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130 results for "archaeology"
1. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 11.33-11.34, 23.1 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •qumran and the essenes, archaeological evidence •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 74; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 260
11.33. "וְכָל־כְּלִי־חֶרֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר־יִפֹּל מֵהֶם אֶל־תּוֹכוֹ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר בְּתוֹכוֹ יִטְמָא וְאֹתוֹ תִשְׁבֹּרוּ׃", 11.34. "מִכָּל־הָאֹכֶל אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל אֲשֶׁר יָבוֹא עָלָיו מַיִם יִטְמָא וְכָל־מַשְׁקֶה אֲשֶׁר יִשָּׁתֶה בְּכָל־כְּלִי יִטְמָא׃", 23.1. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃", 23.1. "דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם כִּי־תָבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אֲנִי נֹתֵן לָכֶם וּקְצַרְתֶּם אֶת־קְצִירָהּ וַהֲבֵאתֶם אֶת־עֹמֶר רֵאשִׁית קְצִירְכֶם אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃", 11.33. "And every earthen vessel whereinto any of them falleth, whatsoever is in it shall be unclean, and it ye shall break.", 11.34. "All food therein which may be eaten, that on which water cometh, shall be unclean; and all drink in every such vessel that may be drunk shall be unclean.", 23.1. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:",
2. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 117.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •dating of non-literary sources, of archaeological evidence Found in books: Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022), Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas, 24
3. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 6.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 73
6.19. "וְגִדְעוֹן בָּא וַיַּעַשׂ גְּדִי־עִזִּים וְאֵיפַת־קֶמַח מַצּוֹת הַבָּשָׂר שָׂם בַּסַּל וְהַמָּרַק שָׂם בַּפָּרוּר וַיּוֹצֵא אֵלָיו אֶל־תַּחַת הָאֵלָה וַיַּגַּשׁ׃", 6.19. "And Gid῾on went in, and made ready a kid, and unleavened cakes of an efa of flour: the meat he put in a basket, and he put the broth in a pot, and brought it out to him under the terebinth, and presented it.",
4. Aeschylus, Eumenides, 10-19, 2, 20-27, 3-9, 1 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 62
1. πρῶτον μὲν εὐχῇ τῇδε πρεσβεύω θεῶν 1. First, in this prayer of mine, I give the place of highest honor among the gods to the first prophet, Earth; and after her to Themis, for she was the second to take this oracular seat of her mother, as legend tells.
5. Aeschylus, Suppliant Women, 443-444 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 15
444. ἄτην γε μείζω καὶ μέγʼ ἐμπλήσας γόμου
6. Xenophanes, Fragments, 6 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •cult , archaeological remains Found in books: Sweeney (2013), Foundation Myths and Politics in Ancient Ionia, 125
7. Xenophanes, Fragments, None (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 557
8. Xenophanes, Fragments, None (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 557
9. Lysias, Orations, 1.27 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •hearth archaeologically elusive Found in books: Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 14
10. Aristophanes, The Rich Man, 788-799, 768-69 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
11. Euripides, Alcestis, 163, 165-169, 164 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 14
12. Euripides, Cretes (Fragmenta Papyracea), 944 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •hearth archaeologically elusive Found in books: Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 14
13. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 14
771c. διανομήν· ἡμεῖς δὲ οὖν νῦν φαμεν ὀρθότατα προῃρῆσθαι τὸν τῶν πεντακισχιλίων καὶ τετταράκοντα ἀριθμόν, ὃς πάσας τὰς διανομὰς ἔχει μέχρι τῶν δώδεκα ἀπὸ μιᾶς ἀρξάμενος πλὴν ἑνδεκάδος—αὕτη δʼ ἔχει σμικρότατον ἴαμα· ἐπὶ θάτερα γὰρ ὑγιὴς γίγνεται δυοῖν ἑστίαιν ἀπονεμηθείσαιν—ὡς δʼ ἐστὶν ταῦτα ἀληθῶς ὄντα, κατὰ σχολὴν οὐκ ἂν πολὺς ἐπιδείξειεν μῦθος. πιστεύσαντες δὴ τὰ νῦν τῇ παρούσῃ φήμῃ 771c. more happily. We, in any case, affirm now that we are perfectly correct in first selecting the number 5,040, which admits of division by all the numbers from 1 to 12, excepting only 11—and this omission is very easily remedied, since the mere subtraction of two hearths from the total restores an integral number as quotient: that this is really true we could show, at our leisure, by a fairly short explanation. For the present, then, we shall trust to the oracular statement just delivered,
14. Euripides, Bacchae, 355 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •archaeology, archaeological Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 536
355. κἄνπερ λάβητε, δέσμιον πορεύσατε
15. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •hearth archaeologically elusive Found in books: Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 14
247a. κατὰ ἕνδεκα μέρη κεκοσμημένη. μένει γὰρ Ἑστία ἐν θεῶν οἴκῳ μόνη· τῶν δὲ ἄλλων ὅσοι ἐν τῷ τῶν δώδεκα ἀριθμῷ τεταγμένοι θεοὶ ἄρχοντες ἡγοῦνται κατὰ τάξιν ἣν ἕκαστος ἐτάχθη. πολλαὶ μὲν οὖν καὶ μακάριαι θέαι τε καὶ διέξοδοι ἐντὸς οὐρανοῦ, ἃς θεῶν γένος εὐδαιμόνων ἐπιστρέφεται πράττων ἕκαστος αὐτῶν τὸ αὑτοῦ, ἕπεται δὲ ὁ ἀεὶ ἐθέλων τε καὶ δυνάμενος· φθόνος γὰρ ἔξω θείου χοροῦ ἵσταται. ὅταν δὲ δὴ πρὸς δαῖτα καὶ ἐπὶ θοίνην ἴωσιν, ἄκραν ἐπὶ τὴν 247a. He is followed by an army of gods and spirits, arrayed in eleven squadrons; Hestia alone remains in the house of the gods. of the rest, those who are included among the twelve great gods and are accounted leaders, are assigned each to his place in the army. There are many blessed sights and many ways hither and thither within the heaven, along which the blessed gods go to and fro attending each to his own duties; and whoever wishes, and is able, follows, for jealousy is excluded from the celestial band. But when they go to a feast and a banquet,
16. Herodotus, Histories, 1.26, 2.86, 9.116 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •austrian archaeological institute •archaeology, archaeological •troy, the archaeological site of Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 251; Finkelberg (2019), Homer and Early Greek Epic: Collected Essays, 141; Immendörfer (2017), Ephesians and Artemis : The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context 89
1.26. After the death of Alyattes, his son Croesus, then thirty-five years of age, came to the throne. The first Greeks whom he attacked were the Ephesians. ,These, besieged by him, dedicated their city to Artemis; they did this by attaching a rope to the city wall from the temple of the goddess, which stood seven stades away from the ancient city which was then besieged. ,These were the first whom Croesus attacked; afterwards he made war on the Ionian and Aeolian cities in turn, upon different pretexts: he found graver charges where he could, but sometimes alleged very petty grounds of offense. 2.86. There are men whose sole business this is and who have this special craft. ,When a dead body is brought to them, they show those who brought it wooden models of corpses, painted likenesses; the most perfect way of embalming belongs, they say, to One whose name it would be impious for me to mention in treating such a matter; the second way, which they show, is less perfect than the first, and cheaper; and the third is the least costly of all. Having shown these, they ask those who brought the body in which way they desire to have it prepared. ,Having agreed on a price, the bearers go away, and the workmen, left alone in their place, embalm the body. If they do this in the most perfect way, they first draw out part of the brain through the nostrils with an iron hook, and inject certain drugs into the rest. ,Then, making a cut near the flank with a sharp knife of Ethiopian stone, they take out all the intestines, and clean the belly, rinsing it with palm wine and bruised spices; ,they sew it up again after filling the belly with pure ground myrrh and casia and any other spices, except frankincense. After doing this, they conceal the body for seventy days, embalmed in saltpetre; no longer time is allowed for the embalming; ,and when the seventy days have passed, they wash the body and wrap the whole of it in bandages of fine linen cloth, anointed with gum, which the Egyptians mostly use instead of glue; ,then they give the dead man back to his friends. These make a hollow wooden figure like a man, in which they enclose the corpse, shut it up, and keep it safe in a coffin-chamber, placed erect against a wall. 9.116. This province was ruled by Xerxes' viceroy Artayctes, a cunning man and a wicked one; witness the deceit that he practised on the king in his march to Athens, how he stole away from Elaeus the treasure of Protesilaus son of Iphiclus. ,This was the way of it; there is at Elaeus in the Chersonesus the tomb of Protesilaus, and a precinct around it, which contained much treasure: vessels of gold and silver, bronze, clothing, and other dedications; all of which Artayctes carried off by the king's gift. ,“Sire,” he said deceitfully to Xerxes, “there is here the house of a certain Greek, who met a just death for invading your territory with an army; give me this man's house, so that all may be taught not to invade your territory.” One would think that this plea would easily persuade Xerxes to give him a man's house, since the latter had no suspicion of Artayctes' meaning. His reason for saying that Protesilaus had invaded the king's territory was that the Persians believe all Asia to belong to themselves and whoever is their king. So when the treasure was given to him, he carried it away from Elaeus to Sestus, and planted and farmed the precinct. He would also come from Elaeus and have intercourse with women in the shrine. Now, when the Athenians laid siege to him, he had made no preparation for it; he did not think that the Greeks would come, and he had no way of escaping from their attack.
17. Theopompus of Chios, Fragments, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •hearth archaeologically elusive Found in books: Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 14
18. Theophrastus, De Odoribus, 8 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •en boqeq, archaeological findings Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 339
19. Aristotle, Politics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •cult , archaeological remains Found in books: Sweeney (2013), Foundation Myths and Politics in Ancient Ionia, 125
20. Demosthenes, Orations, 45.74 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •hearth archaeologically elusive Found in books: Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 14
21. Menander, Fragments, 410 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •hearth archaeologically elusive Found in books: Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 15
22. Cicero, Pro S. Roscio Amerino, 133 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •national archaeological museum Found in books: Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 65
23. Cicero, Letters, 2.1.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •national archaeological museum Found in books: Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 65
24. Cicero, On Laws, 2.37 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •archaeology, archaeological Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 186
25. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 2.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •national archaeological museum Found in books: Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 65
2.23. quid ergo attinet dicere: 'Nihil haberem, quod reprehenderem, si finitas cupiditates haberent'? hoc est dicere: Non reprehenderem asotos, si non essent asoti. isto modo ne improbos quidem, si essent boni viri. hic homo severus luxuriam ipsam per se reprehendendam non putat, et hercule, Torquate, ut verum loquamur, si summum bonum voluptas est, rectissime non putat. Noli noli Se. nolui N nolim rell. codd. enim mihi fingere asotos, ut soletis, qui in mensam vomant, et qui de conviviis auferantur crudique postridie se rursus ingurgitent, qui solem, ut aiunt, nec occidentem umquam viderint nec orientem, qui consumptis patrimoniis egeant. nemo nostrum istius generis asotos iucunde putat vivere. mundos, elegantis, optimis cocis, pistoribus, piscatu, aucupio, venatione, his omnibus exquisitis, vitantes cruditatem, quibus vinum quibus vinum et q. s. cf. Lucilii carm. rell. rec. Marx. I p. 78, II p. 366 sq. defusum e pleno sit chrysizon, chrysizon Marx.; hirsizon A hrysizon vel heysizon B hrysizon E hyrsi|hon R hyrsizon N hrysiron V ut ait Lucilius, cui nihildum situlus et nihildum situlus et (situlus = situla, sitella) Se. nihil (nichil BE) dum sit vis et ABE nichil dum sit viset R nichil dempsit (e vid. corr. ex u, psit in ras. ) vis (post s ras.) et (in ras.) N nichil dempsit vis et V sacculus sacculus ABE saculos V sarculos R, N (a ex corr. m. alt., r superscr. ab alt. m. ) abstulerit, adhibentis ludos et quae sequuntur, illa, quibus detractis clamat Epicurus se nescire quid sit bonum; adsint etiam formosi pueri, qui ministrent, respondeat his vestis, argentum, Corinthium, locus ipse, aedificium—hos ergo ergo BER ego ANV asotos bene quidem vivere aut aut at BE beate numquam dixerim. 2.23.  "What then is the point of saying 'I should have no fault to find with them if they kept their desires within bounds'? That is tantamount to saying 'I should not blame the profligate if they were not profligate.' He might as well say he would not blame the dishonest either, if they were upright men. Here is our rigid moralist maintaining that sensuality is not in itself blameworthy! And I profess, Torquatus, on the hypothesis that pleasure is the Chief Good he is perfectly justified in thinking so. I should be sorry to picture to myself, as you are so fond of doing, debauchees who are sick at table, have to be carried home from dinner-parties, and next day gorge themselves again before they have recovered from the effects of the night before; men who, as the saying goes, have never seen either sunset or sunrise; men who run through their inheritance and sink into penury. None of us supposes that profligates of that description live pleasantly. No, but men of taste and refinement, with first-rate chefs and confectioners, fish, birds, game and the like of the choicest; careful of their digestion; with Wine in flask Decanted from a new‑broach'd cask, . . . as Lucilius has it, Wine of tang bereft, All harshness in the strainer left; with the accompaniment of dramatic performances and their usual sequel, the pleasures apart from which Epicurus, as he loudly proclaims, does not what Good is; give them also beautiful boys to wait upon them, with drapery, silver, Corinthian bronzes, and the scene of the feast, the banqueting-room, all in keeping; take profligates of this sort; that these live well or enjoy happiness I will never allow.
26. Cicero, De Finibus, 2.23 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •national archaeological museum Found in books: Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 65
2.23.  "What then is the point of saying 'I should have no fault to find with them if they kept their desires within bounds'? That is tantamount to saying 'I should not blame the profligate if they were not profligate.' He might as well say he would not blame the dishonest either, if they were upright men. Here is our rigid moralist maintaining that sensuality is not in itself blameworthy! And I profess, Torquatus, on the hypothesis that pleasure is the Chief Good he is perfectly justified in thinking so. I should be sorry to picture to myself, as you are so fond of doing, debauchees who are sick at table, have to be carried home from dinner-parties, and next day gorge themselves again before they have recovered from the effects of the night before; men who, as the saying goes, have never seen either sunset or sunrise; men who run through their inheritance and sink into penury. None of us supposes that profligates of that description live pleasantly. No, but men of taste and refinement, with first-rate chefs and confectioners, fish, birds, game and the like of the choicest; careful of their digestion; with Wine in flask Decanted from a new‑broach'd cask, . . . as Lucilius has it, Wine of tang bereft, All harshness in the strainer left; with the accompaniment of dramatic performances and their usual sequel, the pleasures apart from which Epicurus, as he loudly proclaims, does not what Good is; give them also beautiful boys to wait upon them, with drapery, silver, Corinthian bronzes, and the scene of the feast, the banqueting-room, all in keeping; take profligates of this sort; that these live well or enjoy happiness I will never allow.
27. Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, 2.32 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •national archaeological museum Found in books: Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 65
2.32. adflictusne audieris Gr audiens X (de mendo cf. 1. 2) audies s cf. Lebreton, Et. sur la langue et la grammaire de Cicéron p. 201 et iacens et lamentabili voce deplorans audieris: o virum fortem! ? te vero ita adfectum ne nec K virum quidem quisquam dixerit. amittenda igitur fortitudo est est om. H aut sepeliendus dolor. aut ... 17 dolor H Ecquid equid V 1 scis igitur, si quid quid V rec s quis GR 1 V 1 quē R c K de Corinthiis tuis amiseris, posse habere te reliquam supellectilem supplectilem R 1 salvam, virtutem autem si unam amiseris—etsi amitti non potest virtus, sed si unam confessus eris fueris GK (l eris 2 ) R (fu l? ) te non habere, nullam esse te habiturum?
28. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 1.29, 32.15, 33.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •theaters, archaeological remains Found in books: Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 41
29. Cicero, In Verrem, 2.2.46, 2.2.50, 2.4.122 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •national archaeological museum Found in books: Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 65
30. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 1.29, 32.15, 33.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •theaters, archaeological remains Found in books: Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 41
1.29. Be not a hypocrite in mens sight,and keep watch over your lips. 32.15. He who seeks the law will be filled with it,but the hypocrite will stumble at it. 33.2. A wise man will not hate the law,but he who is hypocritical about it is like a boat in a storm. 33.2. While you are still alive and have breath in you,do not let any one take your place.
31. Polybius, Histories, 5.59.1, 30.26.1 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •theaters, archaeological remains Found in books: Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 38
5.59.1. οὐ μὴν ἀλλʼ Ἀντίοχος κριθέντων τούτων Διογνήτῳ μὲν τῷ ναυάρχῳ παρήγγειλε πλεῖν ὡς ἐπὶ τῆς Σελευκείας, αὐτὸς δʼ ἐκ τῆς Ἀπαμείας ὁρμήσας μετὰ τῆς στρατιᾶς, καὶ περὶ πέντε σταδίους ἀποσχὼν τῆς πόλεως, προσεστρατοπέδευσε κατὰ τὸν ἱππόδρομον. 30.26.1. ἐπιτελεσθέντων δὲ τῶν ἀγώνων καὶ μονομαχιῶν καὶ κυνηγεσίων κατὰ τριάκονθʼ ἡμέρας, ἐν αἷς τὰς θέας συνετέλει, πέντε μὲν τὰς πρώτας ἐν τῷ γυμνασίῳ πάντες ἐκ χρυσῶν ὁλκείων ἠλείφοντο κροκίνῳ μύρῳ. 5.59.1.  As soon as this decision had been taken, Antiochus ordered his admiral Diognetus to sail to Seleucia, while he himself, leaving Apamea with his army, came and encamped at the hippodrome about five stades from the town. 30.26.1.  When the games, gladiatorial shows, and beast-fights, which lasted for the thirty days devoted to spectacles, were over, for the first five succeeding days every one who chose anointed himself in the gymnasium with saffron ointment out of gold jars: of those there were fifteen, and there were the same number of jars with ointment of cinnamon and spikenard. On the succeeding days ointments of fenugreek, marjoram, and orris were brought in, all of exquisite perfume.
32. Varro, Ap. Augustine, De Civitate Dei, 6.9 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •archaeology, archaeological Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 186
33. Strabo, Geography, 1.3.21, 8.6.23, 13.4.8, 14.1.21, 16.2.42 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •austrian archaeological institute •national archaeological museum •essenes, archaeological evidence, demand for •qumran and the essenes, archaeological evidence Found in books: Immendörfer (2017), Ephesians and Artemis : The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context 89, 125; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 65; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 246
1.3.21. Those who desire to instill into us that more perfect freedom from [ignorant] wonder, which Democritus and all other philosophers so highly extol, should add the changes which have been produced by the migrations of various tribes: we should thus be inspired with courage, steadiness, and composure. For instance, the Western Iberians, removed to the regions beyond the Euxine and Colchis, being separated from Armenia, according to Apollodorus, by the Araxes, but rather by the Cyrus and Moschican mountains. The expedition of the Egyptians into Ethiopia and Colchis. The migration of the Heneti, who passed from Paphlagonia into the country bordering on the Adriatic Gulf. Similar emigrations were also undertaken by the nations of Greece, the Ionians, Dorians, Achaians, and Aeolians; and the Aenians, now next neighbours to the Aetolians, formerly dwelt near Dotium and Ossa, beyond the Perrhaebi; the Perrhaebi too are but wanderers here themselves. Our present work furnishes numerous instances of the same kind. Some of these are familiar to most readers, but the migrations of the Carians, the Treres, the Teucrians, and the Galatae or Gauls, are not so generally known. Nor yet for the most part are the expeditions of their chiefs, for instance, Madys the Scythian, Tearko the Ethiopian, Cobus of Trerus, Sesostris and Psammeticus the Egyptians; nor are those of the Persians from Cyrus to Xerxes familiar to every one. The Kimmerians, or a separate tribe of them, called the Treres, have frequently overrun the countries to the right of the Euxine and those adjacent to them, bursting now into Paphlagonia, now into Phrygia, as they did when, according to report, Midas came to his death by drinking bull's blood. Lygdamis led his followers into Lydia, passed through Ionia, took Sardis, but was slain in Cilicia. The Kimmerians and Treres frequently made similar incursions, until at last, as it is reported, these latter, together with [their chief] Cobus, were driven out by Madys, king of the Scythians. But enough has been said in this place on the general history of the earth, as each country will have a particular account. 8.6.23. The Corinthians, when they were subject to Philip, not only sided with him in his quarrel with the Romans, but individually behaved so contemptuously towards the Romans that certain persons ventured to pour down filth upon the Roman ambassadors when passing by their house. For this and other offences, however, they soon paid the penalty, for a considerable army was sent thither, and the city itself was razed to the ground by Leucius Mummius; and the other countries as far as Macedonia became subject to the Romans, different commanders being sent into different countries; but the Sikyonians obtained most of the Corinthian country. Polybius, who speaks in a tone of pity of the events connected with the capture of Corinth, goes on to speak of the disregard shown by the army for the works of art and votive offerings; for he says that he was present and saw paintings that had been flung to the ground and saw the soldiers playing dice on these. Among the paintings he names that of Dionysus by Aristeides, to which, according to some writers, the saying, Nothing in comparison with the Dionysus, referred; and also the painting of Heracles in torture in the robe of Deianeira. Now I have not seen the latter, but I saw the Dionysus, a most beautiful work, on the walls of the sanctuary of Ceres in Rome; but when recently the temple was burned, the painting perished with it. And I may almost say that the most and best of the other dedicatory offerings at Rome came from there; and the cities in the neighborhood of Rome also obtained some; for Mummius, being magimous rather than fond of art, as they say, readily shared with those who asked. And when Lucullus built the sanctuary of Good Fortune and a portico, he asked Mummius for the use of the statues which he had, saying that he would adorn the sanctuary with them until the dedication and then give them back. However, he did not give them back, but dedicated them to the goddess, and then bade Mummius to take them away if he wished. But Mummius took it lightly, for he cared nothing about them, so that he gained more repute than the man who dedicated them. Now after Corinth had remained deserted for a long time, it was restored again, because of its favorable position, by the deified Caesar, who colonized it with people that belonged for the most part to the freedmen class. And when these were removing the ruins and at the same time digging open the graves, they found numbers of terra-cotta reliefs, and also many bronze vessels. And since they admired the workmanship they left no grave unransacked; so that, well supplied with such things and disposing of them at a high price, they filled Rome with Corinthian mortuaries, for thus they called the things taken from the graves, and in particular the earthenware. Now at the outset the earthenware was very highly prized, like the bronzes of Corinthian workmanship, but later they ceased to care much for them, since the supply of earthen vessels failed and most of them were not even well executed. The city of the Corinthians, then, was always great and wealthy, and it was well equipped with men skilled both in the affairs of state and in the craftsman's arts; for both here and in Sikyon the arts of painting and modelling and all such arts of the craftsman flourished most. The city had territory, however, that was not very fertile, but rifted and rough; and from this fact all have called Corinth beetling, and use the proverb, Corinth is both beetle-browed and full of hollows. 13.4.8. Callisthenes says that Sardeis was captured first by the Cimmerians, and then by the Treres and the Lycians, as is set forth by Callinus the elegiac poet, and lastly in the time of Cyrus and Croesus. But when Callinus says that the incursion of the Cimmerians was against the Esioneis, at the time of which Sardeis was captured, the Scepsian and his followers surmise that the Asioneis were by Callinus called the Esioneis, in the Ionic dialect; for perhaps Meionia, he says, was called Asia, and accordingly Homer likewise says,on the Asian mead about the streams of the Cayster. The city was later restored in a notable way because of the fertility of its territory, and was inferior to none of its neighbors, though recently it has lost many of its buildings through earthquakes. However, the forethought of Tiberius, our present ruler, has, by his beneficence, restored not only this city but many others — I mean all the cities that shared in the same misfortune at about the same time. 14.1.21. The city of Ephesus was inhabited both by Carians and by Leleges, but Androclus drove them out and settled the most of those who had come with him round the Athenaion and the Hypelaeus, though he also included a part of the country situated on the slopes of Mt. Coressus. Now Ephesus was thus inhabited until the time of Croesus, but later the people came down from the mountainside and abode round the present sanctuary until the time of Alexander. Lysimachus built a wall round the present city, but the people were not agreeably disposed to change their abodes to it; and therefore he waited for a downpour of rain and himself took advantage of it and blocked the sewers so as to inundate the city; and the inhabitants were then glad to make the change. He named the city after his wife Arsinoe; the old name, however, prevailed. There was a senate, which was conscripted; and with these were associated the Epicleti, as they were called, who administered all the affairs of the city. 16.2.42. The Lake Sirbonis is of great extent. Some say that it is 1000 stadia in circumference. It stretches along the coast, to the distance of a little more than 200 stadia. It is deep, and the water is exceedingly heavy, so that no person can dive into it; if any one wades into it up to the waist, and attempts to move forward, he is immediately lifted out of the water It abounds with asphaltus, which rises, not however at any regular seasons, in bubbles, like boiling water, from the middle of the deepest part. The surface is convex, and presents the appearance of a hillock. Together with the asphaltus, there ascends a great quantity of sooty vapour, not perceptible to the eye, which tarnishes copper, silver, and everything bright — even gold. The neighbouring people know by the tarnishing of their vessels that the asphaltus is beginning to rise, and they prepare to collect it by means of rafts composed of reeds. The asphaltus is a clod of earth, liquefied by heat; the air forces it to the surface, where it spreads itself. It is again changed into so firm and solid a mass by cold water, such as the water of the lake, that it requires cutting or chopping (for use). It floats upon the water, which, as I have described, does not admit of diving or immersion, but lifts up the person who goes into it. Those who go on rafts for the asphaltus cut it in pieces, and take away as much as they are able to carry.
34. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 281 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •antioch, pisidian, archaeological excavation Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 610
281. "Concerning the holy city I must now say what is necessary. It, as I have already stated, is my native country, and the metropolis, not only of the one country of Judaea, but also of many, by reason of the colonies which it has sent out from time to time into the bordering districts of Egypt, Phoenicia, Syria in general, and especially that part of it which is called Coelo-Syria, and also with those more distant regions of Pamphylia, Cilicia, the greater part of Asia Minor as far as Bithynia, and the furthermost corners of Pontus. And in the same manner into Europe, into Thessaly, and Boeotia, and Macedonia, and Aetolia, and Attica, and Argos, and Corinth and all the most fertile and wealthiest districts of Peloponnesus.
35. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 22-23 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 246
23. For the houses built in the fields and the villages which surround it on all sides give it safety; and the admirable temperature of the air proceeds from the continual breezes which come from the lake which falls into the sea, and also from the sea itself in the neighbourhood, the breezes from the sea being light, and those which proceed from the lake which falls into the sea being heavy, the mixture of which produces a most healthy atmosphere.
36. Horace, Letters, 1.4.15-1.4.16, 1.15 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •herculaneum, archaeological finds Found in books: Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 7
37. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 2.48.8, 4.3.3, 5.62 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •essenes, archaeological evidence, demand for •qumran and the essenes, archaeological evidence •archaeology, archaeological Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 76, 186; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 246
2.48.8.  Since the asphalt floats on the surface of the lake, to those who view it from a distance it takes the appearance of an island. And the fact is that the emission of the asphalt is made known to the natives twenty days before it takes place; for to a distance of many stades around the lake the odour, borne on the wind, assails them, and every piece of silver and gold and brass in the locality loses it characteristic lustre. But this returns again as soon as all the asphalt has been spouted forth; and the region round about, by reason of its being exposed to fire and to the evil odours, renders the bodies of the inhabitants susceptible to disease and makes the people very short-lived. 4.3.3.  Consequently in many Greek cities every other year Bacchic bands of women gather, and it is lawful for the maidens to carry the thyrsus and to join in the frenzied revelry, crying out "Euai!" and honouring the god; while the matrons, forming in groups, offer sacrifices to the god and celebrate his mysteries and, in general, extol with hymns the presence of Dionysus, in this manner acting the part of the Maenads who, as history records, were of old the companions of the god. 5.62. 1.  In Castabus, on the Cherronesus, there is a temple which is sacred to Hemithea, and there is no reason why we should omit to mention the strange occurrence which befell this goddess. Now many and various accounts have been handed down regarding her, but we shall recount that which has prevailed and is in accord with what the natives relate. To Staphylus and Chrysothemis were born three daughters, Molpadia, Rhoeo, and Parthenos by name. Apollo lay with Rhoeo and brought her with child; and her father, believing that her seduction was due to a man, was angered, and in his anger he shut up his daughter in a chest and cast her into the sea.,2.  But the chest was washed up upon Delos, where she gave birth to a male child and called the babe Anius. And Rhoeo, who had been saved from death in this unexpected manner, laid the babe upon the altar of Apollo and prayed to the god to save its life if it was his child. Thereupon Apollo, the myth relates, concealed the child for the time, but afterwards he gave thought to its rearing, instructed it in divination, and conferred upon it certain great honours.,3.  And the other sisters of the maiden who had been seduced, namely, Molpadia and Parthenos, while watching their father's wine, a drink which had only recently been discovered among men, fell asleep; and while they were asleep some swine which they were keeping entered in and broke the jar which contained the wine and so destroyed the wine. And the maidens, when they learned what had happened, in fear of their father's severity fled to the edge of the sea and hurled themselves down from some lofty rocks.,4.  But Apollo, because of his affection for their sister, rescued the maidens and established them in the cities of the Cherronesus. The one named Parthenos, as the god brought it to pass, enjoyed honours and a sacred precinct in Bubastus of the Cherronesus, while Molpadia, who came to Castabus, was given the name Hemithea, because the god had appeared to men, and she was honoured by all who dwelt in the Cherronesus.,5.  And in sacrifices which are held in her honour a mixture of honey and milk is used in the libations, because of the experience which she had had in connection with the wine, while anyone who has touched a hog or eaten of its flesh is not permitted to draw near to the sacred precinct.
38. Martial, Epigrams, 9.43-9.44, 12.69 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •national archaeological museum Found in books: Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 65
39. Martial, Epigrams, 9.43-9.44, 12.69 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •national archaeological museum Found in books: Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 65
40. New Testament, Mark, 6.43, 8.2, 8.8, 8.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 71, 73
6.43. καὶ ἦραν κλάσματα δώδεκα κοφίνων πληρώματα καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν ἰχθύων. 8.2. Σπλαγχνίζομαι ἐπὶ τὸν ὄχλον ὅτι ἤδη ἡμέραι τρεῖς προσμένουσίν μοι καὶ οὐκ ἔχουσιν τί φάγωσιν· 8.8. καὶ ἔφαγον καὶ ἐχορτάσθησαν, καὶ ἦραν περισσεύματα κλασμάτων ἑπτὰ σφυρίδας. 8.19. ὅτε τοὺς πέντε ἄρτους ἔκλασα εἰς τοὺς πεντακισχιλίους, πόσους κοφίνους κλασμάτων πλήρεις ἤρατε; λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Δώδεκα. 6.43. They took up twelve baskets full of broken pieces and also of the fish. 8.2. "I have compassion on the multitude, because they have stayed with me now three days, and have nothing to eat. 8.8. They ate, and were filled. They took up seven baskets of broken pieces that were left over. 8.19. When I broke the five loaves among the five thousand, how many baskets full of broken pieces did you take up?"They told him, "Twelve."
41. Juvenal, Satires, 3.10-3.18, 6.542-6.547, 12.18-12.24 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds •herculaneum, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 72; Yona (2018), Epicurean Ethics in Horace: The Psychology of Satire, 7
42. New Testament, Matthew, 14.2, 15.37, 16.1, 16.9 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 71, 73
14.2. καὶ εἶπεν τοῖς παισὶν αὐτοῦ Οὗτός ἐστιν Ἰωάνης ὁ βαπτιστής· αὐτὸς ἠγέρθη ἀπὸ τῶν νεκρῶν, καὶ διὰ τοῦτο αἱ δυνάμεις ἐνεργοῦσιν ἐν αὐτῷ. 15.37. καὶ ἔφαγον πάντες καὶ ἐχορτάσθησαν, καὶ τὸ περισσεῦον τῶν κλασμάτων ἦραν ἑπτὰ σφυρίδας πλήρεις. 16.1. Καὶ προσελθόντες [οἱ] Φαρισαῖοι καὶ Σαδδουκαῖοι πειράζοντες ἐπηρώτησαν αὐτὸν σημεῖον ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ ἐπιδεῖξαι αὐτοῖς. 16.9. οὔπω νοεῖτε, οὐδὲ μνημονεύετε τοὺς πέντε ἄρτους τῶν πεντακισχιλίων καὶ πόσους κοφίνους ἐλάβετε; 14.2. and said to his servants, "This is John the Baptizer. He is risen from the dead. That is why these powers work in him." 15.37. They all ate, and were filled. They took up seven baskets full of the broken pieces that were left over. 16.1. The Pharisees and Sadducees came, and testing him, asked him to show them a sign from heaven. 16.9. Don't you yet perceive, neither remember the five loaves for the five thousand, and how many baskets you took up?
43. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 12.147-12.153, 17.289, 20.216 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •antioch, pisidian, archaeological excavation •qumran and the essenes, archaeological evidence •theaters, archaeological remains Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 610; Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 37; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 270
12.147. Moreover, this Antiochus bare testimony to our piety and fidelity, in an epistle of his, written when he was informed of a sedition in Phrygia and Lydia, at which time he was in the superior provinces, wherein he commanded Zenxis, the general of his forces, and his most intimate friend, to send some of our nation out of Babylon into Phrygia. The epistle was this: 12.148. “King Antiochus To Zeuxis His Father, Sendeth Greeting. /p “If you are in health, it is well. I also am in health. 12.149. Having been informed that a sedition is arisen in Lydia and Phrygia, I thought that matter required great care; and upon advising with my friends what was fit to be done, it hath been thought proper to remove two thousand families of Jews, with their effects, out of Mesopotamia and Babylon, unto the castles and places that lie most convenient; 12.150. for I am persuaded that they will be well-disposed guardians of our possessions, because of their piety towards God, and because I know that my predecessors have borne witness to them, that they are faithful, and with alacrity do what they are desired to do. I will, therefore, though it be a laborious work, that thou remove these Jews, under a promise, that they shall be permitted to use their own laws. 12.151. And when thou shalt have brought them to the places forementioned, thou shalt give everyone of their families a place for building their houses, and a portion of the land for their husbandry, and for the plantation of their vines; and thou shalt discharge them from paying taxes of the fruits of the earth for ten years; 12.152. and let them have a proper quantity of wheat for the maintece of their servants, until they receive breadcorn out of the earth; also let a sufficient share be given to such as minister to them in the necessaries of life, that by enjoying the effects of our humanity, they may show themselves the more willing and ready about our affairs. 12.153. Take care likewise of that nation, as far as thou art able, that they may not have any disturbance given them by any one.” Now these testimonials which I have produced are sufficient to declare the friendship that Antiochus the Great bare to the Jews. 17.289. who made an attack upon the enemy, and put them to flight, and took Sepphoris, and made its inhabitants slaves, and burnt the city. But Varus himself pursued his march for Samaria with his whole army; yet did not he meddle with the city of that name, because it had not at all joined with the seditious; but pitched his camp at a certain village that belonged to Ptolemy, whose name was Arus, 20.216. 6. Now as many of the Levites, which is a tribe of ours, as were singers of hymns, persuaded the king to assemble a sanhedrim, and to give them leave to wear linen garments, as well as the priests for they said that this would be a work worthy the times of his government, that he might have a memorial of such a novelty, as being his doing.
44. Petronius Arbiter, Satyricon, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •national archaeological museum Found in books: Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 65
45. Petronius Arbiter, Satyricon, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •national archaeological museum Found in books: Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 65
46. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 5.1573, 7.34, 34.47 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 65
47. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.69, 2.148, 2.408-2.416, 3.95, 4.402-4.405, 7.299, 7.336, 7.397, 7.400, 7.405 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 142; Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 73; Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 37; Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 259, 269, 270
2.69. but as for Varus himself, he marched to Samaria with his whole army, where he did not meddle with the city itself, because he found that it had made no commotion during these troubles, but pitched his camp about a certain village which was called Arus. It belonged to Ptolemy, and on that account was plundered by the Arabians, who were very angry even at Herod’s friends also. 2.148. Nay, on theother days they dig a small pit, a foot deep, with a paddle (which kind of hatchet is given them when they are first admitted among them); and covering themselves round with their garment, that they may not affront the Divine rays of light, they ease themselves into that pit, 2.408. 2. And at this time it was that some of those that principally excited the people to go to war made an assault upon a certain fortress called Masada. They took it by treachery, and slew the Romans that were there, and put others of their own party to keep it. 2.409. At the same time Eleazar, the son of Aias the high priest, a very bold youth, who was at that time governor of the temple, persuaded those that officiated in the Divine service to receive no gift or sacrifice for any foreigner. And this was the true beginning of our war with the Romans; for they rejected the sacrifice of Caesar on this account; 2.410. and when many of the high priests and principal men besought them not to omit the sacrifice, which it was customary for them to offer for their princes, they would not be prevailed upon. These relied much upon their multitude, for the most flourishing part of the innovators assisted them; but they had the chief regard to Eleazar, the governor of the temple. 2.411. 3. Hereupon the men of power got together, and conferred with the high priests, as did also the principal of the Pharisees; and thinking all was at stake, and that their calamities were becoming incurable, took counsel what was to be done. Accordingly, they determined to try what they could do with the seditious by words, and assembled the people before the brazen gate, which was the gate of the inner temple [court of the priests] which looked towards the sunrising. 2.412. And, in the first place, they showed the great indignation they had at this attempt for a revolt, and for their bringing so great a war upon their country; after which they confuted their pretense as unjustifiable, and told them that their forefathers had adorned their temple in great part with donations bestowed on them by foreigners, and had always received what had been presented to them from foreign nations; 2.413. and that they had been so far from rejecting any person’s sacrifice (which would be the highest instance of impiety), that they had themselves placed those donations about the temple which were still visible, and had remained there so long a time; 2.414. that they did now irritate the Romans to take up arms against them, and invited them to make war upon them, and brought up novel rules of a strange Divine worship, and determined to run the hazard of having their city condemned for impiety, while they would not allow any foreigner, but Jews only, either to sacrifice or to worship therein. 2.415. And if such a law should ever be introduced in the case of a single private person only, he would have indignation at it, as an instance of inhumanity determined against him; while they have no regard to the Romans or to Caesar, and forbade even their oblations to be received also; 2.416. that however they cannot but fear, lest, by thus rejecting their sacrifices, they shall not be allowed to offer their own; and that this city will lose its principality, unless they grow wiser quickly, and restore the sacrifices as formerly, and indeed amend the injury [they have offered to foreigners] before the report of it comes to the ears of those that have been injured. 3.95. Those footmen also that are chosen out from the rest to be about the general himself have a lance and a buckler, but the rest of the foot soldiers have a spear and a long buckler, besides a saw and a basket, a pickaxe and an axe, a thong of leather and a hook, with provisions for three days, so that a footman hath no great need of a mule to carry his burdens. 4.402. and at the feast of unleavened bread, which the Jews celebrate in memory of their deliverance from the Egyptian bondage, when they were sent back into the country of their forefathers, they came down by night, without being discovered by those that could have prevented them, and overran a certain small city called Engaddi:— 4.403. in which expedition they prevented those citizens that could have stopped them, before they could arm themselves, and fight them. They also dispersed them, and cast them out of the city. As for such as could not run away, being women and children, they slew of them above seven hundred. 4.404. Afterward, when they had carried everything out of their houses, and had seized upon all the fruits that were in a flourishing condition, they brought them into Masada. 4.405. And indeed these men laid all the villages that were about the fortress waste, and made the whole country desolate; while there came to them every day, from all parts, not a few men as corrupt as themselves. 7.299. There was also found here a large quantity of all sorts of weapons of war, which had been treasured up by that king, and were sufficient for ten thousand men; there was cast iron, and brass, and tin, which show that he had taken much pains to have all things here ready for the greatest occasions; 7.336. and let us spare nothing but our provisions; for they will be a testimonial when we are dead that we were not subdued for want of necessaries, but that, according to our original resolution, we have preferred death before slavery.” 7.397. o, for a conclusion, the nine offered their necks to the executioner, and he who was the last of all took a view of all the other bodies, lest perchance some or other among so many that were slain should want his assistance to be quite dispatched; and when he perceived that they were all slain, he set fire to the palace, and with the great force of his hand ran his sword entirely through himself, and fell down dead near to his own relations. 7.400. Those others were nine hundred and sixty in number, the women and children being withal included in that computation. 7.405. yet did they not easily give their attention to such a desperate undertaking, and did not believe it could be as they said; they also attempted to put the fire out, and quickly cutting themselves a way through it, they came within the palace,
48. New Testament, Luke, 9.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 71, 73
9.17. καὶ ἔφαγον καὶ ἐχορτάσθησαν πάντες, καὶ ἤρθη τὸ περισσεῦσαν αὐτοῖς κλασμάτων κόφινοι δώδεκα. 9.17. They ate, and were all filled. They gathered up twelve baskets of broken pieces that were left over.
49. Mishnah, Kilayim, 9.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 75
9.1. "אֵין אָסוּר מִשּׁוּם כִּלְאַיִם אֶלָּא צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים. וְאֵינוֹ מִטַּמֵּא בִנְגָעִים אֶלָּא צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים. אֵין הַכֹּהֲנִים לוֹבְשִׁין לְשַׁמֵּשׁ בְּבֵית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ אֶלָּא צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים. צֶמֶר גְּמַלִּים וְצֶמֶר רְחֵלִים שֶׁטְּרָפָן זֶה בָזֶה, אִם רֹב מִן הַגְּמַלִּים, מֻתָּר, וְאִם רֹב מִן הָרְחֵלִים, אָסוּר. מֶחֱצָה לְמֶחֱצָה, אָסוּר. וְכֵן הַפִּשְׁתָּן וְהַקַּנְבּוֹס שֶׁטְּרָפָן זֶה בָזֶה: \n", 9.1. "Nothing is forbidden on account of kilayim except [a mixture of] wool and linen. No [clothing material] is subject to uncleanness by scale disease except wool or linen. Priests do not wear any materials to serve in the Temple except for wool and linen. Camel’s wool with sheep’s wool, that have been mixed together: if the greater part is camel’s wool, it is permitted [to mix it with linen], but if the greater part is sheep’s wool, it is forbidden; if it is half and half, it is forbidden. The same applies to hemp and linen mixed together.",
50. Mishnah, Beitzah, 4.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 72, 73, 74, 75
4.1. "הַמֵּבִיא כַדֵּי יַיִן מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם, לֹא יְבִיאֵם בְּסַל וּבְקֻפָּה, אֲבָל מֵבִיא הוּא עַל כְּתֵפוֹ אוֹ לְפָנָיו. וְכֵן הַמּוֹלִיךְ אֶת הַתֶּבֶן, לֹא יַפְשִׁיל אֶת הַקֻּפָּה לַאֲחוֹרָיו, אֲבָל מְבִיאָהּ הוּא בְיָדוֹ. וּמַתְחִילִין בַּעֲרֵמַת הַתֶּבֶן, אֲבָל לֹא בָעֵצִים שֶׁבַּמֻּקְצֶה: \n", 4.1. "One who carries jars of wine from place to place, he may not carry them in a basket or in a large basket, but he may carry [them] on his shoulder or in front of him. Similarly, one who brings straw, he may not drape a large basket over his back, rather he must carry it in his hand. And one may start [using] a heap of straw, but [one may] not [start using wood] from the back-yard.",
51. Mishnah, Menachot, 10.1, 10.3-10.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 72, 74, 75
10.1. "רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, הָעֹמֶר הָיָה בָא בְשַׁבָּת מִשָּׁלשׁ סְאִין, וּבְחֹל מֵחָמֵשׁ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֶחָד בְּשַׁבָּת וְאֶחָד בְּחֹל, מִשָּׁלשׁ הָיָה בָא. רַבִּי חֲנִינָא סְגָן הַכֹּהֲנִים אוֹמֵר, בְּשַׁבָּת הָיָה נִקְצָר בְּיָחִיד וּבְמַגָּל אֶחָד וּבְקֻפָּה אַחַת. וּבְחֹל, בִּשְׁלשָׁה וּבְשָׁלשׁ קֻפּוֹת וּבְשָׁלשׁ מַגָּלוֹת. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֶחָד בְּשַׁבָּת וְאֶחָד בְּחֹל, בִּשְׁלשָׁה וּבְשָׁלשׁ קֻפּוֹת וּבְשָׁלשׁ מַגָּלוֹת: \n", 10.3. "כֵּיצַד הָיוּ עוֹשִׂים. שְׁלוּחֵי בֵית דִּין יוֹצְאִים מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב, וְעוֹשִׂים אוֹתוֹ כְרִיכוֹת בִּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקַע, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא נוֹחַ לִקְצֹר. וְכָל הָעֲיָרוֹת הַסְּמוּכוֹת לְשָׁם, מִתְכַּנְּסוֹת לְשָׁם, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא נִקְצָר בְּעֵסֶק גָּדוֹל. כֵּיוָן שֶׁחֲשֵׁכָה, אוֹמֵר לָהֶם, בָּא הַשָּׁמֶשׁ, אוֹמְרִים, הֵן. בָּא הַשָּׁמֶשׁ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. מַגָּל זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. מַגָּל זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. קֻפָּה זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. קֻפָּה זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. בְּשַׁבָּת אוֹמֵר לָהֶם, שַׁבָּת זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. שַׁבָּת זוֹ, אוֹמְרִים הֵן. אֶקְצֹר, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ קְצֹר. אֶקְצֹר, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ קְצֹר. שָׁלשׁ פְּעָמִים עַל כָּל דָּבָר וְדָבָר, וְהֵם אוֹמְרִים לוֹ הֵן, הֵן, הֵן. וְכָל כָּךְ לָמָּה. מִפְּנֵי הַבַּיְתוֹסִים, שֶׁהָיוּ אוֹמְרִים, אֵין קְצִירַת הָעֹמֶר בְּמוֹצָאֵי יוֹם טוֹב: \n", 10.4. "קְצָרוּהוּ וּנְתָנוּהוּ בְקֻפּוֹת, הֱבִיאוּהוּ לָעֲזָרָה, הָיוּ מְהַבְהְבִין אוֹתוֹ בָאוּר, כְּדֵי לְקַיֵּם בּוֹ מִצְוַת קָלִי, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, בְּקָנִים וּבִקְלִיחוֹת חוֹבְטִים אוֹתוֹ, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִתְמָעֵךְ. נְתָנוּהוּ לָאַבּוּב, וְאַבּוּב הָיָה מְנֻקָּב, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא הָאוּר שׁוֹלֵט בְּכֻלּוֹ. שְׁטָחוּהוּ בָעֲזָרָה, וְהָרוּחַ מְנַשֶּׁבֶת בּוֹ. נְתָנוּהוּ בְרֵחַיִם שֶׁל גָּרוֹסוֹת, וְהוֹצִיאוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עִשָּׂרוֹן שֶׁהוּא מְנֻפֶּה מִשְּׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה נָפָה, וְהַשְּׁאָר נִפְדֶּה וְנֶאֱכָל לְכָל אָדָם. וְחַיָּב בַּחַלָּה, וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא מְחַיֵּב בַּחַלָּה וּבַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת. בָא לוֹ לָעִשָּׂרוֹן, וְנָתַן שַׁמְנוֹ וּלְבוֹנָתוֹ, יָצַק, וּבָלַל, הֵנִיף, וְהִגִּישׁ, וְקָמַץ, וְהִקְטִיר, וְהַשְּׁאָר נֶאֱכָל לַכֹּהֲנִים: \n", 10.1. "Rabbi Ishmael says: On Shabbat the omer was taken out of three seahs [of barley] and on a weekday out of five. But the sages say: whether on Shabbat or on a weekday it was taken out of three seahs. Rabbi Hanina the vice-high priest says: on Shabbat it was reaped by one man with one sickle into one basket, and on a weekday it was reaped by three men into three baskets and with three sickles. But the sages say: whether on Shabbat or on a weekday it was reaped by three men into three baskets and with three sickles.", 10.3. "How would they do it [reap the omer]?The agents of the court used to go out on the day before the festival and tie the unreaped grain in bunches to make it the easier to reap. All the inhabitants of the towns near by assembled there, so that it might be reaped with a great demonstration. As soon as it became dark he says to them: “Has the sun set?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Has the sun set?” And they answer, “Yes.” “With this sickle?” And they answer, “Yes.” “With this sickle?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Into this basket?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Into this basket?” And they answer, “Yes.” On the Sabbath he says to them, “On this Sabbath?” And they answer, “Yes.” “On this Sabbath?” And they answer, “Yes.” “Shall I reap?” And they answer, “Reap.” “Shall I reap?” And they answer, “Reap.” He repeated every matter three times, and they answer, “yes, yes, yes.” And why all of this? Because of the Boethusians who held that the reaping of the omer was not to take place at the conclusion of the [first day of the] festival.", 10.4. "They reaped it, put it into the baskets, and brought it to the Temple courtyard; Then they would parch it with fire in order to fulfill the mitzvah that it should be parched [with fire], the words of Rabbi Meir. But the sages say: they beat it with reeds or stems of plants that the grains should not be crushed, and then they put it into a pipe that was perforated so that the fire might take hold of all of it. They spread it out in the Temple courtyard so that the wind might blow over it. Then they put it into a gristmill and took out of it a tenth [of an ephah of flour] which was sifted through thirteen sieves. What was left over was redeemed and might be eaten by any one; It was liable for hallah but exempt from tithes. Rabbi Akiba made it liable both to hallah and to tithes. He then came to the tenth, put in its oil and its frankincense, poured in the oil, mixed it, waved it, brought it near [to the altar], took from it the handful and burnt it; and the remainder was eaten by the priests.",
52. Mishnah, Kelim, 8.2, 16.3, 17.1, 17.4, 27.4, 28.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 71, 74, 75
8.2. "הָיְתָה שְׁלֵמָה, וְכֵן הַקֻּפָּה, וְכֵן הַחֵמֶת, הַשֶּׁרֶץ בְּתוֹכָהּ, הַתַּנּוּר טָהוֹר. הַשֶּׁרֶץ בַּתַּנּוּר, אֳכָלִין שֶׁבְּתוֹכָהּ טְהוֹרִין. נִקְּבוּ, הֶעָשׂוּי לְאֳכָלִין, שִׁעוּרָן בְּזֵיתִים. הֶעָשׂוּי לְמַשְׁקִין, שִׁעוּרָן בְּמַשְׁקִים. הֶעָשׂוּי לְכָךְ וּלְכָךְ, מַטִּילִים אוֹתוֹ לְחֻמְרוֹ, בְּכוֹנֵס מַשְׁקֶה: \n", 16.3. "הַקְּנוֹנִין הַקְּטַנִּים, וְהַקְּלָתוֹת, מִשֶּׁיַּחְסֹם וִיקַנֵּב. הַקְּנוֹנִים הַגְּדוֹלִים, וְהַסּוּגִין הַגְּדוֹלִים, מִשֶּׁיַּעֲשֶׂה שְׁנֵי דוּרִים לָרֹחַב שֶׁלָּהֶם. יָם נָפָה, וּכְבָרָה, וְכַף שֶׁל מֹאזְנַיִם, מִשֶּׁיַּעֲשֶׂה דוּר אֶחָד לָרֹחַב שֶׁלָּהֶן. הַקֻּפָּה, מִשֶּׁיַּעֲשֶׂה שְׁתֵּי צְפִירוֹת לָרֹחַב שֶׁלָּהּ. וְהֶעָרָק, מִשֶּׁיַּעֲשֶׂה בוֹ צְפִירָה אֶחָת: \n", 17.1. "כָּל כְּלֵי בַעֲלֵי בָתִּים, שִׁעוּרָן בְּרִמּוֹנִים. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, בְּמַה שֶּׁהֵן. קֻפּוֹת הַגַּנָּנִים, שִׁעוּרָן בַּאֲגֻדּוֹת שֶׁל יָרָק. שֶׁל בַּעֲלֵי בָתִּים, בְּתֶבֶן. שֶׁל בַּלָּנִין, בִּגְבָבָה. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, כֻּלָּן בְּרִמּוֹנִים: \n", 17.4. "הָרִמּוֹנִים שֶׁאָמְרוּ, שְׁלֹשָׁה, אֲחוּזִין זֶה בָזֶה. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, בְּנָפָה וּבִכְבָרָה, כְּדֵי שֶׁיִּטֹּל וִיהַלֵּךְ, וּבְקֻפָּה, כְּדֵי שֶׁיַּפְשִׁיל לַאֲחוֹרָיו. וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַכֵּלִים שֶׁאֵינָן יְכוֹלִין לְקַבֵּל רִמּוֹנִים, כְּגוֹן הָרֹבַע, וַחֲצִי הָרֹבַע, הַקְּנוֹנִים הַקְּטַנִּים, שִׁעוּרָן בְּרֻבָּן, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, בְּזֵיתִים. נִפְרְצוּ, שִׁעוּרָן בְּזֵיתִים. נִגְמְמוּ, שִׁעוּרָן בְּמַה שֶּׁהֵן: \n", 27.4. "הַמְקַצֵּעַ מִכֻּלָּם טֶפַח עַל טֶפַח, טָמֵא. מִשּׁוּלֵי הַקֻּפָּה טֶפַח עַל טֶפַח, טָמֵא. מִצְּדָדֵי הַקֻּפָּה, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מְטַהֵר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, הַמְקַצֵּעַ טֶפַח עַל טֶפַח בְּכָל מָקוֹם, טָמֵא: \n", 28.6. "מַטְלִית שֶׁטְּלָיָהּ עַל הַקֻּפָּה, מְטַמְּאָה אֶחָד וּפוֹסֶלֶת אֶחָד. הִפְרִישָׁהּ מִן הַקֻּפָּה, הַקֻּפָּה מְטַמָּא אֶחָד וּפוֹסֶלֶת אֶחָד, וְהַמַּטְלִית טְהוֹרָה. טְלָיָהּ עַל הַבֶּגֶד, מְטַמָּא שְׁנַיִם וּפוֹסֶלֶת אֶחָד. הִפְרִישָׁהּ מִן הַבֶּגֶד, הַבֶּגֶד מְטַמֵּא אֶחָד וּפוֹסֵל אֶחָד, וְהַמַּטְלִית מְטַמְּאָה שְׁנַיִם וּפוֹסֶלֶת אֶחָד. וְכֵן הַטּוֹלֶה עַל הַשַּׂק אוֹ עַל הָעוֹר, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן מְטַהֵר. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, עַל הָעוֹר, טָהוֹר. עַל הַשַּׂק, טָמֵא, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא אָרִיג: \n", 8.2. "If the hive was complete, and so too in the case of a basket or a skin-bottle, and a sheretz was within it the oven remains clean. If the sheretz was in the oven, any food in the hive remain clean. If a hole was made in it: A vessel that is used for food must have a hole large enough for olives to fall through, If it is used for liquids the hole must be large enough for liquids to pass into it, And if it is used for either it is subjected to the greater restriction: the hole need only be large enough for liquids to pass into it.", 16.3. "Small reed baskets and baskets [become susceptible to impurity] as soon as their rims are rounded off and their rough ends are smoothed off. Large reed baskets and large hampers, as soon as two rows have been made round their sides. The container of a sifter or a sieve and a cup of the balances, as soon as one circling band has been made round their sides. A willow basket, as soon as two twists have been made around its wide sides. And a rush basket, as soon as one twist has been made round it.", 17.1. "All [wooden] vessels that belong to householder [become clean if the holes in them are] the size of pomegranates. Rabbi Eliezer says: [the size of the hole depends] on what it is used for. Gardeners’ vegetable baskets [become clean if the holes in them are] the size of bundles of vegetables. Baskets of householders [become clean if the holes in them are] the size of [bundles] of straws. Those of bath-keepers, if bundles of chaff [will drop through]. Rabbi Joshua says: in all these the size is that of pomegranates.", 17.4. "The pomegranates of which they have spoken--three attached to one another. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: in a sifter or a sieve [the size of the hole must be such that a pomegranate will drop out] when one picks it up and walks about with it. In a basket it must be such [as would allow a pomegranate] to fall through while one hangs it behind him. And all other vessels which cannot hold pomegranates as, for instance, the quarter kav measure and the half quarter kav measure, and small baskets, the size [of their holes must be] such as would extend over the greater part of them, the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Shimon says: [the size of their hole must be such that] olives [could fall through]. If their sides were broken [the size of their hole must be] such as olives would drop through. If they are worn away the size must be such as would allow the objects which are usually kept in them [to drop through].", 27.4. "If one cut off from any of these a piece one by one handbreadth it is susceptible to uncleanness. [If one cut off a one by one handbreadth piece] from the bottom of a basket it is susceptible to uncleanness. If one cut off from the sides of the basket: Rabbi Shimon says that it is not susceptible to uncleanness, But the sages say one who cuts off a square handbreadth from anywhere, it is susceptible to uncleanness.", 28.6. "If a patch was sewn on to a basket, it conveys one grade of uncleanness and one of unfitness. If it was separated from the basket, it conveys one grade of uncleanness and one of unfitness, but the patch becomes clean. If it was sewn on to cloth it conveys two grades of uncleanness and one of unfitness. If it was separated from the cloth, it conveys one grade of uncleanness and one of unfitness, while the patch conveys two grades of uncleanness and one of unfitness. The same law applies to a patch was sewn on to sacking or leather, the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Shimon says that it is clean. Rabbi Yose says: if [it was sewn] on leather it becomes clean; but if on sacking it remains unclean, since the latter is a woven material.",
53. Mishnah, Miqvaot, 6.5, 10.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 71, 74, 75
6.5. "הַשִּׁדָּה וְהַתֵּבָה שֶׁבַּיָּם, אֵין מַטְבִּילִין בָּהֶם, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיוּ נְקוּבִין כִּשְׁפוֹפֶרֶת הַנּוֹד. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בִּכְלִי גָדוֹל, אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים. וּבְקָטָן, רֻבּוֹ. אִם הָיָה שַׂק אוֹ קֻפָּה, מַטְבִּילִין בָּהֶם כְּמָה שֶׁהֵם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהַמַּיִם מְעֹרָבִין. הָיוּ נְתוּנִים תַּחַת הַצִּנּוֹר, אֵינָם פּוֹסְלִים אֶת הַמִּקְוֶה, אֶלָּא מַטְבִּילִין אוֹתָן וּמַעֲלִין אוֹתָן כְּדַרְכָּן: \n", 10.5. "כָּל יְדוֹת הַכֵּלִים שֶׁהֵם אֲרֻכִּין וְעָתִיד לִקְצֹץ, מַטְבִּילָן עַד מְקוֹם הַמִּדָּה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, עַד שֶׁיַּטְבִּיל אֶת כֻּלּוֹ. שַׁלְשֶׁלֶת דְּלִי גָדוֹל, אַרְבָּעָה טְפָחִים, וְשֶׁל קָטָן, עֲשָׂרָה, מַטְבִּילָן עַד מְקוֹם הַמִּדָּה. רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן אוֹמֵר, עַד שֶׁיַּטְבִּיל אֶת כָּל הַטַּבַּעַת. הַחֶבֶל שֶׁהוּא קָשׁוּר בַּקֻּפָּה אֵינוֹ חִבּוּר, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן תָּפָר: \n", 6.5. "A chest or a box which is in the sea: one may not immerse in them unless they have a hole as large as the tube of a water-skin. Rabbi Judah says: in the case of a large vessel [the hole should be] four handbreadths, and in a small one [the hole should be as large as] the greater part of it. If there was a sack or a basket [in the sea], one may immerse in them as they are, since the water is mixed together. If they are placed under a water-spout, they do not make the mikveh invalid. And they may be immersed and brought up in the ordinary way.", 10.5. "Any handles of vessels which are too long and which will be cut short, need only be immersed up to the point of their proper measure. Rabbi Judah says: [they are unclean] until the whole of them is immersed. The chain of a large bucket, to the length of four handbreadths, and a small bucket, to the length of ten handbreadths, and they need only be immersed up to the point of their proper measure. Rabbi Tarfon says: it is not clean unless the whole of the chain-ring is immersed. The rope bound to a basket is not counted as a connection unless it has been sewn on.",
54. Mishnah, Nazir, 1.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 74, 75
1.5. "הֲרֵינִי נָזִיר מְלֹא הַבַּיִת אוֹ מְלֹא הַקֻּפָּה, בּוֹדְקִין אוֹתוֹ, אִם אָמַר אַחַת גְּדוֹלָה נָזָרְתִּי, נָזִיר שְׁלשִׁים יוֹם. וְאִם אָמַר סְתָם נָזָרְתִּי, רוֹאִין אֶת הַקֻּפָּה כְּאִלּוּ הִיא מְלֵאָה חַרְדָּל, וְנָזִיר כָּל יָמָיו: \n", 1.5. "[If he says,] “Behold, I am a nazirite as the capacity of this house”, or “as the capacity of this basket,” we check him. If he says “I vowed one long period of naziriteship”, he becomes a nazirite for thirty days. But if he says “I vowed without specification”, we regard the basket as though it were full of mustard seed, and he becomes a nazirite for life.",
55. Mishnah, Oholot, 6.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 74, 75
6.2. "קוֹבְרֵי הַמֵּת שֶׁהָיוּ עוֹבְרִים בְּאַכְסַדְרָה, וְהֵגִיף אַחַד מֵהֶן אֶת הַדֶּלֶת וּסְמָכוֹ בַמַּפְתֵּחַ, אִם יָכוֹל הַדֶּלֶת לַעֲמֹד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, טָהוֹר. וְאִם לָאו, טָמֵא. וְכֵן חָבִית שֶׁל גְּרוֹגָרוֹת אוֹ קֻפָּה שֶׁל תֶּבֶן שֶׁהֵן נְתוּנוֹת בְּחַלּוֹן, אִם יְכוֹלִין הַגְּרוֹגָרוֹת וְהַתֶּבֶן לַעֲמֹד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמָן, טְהוֹרִין. וְאִם לָאו, טְמֵאִין. בַּיִת שֶׁחֲצָצוֹ בְקַנְקַנִּים וְטָח בְּטִיחַ, אִם יָכוֹל הַטִּיחַ לַעֲמֹד בִּפְנֵי עַצְמוֹ, טָהוֹר. וְאִם לָאו, טָמֵא: \n", 6.2. "If corpse-bearers were passing along a portico and one of them shut a door and locked it with a key, If the door can remain in its position on its own,[the contents of the house] remain clean, But if not, they become unclean. Similarly [in the case of] a barrel of dried figs or a basket of straw placed in a window, If the dried figs or the straw can remain in their position on their own, [the contents of the room] remain clean, But if not they become unclean. [In the case of] a house partitioned off by wine-jars, which had been plastered with clay, If the clay can remain in its position on its own, [the space partitioned off] remains clean, But if not, it becomes unclean.",
56. Mishnah, Shabbat, 4.2, 8.2, 10.2, 18.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 71, 73, 74
4.2. "טוֹמְנִין בִּשְׁלָחִין, וּמְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָן, בְּגִזֵּי צֶמֶר, וְאֵין מְטַלְטְלִין אוֹתָן. כֵּיצַד הוּא עוֹשֶׂה, נוֹטֵל אֶת הַכִּסּוּי וְהֵן נוֹפְלוֹת. רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה אוֹמֵר, קֻפָּה, מַטָּהּ עַל צִדָּהּ וְנוֹטֵל, שֶׁמָּא יִטֹּל וְאֵינוֹ יָכֹל לְהַחֲזִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, נוֹטֵל וּמַחֲזִיר. לֹא כִסָּהוּ מִבְּעוֹד יוֹם, לֹא יְכַסֶּנּוּ מִשֶּׁתֶּחְשָׁךְ. כִּסָּהוּ וְנִתְגַּלָּה, מֻתָּר לְכַסּוֹתוֹ. מְמַלֵּא אֶת הַקִּיתוֹן וְנוֹתֵן לְתַחַת הַכַּר, אוֹ תַחַת הַכָּסֶת: \n", 8.2. "הַמּוֹצִיא חֶבֶל, כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת אֹזֶן לְקֻפָּה. גֶּמִי, כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת תְּלַאי לְנָפָה וְלִכְבָרָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, כְּדֵי לִטֹּל מִמֶּנּוּ מִדַּת מִנְעָל לְקָטָן. נְיָר, כְּדֵי לִכְתֹּב עָלָיו קֶשֶׁר מוֹכְסִין. וְהַמּוֹצִיא קֶשֶׁר מוֹכְסִין, חַיָּב. נְיָר מָחוּק, כְּדֵי לִכְרֹךְ עַל פִּי צְלוֹחִית קְטַנָּה שֶׁל פַּלְיָטוֹן: \n", 10.2. "הַמּוֹצִיא אֳכָלִין וּנְתָנָן עַל הָאַסְקֻפָּה, בֵּין שֶׁחָזַר וְהוֹצִיאָן בֵּין שֶׁהוֹצִיאָן אַחֵר, פָּטוּר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁלֹּא עָשָׂה מְלַאכְתּוֹ בְּבַת אֶחָת. קֻפָּה שֶׁהִיא מְלֵאָה פֵרוֹת וּנְתָנָהּ עַל הָאַסְקֻפָּה הַחִיצוֹנָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁרֹב הַפֵּרוֹת מִבַּחוּץ, פָּטוּר, עַד שֶׁיּוֹצִיא אֶת כָּל הַקֻּפָּה:", 18.1. "מְפַנִּין אֲפִלּוּ אַרְבַּע וְחָמֵשׁ קֻפּוֹת שֶׁל תֶּבֶן וְשֶׁל תְּבוּאָה מִפְּנֵי הָאוֹרְחִים וּמִפְּנֵי בִטּוּל בֵּית הַמִּדְרָשׁ, אֲבָל לֹא אֶת הָאוֹצָר. מְפַנִּין תְּרוּמָה טְהוֹרָה, וּדְמַאי, וּמַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁנִּטְּלָה תְרוּמָתוֹ, וּמַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁנִּפְדּוּ, וְהַתֻּרְמוֹס הַיָּבֵשׁ, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַאֲכָל לַעֲנִיִּים. אֲבָל לֹא אֶת הַטֶּבֶל, וְלֹא מַעֲשֵׂר רִאשׁוֹן שֶׁלֹּא נִטְּלָה תְרוּמָתוֹ, וְלֹא אֶת מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי וְהֶקְדֵּשׁ שֶׁלֹּא נִפְדּוּ, וְלֹא אֶת הַלּוּף, וְלֹא הַחַרְדָּל. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל מַתִּיר בְּלוּף, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מַאֲכַל עוֹרְבִין: \n", 4.2. "They may cover up [food] with hides, and they may be handled; [They may cover up food] with wool shearings, but they may not be handled. What then is done? The lid [of the pot] is lifted, and they [the shearings] fall off of their own accord. Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah says: the basket [holding the pot] he turns on its side and [the food] is removed, lest one lift [the lid of the pot] and is unable to replace it. But the Sages say: one may take [out the pot] and replace [it]. If he did not cover it [a pot] while it was yet day, it may not be covered after nightfall. If it was covered but became uncovered, it may be recovered. One may fill a jug with [cold water] and place it under a pillow or blanket [to keep it cool].", 8.2. "One who carries out rope, as much as is required for making a handle for a basket; A reed cord: as much as is required for making a hanger for a sifter or a sieve. Rabbi Judah says: as much as is required for taking the measure of a child's shoe. Paper, in order to write a tax-collector’s receipt on it. And one who carries out a tax-collector’s receipt is liable. Erased paper, as much as is required to wrap round a small vial of perfume.", 10.2. "If one carries out food and places it on the threshold, whether he [himself] subsequently carries it out [into the street] or another does so, he is not liable, because the [whole] act was not performed at once. [If one carries out] a basket which is full of produce and places it on the outer threshold, though most of the produce is outside of the threshold, he is not liable unless he carries out the whole basket.", 18.1. "One may clear away even four or five baskets of straw or produce to make room for guests or on account of the neglect of the study hall, but not the storehouse. One may clear away pure terumah, doubtfully tithed produce, the first tithe whose terumah has been separated, redeemed second tithe and sanctified things, and dry lupinus, because it is food for goats. But [one may] not [clear away] untithed produce, first tithe whose terumah has not been taken, unredeemed second tithe and sanctified things, luf or mustard. Rabbi Shimon b. Gamaliel permits [it] in the case of luf, because it is food for ravens.",
57. Mishnah, Maasrot, 3.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 74, 75
3.2. "הַמּוֹצִיא פּוֹעֲלָיו לַשָּׂדֶה, בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם עָלָיו מְזוֹנוֹת, אוֹכְלִין וּפְטוּרִין. וְאִם יֶשׁ לָהֶם עָלָיו מְזוֹנוֹת, אוֹכְלִין אַחַת אַחַת מִן הַתְּאֵנָה, אֲבָל לֹא מִן הַסַּל וְלֹא מִן הַקֻּפָּה וְלֹא מִן הַמֻּקְצֶה: \n", 3.2. "One who brought his workers into the field, when he is not obligated to provide for them, they may eat and be exempt from tithes. If, however, he is obligated to provide for them they may eat of the figs one at a time, but not from the basket, nor from the large basket, nor from the storage yard.",
58. Mishnah, Terumot, 1.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 74, 75
1.7. "אֵין תּוֹרְמִין, לֹא בְמִדָּה, וְלֹא בְמִשְׁקָל, וְלֹא בְמִנְיָן. אֲבָל תּוֹרֵם הוּא אֶת הַמָּדוּד וְאֶת הַשָּׁקוּל וְאֶת הַמָּנוּי. אֵין תּוֹרְמִין בְּסַל וּבְקֻפָּה שֶׁהֵם שֶׁל מִדָּה, אֲבָל תּוֹרֵם הוּא בָהֶן חֶצְיָן וּשְׁלִישָׁן. לֹא יִתְרֹם בִּסְאָה חֶצְיָהּ, שֶׁחֶצְיָהּ מִדָּה: \n", 1.7. "They may not give terumah according to measure, or weight, or number, but one may give it from that which has already been measured, weighed or counted. They may not give terumah in a basket or a hamper of a measured capacity, but one may give in it when it is a half or a third filled. He may not give a half of seah in a seah measuring vessel, for this half constitutes a known measure.",
59. Mishnah, Toharot, 9.1, 9.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 74, 75
9.1. "זֵיתִים מֵאֵימָתַי מְקַבְּלִין טֻמְאָה. מִשֶּׁיַּזִּיעוּ זֵעַת הַמַּעֲטָן, אֲבָל לֹא זֵעַת הַקֻּפָּה, כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית שַׁמָּאי. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, שִׁעוּר זֵעָה שְׁלשָׁה יָמִים. בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, מִשֶּׁיִּתְחַבְּרוּ שְׁלשָׁה זֶה לָזֶה. רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁתִּגָּמֵר מְלַאכְתָּן. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים כִּדְבָרָיו: \n", 9.4. "הַגּוֹמֵר אֶת זֵיתָיו וְשִׁיֵּר קֻפָּה אַחַת, יִתְּנֶנָּה לְעָנִי הַכֹּהֵן, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, יוֹלִיךְ אֶת הַמַּפְתֵּחַ מִיָּד. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, מֵעֵת לְעֵת: \n", 9.1. "At what stage do olives become susceptible to uncleanness?When they exude the moisture [produced] by [their lying in] the vat but not the one [produced while they are still] in the basket, according to the words of Bet Shammai. Rabbi Shimon says: the minimum time prescribed for proper exudation is three days. Bet Hillel says: as soon as three olives stick together. Rabban Gamaliel says: as soon as their preparation is finished, and the sages agree with his view.", 9.4. "One who had finished [the gathering of his olives] and put aside one basketful, let him put it [in the container] in front of a priest, the words of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Judah says: he must hand him over the key immediately. Rabbi Shimon says: within twenty-four hours.",
60. New Testament, Acts, 9.25, 13.14-13.15 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 73; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 609, 610
9.25. λαβόντες δὲ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ νυκτὸς διὰ τοῦ τείχους καθῆκαν αὐτὸν χαλάσαντες ἐν σφυρίδι. 13.14. Αὐτοὶ δὲ διελθόντες ἀπὸ τῆς Πέργης παρεγένοντο εἰς Ἀντιόχειαν τὴν Πισιδίαν, καὶ ἐλθόντες εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῶν σαββάτων ἐκάθισαν. 13.15. μετὰ δὲ τὴν ἀνάγνωσιν τοῦ νόμου καὶ τῶν προφητῶν ἀπέστειλαν οἱ ἀρχισυνάγωγοι πρὸς αὐτοὺς λέγοντες Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, εἴ τις ἔστιν ἐν ὑμῖν λόγος παρακλήσεως πρὸς τὸν λαόν, λέγετε. 9.25. but his disciples took him by night, and let him down through the wall, lowering him in a basket. 13.14. But they, passing through from Perga, came to Antioch of Pisidia. They went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and sat down. 13.15. After the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Brothers, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, speak."
61. Mishnah, Demai, 2.5, 5.7 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 74
2.5. "רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, אֶת שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לְהִמָּדֵד בְּגַסָּה וּמְדָדוֹ בְדַקָּה, טְפֵלָה דַקָּה לַגַּסָּה. אֶת שֶׁדַּרְכּוֹ לְהִמָּדֵד בְּדַקָּה וּמָדַד בַּגַסָּה, טְפֵלָה גַסָּה לַדַּקָּה. אֵיזוֹ הִיא מִדָּה גַסָּה, בְּיָבֵשׁ, שְׁלשֶׁת קַבִּין, וּבְלַח, דִּינָר. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, סַלֵּי תְאֵנִים וְסַלֵּי עֲנָבִים וְקֻפּוֹת שֶׁל יָרָק, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁהוּא מוֹכְרָן אַכְסָרָה, פָּטוּר: \n", 5.7. "הַלּוֹקֵחַ מִבַּעַל הַבַּיִת וְחָזַר וְלָקַח מִמֶּנּוּ שְׁנִיָּה, מְעַשֵּׂר מִזֶּה עַל זֶה, אֲפִלּוּ מִשְּׁתֵּי קֻפּוֹת, אֲפִלּוּ מִשְּׁתֵּי עֲיָרוֹת. בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁהָיָה מוֹכֵר יָרָק בַּשּׁוּק, בִּזְמַן שֶׁמְּבִיאִין לוֹ מִגַּנּוֹתָיו, מְעַשֵּׂר מֵאַחַת עַל הַכֹּל. וּמִגַּנּוֹת אֲחֵרוֹת, מְעַשֵּׂר מִכָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד:", 2.5. "Rabbi Meir says: [if produce] which is usually measured out [for sale] in a large [quantity] was measured out in a small [quantity], the small quantity is treated as if it was a large [quantity]. If [produce] which is usually measured out for sale in a small [quantity] was measured out in a large [quantity], the large [quantity] is treated as if it was a small [quantity]. What is considered a large quantity? For dry [produce] three kavs, and for liquids, the value of one dinar. Rabbi Yose says: baskets of figs, baskets of grapes, and bushels of vegetables when he sells them in lumps, they are exempt [from the rules of demai].", 5.7. "One who buys from a field owner, and then buys from him again, he may give tithes from the one [purchase] for the other, even when [the purchases come] from two baskets and even from two towns. A field owner who was selling vegetables in the market: when he brings them from his garden, he may tithe from one for all; But [if he brings them] from other gardens, he must tithe each lot separately.",
62. New Testament, Colossians, 4.7-4.8 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •austrian archaeological institute Found in books: Immendörfer (2017), Ephesians and Artemis : The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context 6
4.7. Τὰ κατʼ ἐμὲ πάντα γνωρίσει ὑμῖν Τύχικος ὁ ἀγαπητὸς ἀδελφὸς καὶ πιστὸς διάκονος καὶ σύνδουλος ἐν κυρίῳ, 4.8. ὃν ἔπεμψα πρὸς ὑμᾶς εἰς αὐτὸ τοῦτο ἵνα γνῶτε τὰ περὶ ἡμῶν καὶ παρακαλέσῃ τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν, 4.7. All my affairs will be made known to you by Tychicus, the beloved brother, faithful servant, and fellow bondservant in the Lord. 4.8. I am sending him to you for this very purpose, that he may know your circumstances and comfort your hearts,
63. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.14, 6.21-6.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •austrian archaeological institute Found in books: Immendörfer (2017), Ephesians and Artemis : The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context 6, 182
2.14. Αὐτὸς γάρ ἐστιν ἡ εἰρήνη ἡμῶν, ὁ ποιήσας τὰ ἀμφότερα ἓν καὶ τὸ μεσότοιχον τοῦ φραγμοῦ λύσας, τὴν ἔχθραν 6.21. Ἵνα δὲ εἰδῆτε καὶ ὑμεῖς τὰ κατʼ ἐμέ, τί πράσσω, πάντα γνωρίσει ὑμῖν Τύχικος ὁ ἀγαπητὸς ἀδελφὸς καὶ πιστὸς διάκονος ἐν κυρίῳ, 6.22. ὃν ἔπεμψα πρὸς ὑμᾶς εἰς αὐτὸ τοῦτο ἵνα γνῶτε τὰ περὶ ἡμῶν καὶ παρακαλέσῃ τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν. 2.14. For he is our peace, who made both one, and broke down the middle wall of partition, 6.21. But that you also may know my affairs, how I am doing, Tychicus, the beloved brother and faithful servant in the Lord, will make known to you all things; 6.22. whom I have sent to you for this very purpose, that you may know our state, and that he may comfort your hearts.
64. New Testament, John, 6.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 71, 73
6.13. συνήγαγον οὖν, καὶ ἐγέμισαν δώδεκα κοφίνους κλασμάτων ἐκ τῶν πέντε ἄρτων τῶν κριθίνων ἃ ἐπερίσσευσαν τοῖς βεβρωκόσιν. 6.13. So they gathered them up, and filled twelve baskets with broken pieces from the five barley loaves, which were left over by those who had eaten.
65. Mishnah, Shekalim, 3.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 75
3.3. "שֶׁל בֵּית רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל (הָיָה) נִכְנָס וְשִׁקְלוֹ בֵּין אֶצְבְּעוֹתָיו, וְזוֹרְקוֹ לִפְנֵי הַתּוֹרֵם, וְהַתּוֹרֵם מִתְכַּוֵּן וְדוֹחֲקוֹ לַקֻּפָּה. אֵין הַתּוֹרֵם תּוֹרֵם עַד שֶׁיֹּאמַר לָהֶם, אֶתְרֹם. וְהֵן אוֹמְרִים לוֹ, תְּרֹם, תְּרֹם, תְּרֹם, שָׁלשׁ פְּעָמִים: \n", 3.3. "[The members] of Rabban Gamaliel’s household used to enter [the chamber] with their shekel between their fingers, and throw it in front of him who made the appropriation, while he who made the appropriation purposely pressed it into the basket. He who made the appropriation did not make it until he first said to them: “Should I make the appropriation?” And they say to him three times: “Make the appropriation! Make the appropriation! Make the appropriation!”",
66. Mishnah, Bava Metzia, 2.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 75
2.8. "מָצָא סְפָרִים, קוֹרֵא בָהֶן אַחַת לִשְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. וְאִם אֵינוֹ יוֹדֵעַ לִקְרוֹת, גּוֹלְלָן. אֲבָל לֹא יִלְמֹד בָּהֶן בַּתְּחִלָּה, וְלֹא יִקְרָא אַחֵר עִמּוֹ. מָצָא כְסוּת, מְנַעֲרָהּ אַחַת לִשְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. וְשׁוֹטְחָהּ לְצָרְכָּהּ, אֲבָל לֹא לִכְבוֹדוֹ. כְּלֵי כֶסֶף וּכְלֵי נְחֹשֶׁת, מִשְׁתַּמֵּשׁ בָּהֶן לְצָרְכָּן, אֲבָל לֹא לְשָׁחֳקָן. כְּלֵי זָהָב וּכְלֵי זְכוּכִית, לֹא יִגַּע בָּהֶן עַד שֶׁיָּבֹא אֵלִיָּהוּ. מָצָא שַׂק אוֹ קֻפָּה, וְכָל דָּבָר שֶׁאֵין דַּרְכּוֹ לִטֹּל, הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִטֹּל:", 2.8. "If he found scrolls he must read them once every thirty days, and if he does not know how to read he should unroll them. But he may not learn from them something he has not yet learned, nor may another read with him. If he found clothing he must shake it out once every thirty days, and spread it out for [the clothing’s] own good, but not for his own honor. [If he found] silver or copper vessels he must use them for their own good but not so as to wear them out. [If he found] vessels of gold or glass he may not touch them until Elijah comes. If he found a sack or a large basket or anything that is not generally carried about, he may not carry it.",
67. Statius, Siluae, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •national archaeological museum Found in books: Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 65
68. Tosefta, Oholot, 4.2 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 73, 75
4.2. "אמר ר' יהודה ששה דברים היה ר\"ע מטמא וחזר בו. מעשה שהביאו קופות של עצמות מכפר טביא והניחום באויר ביהכ\"נ בלוד ונכנס תיאודריס הרופא וכל הרופאין עמו ואמרו אין כאן שדרה ממת אחד ולא גולגולת ממת אחד אמרו הואיל ויש כן מטמאים ויש כן מטהרין נעמוד למנין התחילו מר\"ע וטיהר אמרו לו הואיל ואתה שהיתה מטמא טהרת יהו טהורין אמר ר\"ש ועד יום מיתתו של ר\"ע היה מטמא ואם משמת חזר בו איני יודע.",
69. Plutarch, Phocion, 37.5 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •hearth archaeologically elusive Found in books: Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 14
70. Mishnah, Makhshirin, 4.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 74
4.6. "קֻפָּה שֶׁהִיא מְלֵאָה תֻרְמוֹסִין וּנְתָנוּהָ לְתוֹךְ מִקְוֶה, מוֹשִׁיט יָדוֹ וְנוֹטֵל תֻּרְמוֹסִין מִתּוֹכָהּ, וְהֵם טְהוֹרִים. הֶעֱלָם מִן הַמַּיִם, הַנּוֹגְעִים בַּקֻּפָּה, טְמֵאִים, וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַתֻּרְמוֹסִים, טְהוֹרִים. צְנוֹן שֶׁבַּמְּעָרָה, נִדָּה מְדִיחָתוֹ וְהוּא טָהוֹר. הֶעֱלַתּוּ כָל שֶׁהוּא מִן הַמַּיִם, טָמֵא: \n", 4.6. "A basket full of lupines placed in a mikveh, one may put out his hand and take lupines from it and they remain clean. But if he lifted them out of the water, those that touch the basket are unclean, but the rest of the lupines are clean. If there was a radish in a cavern, a niddah may rinse it and leave it clean. But if she lifted it, however little, out of the water, it becomes unclean.",
71. Suetonius, Galba, 17 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •emperors archaeological and cultural evidence for Found in books: Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 93
72. Tosefta, Toharot, 7.2, 10.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 71, 74, 75
7.2. "יש דברים ברה\"ר ועשאם כרה\"י קופה ברה\"ר גבוהה י' טפחים וטומאה בתוכה ספק נגע ספק לא נגע ספיקו טהור הכניס ידו לתוכה ספק נגע ספק לא נגע ספיקו טמא. <אם> היתה כפושה וככר של תרומה כרוך בסיב או בנייר ונתון בתוכה ספק נגע ספק לא נגע טהור. הכניס ידו לתוכה ספק נגע ספק לא נגע ספיקו טמא. חמור ברה\"ר גבוה י' טפחים וטומאה <נתונה> על גביו ספק נגע ספק לא נגע ספיקו טמא סלע ברה\"ר גבוה י' טפחים וטומאה <נתונה> על גביו ספק נגע ספק לא נגע ספיקו טהור עלה לראשו ספק נגע ספק לא נגע ספיקו טמא.",
73. Tosefta, Terumot, 3.13 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 74
3.13. "אין תורמין שמן על הזיתים הנכתשין ולא יין על ענבים הנדרכות אם תרם תרומתו תרומה ויחזור ויתרום הראשונה מדמעת בפני עצמה וחייבין עליה חומש אבל לא שניה וצריך להוציא עליהן תרומה ומעשרות ר' יוסי אומר בית שמאי אומרים תורמין וב\"ה אומרין אין תורמין ומודים שאם תרם שצריך לתרום שניה.",
74. Tosefta, Sotah, 14.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 75
75. Tosefta, Menachot, 10.23 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 72, 74, 75
76. Tosefta, Bava Qamma, 2.6 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 74, 75
2.6. "המצניע קוצים וזכוכית בתוך כותלו של חברו ובא בעל הכותל וסתרו ובא אחר והוזק בהן הרי זה חייב חסידים הראשונים היו מוציאין אותו לתוך שדות עצמן ומעמיקין להן ג' טפחים כדי שלא תעלם המחרישה היה בקופה של תבן ובא חבילה של קוצים ברה\"ר ובא אחר והוזק בהן הרי זה חייב רבי יהודה פוטר שלא נתנו ערי ישראל אלא לכך כגון אלו הפותחין ביביהן והגורפין מערותיהן ברשות הרבים בימות החמה שאין להן רשות בימות הגשמים אע\"פ שיש להן רשות ובא אחר והוזק בהן הרי זה חייב המוציא תבנו וקשו לרשות הרבים לזבלים ובא אחר והוזק בהן הרי זה חייב וכל הקודם בהן זכה החופר את הגלל לזכות בה ברה\"ר ובא אחר והוזק בה הרי זה חייב ואסורה משום גזל רבן שמעון בן גמליאל אומר כל המקלקלין ברשות הרבים מותרין משום גזל.",
77. Tosefta, Beitzah, 3.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 74, 75
3.1. "אין [פותחין] לפסין סתומין ורשב\"ג מתיר אין מכבין את הבקעת לחוס עליה אם בשביל שלא יעשו הבית או בשביל שלא תקדיח [את] התבשיל מותר לא יתן אדם אבל על גבי בקעת כדי לשוברה אבל מכניסה בחור ושוברה אין עושין פחמין ביום טוב אפילו לאותו היום אבל ממתיקין את החרדל בגחלת אין מנפחים במפוח אבל נופחים [השפופרת] אין עושין את השפוד ואין מחדדין אותו אין פוצעין את הקנה לצלות בו מליח אבל פוצעין את האגוז במטפחת ואינו חושש [משום קריעה].", 3.1. "ביברין של חיה [ושל עופות] ושל דגים אין צדין מהם ביו\"ט ואין נותנין לפניהן מזונות אבל צדין מהן מעיו\"ט ונותנין לפניהם מזונות רשב\"ג אומר לא כל הביברין שוין זה הכלל מחוסר צידה אסור שאין מחוסר צידה מותר.",
78. Tosefta, Demai, 3.12, 3.16 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 74, 75
3.12. "היה הוא נאמן ואשתו אין נאמנת לוקחין ממנו ואין מתארחין אצלו ואע\"פ שאמרו הרי הוא כשרוי עם הנחש בכפיפה אשתו נאמנת והוא אינו נאמן מתארחין אצלו ואין לוקחין הימנו הוא נאמן ואחד מבניו נאמן ואחת משפחתו נאמנת לוקחין ואוכלין על פיהן ועושין לו ואוכל בשביעית ובטהרות אינן רשאין לעשות כן.", 3.16. "לא התירו למכור דמאי אלא לסיטון בלבד בעל הבית בין כך ובין כך צריך לעשר דברי רבי מאיר וחכ\"א אחד סיטון ואחד בעה\"ב מותר למכור ולשלוח לחבירו וליתן לו במתנה.",
79. Tosefta, Eruvin, 6.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 74, 75
6.9. "כותל חצר שנפרץ מארבעה טפחים עד עשר אמות מותר מפני שהוא כפתח יתר מכאן כנגד הפרצה אסור נפרצו בו פרצות הרבה אם העומד מרובה על הפרוץ מותר [אם] הפרוץ מרובה על העומד כנגד עשרה בתים בטלה [מחיצה] שתי חצירות זו [לפנים מזו בין זו לזו ד' טפחים] מערבין שנים ואין מערבין אחד היתה אחת מהן גבוהה עשרה טפחים [ממעטה] באבנים בכפתים ובסולם הצורי או שהביא נסר שרוחב ארבעה טפחים וקבעו בה מערבין שנים ואם רצו מערבין אחד פחות מכן מערבין אחד ואין מערבין שנים היתה אחת מהן גבוהה עשרה טפחים עושין לה מחיצה גבוהה חמשה טפחים ומבטלה.",
80. Tosefta, Shabbat, 5.14, 10.1, 14.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 71, 74, 75
10.1. "החולב והמחבץ והמגבן כגרוגרת והמרבץ [והמרחיץ והסך] והרודה חלות דבש בשבת חייב חטאת [וביו\"ט] לוקה ארבעים דברי רבי אליעזר וחכמים אומרים בין בשבת בין ביו\"ט אינו [חייב] אלא משום שבות ר' שמעון בן אלעזר אומר [משום ר' אליעזר הכוחלת והגודלת] והפוקסת לעצמה פטורה לאחרות חייבת וכן היה ר\"ש בן אלעזר אומר משום ר' אליעזר [לא תקנח אשה פניה בבגד שיש בו סרק].", 10.1. "המוציא שני נימין מזנב הסוס ומזנב הפרה ה\"ז חייב מפני [שמתקינן לכשפים] המוציא שני [זפין מן הקש] שבחזיר ה\"ז חייב ר\"ש ב\"א אומר אפילו אחד יש חולקין חטרתו לשאר גופו.", 14.4. "הגליונים וספרי מינים אין מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה אלא נשרפין במקומן הן ואזכרותיהן ר' יוסי הגלילי אומר בחול קודר את אזכרותיהן וגונזן ושורף את השאר אמר רבי טרפון אקפח את בני שאם יבואו לידי [שאשרפם ואת האזכרות שבהן] שאפי' הרודף רודף [אחרי נכנסתי לבית ע\"ז ולא נכנסתי לבתיהן שעובדי ע\"ז] אין מכירין [אותו] וכופרין [בו] והללו מכירין וכופרין בו ועליהן אמר הכתוב (ישעיהו נ״ז:ח׳) ואחר הדלת והמזוזה שמת זכרונך [וגו'] אמר ר' ישמעאל מה אם להטיל שלום בין איש לאשתו [אמר המקום ספר] שנכתב בקדושה ימחה על המים [ספרי מינים] שמטילין איבה בין ישראל לאביהם שבשמים על אחת כמה וכמה שימחו הן ואזכרותיהן ועליהן אמר הכתוב (תהילים קל״ט:כ״א) הלא משנאיך ה' אשנא וגו' כשם שאין מצילין אותן מפני הדליקה כך אין מצילין אותן לא מן המפולת ולא מן המים ולא מכל דבר המאבד אותן.",
81. Tosefta, Parah, 8.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 71, 74
8.4. "קדרה שהיא מלאה משקין טהורין ותורמוסין טמאין פחותין מכביצה נתונין בתוכה. נפחתו ונעשו כביצה טמאין. ה\"ז אומר טמאני וטמאתיו. טהור שנפל על ראשו ועל רובו ג' לוגין מים שאובין אפילו הוא טהור והן טהורין טמאוהו ונטמאו. הרי זה אומר טמאני וטמאתיו.",
82. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 6 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 75
83. Alciphron, Letters, 4.18.16 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •archaeology, archaeological Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 27
84. Tosefta, Kelim Baba Qamma, 6.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 74
6.6. "שלשה דברים מצילין באהל המת. הבלועין וצמיד פתיל ואוהלין. יש בבלועין שאין בצמיד פתיל ואוהלין יש בצמיד פתיל ואוהלים שאין בבלועין. הבלועין מצילין על הטהורין מלמטה ואין מצילין על הטמאין מלמטה. הבלועין אין מיטמאין במשא הזב וצמיד פתיל ואוהלין מיטמאין במשא הזב. החמת והכפישה שנפחתו במוציא רימונין אע\"פ שבטלו מתורת הכלים מצילין באהל השרץ.",
85. Anon., Acts of Philip, 14 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •incubation (christian), archaeological/architectural evidence Found in books: Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 760
86. Tosefta, Kelim Baba Metsia, 5.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 71
5.1. "כלי גללים וכלי אבנים וכלי אדמה הבאין במדה ר' מאיר אומר הרי הן ככלים וחכמים אומרין הרי הן כאהלין רבי נחמיה אומר קופות גדולות וסוגין הגדולים שיש להן שוליים והן מחזיקין מ' סאין בלח שהם כוריים ביבש אע\"פ שאין מטלטלין במשתייר בהן וכמה הן אמה על אמה על רום שליש ישנן שש מאות ארבעים ושמונה טפח ראיה לדבר ממדת השלחן. ר' יוסי אומר בים שעשה שלמה הוא אומר (דברי הימים ב ד׳:ה׳) מחזיק בתים שלשת אלפים יכיל במקום אחר הוא אומר (מלכים א ז׳:כ״ו) אלפים בת יכיל א\"א לומר אלפים שכבר נאמר שלשת אלפים ואי אפשר לומר שלשת אלפים שכבר נאמר אלפים אמור מעתה אלפים בלח שלשת אלפים ביבש. החזיונות שבטרקלין בעלי בתים האוכלים עליהם שאע\"פ שחולקים כצפורן טמאין מפני שהן כטבלא ומעשה בבעל הבית אחד שהיו לו נצרים בתוך והיו שואלין אותן לבית האבל ולבית המשתה ובא מעשה לפני חכמים וטמאום.", 5.1. "חומר בכלי פפיר מכלי נצרין שאין מקבלין טומאה אלא משתגמר מלאכתן וכלי פפיר כיון שעשה חור אחד על גבי הרחב שלהן טמאין. ",
87. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 232 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 71, 73, 75
88. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 3.1, 3.6.3, 8.18 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •national archaeological museum Found in books: Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 65
3.1. To Calvisius. I don't think I ever spent a more delightful time than during my recent visit at Spurinna's house; indeed, I enjoyed myself so much that, if it is my fortune to grow old, there is no one whom I should prefer to take as my model in old age, as there is nothing more methodical than that time of life. Personally, I like to see men map out their lives with the regularity of the fixed courses of the stars, and especially old men. For while one is young a little disorder and rush, so to speak, is not unbecoming; but for old folks, whose days of exertion are past and in whom personal ambition is disgraceful, a placid and well-ordered life is highly suitable. That is the principle upon which Spurinna acts most religiously; even trifles, or what would be trifles were they not of daily occurrence, he goes through in fixed order and, as it were, orbit. In the morning he keeps his couch; at the second hour he calls for his shoes and walks three miles, exercising mind as well as body. If he has friends with him the time is passed in conversation on the noblest of themes, otherwise a book is read aloud, and sometimes this is done even when his friends are present, but never in such a way as to bore them. Then he sits down, and there is more reading aloud or more talk for preference; afterwards he enters his carriage, taking with him either his wife, who is a model lady, or one of his friends, a distinction I recently enjoyed. How delightful, how charming that privacy is! What glimpses of old times one gets! What noble deeds and noble men he tells you of! What lessons you drink in! Yet at the same time it is his custom so to blend his learning with modesty that he never seems to be playing the schoolmaster. After riding seven miles he walks another mile, then he again resumes his seat or betakes himself to his room and his pen. For he composes, both in Latin and Greek, the most scholarly lyrics. They have a wonderful grace, wonderful sweetness, and wonderful humour, and the chastity of the writer enhances its charm. When he is told that the bathing hour has come - which is the ninth hour in winter and the eighth in summer - he takes a walk naked in the sun, if there is no wind. Then he plays at ball for a long spell, throwing himself heartily into the game, for it is by means of this kind of active exercise that he battles with old age. After his bath he lies down and waits a little while before taking food, listening in the meantime to the reading of some light and pleasant book. All this time his friends are at perfect liberty to imitate his example or do anything else they prefer. Then dinner is served, the table being as bright as it is modest, and the silver plain and old-fashioned; he also has some Corinthian vases in use, for which he has a taste though not a mania. The dinner is often relieved by actors of comedy, * so that the pleasures of the table may have a seasoning of letters. Even in the summer the meal lasts well into the night, but no one finds it long, for it is kept up with such good humour and charm. The consequence is that, though he has passed his seventy-seventh year, his hearing and eyesight are as good as ever, his body is still active and alert, and the only symptom of his age is his wisdom. This is the sort of life that I have vowed and determined to follow, and I shall enter upon it with zest as soon as my age justifies me in beating a retreat. Meanwhile, I am distracted with a thousand things to attend to, and my only solace therein is the example of Spurinna again, for he undertook official duties, held magistracies, and governed provinces as long as it became him to do so, and earned his present leisure by abundant toil. That is why I set myself the same race to run and the same goal to attain, and I now register the vow and place it in your hands, so that, if ever you see me being carried beyond the mark, you may bring me to book, quote this letter of mine against me and order me to take my ease, so soon as I shall have made it impossible for people to charge me with laziness. Farewell.
89. Pliny The Younger, Letters, 3.1, 3.6.3, 8.18 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •national archaeological museum Found in books: Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 65
3.1. To Calvisius. I don't think I ever spent a more delightful time than during my recent visit at Spurinna's house; indeed, I enjoyed myself so much that, if it is my fortune to grow old, there is no one whom I should prefer to take as my model in old age, as there is nothing more methodical than that time of life. Personally, I like to see men map out their lives with the regularity of the fixed courses of the stars, and especially old men. For while one is young a little disorder and rush, so to speak, is not unbecoming; but for old folks, whose days of exertion are past and in whom personal ambition is disgraceful, a placid and well-ordered life is highly suitable. That is the principle upon which Spurinna acts most religiously; even trifles, or what would be trifles were they not of daily occurrence, he goes through in fixed order and, as it were, orbit. In the morning he keeps his couch; at the second hour he calls for his shoes and walks three miles, exercising mind as well as body. If he has friends with him the time is passed in conversation on the noblest of themes, otherwise a book is read aloud, and sometimes this is done even when his friends are present, but never in such a way as to bore them. Then he sits down, and there is more reading aloud or more talk for preference; afterwards he enters his carriage, taking with him either his wife, who is a model lady, or one of his friends, a distinction I recently enjoyed. How delightful, how charming that privacy is! What glimpses of old times one gets! What noble deeds and noble men he tells you of! What lessons you drink in! Yet at the same time it is his custom so to blend his learning with modesty that he never seems to be playing the schoolmaster. After riding seven miles he walks another mile, then he again resumes his seat or betakes himself to his room and his pen. For he composes, both in Latin and Greek, the most scholarly lyrics. They have a wonderful grace, wonderful sweetness, and wonderful humour, and the chastity of the writer enhances its charm. When he is told that the bathing hour has come - which is the ninth hour in winter and the eighth in summer - he takes a walk naked in the sun, if there is no wind. Then he plays at ball for a long spell, throwing himself heartily into the game, for it is by means of this kind of active exercise that he battles with old age. After his bath he lies down and waits a little while before taking food, listening in the meantime to the reading of some light and pleasant book. All this time his friends are at perfect liberty to imitate his example or do anything else they prefer. Then dinner is served, the table being as bright as it is modest, and the silver plain and old-fashioned; he also has some Corinthian vases in use, for which he has a taste though not a mania. The dinner is often relieved by actors of comedy, * so that the pleasures of the table may have a seasoning of letters. Even in the summer the meal lasts well into the night, but no one finds it long, for it is kept up with such good humour and charm. The consequence is that, though he has passed his seventy-seventh year, his hearing and eyesight are as good as ever, his body is still active and alert, and the only symptom of his age is his wisdom. This is the sort of life that I have vowed and determined to follow, and I shall enter upon it with zest as soon as my age justifies me in beating a retreat. Meanwhile, I am distracted with a thousand things to attend to, and my only solace therein is the example of Spurinna again, for he undertook official duties, held magistracies, and governed provinces as long as it became him to do so, and earned his present leisure by abundant toil. That is why I set myself the same race to run and the same goal to attain, and I now register the vow and place it in your hands, so that, if ever you see me being carried beyond the mark, you may bring me to book, quote this letter of mine against me and order me to take my ease, so soon as I shall have made it impossible for people to charge me with laziness. Farewell.
90. Anon., Sifra, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 71, 73, 75
91. Aelian, Varia Historia, 3.26 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •austrian archaeological institute Found in books: Immendörfer (2017), Ephesians and Artemis : The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context 89
92. Tosefta, Kelim Baba Batra, 6.2, 6.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •quppa, archaeological finds Found in books: Gardner (2015), The Origins of Organized Charity in Rabbinic Judaism, 71, 73
6.2. "החמת שפחתה הכהן להיות רודה בה ככר תרומה טהורה. עור שעשאו לשלחן להיות אוכל עליו טמא ושיעורו בטפח. בית יד וחפת של חלון הרי אלו נמדדין כפולין זה הכלל הבא כפול נמדד כפול הבא פשוט נמדד פשוט א\"ר יוסי שאם היו שנים זה על גבי זה שלא בטלו זה את זה. שלש על שלש בתוך הבית הרי זו טמאה שכל הבית מן המוצנע. מצאה אחר הדלת או בכסותה או פונדיון צרור בה או מחט תחוב בה או שהיתה פקוקה בסל ובקופה טהורה ולעולם אינה טמאה עד שיצביענה לבגד ר\"ש אומר לדבר שהוא מקבל טומאה טמאה ולדבר שאין מקבל טומאה טהורה.",
93. Philostratus, Pictures, 1.19.4 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •archaeology, archaeological Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 536
94. Eusebius of Caesarea, Onomasticon, 68.11, 86.16, 96.9 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •essenes, archaeological evidence, demand for •qumran and the essenes, archaeological evidence Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 248
95. Lactantius, Divine Institutes, 1.7.1, 1.22.13 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •archaeology, archaeological •national archaeological museum Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 557; Rutledge (2012), Ancient Rome as a Museum: Power, Identity, and the Culture of Collecting, 65
96. Libanius, Letters, 724, 828, 1364 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008), Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography, 9
97. Libanius, Orations, 30 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •archaeological evidence Found in books: Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008), Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography, 9
98. Theodoret of Cyrus, Ecclesiastical History, 339 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •archaeological evidence Found in books: Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008), Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography, 351
100. Anon., 4Qtob, 0  Tagged with subjects: •german archaeological mission Found in books: Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 116
101. Epigraphy, Pompei, 1-4, 6-9, 5  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bruun and Edmondson (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy, 16
102. Papyri, P.Berl., 13.446  Tagged with subjects: •german archaeological mission Found in books: Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 116
103. Papyri, P.Flor., 4.230-4.238, 4.309-4.315  Tagged with subjects: •archaeology, archaeological Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 536
104. Papyri, P.Yadin, 11.1-11.7  Tagged with subjects: •qumran and the essenes, archaeological evidence Found in books: Taylor (2012), The Essenes, the Scrolls, and the Dead Sea, 269
106. Anon., Epit. Vit. Tychonis, 30.16, 30.17, 30.18, 30.19, 30.20, 30.21, 30.22, 30.23, 30.24, 30.25, 30.26, 30.27, 30.28, 31.1, 31.2, 31.3, 31.4, 31.5, 31.6, 31.7, 31.8, 31.9, 31.10, 31.11, 31.12, 31.13, 31.14, 31.15, 31.16, 31.17-36.5, 42.26, 42.27, 42.28, 42.29, 42.30, 43.1, 43.2, 43.3, 43.4, 43.5, 43.6, 43.7, 43.8, 43.9, 43.10, 43.11, 43.12, 43.13, 43.14, 43.15, 43.16, 43.17  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 760
107. Epigraphy, Isyriaw, 2498  Tagged with subjects: •archaeological evidence Found in books: Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008), Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography, 10
108. Epigraphy, Seg, 27.933  Tagged with subjects: •archaeology, archaeological Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 557
109. Micenean Texts, Khania, Py Ta, 709.2  Tagged with subjects: •archaeology, archaeological Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 27
110. Epigraphy, Ogis, 2.610  Tagged with subjects: •archaeological evidence Found in books: Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008), Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography, 10
111. Theodore of Mopsuestia, Iiie Hom.Sur Le Baptême, 4.2  Tagged with subjects: •masada, archaeological evidence Found in books: Cohen (2010), The Significance of Yavneh and other Essays in Jewish Hellenism, 143
112. Epigraphy, Ils, 694, 65  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Bruun and Edmondson (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy, 43
113. Epigraphy, Ig Iv, 8627  Tagged with subjects: •archaeological evidence Found in books: Hahn Emmel and Gotter (2008), Usages of the Past in Roman Historiography, 10
114. Epigraphy, Ig Ii2, 1006.12-1006.13, 1011.11-1011.12  Tagged with subjects: •archaeology, archaeological Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 27
115. Procopius, History of The Wars, 5.9.1-5.9.7  Tagged with subjects: •ravenna, absence of archaeological evidence for jews in Found in books: Kraemer (2020), The Mediterranean Diaspora in Late Antiquity: What Christianity Cost the Jews, 278
116. Epigraphy, Ig Ii, 13283, 13293  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022), Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas, 180
117. Anastasius, Quaestio, 26.4  Tagged with subjects: •incubation (christian), archaeological/architectural evidence Found in books: Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 760
118. Epigraphy, Ig I , 1476  Tagged with subjects: •oropos amphiareion, earliest archaeological evidence Found in books: Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 674, 675
119. Epigraphy, I.Ephesos, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Kalinowski (2021), Memory, Family, and Community in Roman Ephesos, 316
120. Epigraphy, Ephesos, 1384, 429, 4108  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Kalinowski (2021), Memory, Family, and Community in Roman Ephesos, 316
121. Epigraphy, Cil, 6.1139, 6.2177  Tagged with subjects: •archaeological contexts, of inscriptions Found in books: Bruun and Edmondson (2015), The Oxford Handbook of Roman Epigraphy, 7, 16
122. Hierocles, Synecdemus, 645.10  Tagged with subjects: •dating of non-literary sources, of archaeological evidence Found in books: Breytenbach and Tzavella (2022), Early Christianity in Athens, Attica, and Adjacent Areas, 346
123. Epigraphy, Cij, 2.749, 3.25  Tagged with subjects: •theaters, archaeological remains Found in books: Spielman (2020), Jews and Entertainment in the Ancient World. 41
124. Anon., Theosophia Tubingensis, 13.106-13.108  Tagged with subjects: •archaeology, archaeological Found in books: Bernabe et al. (2013), Redefining Dionysos, 557
125. Artifact, Ferrara, Museo Archeologico Nazionale, None  Tagged with subjects: •oropos amphiareion, earliest archaeological evidence Found in books: Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 675
126. Artifact, Athens, National Archaeological Museum, 1125  Tagged with subjects: •oropos amphiareion, earliest archaeological evidence Found in books: Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 675
127. Council of Carthage, Canons (Ed. C. Munier,Concilia Africae A. 345 - A. 525 (Ccsl 149; Turnhout, 1974)), 83  Tagged with subjects: •incubation (christian), archaeological/architectural evidence Found in books: Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 760
128. Anon., Miracula Cosmae Et Damiani, 34, 30  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Renberg (2017), Where Dreams May Come: Incubation Sanctuaries in the Greco-Roman World, 762
129. Anon., Tanhuma Beshallah, 1.16  Tagged with subjects: •hearth archaeologically elusive Found in books: Parker (2005), Polytheism and Society at Athens, 15
130. Callimachus, Hymns, 3.251-3.258  Tagged with subjects: •austrian archaeological institute Found in books: Immendörfer (2017), Ephesians and Artemis : The Cult of the Great Goddess of Ephesus As the Epistle's Context 125