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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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subject book bibliographic info
architectura, and greek knowledge, de Oksanish (2019) 17, 18, 47, 48, 49, 60, 61, 81, 82, 98, 102, 103, 114, 115, 123, 124, 125, 128, 129, 130, 131, 144, 145, 179, 180, 185
architectura, and imperialism, de Oksanish (2019) 3, 10, 60, 61, 108, 126, 143, 160, 161, 179, 180, 188, 189
architectura, audience, de Oksanish (2019) 7, 8, 9
architectura, augustus, dedicatee of de Oksanish (2019) 8, 9, 22, 33, 34, 35, 65, 85, 189
architectura, caryatids, function in de Oksanish (2019) 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79
architectura, contents and aims, de Oksanish (2019) 8, 9, 10
architectura, de, vitruvius Green (2014) 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 170, 171
architectura, de, vitruvius, date of Green (2014) 109
architectura, de, vitruvius, purpose of Green (2014) 110, 111, 112
architectura, dedication, de Oksanish (2019) 52, 53
architectura, diagnostic passages, de Oksanish (2019) 29, 30, 89, 90, 148, 149, 155, 156, 161, 162, 184
architectura, etymology Oksanish (2019) 28, 48, 49, 123, 124
architectura, literariness and textuality, de Oksanish (2019) 5, 8, 9, 24, 27, 28, 30, 36, 63, 69, 70, 115, 185
architectura, prefaces, de Oksanish (2019) 5, 148
architectura, reception, de Oksanish (2019) 95, 96
architectura, rhetoric of disclosure, de Oksanish (2019) 12
architectura, sphragis, de Oksanish (2019) 15, 97
architectura, universalizing, de Oksanish (2019) 21, 22, 27, 36, 38, 91, 92, 96, 97, 102, 103, 117, 118, 138
architecturae, corpus Oksanish (2019) 27, 48, 49, 93, 99, 100, 102, 103, 108, 109, 115, 116, 117, 118, 184
architecturae, summum templum Oksanish (2019) 17, 127, 143
architecturae, translations of term, corpus Oksanish (2019) 100

List of validated texts:
22 validated results for "architectura"
1. Thucydides, The History of The Peloponnesian War, 6.54.6 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • H-architecture • friezes, architectural,, on pottery

 Found in books: Gygax (2016) 100; Rutter and Sparkes (2012) 45

6.54.6. τὰ δὲ ἄλλα αὐτὴ ἡ πόλις τοῖς πρὶν κειμένοις νόμοις ἐχρῆτο, πλὴν καθ’ ὅσον αἰεί τινα ἐπεμέλοντο σφῶν αὐτῶν ἐν ταῖς ἀρχαῖς εἶναι. καὶ ἄλλοι τε αὐτῶν ἦρξαν τὴν ἐνιαύσιον Ἀθηναίοις ἀρχὴν καὶ Πεισίστρατος ὁ Ἱππίου τοῦ τυραννεύσαντος υἱός, τοῦ πάππου ἔχων τοὔνομα, ὃς τῶν δώδεκα θεῶν βωμὸν τὸν ἐν τῇ ἀγορᾷ ἄρχων ἀνέθηκε καὶ τὸν τοῦ Ἀπόλλωνος ἐν Πυθίου.''. None
6.54.6. For the rest, the city was left in full enjoyment of its existing laws, except that care was always taken to have the offices in the hands of some one of the family. Among those of them that held the yearly archonship at Athens was Pisistratus, son of the tyrant Hippias, and named after his grandfather, who dedicated during his term of office the altar to the twelve gods in the market-place, and that of Apollo in the Pythian precinct. ''. None
2. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 5.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Rome (Ancient), architectural changes • architecture • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • art and architecture, Roman appreciation

 Found in books: Borg (2008) 345; Galinsky (2016) 221; Jenkyns (2013) 258

5.2. tum Piso: Naturane nobis hoc, inquit, datum dicam an errore quodam, ut, cum ea loca videamus, in quibus memoria dignos viros acceperimus multum esse versatos, magis moveamur, quam si quando eorum ipsorum aut facta audiamus aut scriptum aliquod aliquid R legamus? velut ego nunc moveor. venit enim mihi Platonis in mentem, quem accepimus primum hic disputare solitum; cuius etiam illi hortuli propinqui propinqui hortuli BE non memoriam solum mihi afferunt, sed ipsum videntur in conspectu meo ponere. hic Speusippus, hic Xenocrates, hic eius auditor Polemo, cuius illa ipsa sessio fuit, quam videmus. Equidem etiam curiam nostram—Hostiliam dico, non hanc novam, quae minor mihi esse esse mihi B videtur, posteaquam est maior—solebam intuens Scipionem, Catonem, Laelium, nostrum vero in primis avum cogitare; tanta vis admonitionis inest in locis; ut non sine causa ex iis memoriae ducta sit disciplina.''. None
5.2. \xa0Thereupon Piso remarked: "Whether it is a natural instinct or a mere illusion, I\xa0can\'t say; but one\'s emotions are more strongly aroused by seeing the places that tradition records to have been the favourite resort of men of note in former days, than by hearing about their deeds or reading their writings. My own feelings at the present moment are a case in point. I\xa0am reminded of Plato, the first philosopher, so we are told, that made a practice of holding discussions in this place; and indeed the garden close at hand yonder not only recalls his memory but seems to bring the actual man before my eyes. This was the haunt of Speusippus, of Xenocrates, and of Xenocrates\' pupil Polemo, who used to sit on the very seat we see over there. For my own part even the sight of our senate-house at home (I\xa0mean the Curia Hostilia, not the present new building, which looks to my eyes smaller since its enlargement) used to call up to me thoughts of Scipio, Cato, Laelius, and chief of all, my grandfather; such powers of suggestion do places possess. No wonder the scientific training of the memory is based upon locality." <''. None
3. Cicero, On Duties, 1.150-1.151 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Architect / Architecture, ancient • De Architectura (Vitruvius) • De Architectura (Vitruvius), purpose of • De architectura, and Greek knowledge • architectura, etymology • architecture, and theory • architecture, elevated by Vitruvius? • architecture, embodied by ideal practitioner • architecture, status of discipline

 Found in books: Green (2014) 111; Oksanish (2019) 121, 122, 124

1.150. Iam de artificiis et quaestibus, qui liberales habendi, qui sordidi sint, haec fere accepimus. Primum improbantur ii quaestus, qui in odia hominum incurrunt, ut portitorum, ut faeneratorum. Illiberales autem et sordidi quaestus mercennariorum omnium, quorum operae, non quorum artes emuntur; est enim in illis ipsa merces auctoramentum servitutis. Sordidi etiam putandi, qui mercantur a mercatoribus, quod statim vendant; nihil enim proficiant, nisi admodum mentiantur; nec vero est quicquam turpius vanitate. Opificesque omnes in sordida arte versantur; nec enim quicquam ingenuum habere potest officina. Minimeque artes eae probandae, quae ministrae sunt voluptatum: Cetárii, lanií, coqui, fartóres, piscatóres, ut ait Terentius; adde hue, si placet, unguentarios, saltatores totumque ludum talarium. 1.151. Quibus autem artibus aut prudentia maior inest aut non mediocris utilitas quaeritur, ut medicina, ut architectura, ut doctrina rerum honestarum, eae sunt iis, quorum ordini conveniunt, honestae. Mercatura autem, si tenuis est. sordida putanda est; sin magna et copiosa, multa undique apportans multisque sine vanitate impertiens, non est admodum vituperanda, atque etiam, si satiata quaestu vel contenta potius, ut saepe ex alto in portum, ex ipso portu se in agros possessionesque contulit, videtur iure optimo posse laudari. Omnium autem rerum, ex quibus aliquid acquiritur, nihil est agri cultura melius, nihil uberius, nihil dulcius, nihil homine libero dignius; de qua quoniam in Catone Maiore satis multa diximus, illim assumes, quae ad hunc locum pertinebunt.''. None
1.150. \xa0Now in regard to trades and other means of livelihood, which ones are to be considered becoming to a gentleman and which ones are vulgar, we have been taught, in general, as follows. First, those means of livelihood are rejected as undesirable which incur people\'s ill-will, as those of tax-gatherers and usurers. Unbecoming to a gentleman, too, and vulgar are the means of livelihood of all hired workmen whom we pay for mere manual labour, not for artistic skill; for in their case the very wage they receive is a pledge of their slavery. Vulgar we must consider those also who buy from wholesale merchants to retail immediately; for they would get no profits without a great deal of downright lying; and verily, there is no action that is meaner than misrepresentation. And all mechanics are engaged in vulgar trades; for no workshop can have anything liberal about it. Least respectable of all are those trades which cater for sensual pleasures: "Fishmongers, butchers, cooks, and poulterers, And fishermen," as Terence says. Add to these, if you please, the perfumers, dancers, and the whole corps de\xa0ballet. < 1.151. \xa0But the professions in which either a higher degree of intelligence is required or from which no small benefit to society is derived â\x80\x94 medicine and architecture, for example, and teaching â\x80\x94 these are proper for those whose social position they become. Trade, if it is on a small scale, is to be considered vulgar; but if wholesale and on a large scale, importing large quantities from all parts of the world and distributing to many without misrepresentation, it is not to be greatly disparaged. Nay, it even seems to deserve the highest respect, if those who are engaged in it, satiated, or rather, I\xa0should say, satisfied with the fortunes they have made, make their way from the port to a country estate, as they have often made it from the sea into port. But of all the occupations by which gain is secured, none is better than agriculture, none more profitable, none more delightful, none more becoming to a freeman. But since I\xa0have discussed this quite fully in my Cato Major, you will find there the material that applies to this point.''. None
4. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Architect / Architecture, ancient • De Architectura (Vitruvius) • De Architectura (Vitruvius), purpose of • architecture, ars multiplex • architecture, embodied by ideal practitioner • oratory, C, subject analogous to architecture

 Found in books: Green (2014) 111; Oksanish (2019) 140, 141, 142

5. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 15.865 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • architecture • privacy, and domestic architecture

 Found in books: Fertik (2019) 65; Jenkyns (2013) 78

15.865. et cum Caesarea tu, Phoebe domestice, Vesta,''. None
15.865. the city, you shall be its chosen king''. None
6. Vitruvius Pollio, On Architecture, 1.1.3, 1.1.11-1.1.12, 1.1.18, 5.4.1, 6.1.11, 6.7.7, 9.1.1, 9.6.2-9.6.3, 10.16.2 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Architect / Architecture, ancient • Augustus, dedicatee of De architectura • De Architectura (Vitruvius) • De Architectura (Vitruvius), date of • De Architectura (Vitruvius), purpose of • De architectura, and Greek knowledge • De architectura, and imperialism • De architectura, audience • De architectura, contents and aims • De architectura, diagnostic passages • De architectura, literariness and textuality • De architectura, prefaces • De architectura, reception • De architectura, universalizing • anthropomorphism, in architecture • architect, limit on architectural knowledge • architectura, etymology • architecture, and theory • architecture, ars multiplex • architecture, civic art • architecture, embodied by ideal practitioner • architecture, esoteric • architecture, in quarrel between rhetoric and philosophy • architecture, irrational • architecture, monologic • architecture, status of discipline • body, in architecture • caryatids, function in De architectura • corpus architecturae • durability, of architecture • oratory, C, subject analogous to architecture • summum templum architecturae

 Found in books: Green (2014) 109, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 115; Oksanish (2019) 5, 8, 9, 17, 18, 20, 64, 65, 70, 71, 78, 85, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 96, 102, 103, 108, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 132, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 143, 144, 146, 148

1.1.3. 3. In architecture, as in other arts, two considerations must be constantly kept in view; namely, the intention, and the matter used to express that intention: but the intention is founded on a conviction that the matter wrought will fully suit the purpose; he, therefore, who is not familiar with both branches of the art, has no pretension to the title of the architect. An architect should be ingenious, and apt in the acquisition of knowledge. Deficient in either of these qualities, he cannot be a perfect master. He should be a good writer, a skilful draftsman, versed in geometry and optics, expert at figures, acquainted with history, informed on the principles of natural and moral philosophy, somewhat of a musician, not ignorant of the sciences both of law and physic, nor of the motions, laws, and relations to each other, of the heavenly bodies.
1.1.11. 11. Since, therefore, this art is founded upon and adorned with so many different sciences, I\xa0am of opinion that those who have not, from their early youth, gradually climbed up to the summit, cannot, without presumption, call themselves masters of it. 1.1.12. 12. Perhaps, to the uninformed, it may appear unaccountable that a man should be able to retain in his memory such a variety of learning; but the close alliance with each other, of the different branches of science, will explain the difficulty. For as a body is composed of various concordant members, so does the whole circle of learning consist in one harmonious system. Wherefore those, who from an early age are initiated in the different branches of learning, have a facility in acquiring some knowledge of all, from their common connexion with each other. On this account Pythius, one of the antients, architect of the noble temple of Minerva at Priene, says, in his commentaries, that an architect should have that perfect knowledge of each art and science which is not even acquired by the professors of any one in particular, who have had every opportunity of improving themselves in it. This, however, cannot be necessary;
1.1.18. 18. Since, therefore, few men are thus gifted, and yet it is required of the architect to be generally well informed, and it is manifest he cannot hope to excel in each art, I\xa0beseech you, O\xa0Cæsar, and those who read this my work, to pardon and overlook grammatical errors; for I\xa0write neither as an accomplished philosopher, an eloquent rhetorician, nor an expert grammarian, but as an architect: in respect, however, of my art and its principles, I\xa0will lay down rules which may serve as an authority to those who build, as well as to those who are already somewhat acquainted with the science.
5.4.1. 1. Harmony is an obscure and difficult musical science, but most difficult to those who are not acquainted with the Greek language; because it is necessary to use many Greek words to which there are none corresponding in Latin. I\xa0will therefore explain, to the best of my ability, the doctrine of Aristoxenus, and annex his diagram, and will so designate the place of each tone, that a person who studiously applies himself to the subject may very readily understand it.
6.1.11. 11. on this account the people of Italy excel in both qualities, strength of body and vigour of mind. For as the planet Jupiter moves through a temperate region between the fiery Mars and icy Saturn, so Italy enjoys a temperate and unequalled climate between the north on one side, and the south on the other. Hence it is, that by stratagem she is enabled to repress the attacks of the barbarians, and by her strength to overcome the subtilty of southern nations. Divine providence has so ordered it that the metropolis of the Roman people is placed in an excellent and temperate climate, whereby they have become the masters of the world.
6.7.7. 7. I\xa0mention these things, not to induce persons to change the names at this period, but that they may be known to philologists. I\xa0explained the different arrangement of buildings after the practice of the Italians, as well as that of the Greeks, by giving the proportions and division of each; and, as we have already laid down the principles of beauty and propriety, we shall now consider the subject of strength, by which a building may be without defects, and durable.
10.16.2. 2. Whoever, therefore, attends to these precepts, will be able to select from the variety mentioned, and design safely, without further aid, such new schemes as the nature of the places and other circumstances may require. For the defence of a place or army, one cannot give precepts in writing, since the machines which the enemy prepares may not be in consoce with our rules; whence oftentimes their contrivances are foiled by some ready ingenious plan, without the assistance of machines, as was the case with the Rhodians.' '. None
7. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • De architectura, literariness and textuality • Hellenistic architecture • Julius Caesar, monumental architecture • aesthetic approach to art and architecture • architecture and art, aesthetic approach • art and architecture, aesthetic approach • caryatids, function in De architectura • ideological approach to art and architecture • political approach to art and architecture

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013) 48, 95, 97, 334; Oksanish (2019) 69, 76

8. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Greek architectural influences • aesthetic approach to art and architecture • architecture and art, aesthetic approach • art and architecture, aesthetic approach • durability, of architecture

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013) 314; Oksanish (2019) 64

9. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus, dedicatee of De architectura • De architectura, and imperialism • Domitian, public architecture

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013) 52; Oksanish (2019) 188, 189

10. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • architecture, Roman

 Found in books: Konig and Wiater (2022) 52; König and Wiater (2022) 52

11. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.128 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • architecture • synagogue architecture, benches

 Found in books: Levine (2005) 63; Piotrkowski (2019) 388

2.128. Πρός γε μὴν τὸ θεῖον εὐσεβεῖς ἰδίως: πρὶν γὰρ ἀνασχεῖν τὸν ἥλιον οὐδὲν φθέγγονται τῶν βεβήλων, πατρίους δέ τινας εἰς αὐτὸν εὐχὰς ὥσπερ ἱκετεύοντες ἀνατεῖλαι.''. None
2.128. 5. And as for their piety towards God, it is very extraordinary; for before sunrising they speak not a word about profane matters, but put up certain prayers which they have received from their forefathers, as if they made a supplication for its rising.''. None
12. Tacitus, Annals, 15.42 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Nilus, architectural feature • privacy, and domestic architecture

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013) 79; Manolaraki (2012) 42

15.42. Ceterum Nero usus est patriae ruinis extruxitque domum in qua haud proinde gemmae et aurum miraculo essent, solita pridem et luxu vulgata, quam arva et stagna et in modum solitudinum hinc silvae inde aperta spatia et prospectus, magistris et machinatoribus Severo et Celere, quibus ingenium et audacia erat etiam quae natura denegavisset per artem temptare et viribus principis inludere. namque ab lacu Averno navigabilem fossam usque ad ostia Tiberina depressuros promiserant squalenti litore aut per montis adversos. neque enim aliud umidum gignendis aquis occurrit quam Pomptinae paludes: cetera abrupta aut arentia ac, si perrumpi possent, intolerandus labor nec satis causae. Nero tamen, ut erat incredibilium cupitor, effodere proxima Averno iuga conisus est; manentque vestigia inritae spei.''. None
15.42. \xa0However, Nero turned to account the ruins of his fatherland by building a palace, the marvels of which were to consist not so much in gems and gold, materials long familiar and vulgarized by luxury, as in fields and lakes and the air of solitude given by wooded ground alternating with clear tracts and open landscapes. The architects and engineers were Severus and Celer, who had the ingenuity and the courage to try the force of art even against the veto of nature and to fritter away the resources of a Caesar. They had undertaken to sink a navigable canal running from Lake Avernus to the mouths of the Tiber along a desolate shore or through intervening hills; for the one district along the route moist enough to yield a supply of water is the Pomptine Marsh; the rest being cliff and sand, which could be cut through, if at all, only by intolerable exertions for which no sufficient motive existed. None the less, Nero, with his passion for the incredible, made an effort to tunnel the height nearest the Avernus, and some evidences of that futile ambition survive. <''. None
13. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus, and architecture • Augustus, architectural program • De architectura, and Greek knowledge • De architectura, and imperialism • De architectura, literariness and textuality • Hellenistic architecture • Julius Caesar, monumental architecture • architecture • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • art and architecture, Roman appreciation • durability, of architecture

 Found in books: Borg (2008) 297; Csapo (2022) 147; Jenkyns (2013) 95, 264; Oksanish (2019) 60, 61, 69

14. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • architecture, from first century to early fourth century • architecture, generally • architecture, influence of synagogues • synagogue architecture, aisles • synagogue architecture, benches • synagogues, influence of Christian architecture

 Found in books: Esler (2000) 702; Levine (2005) 93

15. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Domitian, public architecture • Rome (Ancient), architectural changes • architecture

 Found in books: Borg (2008) 301; Galinsky (2016) 223; Jenkyns (2013) 332

16. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 7.4.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • architectural remains, sanctuaries • architecture

 Found in books: Borg (2008) 38; Sweeney (2013) 98

7.4.4. τὸ δὲ ἱερὸν τὸ ἐν Σάμῳ τῆς Ἥρας εἰσὶν οἳ ἱδρύσασθαί φασι τοὺς ἐν τῇ Ἀργοῖ πλέοντας, ἐπάγεσθαι δὲ αὐτοὺς τὸ ἄγαλμα ἐξ Ἄργους· Σάμιοι δὲ αὐτοὶ τεχθῆναι νομίζουσιν ἐν τῇ νήσῳ τὴν θεὸν παρὰ τῷ Ἰμβράσῳ ποταμῷ καὶ ὑπὸ τῇ λύγῳ τῇ ἐν τῷ Ἡραίῳ κατʼ ἐμὲ ἔτι πεφυκυίᾳ. εἶναι δʼ οὖν τὸ ἱερὸν τοῦτο ἐν τοῖς μάλιστα ἀρχαῖον ὃ οὐχ ἥκιστα ἄν τις καὶ ἐπὶ τῷ ἀγάλματι τεκμαίροιτο· ἔστι γὰρ δὴ ἀνδρὸς ἔργον Αἰγινήτου Σμίλιδος τοῦ Εὐκλείδου. οὗτος ὁ Σμῖλίς ἐστιν ἡλικίαν κατὰ Δαίδαλον, δόξης δὲ οὐκ ἐς τὸ ἴσον ἀφίκετο·''. None
7.4.4. Some say that the sanctuary of Hera in Samos was established by those who sailed in the Argo, and that these brought the image from Argos . But the Samians themselves hold that the goddess was born in the island by the side of the river Imbrasus under the withy that even in my time grew in the Heraeum. That this sanctuary is very old might be inferred especially by considering the image; for it is the work of an Aeginetan, Smilis, the son of Eucleides. This Smilis was a contemporary of Daedalus, though of less repute.''. None
17. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 10.49 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • architecture, banquet hall • sacred architecture

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013) 266; Marek (2019) 511

10.49. To Trajan. Before my arrival, Sir, the people of Nicomedia had commenced to make certain additions to their old forum, in one corner of which stands a very ancient shrine of the Great Mother, * which should either be restored or removed to another site, principally for this reason, that it is much less lofty than the new buildings, which are being run up to a good height. When I inquired whether the temple was protected by any legal enactments, I discovered that the form of dedication is different here from what it is with us in Rome. Consider therefore. Sir, whether you think that a temple can be removed without desecration when there has been no legal consecration of the site, for, if there are no religious objections, the removal would be a great convenience. ''. None
18. Babylonian Talmud, Sukkah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Temple of Ezekiel, architectural similarities to the Temple Scroll • synagogues, architecture

 Found in books: Esler (2000) 94; Ganzel and Holtz (2020) 151

51b. באבוקות של אור שבידיהן ואומרים לפניהם דברי שירות ותושבחות והלוים בכנורות ובנבלים ובמצלתים ובחצוצרות ובכלי שיר בלא מספר על חמש עשרה מעלות היורדות מעזרת ישראל לעזרת נשים כנגד חמש עשרה (מעלות) שבתהלים שעליהן לוים עומדין בכלי שיר ואומרים שירה,ועמדו שני כהנים בשער העליון שיורד מעזרת ישראל לעזרת נשים ושני חצוצרות בידיהן קרא הגבר תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו למעלה עשירית תקעו והריעו ותקעו הגיעו לעזרה תקעו והריעו ותקעו,(הגיעו לקרקע תקעו והריעו ותקעו) היו תוקעין והולכין עד שמגיעין לשער היוצא ממזרח הגיעו לשער היוצא ממזרח הפכו פניהן ממזרח למערב ואמרו אבותינו שהיו במקום הזה אחוריהם אל ההיכל ופניהם קדמה ומשתחוים קדמה לשמש ואנו ליה עינינו ר\' יהודה אומר היו שונין ואומרין אנו ליה וליה עינינו:,
51b. with flaming torches that they would juggle in their hands, and they would say before them passages of song and praise to God. And the Levites would play on lyres, harps, cymbals, and trumpets, and countless other musical instruments. The musicians would stand on the fifteen stairs that descend from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, corresponding to the fifteen Songs of the Ascents in Psalms, i.e., chapters 120–134, and upon which the Levites stand with musical instruments and recite their song.,And this was the ceremony of the Water Libation: Two priests stood at the Upper Gate that descends from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, with two trumpets in their hands. When the rooster crowed at dawn, they sounded a tekia, and sounded a terua, and sounded a tekia. When they who would draw the water reached the tenth stair the trumpeters sounded a tekia, and sounded a terua, and sounded a tekia, to indicate that the time to draw water from the Siloam pool had arrived. When they reached the Women’s Courtyard with the basins of water in their hands, the trumpeters sounded a tekia, and sounded a terua, and sounded a tekia.,When they reached the ground of the Women’s Courtyard, the trumpeters sounded a tekia, and sounded a terua, and sounded a tekia. They continued sounding the trumpets until they reached the gate through which one exits to the east, from the Women’s Courtyard to the eastern slope of the Temple Mount. When they reached the gate through which one exits to the east, they turned from facing east to facing west, toward the Holy of Holies, and said: Our ancestors who were in this place during the First Temple period who did not conduct themselves appropriately, stood “with their backs toward the Sanctuary of the Lord, and their faces toward the east; and they worshipped the sun toward the east” (Ezekiel 8:16), and we, our eyes are to God. Rabbi Yehuda says that they would repeat and say: We are to God, and our eyes are to God.,The Sages taught: One who did not see the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, never saw celebration in his life. One who did not see Jerusalem in its glory, never saw a beautiful city. One who did not see the Temple in its constructed state, never saw a magnificent structure. The Gemara asks: What is the Temple building to which the Sages refer? Abaye said, and some say that it was Rav Ḥisda who said: This is referring to the magnificent building of Herod, who renovated the Second Temple.,The Gemara asks: With what materials did he construct it? Rava said: It was with stones of green-gray marble and white marble marmara. Some say: It was with stones of blue marble and white marble. The rows of stones were set with one row slightly protruded and one row slightly indented, so that the plaster would take better. He thought to plate the Temple with gold, but the Sages said to him: Leave it as is, and do not plate it, as it is better this way, as with the different colors and the staggered arrangement of the rows of stones, it has the appearance of waves of the sea.,It is taught in a baraita that Rabbi Yehuda says: One who did not see the great synagogue deyofloston of Alexandria of Egypt never saw the glory of Israel. They said that its structure was like a large basilica basileki, with a colonnade within a colonnade. At times there were six hundred thousand men and another six hundred thousand men in it, twice the number of those who left Egypt. In it there were seventy-one golden chairs katedraot, corresponding to the seventy-one members of the Great Sanhedrin, each of which consisted of no less than twenty-one thousand talents of gold. And there was a wooden platform at the center. The sexton of the synagogue would stand on it, with the scarves in his hand. And because the synagogue was so large and the people could not hear the communal prayer, when the prayer leader reached the conclusion of a blessing requiring the people to answer amen, the sexton waved the scarf and all the people would answer amen.,And the members of the various crafts would not sit mingled. Rather, the goldsmiths would sit among themselves, and the silversmiths among themselves, and the blacksmiths among themselves, and the coppersmiths among themselves, and the weavers among themselves. And when a poor stranger entered there, he would recognize people who plied his craft, and he would turn to join them there. And from there he would secure his livelihood as well as the livelihood of the members of his household, as his colleagues would find him work in that craft.,After depicting the glory of the synagogue, the Gemara relates that Abaye said: All of the people who congregated in that synagogue were killed by Alexander the Great of Macedonia. The Gemara asks: What is the reason that they were punished and killed? It is due to the fact that they violated the prohibition with regard to Egypt in this verse: “You shall henceforth return no more that way” (Deuteronomy 17:16), and they returned. Since they established their permanent place of residence in Egypt, they were punished.,When Alexander arrived, he found them, and saw that they were reading the verse in the Torah scroll: “The Lord will bring a nation against you from far, from the end of the earth, as the vulture swoops down; a nation whose tongue you shall not understand” (Deuteronomy 28:49). He said, referring to himself: Now, since that man sought to come by ship in ten days, and a wind carried it and the ship arrived in only five days, apparently the verse referring a vulture swooping down is referring to me and heavenly forces are assisting me. Immediately, he set upon them and slaughtered them.,§ The mishna continues: At the conclusion of the first Festival day, etc., the priests and the Levites descended from the Israelites’ courtyard to the Women’s Courtyard, where they would introduce a significant repair. The Gemara asks: What is this significant repair? Rabbi Elazar said that it is like that which we learned: The walls of the Women’s Courtyard were smooth, without protrusions, initially. Subsequently, they affixed protrusions to the wall surrounding the Women’s Courtyard. Each year thereafter, for the Celebration of the Place of the Drawing of the Water, they placed wooden planks on these projections and surrounded the courtyard with a balcony gezuztra. And they instituted that the women should sit above and the men below.,The Sages taught in the Tosefta: Initially, women would stand on the inside of the Women’s Courtyard, closer to the Sanctuary to the west, and the men were on the outside in the courtyard and on the rampart. And they would come to conduct themselves with inappropriate levity in each other’s company, as the men needed to enter closer to the altar when the offerings were being sacrificed and as a result they would mingle with the women. Therefore, the Sages instituted that the women should sit on the outside and the men on the inside, and still they would come to conduct themselves with inappropriate levity. Therefore, they instituted in the interest of complete separation that the women would sit above and the men below.,The Gemara asks: How could one do so, i.e., alter the structure of the Temple? But isn’t it written with regard to the Temple: “All this I give you in writing, as the Lord has made me wise by His hand upon me, even all the works of this pattern” (I Chronicles 28:19), meaning that all the structural plans of the Temple were divinely inspired; how could the Sages institute changes?,Rav said: They found a verse, and interpreted it homiletically and acted accordingly:''. None
19. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 10.4.40 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • architecture, Constantine’s church building • architecture, aula ecclesiae • architecture, basilicas • architecture, fourth and fifth centuries • architecture, generally • church architecture, fountain • synagogue architecture, atriums and water installations

 Found in books: Esler (2000) 726, 728; Levine (2005) 333

10.4.40. Here he has placed symbols of sacred purifications, setting up fountains opposite the temple which furnish an abundance of water wherewith those who come within the sanctuary may purify themselves. This is the first halting-place of those who enter; and it furnishes at the same time a beautiful and splendid scene to every one, and to those who still need elementary instruction a fitting station.''. None
20. Strabo, Geography, 12.2.7, 14.1.23
 Tagged with subjects: • De architectura, diagnostic passages • architectural remains, sanctuaries • architecture • architecture, mosaics

 Found in books: Borg (2008) 39; Marek (2019) 514; Oksanish (2019) 149; Sweeney (2013) 148

12.2.7. Only two prefectures have cities, Tyanitis the city Tyana, which lies below the Taurus at the Cilician Gates, where for all is the easiest and most commonly used pass into Cilicia and Syria. It is called Eusebeia near the Taurus; and its territory is for the most part fertile and level. Tyana is situated upon a mound of Semiramis, which is beautifully fortified. Not far from this city are Castabala and Cybistra, towns still nearer to the mountain. At Castabala is the sanctuary of the Perasian Artemis, where the priestesses, it is said, walk with naked feet over hot embers without pain. And here, too, some tell us over and over the same story of Orestes and Tauropolus, asserting that she was called Perasian because she was brought from the other side. So then, in the prefecture Tyanitis, one of the ten above mentioned is Tyana (I am not enumerating along with these prefectures those that were acquired later, I mean Castabala and Cybistra and the places in Cilicia Tracheia, where is Elaeussa, a very fertile island, which was settled in a noteworthy manner by Archelaus, who spent the greater part of his time there), whereas Mazaca, the metropolis of the tribe, is in the Cilician prefecture, as it is called. This city, too, is called Eusebeia, with the additional words near the Argaeus, for it is situated below the Argaeus, the highest mountain of all, whose summit never fails to have snow upon it; and those who ascend it (those are few) say that in clear weather both seas, both the Pontus and the Issian Sea, are visible from it. Now in general Mazaca is not naturally a suitable place for the founding of a city, for it is without water and unfortified by nature; and, because of the neglect of the prefects, it is also without walls (perhaps intentionally so, in order that people inhabiting a plain, with hills above it that were advantageous and beyond range of missiles, might not, through too much reliance upon the wall as a fortification, engage in plundering). Further, the districts all round are utterly barren and untilled, although they are level; but they are sandy and are rocky underneath. And, proceeding a little farther on, one comes to plains extending over many stadia that are volcanic and full of fire-pits; and therefore the necessaries of life must be brought from a distance. And further, that which seems to be an advantage is attended with peril, for although almost the whole of Cappadocia is without timber, the Argaeus has forests all round it, and therefore the working of timber is close at hand; but the region which lies below the forests also contains fires in many places and at the same time has an underground supply of cold water, although neither the fire nor the water emerges to the surface; and therefore most of the country is covered with grass. In some places, also, the ground is marshy, and at night flames rise therefrom. Now those who are acquainted with the country can work the timber, since they are on their guard, but the country is perilous for most people, and especially for cattle, since they fall into the hidden fire-pits.
14.1.23. After the completion of the temple of Artemis, which, he says, was the work of Cheirocrates (the same man who built Alexandreia and the same man who proposed to Alexander to fashion Mt. Athos into his likeness, representing him as pouring a libation from a kind of ewer into a broad bowl, and to make two cities, one on the right of the mountain and the other on the left, and a river flowing from one to the other) — after the completion of the temple, he says, the great number of dedications in general were secured by means of the high honor they paid their artists, but the whole of the altar was filled, one might say, with the works of Praxiteles. They showed me also some of the works of Thrason, who made the chapel of Hecate, the waxen image of Penelope, and the old woman Eurycleia. They had eunuchs as priests, whom they called Megabyzi. And they were always in quest of persons from other places who were worthy of this preferment, and they held them in great honor. And it was obligatory for maidens to serve as colleagues with them in their priestly office. But though at the present some of their usages are being preserved, yet others are not; but the sanctuary remains a place of refuge, the same as in earlier times, although the limits of the refuge have often been changed; for example, when Alexander extended them for a stadium, and when Mithridates shot an arrow from the corner of the roof and thought it went a little farther than a stadium, and when Antony doubled this distance and included within the refuge a part of the city. But this extension of the refuge proved harmful, and put the city in the power of criminals; and it was therefore nullified by Augustus Caesar.''. None
21. Vergil, Aeneis, 4.89, 6.850
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustus, architectural program • De architectura, and Greek knowledge • De architectura, and imperialism • Domitian, public architecture • aesthetic approach to art and architecture • architecture • architecture and art, Roman appreciation • architecture and art, aesthetic approach • art and architecture, Roman appreciation • art and architecture, aesthetic approach • durability, of architecture • sacred architecture

 Found in books: Jenkyns (2013) 262, 319; Oksanish (2019) 60; Poulsen and Jönsson (2021) 211

4.89. murorum ingentes aequataque machina caelo.
6.850. describent radio, et surgentia sidera dicent:''. None
4.89. the eyes of gods upon her, worshipping
6.850. of laurel groves; and hence to earth outpours ''. None
22. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • architecture • baths/bath-gymnasia, Greco-Roman culture/architecture of • gymnasium(-a), architecture of

 Found in books: Borg (2008) 208; Kalinowski (2021) 323

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