δὲ ἀνθρώπων, τοὺς δὲ ἵππων τε καὶ ταύρων καὶ ἑτέρων ζῴων οὔτε Γλαῦκον μετὰ τοῦ ὑποκρατηριδίου ἥκοντα, οὔτε τὴν ἁλισκομένην ̓Ιλίου ἀκρόπολιν, ἣν Πολύγνωτος ἐκεῖ γράφει. οὐ γὰρ δὴ τὸν χρυσόν γε τὸν Λύδιον καλλώπισμα τῆς Πυθοῦς ἡγεῖτο, ἀλλ' ἐκεῖνον μὲν ὑπὲρ τῶν ̔Ελλήνων ἐσήγετο ἐνδεικνύμενος, οἶμαι, αὐτοῖς τὸν τῶν βαρβάρων πλοῦτον, ἵνα γλίχοιντο ἐκείνου μᾶλλον ἢ τοῦ διαπορθεῖν τὰ ἀλλήλων, τὸν δὲ δὴ ̔́Ελληνά τε καὶ προσφυᾶ τῇ ἑαυτοῦ σοφίᾳ τρόπον κατεσκευάζετο καὶ ἠγλάιζε τούτῳ τὴν Πυθώ. ἡγοῦμαι δὲ αὐτὸν κόσμου ἕνεκα καὶ ἐς μέτρα ἐμβιβάζειν τοὺς χρησμούς. εἰ γὰρ μὴ τοῦτο ἐπεδείκνυτο, τοιάσδε ἂν τὰς ἀποκρίσεις ἐποιεῖτο: δρᾶ τὸ δεῖνα ἢ μὴ δρᾶ, καὶ ἴθι ἢ μὴ ἴθι, καὶ ποιοῦ ξυμμάχους ἢ μὴ ποιοῦ, βραχέα γάρ που ταῦτα, ἤ, ὥς φατε ὑμεῖς, γυμνά, ὁ δ' ἵνα μεγαλορρήμων τε φαίνοιτο καὶ ἡδίων τοῖς ἐρωτῶσι, ποιητικὴν ἡρμόσατο, καὶ οὐκ ἀξιοῖ εἶναι, ὅ τι μὴ οἶδεν, ἀλλὰ καὶ τὴν ψάμμον εἰδέναι φησίν, ὁπόση, ἀριθμήσας αὐτήν, καὶ τὰ τῆς θαλάττης μέτρα ξυνειληφέναι πάντα. ἢ καὶ ταῦτα τερατολογίᾳ προσγράφεις, ἐπειδὴ σοβαρῶς αὐτὰ ὁ ̓Απόλλων καὶ ξὺν φρονήματι ὀρθῷ φράζει; εἰ δὲ μὴ ἀχθέσῃ, Θεσπεσίων, τῷ λόγῳ, γρᾶες ἀνημμέναι κόσκινα φοιτῶσιν ἐπὶ ποιμένας, ὅτε δὲ καὶ βουκόλους, ἰώμεναι τὰ νοσοῦντα τῶν θρεμμάτων μαντικῇ, ὥς φασιν, ἀξιοῦσι δὲ σοφαὶ ὀνομάζεσθαι καὶ σοφώτεραι ἢ οἱ ἀτεχνῶς μάντεις: τοῦτό μοι καὶ ὑμεῖς παρὰ τὴν ̓Ινδῶν σοφίαν φαίνεσθε, οἱ μὲν γὰρ θεῖοί τέ εἰσι καὶ κεκόσμηνται κατὰ τὴν Πυθίαν, ὑμεῖς δέ — ἀλλ' οὐδὲν εἰρήσεται περαιτέρω, εὐφημία γὰρ φίλη μὲν ἐμοί, φίλη δὲ ̓Ινδοῖς, ἣν ἀσπαζοίμην ὡς ὀπαδὸν ἅμα καὶ ἡγεμόνα τῆς γλώττης, τὰ μὲν ἐμαυτῷ δυνατὰ θηρεύων ξὺν ἐπαίνῳ τε αὐτῶν καὶ ἔρωτι, ὅ τι δὲ μὴ ἐφικτὸν εἴη μοι, καταλείπων αὐτὸ ἄχραντον ψόγου. σὺ δὲ ̔Ομήρου μὲν ἐν Κυκλωπίᾳ ἀκούων, ὡς ἡ γῆ τοὺς ἀγριωτάτους καὶ ἀνομωτάτους ἄσπορος καὶ ἀνήροτος ἑστιᾷ, χαίρεις τῷ λόγῳ, κἂν ̓Ηδωνοί τινες ἢ Λυδοὶ βακχεύωσιν, οὐκ ἀπιστεῖς, ὡς γάλακτος αὐτοῖς καὶ οἴνου πηγὰς δώσει καὶ ποτιεῖ τούτους, τοὺς δὲ σοφίας ἁπάσης βάκχους ἀφαιρήσῃ δῶρα αὐτόματα παρὰ τῆς γῆς ἥκοντα; τρίποδες δὲ αὐτόματοι καὶ ἐς τὰ ξυμπόσια τῶν θεῶν φοιτῶσι, καὶ ὁ ̓́Αρης ἀμαθής περ ὢν καὶ ἐχθρὸς οὔπω τὸν ̔́Ηφαιστον ἐπ' αὐτοῖς γέγραπται, οὐδ' ἔστιν, ὡς ἤκουσάν ποτε οἱ θεοὶ τοιαύτης γραφῆς: ἀδικεῖς, ̔́Ηφαιστε, κοσμῶν τὸ ξυμπόσιον τῶν θεῶν καὶ περιιστὰς αὐτῷ θαύματα, οὐδὲ ἐπὶ ταῖς δμωαῖς αἰτίαν ποτὲ ἔσχε ταῖς χρυσαῖς ὡς παραφθείρων τὰς ὕλας, ἐπειδὴ τὸν χρυσὸν ἔμπνουν ἐποίει, κόσμου γὰρ ἐπιμελήσεται τέχνη πᾶσα, ὅτι καὶ αὐτὸ τὸ εἶναι τέχνας ὑπὲρ κόσμου εὕρηται. ἀνυποδησία δὲ καὶ τρίβων καὶ πήραν ἀνῆφθαι κόσμου εὕρημα: καὶ γὰρ τὸ γυμνοῦσθαι, καθάπερ ὑμεῖς, ἔοικε μὲν ἀκατασκεύῳ τε καὶ λιτῷ σχήματι, ἐπιτετήδευται δὲ ὑπὲρ κόσμου καὶ οὐδὲ ἄπεστιν αὐτοῦ τὸ ἑτέρῳ φασὶ τύφῳ. τὰ δὲ ̔Ηλίου τε καὶ ̓Ινδῶν πάτρια καὶ ὅπῃ χαίρει θεραπευόμενος ἐχέτω τὸν αὐτῶν νόμον, θεοὶ μὲν γὰρ χθόνιοι βόθρους ἀσπάσονται καὶ τὰ ἐν κοίλῃ τῇ γῇ δρώμενα, ̔Ηλίου δὲ ἀὴρ ὄχημα, καὶ δεῖ τοὺς προσφόρως ᾀσομένους αὐτὸν ἀπὸ γῆς αἴρεσθαι καὶ ξυμμετεωροπολεῖν τῷ θεῷ: τοῦτο δὲ βούλονται μὲν πάντες, δύνανται δὲ ̓Ινδοὶ μόνοι.”" "
6.19 “ἐρώτα,” ἔφασαν “ἕπεται γάρ που ἐρωτήσει λόγος.” καὶ ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος “περὶ θεῶν” εἶπεν “ὑμᾶς ἐρήσομαι πρῶτον, τί μαθόντες ἄτοπα καὶ γελοῖα θεῶν εἴδη παραδεδώκατε τοῖς δεῦρο ἀνθρώποις πλὴν ὀλίγων: ὀλίγων γάρ; πάνυ μέντοι ὀλίγων, ἃ σοφῶς καὶ θεοειδῶς ἵδρυται, τὰ λοιπὰ δ' ὑμῶν ἱερὰ ζῴων ἀλόγων καὶ ἀδόξων τιμαὶ μᾶλλον ἢ θεῶν φαίνονται.” δυσχεράνας δὲ ὁ Θεσπεσίων “τὰ δὲ παρ' ὑμῖν” εἶπεν “ἀγάλματα πῶς ἱδρῦσθαι φήσεις;” “ὥς γε” ἔφη “κάλλιστόν τε καὶ θεοφιλέστατον δημιουργεῖν θεούς.” “τὸν Δία που λέγεις” εἶπε “τὸν ἐν τῇ ̓Ολυμπίᾳ καὶ τὸ τῆς ̓Αθηνᾶς ἕδος καὶ τὸ τῆς Κνιδίας τε καὶ τὸ τῆς ̓Αργείας καὶ ὁπόσα ὧδε καλὰ καὶ μεστὰ ὥρας.” “οὐ μόνον” ἔφη “ταῦτα, ἀλλὰ καὶ καθάπαξ τὴν μὲν παρὰ τοῖς ἄλλοις ἀγαλματοποιίαν ἅπτεσθαί φημι τοῦ προσήκοντος, ὑμᾶς δὲ καταγελᾶν τοῦ θείου μᾶλλον ἢ νομίζειν αὐτό.” “οἱ Φειδίαι δὲ” εἶπε:“καὶ οἱ Πραξιτέλεις μῶν ἀνελθόντες ἐς οὐρανὸν καὶ ἀπομαξάμενοι τὰ τῶν θεῶν εἴδη τέχνην αὐτὰ ἐποιοῦντο, ἢ ἕτερόν τι ἦν, ὃ ἐφίστη αὐτοὺς τῷ πλάττειν;” “ἕτερον” ἔφη “καὶ μεστόν γε σοφίας πρᾶγμα.” “ποῖον;” εἶπεν “οὐ γὰρ ἄν τι παρὰ τὴν μίμησιν εἴποις.” “φαντασία” ἔφη “ταῦτα εἰργάσατο σοφωτέρα μιμήσεως δημιουργός: μίμησις μὲν γὰρ δημιουργήσει, ὃ εἶδεν, φαντασία δὲ καὶ ὃ μὴ εἶδεν, ὑποθήσεται γὰρ αὐτὸ πρὸς τὴν ἀναφορὰν τοῦ ὄντος, καὶ μίμησιν μὲν πολλάκις ἐκκρούει ἔκπληξις, φαντασίαν δὲ οὐδέν, χωρεῖ γὰρ ἀνέκπληκτος πρὸς ὃ αὐτὴ ὑπέθετο. δεῖ δέ που Διὸς μὲν ἐνθυμηθέντα εἶδος ὁρᾶν αὐτὸν ξὺν οὐρανῷ καὶ ὥραις καὶ ἄστροις, ὥσπερ ὁ Φειδίας τότε ὥρμησεν, ̓Αθηνᾶν δὲ δημιουργήσειν μέλλοντα στρατόπεδα ἐννοεῖν καὶ μῆτιν καὶ τέχνας καὶ ὡς Διὸς αὐτοῦ ἀνέθορεν. εἰ δὲ ἱέρακα ἢ γλαῦκα ἢ λύκον ἢ κύνα ἐργασάμενος ἐς τὰ ἱερὰ φέροις ἀντὶ ̔Ερμοῦ τε καὶ ̓Αθηνᾶς καὶ ̓Απόλλωνος, τὰ μὲν θηρία καὶ τὰ ὄρνεα ζηλωτὰ δόξει τῶν εἰκόνων, οἱ δὲ θεοὶ παραπολὺ τῆς αὑτῶν δόξης ἑστήξουσιν.” “ἔοικας” εἶπεν “ἀβασανίστως ἐξετάζειν τὰ ἡμέτερα: σοφὸν γάρ, εἴπερ τι Αἰγυπτίων, καὶ τὸ μὴ θρασύνεσθαι ἐς τὰ τῶν θεῶν εἴδη, ξυμβολικὰ δὲ αὐτὰ ποιεῖσθαι καὶ ὑπονοούμενα, καὶ γὰρ ἂν καὶ σεμνότερα οὕτω φαίνοιτο.” γελάσας οὖν ὁ ̓Απολλώνιος “ὦ ἄνθρωποι,” ἔφη “μεγάλα ὑμῖν ἀπολέλαυται τῆς Αἰγυπτίων τε καὶ Αἰθιόπων σοφίας, εἰ σεμνότερον ὑμῶν καὶ θεοειδέστερον κύων δόξει καὶ ἶβις καὶ τράγος, ταῦτα γὰρ Θεσπεσίωνος ἀκούω τοῦ σοφοῦ. σεμνὸν δὲ δὴ ἢ ἔμφοβον τί ἐν τούτοις; τοὺς γὰρ ἐπιόρκους καὶ τοὺς ἱεροσύλους καὶ τὰ βωμολόχα ἔθνη καταφρονεῖν τῶν τοιούτων ἱερῶν εἰκὸς μᾶλλον ἢ δεδιέναι αὐτά, εἰ δὲ σεμνότερα ταῦτα ὑπονοούμενα, πολλῷ σεμνότερον ἂν ἔπραττον οἱ θεοὶ κατ' Αἴγυπτον, εἰ μὴ ἵδρυτό τι αὐτῶν ἄγαλμα, ἀλλ' ἕτερον τρόπον σοφώτερόν τε καὶ ἀπορρητότερον τῇ θεολογίᾳ ἐχρῆσθε: ἦν γάρ που νεὼς μὲν αὐτοῖς ἐξοικοδομῆσαι καὶ βωμοὺς ὁρίζειν καὶ ἃ χρὴ θύειν καὶ ἃ μὴ χρὴ καὶ ὁπηνίκα καὶ ἐφ' ὅσον καὶ ὅ τι λέγοντας ἢ δρῶντας, ἄγαλμα δὲ μὴ ἐσφέρειν, ἀλλὰ τὰ εἴδη τῶν θεῶν καταλείπειν τοῖς τὰ ἱερὰ ἐσφοιτῶσιν, ἀναγράφει γάρ τι ἡ γνώμη καὶ ἀνατυποῦται δημιουργίας κρεῖττον, ὑμεῖς δὲ ἀφῄρησθε τοὺς θεοὺς καὶ τὸ ὁρᾶσθαι καλῶς καὶ τὸ ὑπονοεῖσθαι.” πρὸς ταῦτα ὁ Θεσπεσίων, “ἐγένετό τις” ἔφη “Σωκράτης ̓Αθηναῖος ἀνόητος, ὥσπερ ἡμεῖς, γέρων, ὃς τὸν κύνα καὶ τὸν χῆνα καὶ τὴν πλάτανον θεούς τε ἡγεῖτο καὶ ὤμνυ.” “οὐκ ἀνόητος,” εἶπεν “ἀλλὰ θεῖος καὶ ἀτεχνῶς σοφός, ὤμνυ γὰρ ταῦτα οὐχ' ὡς θεούς, ἀλλ' ἵνα μὴ θεοὺς ὀμνύοι.”"" None
2.22 While he was waiting in the Temple, — and it took a long time for the king to be informed that strangers had arrived, — Apollonius said: O Damis, is there such a thing as painting? Why yes, he answered, if there be any such thing as truth. And what does this art do? It mixes together, replied Damis, all the colors there are, blue with green, and white with black, and red with yellow. And for what reason, said the other, does it mix these? For it isn't merely to get a color, like dyed wax. It is, said Damis, for the sake of imitation, and to get a likeness of a dog, or a horse, or a man, or a ship, or of anything else under the sun; and what is more, you see the sun himself represented, sometimes borne upon a four horse car, as he is said to be seen here, and sometimes again traversing the heaven with his torch, in case you are depicting the ether and the home of the gods. Then, O Damis, painting is imitation? And what else could it be? said he: for if it did not effect that, it would voted to be an idle playing with colors. And, said the other, the things which are seen in heaven, whenever the clouds are torn away from one another, I mean the centaurs and stag-antelopes, yes, and the wolves too, and the horses, what have you got to say about them? Are we not to regard them as works of imitation? It would seem so, he replied. Then, Damis, God is a painter, and has left his winged chariot, upon which he travels, as he disposes of affairs human and divine, and he sits down on these occasions to amuse himself by drawing these pictures, as children make figures in the sand. Damis blushed, for he felt that his argument was reduced to such an absurdity. But Apollonius, on his side, had no wish to humiliate him, for he was not unfeeling in his refutations of people, and said: But I am sure, Damis, you did not mean that; rather that these figures flit through the heaven not only without meaning, but, so far as providence is concerned, by mere chance; while we who by nature are prone to imitation rearrange and create them in these regular figures. We may, he said, rather consider this to be the case, O Apollonius, for it is more probable, and a much sounder idea. Then, O Damis, the mimetic art is twofold, and we may regard the one kind as an employment of the hands and mind in producing imitations, and declare that this is painting, whereas the other kind consists in making likenesses with the mind alone. Not twofold, replied Damis, for we ought to regard the former as the more perfect and more complete kind, being anyhow painting and a faculty of making likenesses with the help both of mind and hand; but we must regard the other kind as a department that, since its possessor perceives and imitates with the mind, without having the delineative faculty, and would never use his hand in depicting its objects. Then, said Apollonius, you mean, Damis, that the hand may be disabled by a blow or by disease? No, he answered, but it is disabled, because it has never handled pencil nor any instrument or color, and has never learned to draw. Then, said the other, we are both of us, Damis, agreed that man owes his mimetic faculty to nature, but his power of painting to art. And the same would appear to be true of plastic art. But, methinks, you would not confine painting itself to the mere use of colors, for a single color was often found sufficient for this purpose by our older painters; and as the art advanced, it employed four, and later, yet more; but we must also concede the name of a painting to an outline drawn without any color at all, and composed merely of shadow and light. For in such designs we see a resemblance, we see form and expression, and modesty and bravery, although they are altogether devoid of color; and neither blood is represented, nor the color of a man's hair or beard; nevertheless these compositions in monochrome are likenesses of people either tawny or white, and if we drew one of these Indians with a pencil without color, yet he would be known for a negro, for his flat nose, and his stiff curling locks and prominent jaw, and a certain gleam about his eyes, would give a black look to the picture and depict an Indian to the eyes of all those who have intelligence. And for this reason I should say that those who look at works of painting and drawing require a mimetic faculty; for no one could appreciate or admire a picture of a horse or of a bull, unless he had formed an idea of the picture represented. Nor again could one admire a picture of Ajax, by the painter Timomachus, which represents him in a state of madness, unless one had conceived in one's mind first an idea or notion of Ajax, and had entertained the probability that after killing the flocks in Troy he would sit down exhausted and even meditate suicide. But these elaborate works of Porus we cannot, Damis, regard as works of brass founding alone, for they are cast in brass; so let us regard them as the chefs d'oeuvre of a man who is both painter and brass-founder at once, and as similar to the work of Hephaestus upon the shield of Achilles, as revealed in Homer. For they are crowded together in that work too men slaying and slain, and you would say that the earth was stained with gore, though it is made of brass." 4.7 And remarking the zeal with which the people of Smyrna devoted themselves to all sorts of compositions, he encouraged them and increased their zeal, and urged them to take pride rather in themselves than in the beauty of their city; for although they had the most beautiful of cities under the sun, and although they had a friendly sea at their doors, which held the springs of the zephyr, nevertheless, it was more pleasing for the city to be crowned with men than with porticos and pictures, or even with gold in excess of what they needed. For, he said, public edifices remain where they are, and are nowhere seen except in that particular part of the earth where they exist, but good men are conspicuous everywhere, and everywhere they utter their thoughts; and so they can magnify the city more to which they belong, in proportion to the numbers in which they are able to visit any part of the earth.And he said that cities which are beautiful in the same way as Smyrna was, resemble the statue of Zeus wrought in Olympia by Phidias; for there Zeus sits, just as it pleased the artist that he should, whereas men who visit all regions of the earth may be well compared with the Homeric Zeus, who is represented by Homer under many shapes, and is a more wonderful creation than the image made of ivory; for the latter is only to be seen upon earth, but the former is an ideal presence imagined everywhere in heaven.' "
4.28 And looking at the statue set up at Olympia, he said: Hail, O thou good Zeus, for thou art so good that thou dost impart thine own nature unto mankind. And he also gave them an account of the brazen statue of Milo and explained the attitude of this figure. For this Milo is seen standing on a disk with his two feet close together, and in his left hand he grasps a pomegranate, whole of his right hand the fingers are extended and pressed together as if to pass through a chink. Now among the people of Olympia and Arcadia the story told about this athlete is, that he was so inflexible that he could never be induced to leave the spot on which he stood; and they infer the grip of the clenched fingers from the way he grasps the pomegranate, and that they could never be separated from another, however much you struggled with any one of them, because the intervals between the extended fingers are very close; and they say that the fillet with which his head is bound is a symbol of temperance and sobriety. Apollonius while admitting that this account was wisely conceived, said that the truth was still wiser. In order that you may know, said he, the meaning of the statue of Milo, the people of Croton made this athlete a priest of Hera. As to the meaning then of this mitre, I need not explain it further than by reminding you that the hero was a priest. But the pomegranate is the only fruit which is grown in honor of Hera; and the disk beneath his feet means that the priest is standing on a small shield to offer his prayer to Hera; and this is also indicated by his right hand. As for the artist's rendering the fingers and feet, between which he has left no interval, that you may ascribe to the antique style of the sculpture." "
6.4 Under his guidance, they say, they went on to the sacred enclosure of Memnon, of whom Damis gives the following account. He says that he was the son of the Dawn, and that he did not meet his death in Troy, where indeed he never went; but that he died in Ethiopia after ruling the land for five generations. But his countrymen being the longest lived of men, still mourn him as a mere youth and deplore his untimely death. But the place in which his statue is set up resembles, they tell us, an ancient market-place, such as remain in cities that were long ago inhabited, and where we come on broken stumps and fragments of columns, and find traces of walls as well as seats and jambs of doors, and images of Hermes, some destroyed by the hand of man, others by that of time. Now this statue, says Damis, was turned towards the sunrise, and was that of a youth still unbearded; and it was made of a black stone, and the two feet were joined together after the style in which statues were made in the time of Daedalus; and the arms of the figure were perpendicular to the seat pressing upon it, for though the figure was still sitting it was represented in the very act of rising up. We hear much of this attitude of the statue, and of the expression of its eyes, and of how the lips seem about to speak; but they say that they had no opportunity of admiring these effects until they saw them realized; for when the sun's rays fell upon the statue, and this happened exactly at dawn, they could not restrain their admiration; for the lips spoke immediately the sun's ray touched them, and the eyes seemed to stand out and gleam against the light as do those of men who love to bask in the sun. Then they say they understood that the figure was of one in the act of rising and making obeisance to the sun, in the way those do who worship the powers above standing erect. They accordingly offered a sacrifice to the Sun of Ethiopia and to Memnon of the Dawn, for this the priests recommended them to do, explaining that one name was derived from the words signifying to burn and be warm 1 and the other from his mother. Having done this they set out upon camels for the home of the naked philosophers." "
6.11 When he ended, all turned their eyes upon Apollonius; his own followers knowing well that he would reply, while Thespesion's friends wondered what he could say in answer. But he, after praising the fluency and vigor of the Egyptian, merely said: Have you anything more to say? No, by Zeus, said the other, for I have said all I have to say. Then he asked afresh: And has not any one of the rest of the Egyptians anything to say? I am their spokesman, answered his antagonist, and you have heard them all. Apollonius accordingly paused for a minute and then, fixing his eyes, as it were, on the discourse he had heard, he spoke as follows: You have very well described and in a sound philosophic spirit the choice which Prodicus declares Heracles to have made as a young man; but, ye wise men of the Egyptians, it does not apply in the least to myself. For I am not come here to ask your advice about how to live, insomuch as I long ago made choice of the life which seemed best to myself; and as I am older than any of you, except Thespesion, I myself am better qualified, now I have got here, to advise you how to choose wisdom, if I did not find that you had already made the choice. Being, however, as old as I am, and so far advanced in wisdom as I am, I shall not hesitate as it were to make you the auditors of my life and motives, and teach you that I rightly chose this life of mine, than which no better one has ever suggested itself to me. For I discerned a certain sublimity in the discipline of Pythagoras, and how a certain secret wisdom enabled him to know, not only who he was himself, but also who he had been; and I saw that he approached the altars in purity, and suffered not his belly to be polluted by partaking of the flesh of animals and that he kept his body pure of all garments woven of dead animal refuse; and that he was the first of mankind to restrain his tongue, inventing a discipline of silence described in the proverbial phrase, An ox sits upon it. I also saw that his philosophical system was in other respects oracular and true. So I ran to embrace his teachings, not choosing one form of wisdom rather than another of two presented me, as you, my excellent Thespesion, advise me to do. For philosophy marshaled before me her various points of view, investing them with the adornment proper to each and she commanded me to look upon them and make a sound choice. Now they were all possessed of an august and divine beauty; and some of them were of such dazzling brightness that you might well have closed your eyes. However I fixed my eyes firmly upon all of them, for they themselves encouraged me to do so by moving towards me, and telling me beforehand how much they would give me. Well, one of them professed that she would shower upon me a swarm of pleasures without any toil on my part and another that she would give me rest after toil; and a third that she would mingle mirth and merriment in my toil; and everywhere I had glimpses of pleasures and of unrestrained indulgence in the pleasures of the table; and it seemed that I had only to stretch out my hand to be rich, and that I needed not to set any bridle upon my eyes, but love and loose desire and such-like feelings were freely allowed me. One of them, however, boasted that she would restrain me from such things, but she was bold and abusive and in an unabashed manner elbowed all others aside; and I beheld the ineffable form of wisdom" "
6.19 Ask, they said, for you know question comes first and argument follows on it. It is about the gods that I would like to ask you a question first, namely, what induced you to impart, as your tradition, to the people of this country forms of the gods that are absurd and grotesque in all but a few cases? In a few cases, do I say? I would rather say that in very few are the gods' images fashioned in a wise and god-like manner, for the mass of your shrines seem to have been erected in honor rather of irrational and ignoble animals than of gods. Thespesion, resenting these remarks, said: And your own images in Greece, how are they fashioned? In the way, he replied, in which it is best and most reverent to construct images of the gods. I suppose you allude, said the other, to the statue of Zeus in Olympia, and to the image of Athena and to that of the Cnidian goddess and to that of the Argive goddess and to other images equally beautiful and full of charm? Not only to these, replied Apollonius, but without exception I maintain, that whereas in other lands statuary has scrupulously observed decency and fitness, you rather make ridicule of the gods than really believe in them. Your artists, then, like Phidias, said the other, and like Praxiteles, went up, I suppose, to heaven and took a copy of the forms of the gods, and then reproduced these by their art or was there any other influence which presided over and guided their molding? There was, said Apollonius, and an influence pregt with wisdom and genius. What was that? said the other, for I do not think you can adduce any except imitation. Imagination, said Apollonius, wrought these works, a wiser and subtler artist by far than imitation; for imitation can only create as its handiwork what it has seen, but imagination equally what it has not seen; for it will conceive of its ideal with reference to the reality, and imitation is often baffled by terror, but imagination by nothing; for it marches undismayed to the goal which it has itself laid down. When you entertain a notion of Zeus you must, I suppose, envisage him along with heaven and seasons and stars, as Phidias in his day endeavoured to do, and if you would fashion an image of Athena you must imagine in your mind armies and cunning, and handicrafts, and how she leapt out of Zeus himself. But if you make a hawk or an owl or a wolf or a dog, and put it in your temples instead of Hermes or Athena or Apollo, your animals and your birds may be esteemed and of much price as likenesses, but the gods will be very much lowered in their dignity. I think, said the other, that you criticize our religion very superficially; for if the Egyptians have any wisdom, they show it by their deep respect and reverence in the representation of the gods, and by the circumstance that they fashion their forms as symbols of a profound inner meaning, so as to enhance their solemnity and august character. Apollonius thereon merely laughed and said: My good friends, you have indeed greatly profited by the wisdom of Egypt and Ethiopia, if your dog and your ibis and your goat seem particularly august and god-like, for this is what I learn from Thespesion the sage.But what is there that is august or awe-inspiring in these images? Is it not likely that perjurers and temple-thieves and all the rabble of low jesters will despise such holy objects rather than dread them; and if they are to be held for the hidden meanings which they convey, surely the gods in Egypt would have met with much greater reverence, if no images of them had ever been set up at all, and if you had planned your theology along other lines wiser and more mysterious. For I imagine you might have built temples for them, and have fixed the altars and laid down rules about what to sacrifice and what not, and when and on what scale, and with what liturgies and rites, without introducing any image at all, but leaving it to those who frequented the temples to imagine the images of the gods; for the mind can more or less delineate and figure them to itself better than can any artist; but you have denied to the gods the privilege of beauty both of the outer eye and of an inner suggestion. Thespesion replied and said: There was a certain Athenian, called Socrates, a foolish old man like ourselves, who thought that the dog and the goose and the plane tree were gods and used to swear by them. He was not foolish, said Apollonius, but a divine and unfeignedly wise man; for he did not swear by these objects on the understanding that they were gods, but to save himself from swearing by the gods."" None
|74. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ars vivendi • Art (τέχνη) • art of life
Found in books: Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 25; Nijs (2023), The Epicurean Sage in the Ethics of Philodemus. 88
|75. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Artist, works of art • art
Found in books: Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 167; Lampe (2003), Christians at Rome in the First Two Centuries: From Paul to Valentinus, 426
|76. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares • Calydon (son of Ares) • art, Roman
Found in books: Borg (2008), Paideia: the World of the Second Sophistic: The World of the Second Sophistic, 108; Fletcher (2023), The Ass of the Gods: Apuleius' Golden Ass, the Onos Attributed to Lucian, and Graeco-Roman Metamorphosis Literature, 55, 56
|77. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares • Gods (Egyptian, Greek, and Roman), Ares • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • art • art and architecture, Roman appreciation
Found in books: Edelmann-Singer et al. (2020), Sceptic and Believer in Ancient Mediterranean Religions, 141; Harkins and Maier (2022), Experiencing the Shepherd of Hermas, 164; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 240; Trapp et al. (2016), In Praise of Asclepius: Selected Prose Hymns, 74, 77
|78. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares,, temple of • Art • Art, as aphrodisiac • Art, idol vs. image • Art, loss of pagan meaning for Christians and Jews • Art, nudity • Art, religious art manufactured by Jews and Christians • art • art expert, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica • lover, as viewer of erotic art • nature and art, in the Greek novels • visual arts
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 908; Cueva et al. (2018a), Re-Wiring the Ancient Novel. Volume 1: Greek Novels, 133; Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 185, 189; Pinheiro et al. (2015), Philosophy and the Ancient Novel, 116; Repath and Whitmarsh (2022), Reading Heliodorus' Aethiopica, 11, 13; Stephens and Winkler (1995), Ancient Greek Novels: The Fragments: Introduction, Text, Translation, and Commentary, 275
|79. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares • visual arts
Found in books: Bowie (2023), Essays on Ancient Greek Literature and Culture, Volume 2: Comedy, Herodotus, Hellenistic and Imperial Greek Poetry, the Novels. 581; Repath and Whitmarsh (2022), Reading Heliodorus' Aethiopica, 15
|80. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Moses, art • art, • art, Qumran • art, priests
Found in books: Brooke et al. (2008), Past Renewals: Interpretative Authority, Renewed Revelation, and the Quest for Perfection in Jewish Antiquity, 30, 31; Rubenstein(1995), The History of Sukkot in the Second Temple and Rabbinic Periods, 247
|5a ותניא ר\' יוסי אומר מעולם לא ירדה שכינה למטה ולא עלו משה ואליהו למרום שנאמר (תהלים קטו, טז) השמים שמים לה\' והארץ נתן לבני אדם,ולא ירדה שכינה למטה והכתיב (שמות יט, כ) וירד ה\' על הר סיני למעלה מעשרה טפחים והכתיב (זכריה יד, ד) ועמדו רגליו ביום ההוא על הר הזיתים למעלה מעשרה טפחים,ולא עלו משה ואליהו למרום והכתיב (שמות יט, ג) ומשה עלה אל האלהים למטה מעשרה והכתיב (מלכים ב ב, יא) ויעל אליהו בסערה השמים למטה מעשרה והכתיב (איוב כו, ט) מאחז פני כסא פרשז עליו עננו ואמר ר\' תנחום מלמד שפירש שדי מזיו שכינתו ועננו עליו למטה מעשרה,מכל מקום מאחז פני כסא כתיב אישתרבובי אישתרבב ליה כסא עד עשרה ונקט ביה,בשלמא ארון תשעה דכתיב (שמות כה, י) ועשו ארון עצי שטים אמתים וחצי ארכו ואמה וחצי רחבו ואמה וחצי קומתו אלא כפורת טפח מנלן דתני רבי חנינא כל הכלים שעשה משה נתנה בהן תורה מדת ארכן ומדת רחבן ומדת קומתן כפורת מדת ארכה ומדת רחבה נתנה מדת קומתה לא נתנה,צא ולמד מפחות שבכלים שנאמר (שמות כה, כה) ועשית לו מסגרת טפח סביב מה להלן טפח אף כאן טפח ונילף מכלים גופייהו תפשת מרובה לא תפשת תפשת מועט תפשת,ונילף מציץ דתניא ציץ דומה כמין טס של זהב ורחב ב\' אצבעות ומוקף מאזן לאזן וכתוב עליו ב\' שיטין יו"ד ה"א מלמעלה וקדש למ"ד מלמטה וא"ר אליעזר בר\' יוסי אני ראיתיו ברומי וכתוב עליו קדש לה\' בשיטה אחת,דנין כלי מכלי ואין דנין כלי מתכשיט,ונילף מזר דאמר מר זר משהו דנין כלי מכלי ואין דנין כלי מהכשר כלי אי הכי מסגרת נמי הכשר כלי הוא מסגרתו למטה היתה,הניחא למאן דאמר מסגרתו למטה היתה אלא למאן דאמר מסגרתו למעלה היתה מאי איכא למימר האי הכשר כלי הוא,אלא דנין דבר שנתנה בו תורה מדה מדבר שנתנה בו תורה מדה ואל יוכיחו ציץ וזר שלא נתנה בהן תורה מדה כלל,רב הונא אמר מהכא (ויקרא טז, יד) על פני הכפורת קדמה ואין פנים פחות מטפח,ואימא כאפי'' None||5a and it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yosei says: The Divine Presence never actually descended below, and Moses and Elijah never actually ascended to heaven on high, as it is stated: “The heavens are the heavens of the Lord, and the earth He gave to the children of man” (Psalms 115:16), indicating that these are two distinct domains. Apparently, from ten handbreadths upward is considered a separate domain. Consequently, any sukka that is not at least ten handbreadths high is not considered an independent domain and is unfit.,The Gemara asks: And did the Divine Presence never descend below ten handbreadths? But isn’t it written: “And God descended onto Mount Sinai” (Exodus 19:20)? rThe Gemara answers: Although God descended below, He always remained ten handbreadths above the ground. Since from ten handbreadths and above it is a separate domain, in fact, the Divine Presence never descended to the domain of this world. rThe Gemara asks: But isn’t it written: “And on that day His feet will stand on the Mount of Olives” (Zechariah 14:4)? The Gemara answers: Here, too, He will remain ten handbreadths above the ground.,The Gemara asks: And did Moses and Elijah never ascend to the heavens on high? But isn’t it written: “And Moses went up to God” (Exodus 19:3)? rThe Gemara answers: Nevertheless, he remained below ten handbreadths adjacent to the ground. rThe Gemara asks: But isn’t it written: “And Elijah went up by a whirlwind heavenward” (II Kings 2:11)? rThe Gemara answers: Here, too, it was below ten handbreadths. rThe Gemara asks: But isn’t it written: “He grasps the face of the throne, and spreads His cloud upon him” (Job 26:9)? And Rabbi Tanḥum said: This teaches that the Almighty spread of the radiance of His Divine Presence and of His cloud upon him. Apparently, Moses was in the cloud with God. rThe Gemara answers: Here, too, it was below ten handbreadths.,The Gemara asks: In any case: “He grasps the face of the throne,” is written, indicating that Moses took hold of the Throne of Glory. The Gemara rejects this: The throne was extended for him down to ten handbreadths and Moses grasped it; however, he remained below ten handbreadths. And since the Divine Presence speaks to Moses from above the Ark cover ten handbreadths above the ground, clearly a height of ten handbreadths is a distinct domain.,The Gemara wonders about the proof offered: Granted, the height of the Ark was nine handbreadths, as it is written: “And they shall make an Ark of acacia wood; two cubits and a half shall be its length, and a cubit and a half its breadth, and a cubit and a half its height” (Exodus 25:10), and one and a half cubits equal nine handbreadths. However, from where do we derive the fact that the thickness of the Ark cover was one handbreadth? The Torah never states its dimensions explicitly, as Rabbi Ḥanina taught: For all the vessels that Moses crafted for the Tabernacle, the Torah provided in their regard the dimension of their length, the dimension of their width, and the dimension of their height. However, for the Ark cover, the Torah provided the dimension of its length and the dimension of its width; but the Torah did not provide the dimension of its height.,The Gemara answers: Go out and learn from the smallest dimension mentioned in connection with any of the Tabernacle vessels, as it is stated with regard to the shewbread table: “And you shall make unto it a border of a handbreadth around” (Exodus 25:25). Just as there, the frame measures one handbreadth, so too, here, the thickness of the Ark cover measures a single handbreadth. The Gemara asks: And let us derive the thickness of the Ark cover from the vessels themselves, the smallest of which measures a cubit. The Gemara answers: If you grasped many, you did not grasp anything; if you grasped few, you grasped something. If there are two possible sources from which to derive the dimension of the Ark cover, then without conclusive proof one may not presume that the Torah intended to teach the larger dimension. Rather, the presumption is that the Torah is teaching the smaller dimension, which is included in the larger measure.,The Gemara asks: If so, let us derive the thickness of the Ark cover from the frontplate, which is even smaller than a handbreadth, as it is taught in a baraita: The frontplate is a type of plate made of gold that is two fingerbreadths wide and stretches from ear to ear. And written upon it are two lines: The letters yod, heh, vav, heh, the name of God, above; and the word kodesh, spelled kuf, dalet, shin, followed by the letter lamed, below. Together it spelled kodesh laHashem, meaning: Sacred to the Lord, with yod, heh, vav, heh written on the upper line in deference to the name of God. Rabbi Eliezer, son of Rabbi Yosei, said: I saw the frontplate in the emperor’s treasury in Rome, where it was taken together with the other Temple vessels when the Temple was destroyed, and upon it was written: Sacred to the Lord, on one line. Why not derive the thickness of the Ark cover from the frontplate and say that it was only two fingerbreadths?,The Gemara answers: One derives the dimension of a vessel from the dimension of a vessel, and one does not derive the dimension of a vessel from the dimension of an ornament. The frontplate is not one of the Tabernacle vessels but one of the ornaments of the High Priest.,The Gemara suggests: Let us derive the thickness of the Ark cover from the crown featured atop several of the Tabernacle vessels, as the Master said: This crown, with regard to which the Torah did not specify its dimensions, could be any size. The Gemara answers: One derives the dimension of a vessel from the dimension of a vessel, and one does not derive the dimension of a vessel from the dimension of the finish of a vessel that serves decorative purposes. The Gemara asks: If it is so that one does not derive the dimensions of a vessel from the dimensions of the finish of a vessel, then how can dimensions be derived from the border of the table, which is also the finish of a vessel and not an integral part of the table? The Gemara answers: The border of the table was below, between the legs of the table, and the tabletop rested upon it. As it supports the table, it is an integral part of the table and not merely decoration.,The Gemara asks: This works out well according to the one who said that its border was below the tabletop; however, according to the one who said that its border was above the tabletop, what can be said? According to that opinion, this border is indeed the finish of a vessel.,Rather, the thickness of the Ark cover must be derived from a different source. One derives the missing dimensions of an object for which the Torah provided part of its dimension, e.g., the Ark cover, for which the Torah provided the dimensions of length and width, from an object for which the Torah provided its dimension, e.g., the border of the table. And the frontplate and the crown, for which the Torah did not provide any dimension at all, and their dimensions were determined by the Sages, will not prove anything. It is certainly appropriate to derive the dimension of the thickness of the Ark cover from that which was stated clearly in the Torah.,Rav Huna said that the thickness of the Ark cover is derived from here: “Upon the face of penei the Ark cover on the east” (Leviticus 16:14), and there is no face panim of a person that measures less than one handbreadth.,The Gemara asks: And why say that the face in the verse is specifically the face of a person? Say that the Ark cover is like the face'' None|
|81. Origen, Against Celsus, 6.22 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares • Artagnes Heracles Ares astronomy, astrology, and astral lore
Found in books: Beck (2006), The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire: Mysteries of the Unconquered Sun, 114; Waldner et al. (2016), Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire, 210
6.22 After this, Celsus, desiring to exhibit his learning in his treatise against us, quotes also certain Persian mysteries, where he says: These things are obscurely hinted at in the accounts of the Persians, and especially in the mysteries of Mithras, which are celebrated among them. For in the latter there is a representation of the two heavenly revolutions - of the movement, viz., of the fixed stars, and of that which take place among the planets, and of the passage of the soul through these. The representation is of the following nature: There is a ladder with lofty gates, and on the top of it an eighth gate. The first gate consists of lead, the second of tin, the third of copper, the fourth of iron, the fifth of a mixture of metals, the sixth of silver, and the seventh of gold. The first gate they assign to Saturn, indicating by the 'lead' the slowness of this star; the second to Venus, comparing her to the splendour and softness of tin; the third to Jupiter, being firm and solid; the fourth to Mercury, for both Mercury and iron are fit to endure all things, and are money-making and laborious; the fifth to Mars, because, being composed of a mixture of metals, it is varied and unequal; the sixth, of silver, to the Moon; the seventh, of gold, to the Sun - thus imitating the different colors of the two latter. He next proceeds to examine the reason of the stars being arranged in this order, which is symbolized by the names of the rest of matter. Musical reasons, moreover, are added or quoted by the Persian theology; and to these, again, he strives to add a second explanation, connected also with musical considerations. But it seems to me, that to quote the language of Celsus upon these matters would be absurd, and similar to what he himself has done, when, in his accusations against Christians and Jews, he quoted, most inappropriately, not only the words of Plato; but, dissatisfied even with these, he adduced in addition the mysteries of the Persian Mithras, and the explanation of them. Now, whatever be the case with regard to these - whether the Persians and those who conduct the mysteries of Mithras give false or true accounts regarding them - why did he select these for quotation, rather than some of the other mysteries, with the explanation of them? For the mysteries of Mithras do not appear to be more famous among the Greeks than those of Eleusis, or than those in Ægina, where individuals are initiated in the rites of Hecate. But if he must introduce barbarian mysteries with their explanation, why not rather those of the Egyptians, which are highly regarded by many, or those of the Cappadocians regarding the Comanian Diana, or those of the Thracians, or even those of the Romans themselves, who initiate the noblest members of their senate? But if he deemed it inappropriate to institute a comparison with any of these, because they furnished no aid in the way of accusing Jews or Christians, why did it not also appear to him inappropriate to adduce the instance of the mysteries of Mithras? "" None
|82. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, idol vs. image • Art, imitation of models • Art, loss of pagan meaning for Christians and Jews • Art, religious art manufactured by Jews and Christians • art, early Christian • art, mosaics and ivory carving • art, sculpture in the round
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 907, 911, 924; Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 762
|83. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • theurgy (hieratic art) • theurgy and hieratic art (ἱερατικὴ τέχνη)
Found in books: Dillon and Timotin (2015), Platonic Theories of Prayer, 15, 16, 152, 170, 171, 176, 181; d'Hoine and Martijn (2017), All From One: A Guide to Proclus, 237
|84. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Art, artistic representation • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica
Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 331; Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 187
|85. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares • Artagnes Heracles Ares astronomy, astrology, and astral lore
Found in books: Beck (2006), The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire: Mysteries of the Unconquered Sun, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 185, 186, 212, 213; Waldner et al. (2016), Burial Rituals, Ideas of Afterlife, and the Individual in the Hellenistic World and the Roman Empire, 214
|86. Ammianus Marcellinus, History, 16.10.13-16.10.15 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Pliny the Elder, on ignorance of art • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • art and architecture, Roman appreciation • art, Roman imperial
Found in books: Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 35; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 263; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 104
16.10.13 So then he entered Rome, the home of empire and of every virtue, and when he had come to the Rostra, the most renowned forum of ancient dominion, he stood amazed; and on every side on which his eyes rested he was dazzled by the array of marvellous sights. He addressed the nobles in the senate-house and the populace from the tribunal, and being welcomed to the palace with manifold attentions, he enjoyed a longed-for pleasure; and on several occasions, when holding equestrian games, he took delight in the sallies of the commons, who were neither presumptuous nor regardless of their old-time freedom, while he himself also respectfully observed the due mean. 16.10.14 For he did not (as in the case of other cities) permit the contests to be terminated at his own discretion, but left them (as the custom is) to various chances. Then, as he surveyed the sections of the city and its suburbs, lying within the summits of the seven hills, along their slopes, or on level ground, he thought that whatever first met his gaze towered above all the rest: the sanctuaries of Tarpeian Jove so far surpassing as things divine excel those of earth; the baths built up to the measure of provinces; the huge bulk of the amphitheatre, strengthened by its framework of Tiburtine stone, Travertine. to whose top human eyesight barely ascends; the Pantheon like a rounded city-district, Regio here refers to one of the regions, or districts, into which the city was divided. vaulted over in lofty beauty; and the exalted heights which rise with platforms to which one may mount, and bear the likenesses of former emperors; The columns of Trajan, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. The platform at the top was reached by a stairway within the column. the Temple of the City, The double temple of Venus and Roma, built by Hadriian and dedicated in A.D. 135 the Forum of Peace, The Forum Pacis, or Vespasiani, was begun by Vespasian in A.D. 71, after the taking of Jerusalem, and dedicated in 75. It lay behind the basilica Aemilia. the Theatre of Pompey, Built in 55 B.C. in the Campus Martius. the Oleum, A building for musical performances, erected by Domitian, probably near his Stadium. the Stadium, The Stadium of Domitian in the Campus Martius, the shape and size of which is almost exactly preserved by the modern Piazza Navona. and amongst these the other adornments of the Eternal City. 16.10.15 But when he came to the Forum of Trajan, a construction unique under the heavens, as we believe, and admirable even in the uimous opinion of the gods, he stood fast in amazement, turning his attention to the gigantic complex about him, beggaring description and never again to be imitated by mortal men. Therefore abandoning all hope of attempting anything like it, he said that he would and could copy Trajan’s steed alone, which stands in the centre of the vestibule, carrying the emperor himself.'' None
|87. Augustine, On Christian Doctrine, 2.16.26, 2.18.28, 2.21-2.24, 2.27-2.28 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Artagnes Heracles Ares astronomy, astrology, and astral lore • Augustine, survey of ‘liberal arts’ in Book • music, liberal art of music (musica)
Found in books: Beck (2006), The Religion of the Mithras Cult in the Roman Empire: Mysteries of the Unconquered Sun, 168, 191; Esler (2000), The Early Christian World, 780; Pollmann and Vessey (2007), Augustine and the Disciplines: From Cassiciacum to Confessions, 129, 130, 177, 178
2.16.26 23. In the case of figurative signs, again, if ignorance of any of them should chance to bring the reader to a stand-still, their meaning is to be traced partly by the knowledge of languages, partly by the knowledge of things. The pool of Siloam, for example, where the man whose eyes our Lord had anointed with clay made out of spittle was commanded to wash, has a figurative significance, and undoubtedly conveys a secret sense; but yet if the evangelist had not interpreted that name, John 9:7 a meaning so important would lie unnoticed. And we cannot doubt that, in the same way, many Hebrew names which have not been interpreted by the writers of those books, would, if any one could interpret them, be of great value and service in solving the enigmas of Scripture. And a number of men skilled in that language have conferred no small benefit on posterity by explaining all these words without reference to their place in Scripture, and telling us what Adam means, what Eve, what Abraham, what Moses, and also the names of places, what Jerusalem signifies, or Sion, or Sinai, or Lebanon, or Jordan, and whatever other names in that language we are not acquainted with. And when these names have been investigated and explained, many figurative expressions in Scripture become clear. 24. Ignorance of things, too, renders figurative expressions obscure, as when we do not know the nature of the animals, or minerals, or plants, which are frequently referred to in Scripture by way of comparison. The fact so well known about the serpent, for example, that to protect its head it will present its whole body to its assailants - how much light it throws upon the meaning of our Lord's command, that we should be wise as serpents; Matthew 10:16 that is to say, that for the sake of our head, which is Christ, we should willingly offer our body to the persecutors, lest the Christian faith should, as it were, be destroyed in us, if to save the body we deny our God! Or again, the statement that the serpent gets rid of its old skin by squeezing itself through a narrow hole, and thus acquires new strength - how appropriately it fits in with the direction to imitate the wisdom of the serpent, and to put off the old man, as the apostle says, that we may put on the new; Ephesians 4:22 and to put it off, too, by coming through a narrow place, according to the saying of our Lord, Enter ye in at the strait gate! Matthew 7:13 As, then, knowledge of the nature of the serpent throws light upon many metaphors which Scripture is accustomed to draw from that animal, so ignorance of other animals, which are no less frequently mentioned by way of comparison, is a very great drawback to the reader. And so in regard to minerals and plants: knowledge of the carbuncle, for instance, which shines in the dark, throws light upon many of the dark places in books too, where it is used metaphorically; and ignorance of the beryl or the adamant often shuts the doors of knowledge. And the only reason why we find it easy to understand that perpetual peace is indicated by the olive branch which the dove brought with it when it returned to the ark, Genesis 8:11 is that we know both that the smooth touch of olive oil is not easily spoiled by a fluid of another kind, and that the tree itself is an evergreen. Many, again, by reason of their ignorance of hyssop, not knowing the virtue it has in cleansing the lungs, nor the power it is said to have of piercing rocks with its roots, although it is a small and insignificant plant, cannot make out why it is said, Purge me with hyssop, and I shall be clean. 25. Ignorance of numbers, too, prevents us from understanding things that are set down in Scripture in a figurative and mystical way. A candid mind, if I may so speak, cannot but be anxious, for example, to ascertain what is meant by the fact that Moses and Elijah, and our Lord Himself, all fasted for forty days. And except by knowledge of and reflection upon the number, the difficulty of explaining the figure involved in this action cannot be got over. For the number contains ten four times, indicating the knowledge of all things, and that knowledge interwoven with time. For both the diurnal and the annual revolutions are accomplished in periods numbering four each; the diurnal in the hours of the morning, the noontide, the evening, and the night; the annual in the spring, summer, autumn, and winter months. Now while we live in time, we must abstain and fast from all joy in time, for the sake of that eternity in which we wish to live; al though by the passage of time we are taught this very lesson of despising time and seeking eternity. Further, the number ten signifies the knowledge of the Creator and the creature, for there is a trinity in the Creator; and the number seven indicates the creature, because of the life and the body. For the life consists of three parts, whence also God is to be loved with the whole heart, the whole soul, and the whole mind; and it is very clear that in the body there are four elements of which it is made up. In this number ten, therefore, when it is placed before us in connection with time, that is, when it is taken four times we are admonished to live unstained by, and not partaking of, any delight in time, that is, to fast for forty days. of this we are admonished by the law personified in Moses, by prophecy personified in Elijah, and by our Lord Himself, who, as if receiving the witness both of the law and the prophets, appeared on the mount between the other two, while His three disciples looked on in amazement. Next, we have to inquire in the same way, how out of the number forty springs the number fifty, which in our religion has no ordinary sacredness attached to it on account of the Pentecost, and how this number taken thrice on account of the three divisions of time, before the law, under the law, and under grace, or perhaps on account of the name of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit, and the Trinity itself being added over and above, has reference to the mystery of the most Holy Church, and reaches to the number of the one hundred and fifty-three fishes which were taken after the resurrection of our Lord, when the nets were cast out on the right-hand side of the boat. John 21:11 And in the same way, many other numbers and combinations of numbers are used in the sacred writings, to convey instruction under a figurative guise, and ignorance of numbers often shuts out the reader from this instruction. 26. Not a few things, too, are closed against us and obscured by ignorance of music. One man, for example, has not unskillfully explained some metaphors from the difference between the psaltery and the harp. And it is a question which it is not out of place for learned men to discuss, whether there is any musical law that compels the psaltery of ten chords to have just so many strings; or whether, if there be no such law, the number itself is not on that very account the more to be considered as of sacred significance, either with reference to the ten commandments of the law (and if again any question is raised about that number, we can only refer it to the Creator and the creature), or with reference to the number ten itself as interpreted above. And the number of years the temple was in building, which is mentioned in the gospel John 2:20 - viz., forty-six - has a certain undefinable musical sound, and when referred to the structure of our Lord's body, in relation to which the temple was mentioned, compels many heretics to confess that our Lord put on, not a false, but a true and human body. And in several places in the Holy Scriptures we find both numbers and music mentioned with honor. " 2.18.28 28. But whether the fact is as Varro has related, or is not so, still we ought not to give up music because of the superstition of the heathen, if we can derive anything from it that is of use for the understanding of Holy Scripture; nor does it follow that we must busy ourselves with their theatrical trumpery because we enter upon an investigation about harps and other instruments, that may help us to lay hold upon spiritual things. For we ought not to refuse to learn letters because they say that Mercury discovered them; nor because they have dedicated temples to Justice and Virtue, and prefer to worship in the form of stones things that ought to have their place in the heart, ought we on that account to forsake justice and virtue. Nay, but let every good and true Christian understand that wherever truth may be found, it belongs to his Master; and while he recognizes and acknowledges the truth, even in their religious literature, let him reject the figments of superstition, and let him grieve over and avoid men who, when they knew God, glorified him not as God, neither were thankful; but became vain in their imaginations, and their foolish heart was darkened. Professing themselves to be wise, they became fools, and changed the glory of the uncorruptible God into an image made like to corruptible man, and to birds, and four-footed beasts, and creeping things. Romans 1:21-23
2.21 32. Nor can we exclude from this kind of superstition those who were called genethliaci, on account of their attention to birthdays, but are now commonly called mathematici. For these, too, although they may seek with pains for the true position of the stars at the time of our birth, and may sometimes even find it out, yet in so far as they attempt thence to predict our actions, or the consequences of our actions, grievously err, and sell inexperienced men into a miserable bondage. For when any freeman goes to an astrologer of this kind, he gives money that he may come away the slave either of Mars or of Venus, or rather, perhaps, of all the stars to which those who first fell into this error, and handed it on to posterity, have given the names either of beasts on account of their likeness to beasts, or of men with a view to confer honor on those men. And this is not to be wondered at, when we consider that even in times more recent and nearer our own, the Romans made an attempt to dedicate the star which we call Lucifer to the name and honor of C sar. And this would, perhaps, have been done, and the name handed down to distant ages, only that his ancestress Venus had given her name to this star before him, and could not by any law transfer to her heirs what she had never possessed, nor sought to possess, in life. For where a place was vacant, or not held in honor of any of the dead of former times, the usual proceeding in such cases was carried out. For example, we have changed the names of the months Quintilis and Sextilis to July and August, naming them in honor of the men Julius C sar and Augustus C sar; and from this instance any one who cares can easily see that the stars spoken of above formerly wandered in the heavens without the names they now bear. But as the men were dead whose memory people were either compelled by royal power or impelled by human folly to honor, they seemed to think that in putting their names upon the stars they were raising the dead men themselves to heaven. But whatever they may be called by men, still there are stars which God has made and set in order after His own pleasure, and they have a fixed movement, by which the seasons are distinguished and varied. And when any one is born, it is easy to observe the point at which this movement has arrived, by use of the rules discovered and laid down by those who are rebuked by Holy Writ in these terms: For if they were able to know so much that they could weigh the world, how did they not more easily find out the Lord thereof? Wisdom 13:9 2.22 33. But to desire to predict the characters, the acts, and the fate of those who are born from such an observation, is a great delusion and great madness. And among those at least who have any sort of acquaintance with matters of this kind (which, indeed, are only fit to be unlearnt again), this superstition is refuted beyond the reach of doubt. For the observation is of the position of the stars, which they call constellations, at the time when the person was born about whom these wretched men are consulted by their still more wretched dupes. Now it may happen that, in the case of twins, one follows the other out of the womb so closely that there is no interval of time between them that can be apprehended and marked in the position of the constellations. Whence it necessarily follows that twins are in many cases born under the same stars, while they do not meet with equal fortune either in what they do or what they suffer, but often meet with fates so different that one of them has a most fortunate life, the other a most unfortunate. As, for example, we are told that Esau and Jacob were born twins, and in such close succession, that Jacob, who was born last, was found to have laid hold with his hand upon the heel of his brother, who preceded him. Genesis 25:24 Now, assuredly, the day and hour of the birth of these two could not be marked in any way that would not give both the same constellation. But what a difference there was between the characters, the actions, the labors, and the fortunes of these two, the Scriptures bear witness, which are now so widely spread as to be in the mouth of all nations. 34. Nor is it to the point to say that the very smallest and briefest moment of time that separates the birth of twins, produces great effects in nature, and in the extremely rapid motion of the heavenly bodies. For, although I may grant that it does produce the greatest effects, yet the astrologer cannot discover this in the constellations, and it is by looking into these that he professes to read the fates. If, then, he does not discover the difference when he examines the constellations, which must, of course, be the same whether he is consulted about Jacob or his brother, what does it profit him that there is a difference in the heavens, which he rashly and carelessly brings into disrepute, when there is no difference in his chart, which he looks into anxiously but in vain? And so these notions also, which have their origin in certain signs of things being arbitrarily fixed upon by the presumption of men, are to be referred to the same class as if they were leagues and covets with devils. ' "2.23 35. For in this way it comes to pass that men who lust after evil things are, by a secret judgment of God, delivered over to be mocked and deceived, as the just reward of their evil desires. For they are deluded and imposed on by the false angels, to whom the lowest part of the world has been put in subjection by the law of God's providence, and in accordance with His most admirable arrangement of things. And the result of these delusions and deceptions is, that through these superstitious and baneful modes of divination many things in the past and future are made known, and turn out just as they are foretold and in the case of those who practise superstitious observances, many things turn out agreeably to their observances, and ensnared by these successes, they become more eagerly inquisitive, and involve themselves further and further in a labyrinth of most pernicious error. And to our advantage, the Word of God is not silent about this species of fornication of the soul; and it does not warn the soul against following such practices on the ground that those who profess them speak lies, but it says, Even if what they tell you should come to pass, hearken not unto them. Deuteronomy 13:1-3 For though the ghost of the dead Samuel foretold the truth to King Saul, that does not make such sacrilegious observances as those by which his ghost was brought up the less detestable; and though the ventriloquist woman in the Acts of the Apostles bore true testimony to the apostles of the Lord, the Apostle Paul did not spare the evil spirit on that account, but rebuked and cast it out, and so made the woman clean. Acts 16:16-18 36. All arts of this sort, therefore, are either nullities, or are part of a guilty superstition, springing out of a baleful fellowship between men and devils, and are to be utterly repudiated and avoided by the Christian as the covets of a false and treacherous friendship. Not as if the idol were anything, says the apostle; but because the things which they sacrifice they sacrifice to devils and not to God; and I would not that you should have fellowship with devils. 1 Corinthians 10:19-20 Now what the apostle has said about idols and the sacrifices offered in their honor, that we ought to feel in regard to all fancied signs which lead either to the worship of idols, or to worshipping creation or its parts instead of God, or which are connected with attention to medicinal charms and other observances for these are not appointed by God as the public means of promoting love towards God and our neighbor, but they waste the hearts of wretched men in private and selfish strivings after temporal things. Accordingly, in regard to all these branches of knowledge, we must fear and shun the fellowship of demons, who, with the Devil their prince, strive only to shut and bar the door against our return. As, then, from the stars which God created and ordained, men have drawn lying omens of their own fancy, so also from things that are born, or in any other way come into existence under the government of God's providence, if there chance only to be something unusual in the occurrence - as when a mule brings forth young, or an object is struck by lightning - men have frequently drawn omens by conjectures of their own, and have committed them to writing, as if they had drawn them by rule. " "2.24 37. And all these omens are of force just so far as has been arranged with the devils by that previous understanding in the mind which is, as it were, the common language, but they are all full of hurtful curiosity, torturing anxiety, and deadly slavery. For it was not because they had meaning that they were attended to, but it was by attending to and marking them that they came to have meaning. And so they are made different for different people, according to their several notions and prejudices. For those spirits which are bent upon deceiving, take care to provide for each person the same sort of omens as they see his own conjectures and preconceptions have already entangled him in. For, to take an illustration, the same figure of the letter X, which is made in the shape of a cross, means one thing among the Greeks and another among the Latins, not by nature, but by agreement and pre-arrangement as to its signification; and so, any one who knows both languages uses this letter in a different sense when writing to a Greek from that in which he uses it when writing to a Latin. And the same sound, beta, which is the name of a letter among the Greeks, is the name of a vegetable among the Latins; and when I say, lege, these two syllables mean one thing to a Greek and another to a Latin. Now, just as all these signs affect the mind according to the arrangements of the community in which each man lives, and affect different men's minds differently, because these arrangements are different; and as, further, men did not agree upon them as signs because they were already significant, but on the contrary they are now significant because men have agreed upon them; in the same way also, those signs by which the ruinous intercourse with devils is maintained have meaning just in proportion to each man's observations. And this appears quite plainly in the rites of the augurs; for they, both before they observe the omens and after they have completed their observations, take pains not to see the flight or hear the cries of birds, because these omens are of no significance apart from the previous arrangement in the mind of the observer. " "
2.27 41. But, coming to the next point, we are not to reckon among human institutions those things which men have handed down to us, not as arrangements of their own, but as the result of investigation into the occurrences of the past, and into the arrangements of God's providence. And of these, some pertain to the bodily senses, some to the intellect. Those which are reached by the bodily senses we either believe in testimony, or perceive when they are pointed out to us, or infer from experience. " "2.28 42. Anything, then, that we learn from history about the chronology of past times assists us very much in understanding the Scriptures, even if it be learned without the pale of the Church as a matter of childish instruction. For we frequently seek information about a variety of matters by use of the Olympiads, and the names of the consuls; and ignorance of the consulship in which our Lord was born, and that in which He suffered, has led some into the error of supposing that He was forty-six years of age when He suffered, that being the number of years He was told by the Jews the temple (which He took as a symbol of His body) was in building. John 2:19 Now we know on the authority of the evangelist that He was about thirty years of age when He was baptized; Luke 3:23 but the number of years He lived afterwards, although by putting His actions together we can make it out, yet that no shadow of doubt might arise from another source, can be ascertained more clearly and more certainly from a comparison of profane history with the gospel. It will still be evident, however, that it was not without a purpose it was said that the temple was forty and six years in building; so that, as more secret formation of the body which, for our sakes, the only-begotten Son of God, by whom all things were made, condescended to put on. 43. As to the utility of history, moreover, passing over the Greeks, what a great question our own Ambrose has set at rest! For, when the readers and admirers of Plato dared calumniously to assert that our Lord Jesus Christ learned all those sayings of His, which they are compelled to admire and praise, from the books of Plato- because (they urged) it cannot be denied that Plato lived long before the coming of our Lord! - did not the illustrious bishop, when by his investigations into profane history he had discovered that Plato made a journey into Egypt at the time when Jeremiah the prophet was there, show that it is much more likely that Plato was through Jeremiah's means initiated into our literature, so as to be able to teach and write those views of his which are so justly praised? For not even Pythagoras himself, from whose successors these men assert Plato learned theology, lived at a date prior to the books of that Hebrew race, among whom the worship of one God sprang up, and of whom as concerning the flesh our Lord came. And thus, when we reflect upon the dates, it becomes much more probable that those philosophers learned whatever they said that was good and true from our literature, than that the Lord Jesus Christ learned from the writings of Plato - a thing which it is the height of folly to believe. 44. And even when in the course of an historical narrative former institutions of men are described, the history itself is not to be reckoned among human institutions; because things that are past and gone and cannot be undone are to be reckoned as belonging to the course of time, of which God is the author and governor. For it is one thing to tell what has been done, another to show what ought to be done. History narrates what has been done, faithfully and with advantage; but the books of the haruspices, and all writings of the same kind, aim at teaching what ought to be done or observed, using the boldness of an adviser, not the fidelity of a narrator. "" None
|88. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Augustine of Hippo, on ideal liberal arts curriculum • Augustine, survey of ‘liberal arts’ in Book • liberal arts or disciplines, listed or enumerated • liberal arts or disciplines, personified • ordering of knowledge, epistemology in late antique world, Augustine’s Cassiciacum dialogues, on ideal order of liberal arts curriculum
Found in books: Ayres Champion and Crawford (2023), The Intellectual World of Late Antique Christianity: Reshaping Classical Traditions. 458, 459, 460; Pollmann and Vessey (2007), Augustine and the Disciplines: From Cassiciacum to Confessions, 107, 128
|89. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
Tagged with subjects: • Ares
Found in books: Bednarek (2021), The Myth of Lycurgus in Aeschylus, Naevius, and beyond, 57; Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 476
|90. Babylonian Talmud, Avodah Zarah, None
Tagged with subjects: • Art • Art, idol vs. image • Art, religious art manufactured by Jews and Christians • art, pagan
Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007), Studies in Jewish and Christian History, 923; Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 483
|43a הני אין צורת דרקון לא,אלא פשיטא במוצא וכדתנן המוצא כלים ועליהם צורת חמה,רישא וסיפא במוצא ומציעתא בעושה,אמר אביי אין רישא וסיפא במוצא ומציעתא בעושה,רבא אמר כולה במוצא ומציעתא רבי יהודה היא דתניא רבי יהודה מוסיף אף דמות מניקה וסר אפיס מניקה על שם חוה שמניקה כל העולם כולו סר אפיס על שם יוסף שסר ומפיס את כל העולם כולו והוא דנקיט גריוא וקא כייל והיא דנקטא בן וקא מניקה:,תנו רבנן איזהו צורת דרקון פירש רשב"א כל שיש לו ציצין בין פרקיו מחוי רבי אסי בין פרקי צואר אמר ר\' חמא ברבי חנינא הלכה כר"ש בן אלעזר,אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יהושע בן לוי פעם אחת הייתי מהלך אחר ר\' אלעזר הקפר בריבי בדרך ומצא שם טבעת ועליה צורת דרקון ומצא עובד כוכבים קטן ולא אמר לו כלום מצא עובד כוכבים גדול ואמר לו בטלה ולא בטלה סטרו ובטלה,ש"מ תלת ש"מ עובד כוכבים מבטל עבודת כוכבים שלו ושל חבירו וש"מ יודע בטיב של עבודת כוכבים ומשמשיה מבטל ושאינו יודע בטיב עבודת כוכבים ומשמשיה אינו מבטל וש"מ עובד כוכבים מבטל בעל כרחו,מגדף בה רבי חנינא ולית ליה לרבי אלעזר הקפר בריבי הא דתנן המציל מן הארי ומן הדוב ומן הנמר ומן הגייס ומן הנהר ומזוטו של ים ומשלוליתו של נהר והמוצא בסרטיא ופלטיא גדולה ובכל מקום שהרבים מצוין שם הרי אלו שלו מפני שהבעלים מתייאשין מהן,אמר אביי נהי דמינה מייאש מאיסורא מי מייאש מימר אמר אי עובד כוכבים משכח לה מפלח פלח לה אי ישראל משכח לה איידי דדמיה יקרין מזבין לה לעובד כוכבים ופלח לה:,תנן התם דמות צורות לבנות היה לו לר"ג בעלייתו בטבלא בכותל שבהן מראה את ההדיוטות ואומר להן כזה ראיתם או כזה ראיתם,ומי שרי והכתיב (שמות כ, כג) לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשי המשמשים לפני,אמר אביי לא אסרה תורה אלא שמשין שאפשר לעשות כמותן,כדתניא לא יעשה אדם בית תבנית היכל אכסדרה תבנית אולם חצר תבנית עזרה שולחן תבנית שולחן מנורה תבנית מנורה אבל הוא עושה של ה\' ושל ו\' ושל ח\' ושל ז\' לא יעשה אפילו של שאר מיני מתכות,רבי יוסי בר יהודה אומר אף של עץ לא יעשה כדרך שעשו בית חשמונאי,אמרו לו משם ראיה שפודין של ברזל היו וחופין בבעץ העשירו עשאום של כסף חזרו והעשירו עשאום של זהב,ושמשין שאי אפשר לעשות כמותן מי שרי והתניא לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשי המשמשים לפני במרום,אמר אביי'43b לא אסרה תורה אלא בדמות ד\' פנים בהדי הדדי,אלא מעתה פרצוף אדם לחודיה תשתרי אלמה תניא כל הפרצופות מותרין חוץ מפרצוף אדם,אמר רב יהודה בריה דרב יהושע מפרקיה דרבי יהושע שמיע לי לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון אותי אבל שאר שמשין שרי,ושאר שמשין מי שרי והתניא (שמות כ, כג) לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשי המשמשין לפני במרום כגון אופנים ושרפים וחיות הקדש ומלאכי השרת,אמר אביי לא אסרה תורה אלא שמשין שבמדור העליון,ושבמדור התחתון מי שרי והתניא אשר בשמים לרבות חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות ממעל לרבות מלאכי השרת,כי תניא ההיא לעובדם,אי לעובדם אפילו שילשול קטן נמי אין הכי נמי ומסיפיה דקרא נפקא דתניא אשר בארץ לרבות ימים ונהרות הרים וגבעות מתחת לרבות שילשול קטן,ועשייה גרידתא מי שרי והתניא לא תעשון אתי לא תעשון כדמות שמשי המשמשין לפני במרום כגון חמה ולבנה כוכבים ומזלות,שאני ר"ג דאחרים עשו לו,והא רב יהודה דאחרים עשו לו וא"ל שמואל לרב יהודה שיננא סמי עיניה דדין,התם בחותמו בולט ומשום חשדא דתניא טבעת שחותמה בולט אסור להניחה ומותר לחתום בה חותמה שוקע מותר להניחה ואסור לחתום בה,ומי חיישינן לחשדא והא בי כנישתא דשף ויתיב בנהרדעא דאוקמי ביה אנדרטא והוו עיילי ביה אבוה דשמואל ולוי ומצלו בגויה ולא חיישי לחשדא רבים שאני,והא רבן גמליאל דיחיד הוה כיון דנשיא הוא שכיחי רבים גביה ואיבעית אימא דפרקים הואי,ואיבעית אימא להתלמד שאני דתניא (דברים יח, ט) לא תלמד לעשות אבל אתה למד להבין ולהורות:,רשב"ג אומר וכו\': איזו הן מכובדין ואיזו הן מבוזין,אמר רב מכובדין למעלה מן המים מבוזין למטה מן המים ושמואל אמר אלו ואלו מבוזין הן אלא אלו הן מכובדין שעל השירין ועל הנזמים ועל הטבעות,תניא כוותיה דשמואל מכובדין שעל השירין ועל הנזמים ועל הטבעות מבוזין שעל היורות ועל הקומקמסין ועל מחמי חמים ושעל הסדינין ועל המטפחות:,||43a The Sages interpret this verse as referring to the heavenly constellations, which indicates that it is prohibited to form only these figures, but it is not prohibited to form a figure of a dragon.,Rather, the Gemara concludes, it is obvious that this halakha is referring to a case where one finds a vessel with the figure of a dragon, and this is as we learned in the mishna: In the case of one who finds vessels, and upon them is a figure of the sun, a figure of the moon, or a figure of a dragon, he must take them and cast them into the Dead Sea.,The Gemara asks about the lack of consistency between the clauses of Rav Sheshet’s statement: Can it be that the first clause and the last clause are referring to a case where one finds vessels with the specified figures, and the middle clause is referring to a case where one forms these figures?,Abaye said: Indeed, the first clause and the last clause are referring to cases where one finds vessels with figures, and the middle clause is referring to a case where one forms figures.,Rava said: The entire statement of Rav Sheshet is referring to a case where one finds vessels with these figures, and the middle clause is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda. As it is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda adds to the list of forbidden figures even a figure of a nursing woman and Sar Apis. The figure of a nursing woman is worshipped as it symbolizes Eve, who nurses the entire world. The figure of Sar Apis is worshipped as it symbolizes Joseph, who ruled over sar and appeased mefis the entire world by distributing food during the seven years of famine (see Genesis, chapter 41). But the figure of Sar Apis is forbidden only when it is holding a dry measure and measuring with it; and the figure of a nursing woman is forbidden only when she is holding a child and nursing it.,§ The Sages taught: What is a figure of a dragon? Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar explained: It is any figure that has scales between its joints. Rabbi Asi motioned with his hands to depict scales between the joints of the neck. Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: The halakha is in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar.,Rabba bar bar Ḥana says that Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: Once, I was following Rabbi Elazar HaKappar the Distinguished on the road, and he found a ring there, and there was a figure of a dragon on it. And he then encountered a minor gentile boy, but did not say anything to him. He then encountered an adult gentile, and said to him: Revoke the ring’s idolatrous status. But the gentile did not revoke it. Rabbi Elazar HaKappar then slapped him across his face, whereupon the gentile succumbed and revoked its idolatrous status.,The Gemara comments: Learn from this incident the following three halakhot: Learn from it that a gentile can revoke the idolatrous status of both his object of idol worship and that of another gentile. And learn from the fact that Rabbi Elazar HaKappar waited to find an adult gentile, that only one who is aware of the nature of idol worship and its accessories can revoke the idol’s status, but one who is not aware of the nature of idol worship and its accessories, such as a minor, cannot revoke the idol’s status. And finally, learn from it that a gentile can revoke the status of an idol even against his will.,Rabbi Ḥanina ridiculed this ruling and asked: But why was it necessary to have a gentile actively revoke the idolatrous status of the ring? Doesn’t Rabbi Elazar HaKappar the Distinguished maintain in accordance with that which we learned in a baraita: In the case of one who saves an object from a lion, or from a bear, or from a cheetah, or from a troop of soldiers, or from a river, or from the tide of the sea, or from the flooding of a river, or similarly one who finds an object in a main thoroughfare or in a large plaza, or for that matter, anywhere frequented by the public, in all these cases, the objects belong to him, because the owners despair of recovering them? Therefore, in the case of a lost ring with an idolatrous figure on it, its idolatrous status is automatically revoked, as its owner despairs of recovering it.,Abaye said: Granted, the owner despairs of recovering the object itself, but does he despair of its forbidden me’issura idolatrous status? The owner does not assume that the object will never be worshipped again; rather, he says to himself: If a gentile finds it, he will worship it. If a Jew finds it, since it is valuable, he will sell it to a gentile who will then worship it. Therefore, Rabbi Elazar HaKappar had to have the ring’s idolatrous status revoked.,§ We learned in a mishna there (Rosh HaShana 24a): Rabban Gamliel had diagrams of the different figures of moons drawn on a tablet that hung on the wall of his attic, which he would show to the ordinary people hahedyotot who came to testify about sighting the new moon but who were unable to adequately describe what they had seen. And he would say to them: Did you see an image like this, or did you see an image like that?,The Gemara asks: And is it permitted to form these figures? But isn’t it written: “You shall not make with Me gods of silver, or gods of gold” (Exodus 20:20), which is interpreted to mean: You shall not make figures of My attendants who serve before Me, i.e., those celestial bodies that were created to serve God, including the sun and the moon.,In answering, Abaye said: The Torah prohibited only the figures of those attendants that one can possibly reproduce something that is truly in their likeness. Since it is impossible to reproduce the sun and the moon, the prohibition does not apply to these entities.,As it is taught in a baraita: A person may not construct a house in the exact image of the Sanctuary, nor a portico in the exact image of the Entrance Hall of the Sanctuary, nor a courtyard corresponding to the Temple courtyard, nor a table corresponding to the Table in the Temple, nor a candelabrum corresponding to the Candelabrum in the Temple. But one may fashion a candelabrum of five or of six or of eight lamps. And one may not fashion a candelabrum of seven lamps even if he constructs it from other kinds of metal rather than gold, as in extenuating circumstances the Candelabrum in the Temple may be fashioned from other metals.,The baraita continues: Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda says: One may not fashion a candelabrum of wood either, in the manner that the kings of the Hasmonean monarchy fashioned it. When they first purified the Temple they had to fashion the Candelabrum out of wood as no other material was available. Since a wooden candelabrum is fit for the Temple, it is prohibited to fashion one of this kind for oneself.,The Rabbis said to Rabbi Yosei bar Yehuda: Do you seek to cite a proof from there, i.e., from the Hasmonean era, that a candelabrum fashioned of wood is fit for the Temple? During that era the branches of the Candelabrum were fashioned from spits shappudin of iron, and they covered them with tin beva’atz. Later, when they grew richer and could afford a Candelabrum of higher-quality material, they fashioned the Candelabrum from silver. When they grew even richer, they fashioned the Candelabrum from gold. In any event, Abaye proves from this baraita that the prohibition against forming a figure applies only to items that can be reconstructed in an accurate manner. Since this is not possible in the case of the moon, Rabban Gamliel’s figures were permitted.,The Gemara asks: And is it actually permitted to fashion figures of those attendants of God concerning which it is impossible to reproduce their likeness? But isn’t it taught in a baraita that the verse: “You shall not make with Me gods of silver” (Exodus 20:20), is interpreted to mean: You shall not make figures of My attendants who serve before Me on high? Apparently, this includes the sun and the moon.,Abaye said:'43b This does not include the sun and the moon, as the Torah prohibits the fashioning only of a figure of all four faces of the creatures of the Divine Chariot together (see Ezekiel 1:10). All other figures, which are not in the likeness of the ministering angels, are permitted.,The Gemara raises a difficulty: If that is so, let the fashioning of a figure of a human face alone be permitted. Why then is it taught in a baraita: Figures of all faces are permitted, except for the human face?,Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Yehoshua, said: I heard in a lecture of Rabbi Yehoshua that there is a different reason why one may not fashion a figure of a human face; the verse states: “You shall not make with Me iti” (Exodus 20:20). This can be read as: You shall not make Me oti. Since the human being was created in the image of God (see Genesis 1:27), it is prohibited to fashion an image of a human being. But fashioning figures of other attendants of God is permitted.,The Gemara asks: And is it permitted to fashion figures of other attendants of God? But isn’t it taught in another baraita that the verse: “You shall not make with Me gods of silver” (Exodus 20:20), is interpreted to mean that you shall not make figures of My attendants who serve before Me on high, for example, ofanim, and seraphim, and the sacred ḥayyot, and the ministering angels?,Abaye said: The Torah prohibits fashioning figures of only those attendants that are in the upper heaven, i.e., the supreme angels in the highest firmament, but it does not prohibit fashioning the celestial bodies, e.g., the sun and the moon, despite the fact that they too are located in heaven.,The Gemara asks: And is it permitted to fashion figures of those bodies that are in the lower heaven? But isn’t it taught in a baraita with regard to the verse: “You shall not make for yourself any graven image, nor any manner of likeness, of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth” (Exodus 20:4): The phrase “that is in heaven” serves to include the sun, and the moon, the stars, and the constellations. The term “above” serves to include the ministering angels. Apparently, it is prohibited to fashion a figure even of the celestial bodies that are in the lower heaven.,The Gemara answers: When that baraita is taught, it is in reference to the prohibition against worshipping them. There is no prohibition against forming a figure in their likeness.,The Gemara asks: If that baraita is referring to the prohibition against worshipping them, then why does it mention only celestial bodies? It is prohibited to worship even a tiny worm. The Gemara answers: Yes, it is indeed so; and this prohibition is derived from the latter clause of that verse, as it is taught in a baraita: “That is in the earth” serves to include seas, and rivers, mountains, and hills. The word “beneath” serves to include a tiny worm.,The Gemara asks: And is the mere fashioning of figures of the celestial bodies permitted? But isn’t it taught in another baraita that the verse: “You shall not make with Me gods of silver” (Exodus 20:20), is interpreted to mean that you shall not make figures of My attendants who serve before Me on high, for example: The sun, and the moon, the stars, and the constellations. This is proof that it is prohibited to fashion figures of the sun and the moon. Consequently, the solution proposed by Abaye is rejected, leaving the difficulty of Rabban Gamliel’s diagram unresolved.,The Gemara proposes an alternative resolution: The case of Rabban Gamliel is different, as others, i.e., gentiles, fashioned those figures for him, and it is prohibited for a Jew only to fashion such figures; there is no prohibition against having them in one’s possession.,The Gemara asks: But there is the case of Rav Yehuda, where others fashioned for him a seal with a figure of a person on it, and Shmuel said to Rav Yehuda, who was his student: Sharp-witted one shina, destroy this one’s eyes, i.e., disfigure it, as it is prohibited even to have a figure of a human being in one’s possession.,The Gemara answers: There, in the case of Rav Yehuda, his was a protruding seal, i.e., the figure projected from the ring, and Shmuel prohibited it due to the potential suspicion that he had an object of idol worship in his possession. As it is taught in a baraita: In the case of a ring whose seal protrudes, it is prohibited to place it on one’s finger due to suspicion of idol worship, but it is permitted to seal objects with it. In this case, the act of sealing forms a figure that is sunken below the surface of the object upon which the seal was impressed, which is not prohibited. If its seal is sunken, it is permitted to place it on one’s finger, but it is prohibited to seal objects with it, as that forms a protruding figure.,The Gemara asks: And are we concerned about arousing suspicion due to the use of a human figure? But what about that synagogue that had been destroyed in Eretz Yisrael and was reestablished in Neharde’a, and they erected a statue of the king in it? And nevertheless, Shmuel’s father and Levi would enter and pray in it, and they were not concerned about arousing suspicion. The Gemara answers: A public institution is different; the public is not suspected of having idolatrous intentions. Rather, it is assumed that the statue is there exclusively for ornamental purposes.,The Gemara asks: But wasn’t Rabban Gamliel an individual? According to this reasoning, his figures of the moon should have been forbidden as they would have aroused suspicion. The Gemara answers: Since he was the Nasi, the head of the Sanhedrin, members of the public would often be found with him, and therefore there was no room for suspicion. And if you wish, say there is an alternative answer, namely, that these figures were not whole; rather, they were formed from pieces of figures that had to be assembled. Only complete figures are forbidden.,And if you wish, say there is yet another answer: Fashioning figures in order to teach oneself is different, as it is taught in a baraita with regard to the verse: “You shall not learn to do like the abominations of those nations” (Deuteronomy 18:9): But you may learn in order to understand the matter yourself and teach it to others. In other words, it is permitted to perform certain acts for the sake of Torah study that would otherwise be prohibited.,§ The mishna (42b) teaches that Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Those figures that are upon respectable vessels are forbidden. Those that are upon disgraceful vessels are permitted. The Gemara asks: Which vessels are considered respectable and which are considered disgraceful?,Rav says: These terms do not represent different types of vessels, but rather the location of the figure upon the vessel. A respectable location for an idolatrous figure is on the side of the vessel above the level of the water or food contents; a disgraceful location is below the water level. And Shmuel says: Both these and those locations on eating utensils are disgraceful. Rather, these are respectable locations: Upon bracelets, or upon nose rings, or upon rings.,The Gemara comments: It is taught in a baraita in accordance with the opinion of Shmuel (Tosefta 5:1): Respectable locations for idolatrous figures are upon bracelets, or upon nose rings, or upon rings. Disgraceful locations are upon large pots, or upon small kettles hakumkemasin, or upon samovars, or upon sheets, or upon towels.,Rabbi Yosei says: When one encounters an idol, he should grind the idol and throw the dust to the wind or cast it into the sea. The Rabbis said to him: What is the good of that? That also gives a Jew benefit from the idol, as it becomes fertilizer for his crops, and deriving any kind of benefit is prohibited, as it is stated: “And nothing of the proscribed items shall cleave to your hand” (Deuteronomy 13:18).,It is taught in a baraita (Tosefta 3:16): Rabbi Yosei said to them: But isn’t it already stated: “And your sin, ' None|
|91. Demosthenes, Orations, 19.128
Tagged with subjects: • Ares • theoria to Brauron as character in Ar. Pax
Found in books: Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 170; Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 79
19.128 That was a remarkable proceeding, but far stranger still was his behavior after his arrival in Macedonia . While you who are here and all other Athenians regarded the treatment of the Phocians as scandalous and outrageous, insomuch that you would not send any member of council or any judge to represent you at the Pythian games, but relinquished that time-honored delegation, Aeschines attended the service of thanksgiving which the Thebans and Philip held to celebrate their victory and their political success, was a guest at the banquet, and took part in the libations and doxologies with which Philip thanked Heaven for the destruction of the fortresses, the territory, and the armies of your allies. He even joined Philip in wearing garlands and singing the Hymn of Praise, and drank to his health in the loving-cup. '' None
|92. Epigraphy, Ig Ii2, 1362
Tagged with subjects: • Ares
Found in books: Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 1011; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 52
1362 Gods. The priest of Apollo Erithaseos announces and forbids on behalf of himself and the demesmen and the Athenian People, (5) that in the sanctuary (hieron) of Apollo there be any cutting or carrying out of the sanctuary of wood (xula) or branches-with-leaves (kouron) or firewood (phrugana) or fallen leaves (phullobola); and if anyone is caught cutting or taking any of the forbidden items from the sanctuary (hierou), if the person caught is a slave, he will be flogged (10) with fifty lashes of the whip and the priest will hand him over, with the name of his master, to the king (basilei) and the Council in accordance with the decree of the Athenian Council and People; and if he is a free man, the priest, (15) together with the demarch, will fine him fifty drachmas and will hand over his name to the king (basilei) and the Council in accordance with the decree of the Athenian Council and People. text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG II2
1362 - Priestly edict from Attica (Eupyridai?) '' None
|93. Epigraphy, Seg, 21.519
Tagged with subjects: • Ares • altars, of Athena Areia and Ares
Found in books: Humphreys (2018), Kinship in Ancient Athens: An Anthropological Analysis, 1012; Mikalson (2016), New Aspects of Religion in Ancient Athens: Honors, Authorities, Esthetics, and Society, 32, 161, 177
21.519 (1a)Gods. (1)In the priesthood of Leon. The Acharnians decided. Relief Kalliteles son of Stesias proposed: so that an altar may be constructed of Ares and Athena Areia as best as possible; since the god (5)responded that it was preferable and better for the deme of the Acharnians and the People of Athens to construct altars of Ares and Athena Areia so that the Acharnians and the Athenians may conduct (10)their relations with the gods piously, the Acharnians shall decide, since the chosen men and the architects indicate the cost of construction, to declare for how much the demesmen decide to construct the (15)altars, so that nothing shall prevent construction before the sacrifice of the Areia; and so that the one who advances the money may recover it . . . . . . text from Attic Inscriptions Online, SEG
21.519 - Decree of Acharnai on constructing altars for Ares and Athena Areia '' None
|94. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.464, 5.296, 6.847-6.853, 8.373, 8.377, 8.388, 8.608-8.728, 8.730
Tagged with subjects: • Ares • Orpheus,, as symbol of failure of art • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • ars • art and architecture, Roman appreciation • art expert, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art gallery, in Petronius’ Satyrica • art history, Petronius’ satire of • art work, as object of gaze • arts, Roman anxiety about Greek • arts, mimetic • city, as locus of art • ethical qualities, artifice, skill (ars) • gaze, focused on work of art • response, emotional, to work of art, in Virgil’s Aeneid • sexual subjects in art, as customary entertainment • sexual subjects in art, in Vergil’s Aeneid • wonder, inspired by gazing at work of art
Found in books: Elsner (2007), Roman Eyes: Visuality and Subjectivity in Art and Text, 79, 81, 195; Farrell (2021), Juno's Aeneid: A Battle for Heroic Identity, 165, 180, 232; Jenkyns (2013), God, Space, and City in the Roman Imagination, 262; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 31; Keith and Myers (2023), Vergil and Elegy. 77, 200; Oksanish (2019), Benedikt Eckhardt, and Meret Strothmann, Law in the Roman Provinces, 60; Perkell (1989), The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics, 43, 83
1.464 Sic ait, atque animum pictura pascit ii,
5.296 Nisus amore pio pueri; quos deinde secutus
6.847 Excudent alii spirantia mollius aera, 6.848 credo equidem, vivos ducent de marmore voltus, 6.849 orabunt causas melius, caelique meatus 6.850 describent radio, et surgentia sidera dicent: 6.851 tu regere imperio populos, Romane, memento; 6.852 hae tibi erunt artes; pacisque imponere morem, 6.853 parcere subiectis, et debellare superbos.
8.377 artis opisque tuae nec te, carissime coniunx,
8.388 cunctantem amplexu molli fovet. Ille repente
8.608 At Venus aetherios inter dea candida nimbos 8.609 dona ferens aderat; natumque in valle reducta 8.610 ut procul egelido secretum flumine vidit, 8.611 talibus adfata est dictis seque obtulit ultro: 8.612 En perfecta mei promissa coniugis arte 8.613 munera, ne mox aut Laurentis, nate, superbos 8.614 aut acrem dubites in proelia poscere Turnum. 8.615 Dixit et amplexus nati Cytherea petivit, 8.616 arma sub adversa posuit radiantia quercu. 8.617 Ille, deae donis et tanto laetus honore, 8.618 expleri nequit atque oculos per singula volvit 8.619 miraturque interque manus et bracchia versat 8.620 terribilem cristis galeam flammasque vomentem 8.621 fatiferumque ensem, loricam ex aere rigentem 8.622 sanguineam ingentem, qualis cum caerula nubes 8.623 solis inardescit radiis longeque refulget; 8.625 hastamque et clipei non enarrabile textum. 8.626 Illic res Italas Romanorumque triumphos 8.627 haud vatum ignarus venturique inscius aevi 8.628 fecerat ignipotens, illic genus omne futurae 8.629 stirpis ab Ascanio. pugnataque in ordine bella. 8.630 Fecerat et viridi fetam Mavortis in antro 8.631 procubuisse lupam, geminos huic ubera circum 8.632 ludere pendentis pueros et lambere matrem 8.633 impavidos, illam tereti cervice reflexa 8.634 mulcere alternos et corpora fingere lingua. 8.635 Nec procul hinc Romam et raptas sine more Sabinas 8.636 consessu caveae magnis circensibus actis 8.637 addiderat subitoque novum consurgere bellum 8.638 Romulidis Tatioque seni Curibusque severis. 8.639 Post idem inter se posito certamine reges 8.640 armati Iovis ante aram paterasque tenentes 8.641 stabant et caesa iungebant foedera porca. 8.642 Haud procul inde citae Mettum in diversa quadrigae 8.643 distulerant, at tu dictis, Albane, maneres, 8.644 raptabatque viri mendacis viscera Tullus 8.645 per silvam, et sparsi rorabant sanguine vepres. 8.646 Nec non Tarquinium eiectum Porsenna iubebat 8.647 accipere ingentique urbem obsidione premebat: 8.648 Aeneadae in ferrum pro libertate ruebant. 8.649 Illum indigti similem similemque miti 8.650 aspiceres, pontem auderet quia vellere Cocles 8.651 et fluvium vinclis innaret Cloelia ruptis. 8.652 In summo custos Tarpeiae Manlius arcis 8.653 stabat pro templo et Capitolia celsa tenebat, 8.654 Romuleoque recens horrebat regia culmo. 8.655 Atque hic auratis volitans argenteus anser 8.656 porticibus Gallos in limine adesse canebat. 8.657 Galli per dumos aderant arcemque tenebant, 8.658 defensi tenebris et dono noctis opacae: 8.659 aurea caesaries ollis atque aurea vestis, 8.660 virgatis lucent sagulis, tum lactea colla 8.661 auro innectuntur, duo quisque Alpina coruscant 8.662 gaesa manu, scutis protecti corpora longis. 8.663 Hic exsultantis Salios nudosque Lupercos 8.664 lanigerosque apices et lapsa ancilia caelo 8.665 extuderat, castae ducebant sacra per urbem 8.666 pilentis matres in mollibus. Hinc procul addit 8.667 Tartareas etiam sedes, alta ostia Ditis, 8.668 et scelerum poenas et te, Catilina, minaci 8.669 pendentem scopulo Furiarumque ora trementem, 8.670 secretosque pios, his dantem iura Catonem. 8.671 Haec inter tumidi late maris ibat imago 8.672 aurea, sed fluctu spumabant caerula cano; 8.673 et circum argento clari delphines in orbem 8.674 aequora verrebant caudis aestumque secabant. 8.675 In medio classis aeratas, Actia bella, 8.676 cernere erat, totumque instructo Marte videres 8.677 fervere Leucaten auroque effulgere fluctus. 8.678 Hinc Augustus agens Italos in proelia Caesar 8.679 cum patribus populoque, penatibus et magnis dis, 8.680 stans celsa in puppi; geminas cui tempora flammas 8.681 laeta vomunt patriumque aperitur vertice sidus. 8.682 Parte alia ventis et dis Agrippa secundis 8.683 arduus agmen agens; cui, belli insigne superbum, 8.684 tempora navali fulgent rostrata corona. 8.685 Hinc ope barbarica variisque Antonius armis, 8.686 victor ab Aurorae populis et litore rubro, 8.687 Aegyptum viresque Orientis et ultima secum 8.688 Bactra vehit, sequiturque (nefas) Aegyptia coniunx. 8.689 Una omnes ruere, ac totum spumare reductis 8.690 convolsum remis rostrisque tridentibus aequor. 8.691 alta petunt: pelago credas innare revolsas 8.692 Cycladas aut montis concurrere montibus altos, 8.693 tanta mole viri turritis puppibus instant. 8.694 stuppea flamma manu telisque volatile ferrum 8.695 spargitur, arva nova Neptunia caede rubescunt. 8.696 Regina in mediis patrio vocat agmina sistro 8.697 necdum etiam geminos a tergo respicit anguis. 8.698 omnigenumque deum monstra et latrator Anubis 8.699 contra Neptunum et Venerem contraque Minervam 8.700 tela tenent. Saevit medio in certamine Mavors 8.701 caelatus ferro tristesque ex aethere Dirae, 8.702 et scissa gaudens vadit Discordia palla, 8.703 quam cum sanguineo sequitur Bellona flagello. 8.704 Actius haec cernens arcum tendebat Apollo 8.705 desuper: omnis eo terrore Aegyptus et Indi, 8.706 omnis Arabs, omnes vertebant terga Sabaei. 8.707 Ipsa videbatur ventis regina vocatis 8.708 vela dare et laxos iam iamque inmittere funis. 8.709 Illam inter caedes pallentem morte futura 8.710 fecerat Ignipotens undis et Iapyge ferri, 8.711 contra autem magno maerentem corpore Nilum 8.712 pandentemque sinus et tota veste vocantem 8.713 caeruleum in gremium latebrosaque flumina victos. 8.714 At Caesar, triplici invectus Romana triumpho 8.715 moenia, dis Italis votum inmortale sacrabat, 8.716 maxuma tercentum totam delubra per urbem. 8.717 Laetitia ludisque viae plausuque fremebant; 8.718 omnibus in templis matrum chorus, omnibus arae; 8.719 ante aras terram caesi stravere iuvenci. 8.720 Ipse, sedens niveo candentis limine Phoebi, 8.721 dona recognoscit populorum aptatque superbis 8.722 postibus; incedunt victae longo ordine gentes, 8.723 quam variae linguis, habitu tam vestis et armis. 8.725 hic Lelegas Carasque sagittiferosque Gelonos 8.726 finxerat; Euphrates ibat iam mollior undis, 8.727 extremique hominum Morini, Rhenusque bicornis, 8.728 indomitique Dahae, et pontem indignatus Araxes.
8.730 miratur rerumque ignarus imagine gaudet,' ' None
1.464 lace up in purple buskin. Yonder lies
5.296 with Mnestheus, cleaving her last stretch of sea,
6.847 Lo! on the left and right at feast reclined 6.848 Are other blessed souls, whose chorus sings 6.849 Victorious paeans on the fragrant air 6.850 of laurel groves; and hence to earth outpours 6.851 Eridanus, through forests rolling free. 6.852 Here dwell the brave who for their native land 6.853 Fell wounded on the field; here holy priests
8.377 with skins of beasts and carrying burning brands. ' "
8.388 as King Eurystheus' bondman he endured, " 8.608 ummoned Evander. From his couch arose ' "8.609 the royal sire, and o'er his aged frame " '8.610 a tunic threw, tying beneath his feet 8.611 the Tuscan sandals: an Arcadian sword, 8.612 girt at his left, was over one shoulder slung, 8.613 his cloak of panther trailing from behind. 8.614 A pair of watch-dogs from the lofty door 8.615 ran close, their lord attending, as he sought 8.616 his guest Aeneas; for his princely soul 8.617 remembered faithfully his former word, 8.618 and promised gift. Aeneas with like mind ' "8.619 was stirring early. King Evander's son " '8.620 Pallas was at his side; Achates too 8.621 accompanied his friend. All these conjoin 8.622 in hand-clasp and good-morrow, taking seats 8.623 in midcourt of the house, and give the hour 8.625 “Great leader of the Teucrians, while thy life 8.626 in safety stands, I call not Trojan power 8.627 vanquished or fallen. But to help thy war 8.628 my small means match not thy redoubled name. 8.629 Yon Tuscan river is my bound. That way 8.630 Rutulia thrusts us hard and chafes our wall 8.631 with loud, besieging arms. But I propose 8.632 to league with thee a numerous array 8.633 of kings and mighty tribes, which fortune strange 8.634 now brings to thy defence. Thou comest here 8.635 because the Fates intend. Not far from ours 8.636 a city on an ancient rock is seen, 8.637 Agylla, which a warlike Lydian clan 8.638 built on the Tuscan hills. It prospered well 8.639 for many a year, then under the proud yoke 8.640 of King Mezentius it came and bore 8.641 his cruel sway. Why tell the loathsome deeds 8.642 and crimes unspeakable the despot wrought? 8.643 May Heaven requite them on his impious head 8.644 and on his children! For he used to chain 8.645 dead men to living, hand on hand was laid 8.646 and face on face,—torment incredible! 8.647 Till, locked in blood-stained, horrible embrace, 8.648 a lingering death they found. But at the last 8.649 his people rose in furious despair, 8.650 and while he blasphemously raged, assailed 8.651 his life and throne, cut down his guards 8.652 and fired his regal dwellings; he, the while, 8.653 escaped immediate death and fied away 8.654 to the Rutulian land, to find defence 8.655 in Turnus hospitality. To-day 8.656 Etruria, to righteous anger stirred, 8.657 demands with urgent arms her guilty King. 8.658 To their large host, Aeneas, I will give 8.659 an added strength, thyself. For yonder shores 8.660 re-echo with the tumult and the cry 8.661 of ships in close array; their eager lords 8.662 are clamoring for battle. But the song 8.663 of the gray omen-giver thus declares 8.664 their destiny: ‘O goodly princes born 8.665 of old Maeonian lineage! Ye that are 8.666 the bloom and glory of an ancient race, 8.667 whom just occasions now and noble rage 8.668 enflame against Mezentius your foe, 8.669 it is decreed that yonder nation proud 8.670 hall never submit to chiefs Italian-born. 8.671 Seek ye a king from far!’ So in the field ' "8.672 inert and fearful lies Etruria's force, " '8.673 disarmed by oracles. Their Tarchon sent 8.674 envoys who bore a sceptre and a crown 8.675 even to me, and prayed I should assume ' "8.676 the sacred emblems of Etruria's king, " '8.677 and lead their host to war. But unto me 8.678 cold, sluggish age, now barren and outworn, 8.679 denies new kingdoms, and my slow-paced powers 8.680 run to brave deeds no more. Nor could I urge ' "8.681 my son, who by his Sabine mother's line " '8.682 is half Italian-born. Thyself art he, 8.683 whose birth illustrious and manly prime 8.684 fate favors and celestial powers approve. 8.685 Therefore go forth, O bravest chief and King 8.686 of Troy and Italy ! To thee I give 8.687 the hope and consolation of our throne, 8.688 pallas, my son, and bid him find in thee 8.689 a master and example, while he learns ' "8.690 the soldier's arduous toil. With thy brave deeds " '8.691 let him familiar grow, and reverence thee 8.692 with youthful love and honor. In his train 8.693 two hundred horsemen of Arcadia, 8.694 our choicest men-at-arms, shall ride; and he 8.695 in his own name an equal band shall bring 8.696 to follow only thee.” Such the discourse. 8.697 With meditative brows and downcast eyes 8.698 Aeneas and Achates, sad at heart, 8.699 mused on unnumbered perils yet to come. ' "8.700 But out of cloudless sky Cythera's Queen " "8.701 gave sudden signal: from th' ethereal dome " '8.702 a thunder-peal and flash of quivering fire 8.703 tumultuous broke, as if the world would fall, 8.704 and bellowing Tuscan trumpets shook the air. 8.705 All eyes look up. Again and yet again 8.706 crashed the terrible din, and where the sky 8.707 looked clearest hung a visionary cloud, 8.708 whence through the brightness blazed resounding arms. ' "8.709 All hearts stood still. But Troy 's heroic son " '8.710 knew that his mother in the skies redeemed 8.711 her pledge in sound of thunder: so he cried, 8.712 “Seek not, my friend, seek not thyself to read ' "8.713 the meaning of the omen. 'T is to me " '8.714 Olympus calls. My goddess-mother gave 8.715 long since her promise of a heavenly sign 8.716 if war should burst; and that her power would bring 8.717 a panoply from Vulcan through the air, 8.718 to help us at our need. Alas, what deaths ' "8.719 over Laurentum's ill-starred host impend! " '8.720 O Turnus, what a reckoning thou shalt pay 8.721 to me in arms! O Tiber, in thy wave 8.722 what helms and shields and mighty soldiers slain 8.723 hall in confusion roll! Yea, let them lead 8.725 He said: and from the lofty throne uprose. 8.726 Straightway he roused anew the slumbering fire 8.727 acred to Hercules, and glad at heart 8.728 adored, as yesterday, the household gods
8.730 the Trojan company made sacrifice ' ' None
|95. Vergil, Eclogues, 10.69
Tagged with subjects: • Ars Amatoria (Ovid),, as cause of exile • Ovid, Ars and Remedia as philosophical in their own right • death, triumph of art over • ideology, as function of art
Found in books: Bowditch (2001), Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination, 122, 128, 129; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 5, 151; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 136
10.69 and you, my love, grow with them. And meanwhile' ' None
|96. Vergil, Georgics, 1.126-1.128, 1.133, 2.174-2.175, 2.540, 4.287-4.294, 4.321, 4.464-4.466, 4.469-4.472, 4.475-4.477, 4.481-4.484, 4.488, 4.490-4.493, 4.495, 4.507-4.520, 4.523-4.527
Tagged with subjects: • Nile, subject matter of art • Orpheus,, as symbol of failure of art • Ovid, Ars amatoria • ars • city, as locus of art • ideology, as function of art • sexual subjects in art, Orpheus and • sexual subjects in art, eroticdidacticism
Found in books: Bowditch (2001), Cicero on the Philosophy of Religion: On the Nature of the Gods and On Divination, 140; Clay and Vergados (2022), Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry, 218, 220; Johnson (2008), Ovid before Exile: Art and Punishment in the Metamorphoses, 100; Keith and Myers (2023), Vergil and Elegy. 11, 73; Manolaraki (2012), Noscendi Nilum Cupido: Imagining Egypt from Lucan to Philostratus, 33; Perkell (1989), The Poet's Truth: A Study of the Poet in Virgil's Georgics, 43, 81, 82, 83; Thorsen et al. (2021), Greek and Latin Love: The Poetic Connection, 106
1.126 ne signare quidem aut partiri limite campum 1.127 fas erat: in medium quaerebant ipsaque tellus 1.128 omnia liberius nullo poscente ferebat.
1.133 ut varias usus meditando extunderet artis
2.174 magna virum; tibi res antiquae laudis et artem 2.175 ingredior, sanctos ausus recludere fontis,
2.540 inpositos duris crepitare incudibus enses.
4.287 Nam qua Pellaei gens fortunata Canopi 4.288 accolit effuso stagtem flumine Nilum 4.289 et circum pictis vehitur sua rura phaselis, 4.290 quaque pharetratae vicinia Persidis urget, 4.291 et viridem Aegyptum nigra fecundat harena, 4.292 et diversa ruens septem discurrit in ora 4.293 usque coloratis amnis devexus ab Indis 4.294 omnis in hac certam regio iacit arte salutem.
4.321 “Mater, Cyrene mater, quae gurgitis huius
4.464 Ipse cava solans aegrum testudine amorem 4.465 te, dulcis coniunx, te solo in litore secum, 4.466 te veniente die, te decedente canebat.
4.469 ingressus manesque adiit regemque tremendum 4.470 nesciaque humanis precibus mansuescere corda. 4.471 At cantu commotae Erebi de sedibus imis 4.472 umbrae ibant tenues simulacraque luce carentum,
4.475 matres atque viri defunctaque corpora vita 4.476 magimum heroum, pueri innuptaeque puellae, 4.477 impositique rogis iuvenes ante ora parentum,
4.481 Quin ipsae stupuere domus atque intima Leti 4.482 tartara caeruleosque implexae crinibus angues 4.483 Eumenides, tenuitque inhians tria Cerberus ora 4.484 atque Ixionii vento rota constitit orbis.
4.488 cum subita incautum dementia cepit amantem,
4.490 Restitit Eurydicenque suam iam luce sub ipsa 4.491 immemor heu! victusque animi respexit. Ibi omnis 4.492 effusus labor atque immitis rupta tyranni 4.493 foedera, terque fragor stagnis auditus Avernis.
4.495 quis tantus furor? En iterum crudelia retro
4.507 Septem illum totos perhibent ex ordine menses 4.508 rupe sub aeria deserti ad Strymonis undam 4.509 flesse sibi et gelidis haec evolvisse sub antris 4.510 mulcentem tigres et agentem carmine quercus; 4.511 qualis populea maerens philomela sub umbra 4.512 amissos queritur fetus, quos durus arator 4.513 observans nido implumes detraxit; at illa 4.514 flet noctem ramoque sedens miserabile carmen 4.515 integrat et maestis late loca questibus implet. 4.516 Nulla Venus, non ulli animum flexere hymenaei. 4.517 Solus Hyperboreas glacies Tanaimque nivalem 4.518 arvaque Rhipaeis numquam viduata pruinis 4.519 lustrabat raptam Eurydicen atque inrita Ditis 4.520 dona querens; spretae Ciconum quo munere matres
4.523 Tum quoque marmorea caput a cervice revulsum 4.524 gurgite cum medio portans Oeagrius Hebrus 4.525 volveret, Eurydicen vox ipsa et frigida lingua 4.526 “ah miseram Eurydicen!” anima fugiente vocabat: 4.527 “Eurydicen” toto referebant flumine ripae.”'' None
1.126 Exceedingly rejoice, the field hath joy; 1.127 No tilth makes 1.128 Nor Gargarus his own harvests so admire.
1.133 And when the parched field quivers, and all the blade
2.174 And ease the panting breathlessness of age. 2.175 But no, not Mede-land with its wealth of woods,
2.540 And shoot forth radiance. And shall men be loath
4.287 of the Divine Intelligence, and to drink 4.288 Pure draughts of ether; for God permeates all— 4.289 Earth, and wide ocean, and the vault of heaven— 4.290 From whom flocks, herds, men, beasts of every kind, 4.291 Draw each at birth the fine essential flame; 4.292 Yea, and that all things hence to Him return, 4.293 Brought back by dissolution, nor can death 4.294 Find place: but, each into his starry rank,' "
4.321 Or spider, victim of Minerva's spite," 4.464 Arched mountain-wise closed round him, and within 4.465 Its mighty bosom welcomed, and let speed 4.466 To the deep river-bed. And now, with eye
4.469 And echoing groves, he went, and, stunned by that 4.470 Stupendous whirl of waters, separate saw 4.471 All streams beneath the mighty earth that glide, 4.472 Phasis and Lycus, and that fountain-head
4.475 And Hypanis that roars amid his rocks, 4.476 And Mysian Caicus, and, bull-browed' "4.477 'Twixt either gilded horn, 4.492 Thrice Vesta's fire with nectar clear she dashed," '4.493 Thrice to the roof-top shot the flame and shone:' "
4.495 “In Neptune's gulf Carpathian dwells a seer," 4.507 And grant a prosperous end. For save by force 4.508 No rede will he vouchsafe, nor shalt thou bend 4.509 His soul by praying; whom once made captive, ply 4.510 With rigorous force and fetters; against these 4.511 His wiles will break and spend themselves in vain. 4.512 I, when the sun has lit his noontide fires, 4.513 When the blades thirst, and cattle love the shade,' "4.514 Myself will guide thee to the old man's haunt," '4.515 Whither he hies him weary from the waves, 4.516 That thou mayst safelier steal upon his sleep. 4.517 But when thou hast gripped him fast with hand and gyve, 4.518 Then divers forms and bestial semblance 4.519 Shall mock thy grasp; for sudden he will change 4.520 To bristly boar, fell tigress, dragon scaled,
4.523 The fetters, or in showery drops anon 4.524 Dissolve and vanish. But the more he shift 4.525 His endless transformations, thou, my son, 4.526 More straitlier clench the clinging bands, until' "4.527 His body's shape return to that thou sawest,"' None
|97. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Ares • and Ares, in lagrante
Found in books: Lipka (2021), Epiphanies and Dreams in Greek Polytheism: Textual Genres and 'Reality' from Homer to Heliodorus, 34; Maciver (2012), Quintus Smyrnaeus' Posthomerica: Engaging Homer in Late Antiquity, 146, 147, 155, 157, 162, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 169, 170, 171, 173, 175
|98. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Cicero, influence of De officiis on Ars amatoria • art of life
Found in books: Long (2006), From Epicurus to Epictetus Studies in Hellenistic and Roman Philosophy, 30; Williams and Vol (2022), Philosophy in Ovid, Ovid as Philosopher, 80
|99. None, None, nan
Tagged with subjects: • Ars Amatoria (Ovid) • ars
Found in books: Clay and Vergados (2022), Teaching through Images: Imagery in Greco-Roman Didactic Poetry, 227; Green (2014), Carthage in Virgil's Aeneid: Staging the Enemy under Augustus, 57