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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
anim, horvat Levine (2005) 199, 314, 324, 335, 337, 473
animal Balberg (2017) 78, 149, 152
Faure (2022) 27, 67, 81, 85, 88, 89, 110
Gagné (2020) 1, 13, 14, 15, 166, 183, 207, 219, 221, 281, 321, 395
Inwood and Warren (2020) 23, 24, 36, 37, 41, 42, 43, 44, 59, 60, 115, 122, 131, 173, 175
Joosse (2021) 62, 79, 83, 112
Levison (2009) 14, 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 28, 31, 32, 33, 59, 96, 98, 99, 104, 121, 131, 142, 153, 155, 315, 348, 362
d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 254, 286, 287
animal, abilities for, self-determination, human versus Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 193
animal, above the head, holding an Hitch (2017) 121
animal, above the holding an head, in egyptian sacrifice Hitch (2017) 260
animal, aegisthus in euripides electra, sacrifice Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 229, 230
animal, agency Mackey (2022) 327, 353
animal, agents Mackey (2022) 353
animal, analogies, body Brule (2003) 76, 77, 78, 79, 88, 147, 174
animal, anecdotes, heliodorus Pinheiro et al (2012b) 66
animal, animais, castration of victim, uncastrated Ekroth (2013) 161
animal, animal, hetaera, hide skins Radicke (2022) 514, 662
animal, animals, sacrifice, reason in Simmons(1995) 7, 306
animal, apocalypse Collins (2016) 7, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89
Piotrkowski (2019) 133
animal, apocalypse, adamin the Collins (2016) 86
animal, ass, as sethian Griffiths (1975) 351
animal, bionic Mackay (2022) 19, 83, 84, 85, 88
animal, body Joosse (2021) 223, 224, 225
animal, bones Ekroth (2013) 32
Marek (2019) 402
Schiffman (1983) 127
animal, bones, burnt at sacrifices Ekroth (2013) 32
animal, bones, debris from dining Ekroth (2013) 37
animal, bones, holocausted Ekroth (2013) 80
animal, bones, in funerary contexte Ekroth (2013) 230, 232
animal, bones, thigh-bones Ekroth (2013) 101, 115, 120, 201, 202, 230
animal, breeding Faraone (1999) 20, 21
animal, bride, as Seaford (2018) 265, 289
animal, burial Mackay (2022) 99, 100
animal, burials and subterranean passages, alexandria sarapieion, sacred Renberg (2017) 333, 334, 336, 591
animal, butchery Rosenblum (2016) 132
animal, carrion/torn Rosenblum (2016) 26
animal, catacombs, sacred animals, egyptian, shrines at sacred Renberg (2017) 333, 334, 415, 435, 436, 443, 444, 445, 446, 510
animal, celestial d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 151
animal, colour of victim, black Ekroth (2013) 61, 62, 65, 81, 99, 101, 102, 103, 113, 133, 192
animal, colour of victim, offerings coloured black Ekroth (2013) 109
animal, colour of victim, white Ekroth (2013) 97, 101, 133
animal, colour of victim, white clothing Ekroth (2013) 334
animal, commodification Mackay (2022) 142
animal, community Mackay (2022) 18, 44, 60, 66, 98, 101, 149
animal, decision-making Mackay (2022) 56, 57, 58
animal, divine Mackay (2022) 17, 147, 148, 149, 150, 151, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 160, 161, 162, 164, 165, 167, 168, 169, 170, 173, 174, 175, 176, 181, 182
animal, domestic, ass as a domestic Hitch (2017) 257
animal, empathy Mackay (2022) 40, 41, 47, 57, 63, 66, 75, 79, 92, 98, 107, 207, 211
animal, en boqeq, fat use of Taylor (2012) 339
animal, experience Mackay (2022) 38, 47, 54, 56, 63, 64, 77, 95, 105, 129
animal, faculty of discourse, discrimination Joosse (2021) 87, 88
animal, female, principle distinguished from Trott (2019) 31, 46
animal, figures, ascetics as König (2012) 8, 337, 343, 347
animal, flesh Stuckenbruck (2007) 99, 366
animal, food, apuleius, human and König (2012) 281, 288
animal, for self, substitution, of Balberg (2017) 50
animal, form, disappears Griffiths (1975) 13, 235
animal, gaze Mackay (2022) 40, 41, 48, 88, 92, 173, 212
animal, gender Mackay (2022) 47, 49, 52, 53
animal, goats, as specific type of Balberg (2017) 148, 169, 179
animal, hair burned on altar, hair Hitch (2017) 43
animal, hunts hunting, venationes, before gladiator battles Marek (2019) 538, 540
animal, imagery Corley (2002) 11, 21, 33, 71, 108, 117, 122, 128, 129, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 141, 142, 143, 151, 153, 176, 178, 183, 184, 185, 186, 188, 200, 223
Pillinger (2019) 40, 46, 131, 185, 188
animal, imagery and, passions Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 180
animal, in formula, milk Edmonds (2004) 88, 90
animal, in heraclitus, sacrifice Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 70, 71, 72, 73, 74, 75, 270
animal, in hesiod, sacrifice Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 47, 50, 51, 52
animal, in iamblichus, sacrifice Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 70, 71
animal, in pythagoras, sacrifice Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 55, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 64, 65, 66, 269, 270
animal, in ritual Mackay (2022) 18, 73, 74, 90, 91, 92, 95, 96, 98, 190, 203, 207, 212
animal, in rome Mackay (2022) 85, 88, 173
animal, in zaleucus, sacrifice Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 65, 66
animal, individual d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 149, 154
animal, insomnia Augoustakis (2014) 14
Verhagen (2022) 14
animal, insults Richlin (2018) 151, 154, 160, 172, 173, 177, 228, 258, 288, 299
animal, jesus as parallel to Balberg (2017) 91, 92
animal, keeper occupation/occupational designations, therotrophos Marek (2019) 460, 505
animal, lament Mackay (2022) 48, 52, 53, 56
animal, life Garcia (2021) 82, 119, 121
Long (2006) 62, 67, 116, 118, 120, 127, 139, 160, 161, 164, 243, 244, 337, 352
animal, limb of a living Rosenblum (2016) 131
animal, lions, sacred Marek (2019) 109, 125, 164
animal, man vs. Clay and Vergados (2022) 332
animal, material Bortolani et al (2019) 29, 44, 46, 47, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 57, 65, 69, 99, 104, 118, 120, 121, 133, 134, 145, 146, 161, 177, 202, 204, 215, 222, 236, 246, 247, 255, 279, 281, 286, 287
animal, medieval art, conflicts, ancient depictions of Simon (2021) 190
animal, moral status Mackay (2022) 16
animal, morality Mackay (2022) 73
animal, necropolis, saqqâra, individual structures and complexes, sacred Renberg (2017) 397, 416, 418, 426, 434, 435, 436, 445, 510, 544, 723, 724, 739
animal, necropolises and incubation, sacred animals, egyptian, sacred Renberg (2017) 333, 334, 414, 415, 418, 434, 435, 436, 445, 446, 447, 510
animal, nicknames Faraone (1999) 154
animal, nicknames for, torture Richlin (2018) 166, 331, 456, 466
animal, non-human Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 167, 208, 383, 464, 467, 468, 469, 470, 474, 479, 480, 481, 482, 483, 485, 486, 487, 488, 489, 490, 491, 492, 528, 530, 542, 548
animal, oracles and artemis, oracles Simon (2021) 174
animal, parts of King (2006) 51
animal, pelles skins Radicke (2022) 47, 48, 622
animal, perception, sensation Joosse (2021) 83, 87, 88, 89, 90
animal, pre-battle, sacrifice Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 217, 218, 219
animal, psycho-physical composite King (2006) 216
animal, re-emergence Mackay (2022) 129, 136, 138, 142
animal, rejection of pythagoras sacrifice, ? Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 60
animal, rejection sacrifice, of empedocles Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 78, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 97, 270, 271
animal, rejection sacrifice, of porphyry Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 70, 74, 75
animal, rejection sacrifice, of theophrastus Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 73, 74, 76, 77
animal, relating Mackay (2022) 38, 43, 44, 54, 64, 66, 77, 78
animal, representations, dedicatory objects Renberg (2017) 177, 262, 263
animal, sacrifi ce, jews and Gruen (2011) 192, 193, 309
animal, sacrifice Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 240, 243, 394, 396, 397, 398, 401, 402, 403, 404, 411, 519
Dillon and Timotin (2015) 26, 58, 66, 68, 95, 97
Janowitz (2002) 53
Janowitz (2002b) 4, 8, 51, 96, 98, 102
Mackay (2022) 90, 91, 92, 95, 96, 98
Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 26, 140, 281
Simmons(1995) 8, 307
Stavrianopoulou (2006) 167
Williams and Vol (2022) 177, 178, 179, 180
animal, sacrifice in leges sacrae linked to oropos amphiareion, incubation, ? Renberg (2017) 284, 285, 286
animal, sacrifice, and gnosticism Simmons(1995) 2, 21
animal, sacrifice, and the varronian chronology Simmons(1995) 55, 62
animal, sacrifice, chaldaean theology Simmons(1995) 3, 232
animal, sacrifice, concept of god Simmons(1995) 9, 242
animal, sacrifice, conceptual parallels with epicureanism Simmons(1995) 1, 133, 135, 137
animal, sacrifice, empedocles, rejecting Tor (2017) 322, 337, 344
animal, sacrifice, epistemology Simmons(1995) 148, 149, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157
animal, sacrifice, eschatology Simmons(1995) 90, 121, 146, 147, 148, 288
animal, sacrifice, human, in theophrastus Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 74
animal, sacrifice, human, of iphigenia in the agamemnon Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 132, 133, 134, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 141, 145, 168, 272, 290
animal, sacrifice, platonic influence upon Simmons(1995) 1, 3, 182
animal, sacrifice, pollution, miasma from Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 424
animal, sacrifice, porphyry, philosophia ex oraculis Simmons(1995) 74, 305, 311
animal, sacrifice, porphyry, rejection of Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 70, 74, 75
animal, sacrifice, silent thoughts doctrine Simmons(1995) 6, 295
animal, sacrifice, use of varro Simmons(1995) 9, 58
animal, sacrifices Luck (2006) 482, 483
animal, sacrifices, blood, of Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 128, 133, 144, 396
animal, sentience Mackay (2022) 17, 129
animal, sheep, as sacrificial Alvar Ezquerra (2008) 304
animal, skin Bernabe et al (2013) 33, 47, 52, 172, 189, 422, 478, 529, 544
animal, skins Radicke (2022) 47, 48, 197
animal, skins and bedding materials, asklepios and incubation reliefs, representation of Renberg (2017) 221, 222, 223, 255, 256, 258
animal, slaughter, sacrifice, thysia Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 14, 15, 16, 53, 181, 231, 242, 247, 265, 296, 391, 424, 467, 469, 471, 472, 544, 654
animal, soul Joosse (2021) 88, 89
animal, soul, transmigration, μετενσωμάτωσις, as outward association with Joosse (2021) 224
animal, souls d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 256
animal, species, bird Ekroth (2013) 41, 308
animal, species, boar Ekroth (2013) 255
animal, species, bull Ekroth (2013) 33, 67, 68
animal, species, cattle Ekroth (2013) 32, 134, 158, 166, 167, 175, 189
animal, species, cow Ekroth (2013) 62, 138, 152
animal, species, dog Ekroth (2013) 41, 228, 255
animal, species, ewe Ekroth (2013) 62, 65, 68, 69, 158, 161, 162, 164, 166, 174, 254
animal, species, goat Ekroth (2013) 61, 103, 113, 133, 141, 143, 146, 152, 324
animal, species, heifer Ekroth (2013) 319
animal, species, horse Ekroth (2013) 47, 97, 158, 159, 162
animal, species, lamb Ekroth (2013) 101, 103, 109, 112, 133, 134, 142
animal, species, mare Ekroth (2013) 261
animal, species, ox Ekroth (2013) 47, 103, 104, 133, 140
animal, species, pig Ekroth (2013) 134, 143, 146, 152
animal, species, piglet Ekroth (2013) 60, 61, 133, 134, 138, 141, 143
animal, species, puppies Ekroth (2013) 65, 69
animal, species, ram Ekroth (2013) 37
animal, species, sheep Ekroth (2013) 37
animal, species, snake Ekroth (2013) 316
animal, species, soul, in relation to characteristic activities of Singer and van Eijk (2018) 10, 91, 92, 138
animal, species, wether Ekroth (2013) 134, 162, 164
animal, specification of Balberg (2017) 119, 168, 169, 179
animal, speech Kneebone (2020) 233, 239, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332, 333, 334, 335
animal, statues used for divination, egyptian and greco-egyptian, oracles, ? Renberg (2017) 78, 435, 599, 600, 601
animal, subjectivity Mackay (2022) 40, 47, 57, 64, 66, 76, 77, 79, 88, 98, 129, 138, 162
animal, subjugation Mackay (2022) 73, 83, 84, 85, 86, 88
animal, substituting mythical characters, sacrifice Kowalzig (2007) 281, 282, 283
animal, sympathy Mackay (2022) 75, 79, 96, 107
animal, terminology, sexuality Brule (2003) 98, 101, 112
animal, that crushes things underfoot, educational metaphor Hirshman (2009) 59
animal, unfit for consumption, terefah Balberg (2017) 200, 201
animal, victim by fire, destruction of Ekroth (2013) 61, 63, 68, 69, 75, 80, 101, 102, 111, 112, 113, 133, 134, 155, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 228, 229, 230, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 252, 255, 256, 270, 308, 328, 332
animal, victim, castration of Ekroth (2013) 134
animal, victim, colour of Ekroth (2013) 133
animal, victim, destruction sacrifice, partial destruction of Ekroth (2013) 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 228, 235, 236, 237, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 252, 259, 277, 313, 316, 318, 328, 332
animal, victim, destruction sacrifice, total destruction of Ekroth (2013) 70, 75, 101, 113, 171, 206, 207, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 228, 229, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 252, 256, 313, 316, 328, 332
animal, victim, god's portion at sacrifice Ekroth (2013) 42, 115, 120, 178, 180, 182, 199, 242, 288, 318, 328
animal, victim, hero's portion at sacrifice Ekroth (2013) 179, 180, 181, 182, 185, 202
animal, victim, parts of bile Ekroth (2013) 176
animal, victim, parts of ears Ekroth (2013) 250
animal, victim, parts of feet Ekroth (2013) 103, 225
animal, victim, parts of gall-bladder Ekroth (2013) 308
animal, victim, parts of head Ekroth (2013) 62, 297
animal, victim, parts of hide Ekroth (2013) 134, 152, 157, 224, 225, 249
animal, victim, parts of horn Ekroth (2013) 250
animal, victim, parts of intestines Ekroth (2013) 65, 217, 218, 242, 247, 248, 252, 319
animal, victim, parts of leg Ekroth (2013) 134, 142, 143, 217, 219
animal, victim, parts of muzzle Ekroth (2013) 273
animal, victim, parts of neck Ekroth (2013) 174, 192
animal, victim, parts of rind Ekroth (2013) 134
animal, victim, parts of shoulder Ekroth (2013) 142, 220
animal, victim, parts of skin Ekroth (2013) 134, 140, 142, 143, 144, 146, 157, 217, 223, 225, 265, 319
animal, victim, parts of stomach Ekroth (2013) 65, 69, 247
animal, victim, parts of tail Ekroth (2013) 250
animal, victim, parts of testicles Ekroth (2013) 252
animal, victim, parts of thigh Ekroth (2013) 140, 219, 316, 319
animal, victim, parts of tongue Ekroth (2013) 143
animal, victim, prices and financial considerations Ekroth (2013) 134, 135, 146, 152, 158, 159, 161, 162, 163, 164, 285, 292
animal, victim, treatment of burning of a ninth of the meat Ekroth (2013) 220, 221, 222, 223, 235, 236, 237
animal, victim, treatment of burning of a part or parts of the victim Ekroth (2013) 217, 218, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 235, 236, 237, 252
animal, victim, treatment of burning of divinity's portion Ekroth (2013) 42, 53, 101, 103, 112, 115, 118, 120, 139, 140, 145, 178, 180, 181, 182, 185, 201, 202, 217, 218, 240, 289, 318, 328
animal, victim, treatment of burning of entire victim Ekroth (2013) 60, 61, 63, 68, 69, 75, 80, 81, 101, 102, 112, 119, 133, 134, 155, 165, 179, 217, 218, 224, 225, 234, 235, 238, 255, 256, 270, 308, 328, 332
animal, victim, treatment of castrated Ekroth (2013) 134
animal, victim, treatment of decapitated Ekroth (2013) 62, 174, 175, 176, 188, 271, 275
animal, victim, treatment of flayed Ekroth (2013) 63, 134, 143, 269
animal, victim, treatment of killed with head bent towards the ground Ekroth (2013) 269, 270, 271, 273, 275, 297
animal, victim, treatment of singed Ekroth (2013) 134, 143
animal, victim, treatment of skin destroyed Ekroth (2013) 156, 157, 217, 223, 225
animal, victim, treatment of throat cut, slit or pierced Ekroth (2013) 65, 68, 135, 172, 173, 174, 184, 185, 252, 269, 270, 271, 273, 275
animal, victims, female Ekroth (2013) 133, 161, 162
animal, victims, male Ekroth (2013) 161, 162
animal, victims, male marathon, battle of Ekroth (2013) 75, 76, 77, 83, 240
animal, victims, pregnant Ekroth (2013) 138
animal, worship Isaac (2004) 357
Luck (2006) 385
Piotrkowski (2019) 72, 221, 408
Taylor and Hay (2020) 7, 9, 15, 16, 100, 118, 123, 127, 130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 136
animal, worship, egyptians and Gruen (2011) 77, 102, 105, 109, 110, 112, 113, 328
animal, wrong incurs pollution, sacrifice Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 30, 51
animal-human, behavior, animals Nuno et al (2021) 14, 74, 224
animality, ethnicity, and Bosak-Schroeder (2020) 65, 66, 67
animals Bay (2022) 100, 110, 203, 215, 232, 238, 251, 252, 260, 271, 274, 276, 282, 286, 289, 294, 301
Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 333, 339, 396, 397, 519
Binder (2012) 66, 86, 133, 137, 159, 179
Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 96, 97, 134
Castagnoli and Ceccarelli (2019) 27, 29, 217, 240, 241, 242, 243, 253, 254, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 304, 305, 306, 307, 308, 309, 331, 359
Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 79, 181, 182
Grypeou and Spurling (2009) 54, 68, 71, 78, 79, 89, 92, 94, 96, 102, 105, 143, 157, 158
Huffman (2019) 55, 57, 347, 427, 457, 573
Laemmle (2021) 63, 64, 70, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 217
Lampe (2003) 210, 264, 324, 420
Lateiner and Spatharas (2016) 12, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 29, 31, 144, 145, 191, 192, 193, 205, 208, 213, 216, 219, 222, 227, 239, 256, 259
Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 132, 155, 160, 161, 164
Mackey (2022) 15, 351, 352, 353, 363, 374, 375, 378, 379, 382, 391
Nisula (2012) 20, 119, 140, 172, 204, 218, 225, 229, 258, 259
Novenson (2020) 5, 36, 48, 54, 59, 226
Porton (1988) 20, 21, 22, 23, 26, 28, 29, 31, 32, 41, 43, 44, 51, 55, 61, 62, 66, 69, 70, 77, 78, 87, 92, 93, 94, 95, 98, 99, 100, 104, 105, 106, 107, 132, 138, 153, 165, 166, 167, 191, 196, 208, 209, 212, 214, 222, 225, 226, 227, 228, 232, 236, 245, 247, 253, 254, 255, 256, 266, 267
Ramelli (2013) 65, 66, 82, 83, 84, 85, 130, 285, 306, 311, 403, 414, 430, 431, 478, 503, 535, 620, 667, 705, 735, 754, 764, 766, 783
Rutledge (2012) 208, 209, 210, 211
Seim and Okland (2009) 12, 18, 30, 31, 90, 212, 217, 218, 220, 222, 266
Stuckenbruck (2007) 288, 291, 666
Taylor and Hay (2020) 131, 132, 133, 134, 149, 254, 303
Thonemann (2020) 5, 16, 27, 79, 80, 82, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 101, 102, 129, 136, 137, 139, 144, 186, 202, 203, 210
Wilson (2010) 170, 200, 222, 237, 239, 240, 241, 245, 249, 275, 276, 277, 278, 279, 280, 291, 292, 293, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301, 302, 303, 306, 307, 308, 309, 310, 311, 312, 313, 315, 317, 319, 320, 321, 322, 323, 324, 326, 327, 328, 337, 338
Wilson (2012) 110, 144, 145, 146, 147, 149, 257, 271, 275, 380
van der EIjk (2005) 175, 187, 207, 226
animals, abominable Avery Peck et al. (2014) 58
animals, abstinence, from eating Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 148, 151, 152, 161, 162, 165
animals, abundant in judaea Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 364, 365
animals, action, of Mackey (2022) 366
animals, aelianus, on Pinheiro et al (2015) 39, 46
animals, affected by disease Jouanna (2012) 125
animals, affected by disease, disease compared to Jouanna (2012) 89
animals, agents of divine providence Pinheiro et al (2015) 45
animals, all right because they have no reason for lust to rebel against, augustine, lust in Sorabji (2000) 406
animals, also lack genuine seneca, the younger, stoic, posidonius' emotion, since they are capable of appearance but not of judgement Sorabji (2000) 72, 129, 377
animals, analogies with humans Brule (2003) 76, 77, 78, 79, 88, 147, 174
animals, and children, aristotle, voluntariness extends more widely than proairesis to acts of Sorabji (2000) 326, 327
animals, and children, impulse, hormē, non-rational kind in Sorabji (2000) 103, 127
animals, and children, posidonius, stoic, hence the natural aggression in Sorabji (2000) 125, 129
animals, and children, posidonius, stoic, nonrational impulse in Sorabji (2000) 127
animals, and crustaceans, acquatic Bortolani et al (2019) 146, 184, 210, 281, 282, 294, 295
animals, and men, porphyry, philosophia ex oraculis Simmons(1995) 63, 256
animals, and plants, mazal, mazla, of Kalmin (2014) 196, 197
animals, and the beast within Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 298
animals, and women’s anger Braund and Most (2004) 180
animals, and, after the aquinas, thomas, fall, humans are inferior because neither can moderate lust by reason Sorabji (2000) 406
animals, and, dionysus Simon (2021) 315
animals, and, sennaar Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 134, 290, 293, 400, 401
animals, aquinas, thomas, in primary sense implies electio/proairesis, so excludes Sorabji (2000) 328
animals, aristotle, biological works, history of Jouanna (2012) 323
animals, aristotle, biological works, parts of Jouanna (2012) 309
animals, aristotle, generation of Singer and van Eijk (2018) 92
van der EIjk (2005) 260, 261, 264, 265, 272, 273
animals, aristotle, history of Tsouni (2019) 103, 135, 187, 190
van der EIjk (2005) 15, 175, 259
animals, aristotle, on slaves and Isaac (2004) 211, 212
animals, aristotle, on the generation of Tsouni (2019) 54
animals, aristotle, on the parts of Tsouni (2019) 54
animals, aristotle, parts of Singer and van Eijk (2018) 10, 32, 92, 139
van der EIjk (2005) 175
animals, artemis as “mistress of beasts, ” Simon (2021) 165, 166, 168, 169, 170, 174, 175, 177, 190, 327
animals, as criterion of emotion Graver (2007) 94, 99, 238
animals, as diet for achilles Braund and Most (2004) 251, 278, 279
animals, as divinatory Johnston (2008) 123, 128, 129, 130
animals, as effigies Faraone (1999) 66, 67, 68, 69
animals, as irrational Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 134, 163, 394, 400, 401
animals, as oath sacrifices Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 3, 33, 45, 154, 292
animals, as oath sacrifices, and perjury Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 154
animals, as oath sacrifices, burning of Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 45, 139, 160
animals, as oath sacrifices, contact of oath-takers with Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 3, 22, 43
animals, as sacrifices Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 152, 153, 154, 155, 161, 162, 164, 165
animals, as saviors Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 518, 519
animals, as virtuous Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 86, 87, 149, 156, 157
animals, asklepios, as healer of Renberg (2017) 214, 263, 306
animals, association with, artemis Simon (2021) 165, 166, 168, 169, 170, 174, 175, 177, 190, 327
animals, association with, hermes Simon (2021) 327, 396
animals, athens asklepieion, reliefs showing sacrificial Renberg (2017) 254, 255
animals, augustus, displays Rutledge (2012) 208, 209
animals, beasts, the, as extinct Sneed (2022) 205, 208, 210, 212
animals, beasts, the, as natural Sneed (2022) 91, 215, 216, 217, 218
animals, bites, by venomous Jouanna (2012) 190
animals, breeding of Huffman (2019) 95, 144, 379
animals, carcasses, of dead Balberg (2014) 53, 76, 77, 78, 97
animals, cattle Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 63
animals, collections of Rutledge (2012) 208, 209
animals, color descriptions and uses of birds Goldman (2013) 18, 25, 26, 77, 81, 140, 147, 159
animals, color descriptions and uses of cattle Goldman (2013) 18, 154
animals, color descriptions and uses of chameleons Goldman (2013) 138
animals, color descriptions and uses of crocodiles Goldman (2013) 124, 125
animals, color descriptions and uses of dogs Goldman (2013) 76
animals, color descriptions and uses of frogs Goldman (2013) 19
animals, color descriptions and uses of goats Goldman (2013) 103, 120
animals, color descriptions and uses of horses Goldman (2013) 13, 15, 17, 18, 43, 52, 55, 87, 88, 91, 92, 94, 95, 96, 102, 139, 146, 147, 151, 156
animals, color descriptions and uses of lions Goldman (2013) 14, 42, 102, 104, 105, 118
animals, color descriptions and uses of mice, rats Goldman (2013) 114
animals, color descriptions and uses of mollusks Goldman (2013) 2, 28, 29, 30, 35, 36, 155
animals, color descriptions and uses of mullet, fish Goldman (2013) 138, 158, 159
animals, color descriptions and uses of panthers Goldman (2013) 103
animals, color descriptions and uses of pigs Goldman (2013) 155, 156
animals, color descriptions and uses of sheep Goldman (2013) 28, 156
animals, color descriptions and uses of snakes Goldman (2013) 156
animals, communal laments Gera (2014) 183
animals, comparison of humans with Isaac (2004) 179, 181, 196, 199, 200, 201, 202, 203, 204, 205, 206, 207
animals, complex behavior in Graver (2007) 176, 240, 242
animals, connected to reincarnation Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 43, 45, 263
animals, corrupted Graver (2007) 247
animals, cross-species comparisons Graver (2007) 176
animals, cruelty to them leads to cruelty to humans Sorabji (2000) 286
animals, cynic imitation of Wolfsdorf (2020) 653, 654, 675
animals, deteriorated in venetia, teutones and cimbri, compared with Isaac (2004) 313, 314
animals, devoured by the giants Stuckenbruck (2007) 367
animals, devouring the disobedient Stuckenbruck (2007) 555
animals, diabology, see devil, of man over Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 91, 92
animals, dialogue on the rationality of diction, problem of Niehoff (2011) 115, 128
animals, dietary regulations Stuckenbruck (2007) 367
animals, dionysus and Simon (2021) 315
animals, displayed in rome, saepta julia Rutledge (2012) 209
animals, domestic, sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006) 124
animals, domesticated Hitch (2017) 51
animals, dreams, in greek and latin literature, aelian, on the nature of Renberg (2017) 124, 341, 342, 512, 513
animals, early man, compared with Isaac (2004) 203
animals, fastidium ascribed to Kaster(2005) 189, 191
animals, fastidium ascribed to, pudor ascribed to Kaster(2005) 163, 165
animals, fighting spectacles Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 91
animals, figural graffiti drawings Benefiel and Keegan (2016) 43, 61, 70, 71, 92
animals, fish, and birds Gera (2014) 48, 143, 146, 147, 148, 149, 153, 157, 158, 236, 237, 259, 354, 364, 365, 465
animals, fish, and birds, fast/ mourn/ in sackcloth Gera (2014) 47, 180, 183
animals, germans, compared with Isaac (2004) 205, 206
animals, goats Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 244
animals, half sections of Hitch (2017) 22
animals, herdsman, master of Miller and Clay (2019) 15, 316
animals, hermes and Simon (2021) 327, 396
animals, hesiod, contrasting humans and Dürr (2022) 95
animals, houses and day itself, joy, of Griffiths (1975) 7, 169
animals, houses and day itself, rejoicing, of Griffiths (1975) 7, 169
animals, human beings a species of Rohmann (2016) 46, 118
animals, human nature, compared with Graver (2007) 20, 26, 123
animals, impressions of Graver (2007) 24, 226, 240
animals, impressions, of Graver (2007) 240
animals, in achilles tat., ecphrasis, of Cueva et al. (2018a) 86
animals, in apocryphal acts Bremmer (2017) 176
animals, in diodorus’s response to the problem of luxury, luxury, problem of in greek literature, role of Bosak-Schroeder (2020) 129
animals, in form of bird, winged Griffiths (1975) 312
animals, in forms of letters Griffiths (1975) 285
animals, in forms of letters, in form of winged bird Griffiths (1975) 311, 313
animals, in homer Kneebone (2020) 218, 252, 253, 254, 255, 256, 257, 258, 259, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 274, 275, 276, 277, 278, 288, 327, 328
animals, in library, diodorus siculus Bosak-Schroeder (2020) 141, 142, 143
animals, in magic Nuno et al (2021) 90, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99
animals, in myth turned into dancers in ritual, chorus, khoros Kowalzig (2007) 281, 282, 283, 291, 309, 310, 311
animals, in physiognomics Isaac (2004) 151, 154, 157
animals, in sexual terminology Brule (2003) 98, 101, 112
animals, in similes Braund and Most (2004) 248, 285
animals, in wise person Graver (2007) 65, 115, 226
animals, included, providence Pinheiro et al (2015) 39
animals, intelligence of van der EIjk (2005) 226, 231, 232
animals, into, metamorphosis Pinheiro Bierl and Beck (2013) 33
animals, limitations of Graver (2007) 51
animals, loss of to the disobedient Stuckenbruck (2007) 554
animals, mating Clay and Vergados (2022) 346
animals, metaphor for gentiles Stuckenbruck (2007) 144
animals, misogynistic likening to women Brule (2003) 31, 32, 33, 34, 39, 76, 77, 98, 104, 112, 194
animals, mountain dwellers, compared with Isaac (2004) 204
animals, mutilation of sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006) 194, 204
animals, nomads, compared with Isaac (2004) 202
animals, non-greeks, characterized as Bosak-Schroeder (2020) 65, 66
animals, non-human, lack reason Harrison (2006) 66, 67, 94, 103, 145
animals, non-human, suffering of Harrison (2006) 31, 46, 146
animals, non-rational Segev (2017) 26, 106
animals, oath-rituals, sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006) 184, 186, 187
animals, odour of Nuno et al (2021) 127, 225
animals, of pure lineage but not autochthonous, teutones and cimbri, compared with Isaac (2004) 139
animals, of the sea Stuckenbruck (2007) 481
animals, of wilderness/desert Stuckenbruck (2007) 290, 291
animals, of yahweh Gordon (2020) 35, 36, 49, 54, 55, 60, 61, 73, 79, 93, 94, 95, 170, 185, 190
animals, ofonius tigellinus, c., collects birds and Rutledge (2012) 208, 209
animals, oikeiōsis = lat. commendatio or conciliatio, of Tsouni (2019) 99, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 189, 190, 191
animals, ong, walter, on the nature of aelian Johnson and Parker (2009) 102, 103, 108
animals, oropos amphiareion, sacrificial Renberg (2017) 222, 254, 281, 282
animals, ostraca, egyptian, figuring Griffiths (1975) 27
animals, oxen Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 167, 185, 187
animals, paradise, and Bremmer (2008) 45
animals, passions and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 180
animals, pasturing Lupu(2005) 27, 28
animals, peace, among Huttner (2013) 227, 228
animals, physiognomics, and comparisons with Isaac (2004) 151, 152
animals, pigs Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 165
animals, place of Alvar Ezquerra (2008) 107, 109, 110
animals, podalirios, heroon at mt. drion, healing of domestic Renberg (2017) 305, 306
animals, polluting Lupu(2005) 15
animals, prey Rosenblum (2016) 74, 151
animals, pudor, ascribed to Kaster(2005) 163, 165
animals, punishment of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 183, 184, 185, 187
animals, punishment, of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 184, 185
animals, rejoicing Griffiths (1975) 7, 169
animals, rejoicing, behaving like men Griffiths (1975) 27, 178
animals, religion, egyptian and greco-egyptian, healing of domestic Renberg (2017) 306
animals, responsible for what they do, democritus, presocratic Sorabji (2000) 327
animals, responsible for what they do, epicurus, tame Sorabji (2000) 327
animals, responsible for what they do, heracleides of pontos, platonist, in favour of erotic love Sorabji (2000) 327
animals, responsible for what they do? Sorabji (2000) 326, 327
animals, s/soul ch. of d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 246, 256
animals, sacred Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 218, 219, 220, 221
Lupu(2005) 29, 30
animals, sacred, at leontopolis Gordon (2020) 125, 126, 127
animals, sacred, egyptian, alexandria sarapieion catacombs Renberg (2017) 333, 334, 336
animals, sacred, egyptian, armant bucheion catacombs Renberg (2017) 424
animals, sacred, egyptian, demotic terms for burial sites Renberg (2017) 396, 415
animals, sacred, egyptian, periodic opening of necropolises to worshipers Renberg (2017) 446, 743
animals, sacred, egyptian, sacred falcons of horus and dreams Renberg (2017) 512
animals, sacred, egyptian, sacred fish of neith Renberg (2017) 742, 743
animals, sacred, egyptian, scarab beetle and dung-ball oracle Renberg (2017) 416
animals, sacred, greek, curative properties of dog and serpent saliva Renberg (2017) 216
animals, sacred, greek, dogs at athens asklepieion Renberg (2017) 184, 185, 215
animals, sacred, greek, dogs at epidauros asklepieion Renberg (2017) 214, 215, 216, 283
animals, sacred, greek, oracular serpent god glykon Renberg (2017) 353, 566
animals, sacred, greek, relief of encounter with sacred serpent Renberg (2017) 190
animals, sacred, greek, relief of serpents licking ears Renberg (2017) 215
animals, sacred, greek, serpent figure in automaton Renberg (2017) 597, 598
animals, sacred, greek, serpents at epidauros asklepieion Renberg (2017) 177, 178, 179, 180, 182, 190, 215, 216, 273, 562, 604, 605
animals, sacred, greek, serpents at lebena asklepieion Renberg (2017) 190, 562
animals, sacred, greek, serpents at oropos amphiareion Renberg (2017) 215, 223, 273, 550
animals, sacred, greek, serpents at trophonion Renberg (2017) 572
animals, sacred, greek, serpents in aristophaness plutus scene Renberg (2017) 135, 136, 215, 239
animals, sacred, hekdesh status of Gordon (2020) 165, 166, 168
animals, sacred, in babylonia Gordon (2020) 110
animals, sacred, in judea Gordon (2020) 35, 36, 49, 54, 55, 60, 61, 73, 79, 93, 94, 95, 170, 185, 190
animals, sacred, protecting the byproducts of Gordon (2020) 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219
animals, sacrifice of Nuno et al (2021) 95, 103, 137, 170, 246
animals, sacrifice prohibited Lupu(2005) 57, 58
animals, sacrifice, thysia, wild Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 15, 231
animals, sacrificial Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 52
Stavrianopoulou (2006) 76, 157, 159, 177, 187, 192, 207, 285, 294
animals, saqqâra, general, divinized sacred, general Renberg (2017) 432, 446, 447
animals, sarapis, tales of curing Renberg (2017) 306, 341, 342
animals, scythians, distinct from all other peoples, compared with Isaac (2004) 205, 207
animals, seals, marking Hitch (2017) 256, 259
animals, senses and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 134, 290, 293, 400, 401
animals, senses, of Nuno et al (2021) 99, 127, 225
animals, sexual behaviour of van der EIjk (2005) 259
animals, sexual desire, between humans and Kneebone (2020) 325, 326
animals, short life-spans Brule (2003) 86
animals, skins Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 365, 366
animals, slaughter, of Rosenblum (2016) 21, 22, 37, 58, 98, 101, 109, 110, 111, 112, 121, 122, 128, 153
animals, slaves, according to theognis and xenophon, close to Isaac (2004) 176, 211, 212
animals, souls do not survive death Graver (2007) 20
animals, sound of Nuno et al (2021) 127
animals, speaking Huttner (2013) 346, 350, 352, 357, 368
animals, species: birds, sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006) 123
animals, species: boar, sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006) 190, 191
animals, species: bull, sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006) 195
animals, species: cow, sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006) 231
animals, species: goats, sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006) 123
animals, species: lamb, sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006) 195
animals, species: oxen, sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006) 123
animals, species: sheep, sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006) 162, 196
animals, talking, in the apocryphal acts Cueva et al. (2018b) 302
animals, temurah, substitution of sacrificial Kanarek (2014) 54, 56
animals, teutones and cimbri, compared with Isaac (2004) 202
animals, their emotions Sorabji (2000) 125, 126, 127, 128, 129
animals, theophrastus, on the wisdom and character of Tsouni (2019) 189
animals, tithes, of Gordon (2020) 161, 190
animals, transmigration, μετενσωμάτωσις, humans to Joosse (2021) 223, 224, 231, 232, 233, 234, 235, 236, 238, 239
animals, triad of sacrificial Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 140
animals, types of sacrificed, worship of an ass Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 516, 517, 518, 519, 520, 521, 522, 523, 524, 525, 526, 527, 1047
animals, uterus likened to Brule (2003) 96, 97
animals, weak or precipitate Graver (2007) 65, 139, 244
animals, wild Jouanna (2012) 190
Rosenblum (2016) 12, 96, 99
Stuckenbruck (2007) 290, 291
animals, wild, sacrificial Stavrianopoulou (2006) 125
animals, wonder-culture, performing Mheallaigh (2014) 271, 272, 273, 274
animals, young Hitch (2017) 128, 129, 130, 168
animals/objects, destruction, of Stavrianopoulou (2006) 197, 198, 204
animals’, food Porton (1988) 22, 23, 28, 29, 31, 32, 55, 62, 94, 95, 116, 117, 142, 191, 196, 208, 212, 214, 247
animals“, human beings, as „mortal rational Dürr (2022) 3, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 139, 140
animate, objects Mackey (2022) 11, 12, 13, 89, 90, 229, 249
animate, sun, as Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 19
animate/inanimate Lightfoot (2021) 19, 20, 29, 34, 36, 88, 89, 193, 194, 204
animating, breath Garcia (2021) 35, 65, 97, 103
animating, capacity of vital heat Trott (2019) 134, 177, 181, 224, 225
animating, description of air Williams (2012) 242, 243, 244, 245
animating, statue in theurgy d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 223, 224, 225, 286
animation, of embryos Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 250
animation, of statues Steiner (2001) 46, 47, 49, 50, 90, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120
animism Luck (2006) 2
Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 237, 238, 239, 240
animism, soul Frede and Laks (2001) 90, 104
judaean/jewish, animal, sacrifice Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 191, 192, 194

List of validated texts:
144 validated results for "anim"
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 12.23, 14.5, 14.21, 18.3, 22.9, 22.11, 25.4, 26.1-26.11, 28.26 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal • Animals • Animals, Devouring the Disobedient • Animals, abundant in Judaea • Animals, skins • Flesh, Animal • Yahweh, animals of • animal imagery • animals, • animals, sacred, in Judea • carrion/torn animal • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi • slaughter, of animals • wild animals

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 365; Corley (2002) 133, 186; Gordon (2020) 36; Levison (2009) 96; Petropoulou (2012) 166, 170; Porton (1988) 98; Rosenblum (2016) 12, 26, 98; Stuckenbruck (2007) 366, 555, 666; Wilson (2010) 237, 239, 319, 320, 322

12.23. רַק חֲזַק לְבִלְתִּי אֲכֹל הַדָּם כִּי הַדָּם הוּא הַנָּפֶשׁ וְלֹא־תֹאכַל הַנֶּפֶשׁ עִם־הַבָּשָׂר׃
14.5. אַיָּל וּצְבִי וְיַחְמוּר וְאַקּוֹ וְדִישֹׁן וּתְאוֹ וָזָמֶר׃
14.21. לֹא תֹאכְלוּ כָל־נְבֵלָה לַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר־בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ תִּתְּנֶנָּה וַאֲכָלָהּ אוֹ מָכֹר לְנָכְרִי כִּי עַם קָדוֹשׁ אַתָּה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃
18.3. וְזֶה יִהְיֶה מִשְׁפַּט הַכֹּהֲנִים מֵאֵת הָעָם מֵאֵת זֹבְחֵי הַזֶּבַח אִם־שׁוֹר אִם־שֶׂה וְנָתַן לַכֹּהֵן הַזְּרֹעַ וְהַלְּחָיַיִם וְהַקֵּבָה׃
22.9. לֹא־תִזְרַע כַּרְמְךָ כִּלְאָיִם פֶּן־תִּקְדַּשׁ הַמְלֵאָה הַזֶּרַע אֲשֶׁר תִּזְרָע וּתְבוּאַת הַכָּרֶם׃
22.11. לֹא תִלְבַּשׁ שַׁעַטְנֵז צֶמֶר וּפִשְׁתִּים יַחְדָּו׃
25.4. לֹא־תַחְסֹם שׁוֹר בְּדִישׁוֹ׃
26.1. וְהָיָה כִּי־תָבוֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה וִירִשְׁתָּהּ וְיָשַׁבְתָּ בָּהּ׃
26.1. וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה הֵבֵאתִי אֶת־רֵאשִׁית פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתָּה לִּי יְהוָה וְהִנַּחְתּוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 26.2. וְלָקַחְתָּ מֵרֵאשִׁית כָּל־פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר תָּבִיא מֵאַרְצְךָ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ וְשַׂמְתָּ בַטֶּנֶא וְהָלַכְתָּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְשַׁכֵּן שְׁמוֹ שָׁם׃ 26.3. וּבָאתָ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְאָמַרְתָּ אֵלָיו הִגַּדְתִּי הַיּוֹם לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי־בָאתִי אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֵינוּ לָתֶת לָנוּ׃ 26.4. וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן הַטֶּנֶא מִיָּדֶךָ וְהִנִּיחוֹ לִפְנֵי מִזְבַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃ 26.5. וְעָנִיתָ וְאָמַרְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲרַמִּי אֹבֵד אָבִי וַיֵּרֶד מִצְרַיְמָה וַיָּגָר שָׁם בִּמְתֵי מְעָט וַיְהִי־שָׁם לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל עָצוּם וָרָב׃ 26.6. וַיָּרֵעוּ אֹתָנוּ הַמִּצְרִים וַיְעַנּוּנוּ וַיִּתְּנוּ עָלֵינוּ עֲבֹדָה קָשָׁה׃ 26.7. וַנִּצְעַק אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵינוּ וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֶת־קֹלֵנוּ וַיַּרְא אֶת־עָנְיֵנוּ וְאֶת־עֲמָלֵנוּ וְאֶת־לַחֲצֵנוּ׃ 26.8. וַיּוֹצִאֵנוּ יְהוָה מִמִּצְרַיִם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרֹעַ נְטוּיָה וּבְמֹרָא גָּדֹל וּבְאֹתוֹת וּבְמֹפְתִים׃ 26.9. וַיְבִאֵנוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וַיִּתֶּן־לָנוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃' '
26.11. וְשָׂמַחְתָּ בְכָל־הַטּוֹב אֲשֶׁר נָתַן־לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וּלְבֵיתֶךָ אַתָּה וְהַלֵּוִי וְהַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר בְּקִרְבֶּךָ׃
28.26. וְהָיְתָה נִבְלָתְךָ לְמַאֲכָל לְכָל־עוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּלְבֶהֱמַת הָאָרֶץ וְאֵין מַחֲרִיד׃''. None
12.23. Only be stedfast in not eating the blood; for the blood is the life; and thou shalt not eat the life with the flesh.
14.5. the hart, and the gazelle, and the roebuck, and the wild goat, and the pygarg, and the antelope, and the mountain-sheep.
14.21. Ye shall not eat of any thing that dieth of itself; thou mayest give it unto the stranger that is within thy gates, that he may eat it; or thou mayest sell it unto a foreigner; for thou art a holy people unto the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk.
18.3. And this shall be the priests’due from the people, from them that offer a sacrifice, whether it be ox or sheep, that they shall give unto the priest the shoulder, and the two cheeks, and the maw.
22.9. Thou shalt not sow thy vineyard with two kinds of seed; lest the fulness of the seed which thou hast sown be forfeited together with the increase of the vineyard.
22.11. Thou shalt not wear a mingled stuff, wool and linen together. .
25.4. Thou shalt not muzzle the ox when he treadeth out the corn.
26.1. And it shall be, when thou art come in unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance, and dost possess it, and dwell therein; 26.2. that thou shalt take of the first of all the fruit of the ground, which thou shalt bring in from thy land that the LORD thy God giveth thee; and thou shalt put it in a basket and shalt go unto the place which the LORD thy God shall choose to cause His name to dwell there. 26.3. And thou shalt come unto the priest that shall be in those days, and say unto him: ‘I profess this day unto the LORD thy God, that I am come unto the land which the LORD swore unto our fathers to give us.’ 26.4. And the priest shall take the basket out of thy hand, and set it down before the altar of the LORD thy God. 26.5. And thou shalt speak and say before the LORD thy God: ‘A wandering Aramean was my father, and he went down into Egypt, and sojourned there, few in number; and he became there a nation, great, mighty, and populous. 26.6. And the Egyptians dealt ill with us, and afflicted us, and laid upon us hard bondage. 26.7. And we cried unto the LORD, the God of our fathers, and the LORD heard our voice, and saw our affliction, and our toil, and our oppression. 26.8. And the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt with a mighty hand, and with an outstretched arm, and with great terribleness, and with signs, and with wonders. 26.9. And He hath brought us into this place, and hath given us this land, a land flowing with milk and honey.
26.10. And now, behold, I have brought the first of the fruit of the land, which Thou, O LORD, hast given me.’ And thou shalt set it down before the LORD thy God, and worship before the LORD thy God.
26.11. And thou shalt rejoice in all the good which the LORD thy God hath given unto thee, and unto thy house, thou, and the Levite, and the stranger that is in the midst of thee.
28.26. And thy carcasses shall be food unto all fowls of the air, and unto the beasts of the earth, and there shall be none to frighten them away.''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 12.15, 12.38, 13.11-13.13, 22.29, 23.4, 23.17 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • Animals’ food • Yahweh, animals of • animals, • animals, fish, and birds • animals, sacred • animals, sacred, in Judea • sacrifice, animal, decline of • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi • tithes, of animals • wild animals

 Found in books: Gera (2014) 148; Gordon (2020) 36, 190; Grypeou and Spurling (2009) 105; Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 218; Petropoulou (2012) 127, 165; Porton (1988) 41, 98, 212; Rosenblum (2016) 99; Wilson (2010) 275, 277

12.15. שִׁבְעַת יָמִים מַצּוֹת תֹּאכֵלוּ אַךְ בַּיּוֹם הָרִאשׁוֹן תַּשְׁבִּיתוּ שְּׂאֹר מִבָּתֵּיכֶם כִּי כָּל־אֹכֵל חָמֵץ וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל מִיּוֹם הָרִאשֹׁן עַד־יוֹם הַשְּׁבִעִי׃
12.38. וְגַם־עֵרֶב רַב עָלָה אִתָּם וְצֹאן וּבָקָר מִקְנֶה כָּבֵד מְאֹד׃
13.11. וְהָיָה כִּי־יְבִאֲךָ יְהוָה אֶל־אֶרֶץ הַכְּנַעֲנִי כַּאֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע לְךָ וְלַאֲבֹתֶיךָ וּנְתָנָהּ לָךְ׃ 13.12. וְהַעֲבַרְתָּ כָל־פֶּטֶר־רֶחֶם לַיהֹוָה וְכָל־פֶּטֶר שֶׁגֶר בְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה לְךָ הַזְּכָרִים לַיהוָה׃ 13.13. וְכָל־פֶּטֶר חֲמֹר תִּפְדֶּה בְשֶׂה וְאִם־לֹא תִפְדֶּה וַעֲרַפְתּוֹ וְכֹל בְּכוֹר אָדָם בְּבָנֶיךָ תִּפְדֶּה׃
22.29. כֵּן־תַּעֲשֶׂה לְשֹׁרְךָ לְצֹאנֶךָ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים יִהְיֶה עִם־אִמּוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי תִּתְּנוֹ־לִי׃
23.4. כִּי תִפְגַּע שׁוֹר אֹיִבְךָ אוֹ חֲמֹרוֹ תֹּעֶה הָשֵׁב תְּשִׁיבֶנּוּ לוֹ׃
23.17. שָׁלֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה יֵרָאֶה כָּל־זְכוּרְךָ אֶל־פְּנֵי הָאָדֹן יְהוָה׃''. None
12.15. Seven days shall ye eat unleavened bread; howbeit the first day ye shall put away leaven out of your houses; for whosoever eateth leavened bread from the first day until the seventh day, that soul shall be cut off from Israel.
12.38. And a mixed multitude went up also with them; and flocks, and herds, even very much cattle.
13.11. And it shall be when the LORD shall bring thee into the land of the Canaanite, as He swore unto thee and to thy fathers, and shall give it thee, 13.12. that thou shalt set apart unto the LORD all that openeth the womb; every firstling that is a male, which thou hast coming of a beast, shall be the LORD’s. 13.13. And every firstling of an ass thou shalt redeem with a lamb; and if thou wilt not redeem it, then thou shalt break its neck; and all the first-born of man among thy sons shalt thou redeem.
22.29. Likewise shalt thou do with thine oxen, and with thy sheep; seven days it shall be with its dam; on the eighth day thou shalt give it Me.
23.4. If thou meet thine enemy’s ox or his ass going astray, thou shalt surely bring it back to him again.
23.17. Three times in the year all thy males shall appear before the Lord GOD.''. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.21, 2.7, 2.17, 3.8, 3.14, 3.19, 6.6, 6.9, 7.14-7.15, 9.3-9.4, 15.5-15.6, 19.19-19.21, 32.23-32.32 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal • Animals • Animals, Devoured by the Giants • Animals, Dietary Regulations • Animals, of the Sea • Dialogue on the Rationality of Animals, diction, problem of • Flesh, Animal • Sennaar, animals and • animal imagery • animal life • animalism • animals • animals, • animals, as irrational • animals, fish, and birds • animals, passions and • animals, punishment of • animals, senses and • animating breath • beasts, the, as extinct animals • passions, animal imagery and • prey animals • punishment, of animals • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi • slaughter, of animals

 Found in books: Bay (2022) 294; Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 96, 134, 180, 184, 185, 290, 394; Corley (2002) 128, 129, 131, 134, 137, 153; Estes (2020) 107, 264; Garcia (2021) 35, 65, 103, 121; Gera (2014) 158, 465; Grypeou and Spurling (2009) 54, 79, 143; Levison (2009) 15, 16, 17, 18, 21, 22, 23, 26, 28; Lunn-Rockliffe (2007) 160; Niehoff (2011) 115; Novenson (2020) 54; Petropoulou (2012) 157, 163; Porton (1988) 61, 227; Rosenblum (2016) 21, 74, 112; Seim and Okland (2009) 31, 222; Sneed (2022) 205, 212; Stuckenbruck (2007) 99, 366, 367, 481; Waldner et al (2016) 171

1.21. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַתַּנִּינִם הַגְּדֹלִים וְאֵת כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת אֲשֶׁר שָׁרְצוּ הַמַּיִם לְמִינֵהֶם וְאֵת כָּל־עוֹף כָּנָף לְמִינֵהוּ וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים כִּי־טוֹב׃
2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃
2.17. וּמֵעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע לֹא תֹאכַל מִמֶּנּוּ כִּי בְּיוֹם אֲכָלְךָ מִמֶּנּוּ מוֹת תָּמוּת׃
3.8. וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶת־קוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִתְהַלֵּךְ בַּגָּן לְרוּחַ הַיּוֹם וַיִּתְחַבֵּא הָאָדָם וְאִשְׁתּוֹ מִפְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים בְּתוֹךְ עֵץ הַגָּן׃
3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הַנָּחָשׁ כִּי עָשִׂיתָ זֹּאת אָרוּר אַתָּה מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה וּמִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה עַל־גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ וְעָפָר תֹּאכַל כָּל־יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃
3.19. בְּזֵעַת אַפֶּיךָ תֹּאכַל לֶחֶם עַד שׁוּבְךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה כִּי מִמֶּנָּה לֻקָּחְתָּ כִּי־עָפָר אַתָּה וְאֶל־עָפָר תָּשׁוּב׃
6.6. וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה כִּי־עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל־לִבּוֹ׃
6.9. אֵלֶּה תּוֹלְדֹת נֹחַ נֹחַ אִישׁ צַדִּיק תָּמִים הָיָה בְּדֹרֹתָיו אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים הִתְהַלֶּךְ־נֹחַ׃
7.14. הֵמָּה וְכָל־הַחַיָּה לְמִינָהּ וְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה לְמִינָהּ וְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ לְמִינֵהוּ וְכָל־הָעוֹף לְמִינֵהוּ כֹּל צִפּוֹר כָּל־כָּנָף׃ 7.15. וַיָּבֹאוּ אֶל־נֹחַ אֶל־הַתֵּבָה שְׁנַיִם שְׁנַיִם מִכָּל־הַבָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר־בּוֹ רוּחַ חַיִּים׃
9.3. כָּל־רֶמֶשׂ אֲשֶׁר הוּא־חַי לָכֶם יִהְיֶה לְאָכְלָה כְּיֶרֶק עֵשֶׂב נָתַתִּי לָכֶם אֶת־כֹּל׃ 9.4. אַךְ־בָּשָׂר בְּנַפְשׁוֹ דָמוֹ לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ׃
15.5. וַיּוֹצֵא אֹתוֹ הַחוּצָה וַיֹּאמֶר הַבֶּט־נָא הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וּסְפֹר הַכּוֹכָבִים אִם־תּוּכַל לִסְפֹּר אֹתָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ כֹּה יִהְיֶה זַרְעֶךָ׃ 15.6. וְהֶאֱמִן בַּיהוָה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ לּוֹ צְדָקָה׃
19.19. הִנֵּה־נָא מָצָא עַבְדְּךָ חֵן בְּעֵינֶיךָ וַתַּגְדֵּל חַסְדְּךָ אֲשֶׁר עָשִׂיתָ עִמָּדִי לְהַחֲיוֹת אֶת־נַפְשִׁי וְאָנֹכִי לֹא אוּכַל לְהִמָּלֵט הָהָרָה פֶּן־תִּדְבָּקַנִי הָרָעָה וָמַתִּי׃' '19.21. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו הִנֵּה נָשָׂאתִי פָנֶיךָ גַּם לַדָּבָר הַזֶּה לְבִלְתִּי הָפְכִּי אֶת־הָעִיר אֲשֶׁר דִּבַּרְתָּ׃
32.23. וַיָּקָם בַּלַּיְלָה הוּא וַיִּקַּח אֶת־שְׁתֵּי נָשָׁיו וְאֶת־שְׁתֵּי שִׁפְחֹתָיו וְאֶת־אַחַד עָשָׂר יְלָדָיו וַיַּעֲבֹר אֵת מַעֲבַר יַבֹּק׃ 32.24. וַיִּקָּחֵם וַיַּעֲבִרֵם אֶת־הַנָּחַל וַיַּעֲבֵר אֶת־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ׃ 32.25. וַיִּוָּתֵר יַעֲקֹב לְבַדּוֹ וַיֵּאָבֵק אִישׁ עִמּוֹ עַד עֲלוֹת הַשָּׁחַר׃ 32.26. וַיַּרְא כִּי לֹא יָכֹל לוֹ וַיִּגַּע בְּכַף־יְרֵכוֹ וַתֵּקַע כַּף־יֶרֶךְ יַעֲקֹב בְּהֵאָבְקוֹ עִמּוֹ׃ 32.27. וַיֹּאמֶר שַׁלְּחֵנִי כִּי עָלָה הַשָּׁחַר וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא אֲשַׁלֵּחֲךָ כִּי אִם־בֵּרַכְתָּנִי׃ 32.28. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו מַה־שְּׁמֶךָ וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב׃ 32.29. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא יַעֲקֹב יֵאָמֵר עוֹד שִׁמְךָ כִּי אִם־יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי־שָׂרִיתָ עִם־אֱלֹהִים וְעִם־אֲנָשִׁים וַתּוּכָל׃ 32.31. וַיִּקְרָא יַעֲקֹב שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם פְּנִיאֵל כִּי־רָאִיתִי אֱלֹהִים פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים וַתִּנָּצֵל נַפְשִׁי׃ 32.32. וַיִּזְרַח־לוֹ הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר עָבַר אֶת־פְּנוּאֵל וְהוּא צֹלֵעַ עַל־יְרֵכוֹ׃''. None
1.21. And God created the great sea-monsters, and every living creature that creepeth, wherewith the waters swarmed, after its kind, and every winged fowl after its kind; and God saw that it was good.
2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul.
2.17. but of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, thou shalt not eat of it; for in the day that thou eatest thereof thou shalt surely die.’
3.8. And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden toward the cool of the day; and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden.
3.14. And the LORD God said unto the serpent: ‘Because thou hast done this, cursed art thou from among all cattle, and from among all beasts of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life.
3.19. In the sweat of thy face shalt thou eat bread, till thou return unto the ground; for out of it wast thou taken; for dust thou art, and unto dust shalt thou return.’
6.6. And it repented the LORD that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at His heart.
6.9. These are the generations of Noah. Noah was in his generations a man righteous and wholehearted; Noah walked with God.
7.14. they, and every beast after its kind, and all the cattle after their kind, and every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth after its kind, and every fowl after its kind, every bird of every sort. 7.15. And they went in unto Noah into the ark, two and two of all flesh wherein is the breath of life.
9.3. Every moving thing that liveth shall be for food for you; as the green herb have I given you all. 9.4. Only flesh with the life thereof, which is the blood thereof, shall ye not eat.
15.5. And He brought him forth abroad, and said: ‘Look now toward heaven, and count the stars, if thou be able to count them’; and He said unto him: ‘So shall thy seed be.’ 15.6. And he believed in the LORD; and He counted it to him for righteousness.
19.19. behold now, thy servant hath found grace in thy sight, and thou hast magnified thy mercy, which thou hast shown unto me in saving my life; and I cannot escape to the mountain, lest the evil overtake me, and I die. 19.20. Behold now, this city is near to flee unto, and it is a little one; oh, let me escape thither—is it not a little one?—and my soul shall live.’ 19.21. And he said unto him: ‘See, I have accepted thee concerning this thing also, that I will not overthrow the city of which thou hast spoken.
32.23. And he rose up that night, and took his two wives, and his two handmaids, and his eleven children, and passed over the ford of the Jabbok. 32.24. And he took them, and sent them over the stream, and sent over that which he had. 32.25. And Jacob was left alone; and there wrestled a man with him until the breaking of the day. 32.26. And when he saw that he prevailed not against him, he touched the hollow of his thigh; and the hollow of Jacob’s thigh was strained, as he wrestled with him. 32.27. And he said: ‘Let me go, for the day breaketh.’ And he said: ‘I will not let thee go, except thou bless me.’ 32.28. And he said unto him: ‘What is thy name?’ And he said: ‘Jacob.’ 32.29. And he said: ‘Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel; for thou hast striven with God and with men, and hast prevailed.’ 32.30. And Jacob asked him, and said: ‘Tell me, I pray thee, thy name.’ And he said: ‘Wherefore is it that thou dost ask after my name?’ And he blessed him there. 32.31. And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel: ‘for I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved.’ 32.32. And the sun rose upon him as he passed over Peniel, and he limped upon his thigh.' '. None
4. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 6.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • offerings, sacrificial, animals • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi

 Found in books: Neusner (2001) 163; Petropoulou (2012) 225

6.6. כִּי חֶסֶד חָפַצְתִּי וְלֹא־זָבַח וְדַעַת אֱלֹהִים מֵעֹלוֹת׃''. None
6.6. For I desire mercy, and not sacrifice, And the knowledge of God rather than burnt-offerings.''. None
5. Hebrew Bible, Job, 12.7-12.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal • animal imagery

 Found in books: Corley (2002) 183; Levison (2009) 17

12.7. וְאוּלָם שְׁאַל־נָא בְהֵמוֹת וְתֹרֶךָּ וְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וְיַגֶּד־לָךְ׃ 12.8. אוֹ שִׂיחַ לָאָרֶץ וְתֹרֶךָּ וִיסַפְּרוּ לְךָ דְּגֵי הַיָּם׃ 12.9. מִי לֹא־יָדַע בְּכָל־אֵלֶּה כִּי יַד־יְהוָה עָשְׂתָה זֹּאת׃''. None
12.7. But ask now the beasts, and they shall teach thee; And the fowls of the air, and they shall tell thee; 12.8. Or speak to the earth, and it shall teach thee; And the fishes of the sea shall declare unto thee; 12.9. Who knoweth not among all these, That the hand of the LORD hath wrought this?''. None
6. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 1.3-1.5, 3.17, 5.1-5.2, 5.16-5.17, 5.24, 7.8, 7.24, 7.26-7.27, 11.31, 11.46, 14.2-14.8, 17.10-17.14, 19.19, 22.27-22.28, 27.2-27.8, 27.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal bones • Animals • Animals, of the Sea • Animals, abundant in Judaea • Animals, skins • Animals’ food • Flesh, Animal • offerings, sacrificial, animals • Temurah (substitution of sacrificial animals) • Yahweh, animals of • animal • animal imagery • animal, domestic, sacrificial • animals, • animals, sacred, in Judea • carcasses, of dead animals • insults, animal • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi • slaughter, of animals • substitution, of animal for self • wild animals

 Found in books: Balberg (2014) 76, 77; Balberg (2017) 50, 78; Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 364, 365; Corley (2002) 132, 133; Gordon (2020) 35, 36, 49, 54, 55, 60, 73; Kanarek (2014) 56; Neusner (2001) 153, 162; Petropoulou (2012) 18, 162, 165, 170, 176, 177, 225; Porton (1988) 32, 105, 227, 228; Richlin (2018) 173; Rosenblum (2016) 12, 22, 99, 110; Schiffman (1983) 127; Stuckenbruck (2007) 366, 481, 666; Wilson (2010) 239, 296, 298, 306, 307, 309, 321, 322

1.3. אִם־עֹלָה קָרְבָּנוֹ מִן־הַבָּקָר זָכָר תָּמִים יַקְרִיבֶנּוּ אֶל־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד יַקְרִיב אֹתוֹ לִרְצֹנוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה׃ 1.4. וְסָמַךְ יָדוֹ עַל רֹאשׁ הָעֹלָה וְנִרְצָה לוֹ לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו׃ 1.5. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־בֶּן הַבָּקָר לִפְנֵי יְהוָה וְהִקְרִיבוּ בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֲנִים אֶת־הַדָּם וְזָרְקוּ אֶת־הַדָּם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ סָבִיב אֲשֶׁר־פֶּתַח אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃
3.17. חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם כָּל־חֵלֶב וְכָל־דָּם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ׃
5.1. וְאֶת־הַשֵּׁנִי יַעֲשֶׂה עֹלָה כַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן מֵחַטָּאתוֹ אֲשֶׁר־חָטָא וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃
5.1. וְנֶפֶשׁ כִּי־תֶחֱטָא וְשָׁמְעָה קוֹל אָלָה וְהוּא עֵד אוֹ רָאָה אוֹ יָדָע אִם־לוֹא יַגִּיד וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃ 5.2. אוֹ נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר תִּגַּע בְּכָל־דָּבָר טָמֵא אוֹ בְנִבְלַת חַיָּה טְמֵאָה אוֹ בְּנִבְלַת בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה אוֹ בְּנִבְלַת שֶׁרֶץ טָמֵא וְנֶעְלַם מִמֶּנּוּ וְהוּא טָמֵא וְאָשֵׁם׃ 5.2. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃

5.16. וְאֵת אֲשֶׁר חָטָא מִן־הַקֹּדֶשׁ יְשַׁלֵּם וְאֶת־חֲמִישִׁתוֹ יוֹסֵף עָלָיו וְנָתַן אֹתוֹ לַכֹּהֵן וְהַכֹּהֵן יְכַפֵּר עָלָיו בְּאֵיל הָאָשָׁם וְנִסְלַח לוֹ׃
5.17. וְאִם־נֶפֶשׁ כִּי תֶחֱטָא וְעָשְׂתָה אַחַת מִכָּל־מִצְוֺת יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר לֹא תֵעָשֶׂינָה וְלֹא־יָדַע וְאָשֵׁם וְנָשָׂא עֲוֺנוֹ׃
5.24. אוֹ מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יִשָּׁבַע עָלָיו לַשֶּׁקֶר וְשִׁלַּם אֹתוֹ בְּרֹאשׁוֹ וַחֲמִשִׁתָיו יֹסֵף עָלָיו לַאֲשֶׁר הוּא לוֹ יִתְּנֶנּוּ בְּיוֹם אַשְׁמָתוֹ׃
7.8. וְהַכֹּהֵן הַמַּקְרִיב אֶת־עֹלַת אִישׁ עוֹר הָעֹלָה אֲשֶׁר הִקְרִיב לַכֹּהֵן לוֹ יִהְיֶה׃
7.24. וְחֵלֶב נְבֵלָה וְחֵלֶב טְרֵפָה יֵעָשֶׂה לְכָל־מְלָאכָה וְאָכֹל לֹא תֹאכְלֻהוּ׃
7.26. וְכָל־דָּם לֹא תֹאכְלוּ בְּכֹל מוֹשְׁבֹתֵיכֶם לָעוֹף וְלַבְּהֵמָה׃ 7.27. כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־תֹּאכַל כָּל־דָּם וְנִכְרְתָה הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא מֵעַמֶּיהָ׃ 1
1.31. אֵלֶּה הַטְּמֵאִים לָכֶם בְּכָל־הַשָּׁרֶץ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהֶם בְּמֹתָם יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃
11.46. זֹאת תּוֹרַת הַבְּהֵמָה וְהָעוֹף וְכֹל נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה הָרֹמֶשֶׂת בַּמָּיִם וּלְכָל־נֶפֶשׁ הַשֹּׁרֶצֶת עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃
14.2. וְהֶעֱלָה הַכֹּהֵן אֶת־הָעֹלָה וְאֶת־הַמִּנְחָה הַמִּזְבֵּחָה וְכִפֶּר עָלָיו הַכֹּהֵן וְטָהֵר׃
14.2. זֹאת תִּהְיֶה תּוֹרַת הַמְּצֹרָע בְּיוֹם טָהֳרָתוֹ וְהוּבָא אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן׃ 14.3. וְיָצָא הַכֹּהֵן אֶל־מִחוּץ לַמַּחֲנֶה וְרָאָה הַכֹּהֵן וְהִנֵּה נִרְפָּא נֶגַע־הַצָּרַעַת מִן־הַצָּרוּעַ׃ 14.3. וְעָשָׂה אֶת־הָאֶחָד מִן־הַתֹּרִים אוֹ מִן־בְּנֵי הַיּוֹנָה מֵאֲשֶׁר תַּשִּׂיג יָדוֹ׃ 14.4. וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְחִלְּצוּ אֶת־הָאֲבָנִים אֲשֶׁר בָּהֵן הַנָּגַע וְהִשְׁלִיכוּ אֶתְהֶן אֶל־מִחוּץ לָעִיר אֶל־מָקוֹם טָמֵא׃ 14.4. וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְלָקַח לַמִּטַּהֵר שְׁתֵּי־צִפֳּרִים חַיּוֹת טְהֹרוֹת וְעֵץ אֶרֶז וּשְׁנִי תוֹלַעַת וְאֵזֹב׃ 14.5. וְצִוָּה הַכֹּהֵן וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַצִּפּוֹר הָאֶחָת אֶל־כְּלִי־חֶרֶשׂ עַל־מַיִם חַיִּים׃ 14.5. וְשָׁחַט אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הָאֶחָת אֶל־כְּלִי־חֶרֶשׂ עַל־מַיִם חַיִּים׃ 14.6. אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה יִקַּח אֹתָהּ וְאֶת־עֵץ הָאֶרֶז וְאֶת־שְׁנִי הַתּוֹלַעַת וְאֶת־הָאֵזֹב וְטָבַל אוֹתָם וְאֵת הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה בְּדַם הַצִּפֹּר הַשְּׁחֻטָה עַל הַמַּיִם הַחַיִּים׃ 14.7. וְהִזָּה עַל הַמִּטַּהֵר מִן־הַצָּרַעַת שֶׁבַע פְּעָמִים וְטִהֲרוֹ וְשִׁלַּח אֶת־הַצִּפֹּר הַחַיָּה עַל־פְּנֵי הַשָּׂדֶה׃ 14.8. וְכִבֶּס הַמִּטַּהֵר אֶת־בְּגָדָיו וְגִלַּח אֶת־כָּל־שְׂעָרוֹ וְרָחַץ בַּמַּיִם וְטָהֵר וְאַחַר יָבוֹא אֶל־הַמַּחֲנֶה וְיָשַׁב מִחוּץ לְאָהֳלוֹ שִׁבְעַת יָמִים׃' '17.11. כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִוא וַאֲנִי נְתַתִּיו לָכֶם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי־הַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר׃ 17.12. עַל־כֵּן אָמַרְתִּי לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל כָּל־נֶפֶשׁ מִכֶּם לֹא־תֹאכַל דָּם וְהַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכְכֶם לֹא־יֹאכַל דָּם׃ 17.13. וְאִישׁ אִישׁ מִבְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וּמִן־הַגֵּר הַגָּר בְּתוֹכָם אֲשֶׁר יָצוּד צֵיד חַיָּה אוֹ־עוֹף אֲשֶׁר יֵאָכֵל וְשָׁפַךְ אֶת־דָּמוֹ וְכִסָּהוּ בֶּעָפָר׃ 17.14. כִּי־נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ בְנַפְשׁוֹ הוּא וָאֹמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל דַּם כָּל־בָּשָׂר לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ כִּי נֶפֶשׁ כָּל־בָּשָׂר דָּמוֹ הִוא כָּל־אֹכְלָיו יִכָּרֵת׃
19.19. אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא־תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא־תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ׃
22.27. שׁוֹר אוֹ־כֶשֶׂב אוֹ־עֵז כִּי יִוָּלֵד וְהָיָה שִׁבְעַת יָמִים תַּחַת אִמּוֹ וּמִיּוֹם הַשְּׁמִינִי וָהָלְאָה יֵרָצֶה לְקָרְבַּן אִשֶּׁה לַיהוָה׃ 22.28. וְשׁוֹר אוֹ־שֶׂה אֹתוֹ וְאֶת־בְּנוֹ לֹא תִשְׁחֲטוּ בְּיוֹם אֶחָד׃
27.2. דַּבֵּר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם אִישׁ כִּי יַפְלִא נֶדֶר בְּעֶרְכְּךָ נְפָשֹׁת לַיהוָה׃
27.2. וְאִם־לֹא יִגְאַל אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶה וְאִם־מָכַר אֶת־הַשָּׂדֶה לְאִישׁ אַחֵר לֹא יִגָּאֵל עוֹד׃ 27.3. וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ הַזָּכָר מִבֶּן עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וְעַד בֶּן־שִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ חֲמִשִּׁים שֶׁקֶל כֶּסֶף בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ׃ 27.3. וְכָל־מַעְשַׂר הָאָרֶץ מִזֶּרַע הָאָרֶץ מִפְּרִי הָעֵץ לַיהוָה הוּא קֹדֶשׁ לַיהוָה׃ 27.4. וְאִם־נְקֵבָה הִוא וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ שְׁלֹשִׁים שָׁקֶל׃ 27.5. וְאִם מִבֶּן־חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וְעַד בֶּן־עֶשְׂרִים שָׁנָה וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ הַזָּכָר עֶשְׂרִים שְׁקָלִים וְלַנְּקֵבָה עֲשֶׂרֶת שְׁקָלִים׃ 27.6. וְאִם מִבֶּן־חֹדֶשׁ וְעַד בֶּן־חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ הַזָּכָר חֲמִשָּׁה שְׁקָלִים כָּסֶף וְלַנְּקֵבָה עֶרְכְּךָ שְׁלֹשֶׁת שְׁקָלִים כָּסֶף׃ 27.7. וְאִם מִבֶּן־שִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וָמַעְלָה אִם־זָכָר וְהָיָה עֶרְכְּךָ חֲמִשָּׁה עָשָׂר שָׁקֶל וְלַנְּקֵבָה עֲשָׂרָה שְׁקָלִים׃ 2
7.8. וְאִם־מָךְ הוּא מֵעֶרְכֶּךָ וְהֶעֱמִידוֹ לִפְנֵי הַכֹּהֵן וְהֶעֱרִיךְ אֹתוֹ הַכֹּהֵן עַל־פִּי אֲשֶׁר תַּשִּׂיג יַד הַנֹּדֵר יַעֲרִיכֶנּוּ הַכֹּהֵן׃''. None
1.3. If his offering be a burnt-offering of the herd, he shall offer it a male without blemish; he shall bring it to the door of the tent of meeting, that he may be accepted before the LORD. 1.4. And he shall lay his hand upon the head of the burnt-offering; and it shall be accepted for him to make atonement for him. 1.5. And he shall kill the bullock before the LORD; and Aaron’s sons, the priests, shall present the blood, and dash the blood round about against the altar that is at the door of the tent of meeting.
3.17. It shall be a perpetual statute throughout your generations in all your dwellings, that ye shall eat neither fat nor blood.
5.1. And if any one sin, in that he heareth the voice of adjuration, he being a witness, whether he hath seen or known, if he do not utter it, then he shall bear his iniquity; 5.2. or if any one touch any unclean thing, whether it be the carcass of an unclean beast, or the carcass of unclean cattle, or the carcass of unclean swarming things, and be guilty, it being hidden from him that he is unclean;

5.16. And he shall make restitution for that which he hath done amiss in the holy thing, and shall add the fifth part thereto, and give it unto the priest; and the priest shall make atonement for him with the ram of the guilt-offering, and he shall be forgiven.
5.17. And if any one sin, and do any of the things which the LORD hath commanded not to be done, though he know it not, yet is he guilty, and shall bear his iniquity.
5.24. or any thing about which he hath sworn falsely, he shall even restore it in full, and shall add the fifth part more thereto; unto him to whom it appertaineth shall he give it, in the day of his being guilty.
7.8. And the priest that offereth any man’s burnt-offering, even the priest shall have to himself the skin of the burnt-offering which he hath offered.
7.24. And the fat of that which dieth of itself, and the fat of that which is torn of beasts, may be used for any other service; but ye shall in no wise eat of it.
7.26. And ye shall eat no manner of blood, whether it be of fowl or of beast, in any of your dwellings. 7.27. Whosoever it be that eateth any blood, that soul shall be cut off from his people. 1
1.31. These are they which are unclean to you among all that swarm; whosoever doth touch them, when they are dead, shall be unclean until the even.
11.46. This is the law of the beast, and of the fowl, and of every living creature that moveth in the waters, and of every creature that swarmeth upon the earth;
14.2. This shall be the law of the leper in the day of his cleansing: he shall be brought unto the priest. 14.3. And the priest shall go forth out of the camp; and the priest shall look, and, behold, if the plague of leprosy be healed in the leper; 14.4. then shall the priest command to take for him that is to be cleansed two living clean birds, and cedar-wood, and scarlet, and hyssop. 14.5. And the priest shall command to kill one of the birds in an earthen vessel over running water. 14.6. As for the living bird, he shall take it, and the cedar-wood, and the scarlet, and the hyssop, and shall dip them and the living bird in the blood of the bird that was killed over the running water. 14.7. And he shall sprinkle upon him that is to be cleansed from the leprosy seven times, and shall pronounce him clean, and shall let go the living bird into the open field. 14.8. And he that is to be cleansed shall wash his clothes, and shave off all his hair, and bathe himself in water, and he shall be clean; and after that he may come into the camp, but shall dwell outside his tent seven days.
17.10. And whatsoever man there be of the house of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that eateth any manner of blood, I will set My face against that soul that eateth blood, and will cut him off from among his people. 17.11. For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life. 17.12. Therefore I said unto the children of Israel: No soul of you shall eat blood, neither shall any stranger that sojourneth among you eat blood. 17.13. And whatsoever man there be of the children of Israel, or of the strangers that sojourn among them, that taketh in hunting any beast or fowl that may be eaten, he shall pour out the blood thereof, and cover it with dust. 17.14. For as to the life of all flesh, the blood thereof is all one with the life thereof; therefore I said unto the children of Israel: Ye shall eat the blood of no manner of flesh; for the life of all flesh is the blood thereof; whosoever eateth it shall be cut off.
19.19. Ye shall keep My statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together.
22.27. When a bullock, or a sheep, or a goat, is brought forth, then it shall be seven days under the dam; but from the eighth day and thenceforth it may be accepted for an offering made by fire unto the LORD. 22.28. And whether it be cow or ewe, ye shall not kill it and its young both in one day.
27.2. Speak unto the children of Israel, and say unto them: When a man shall clearly utter a vow of persons unto the LORD, according to thy valuation, 27.3. then thy valuation shall be for the male from twenty years old even unto sixty years old, even thy valuation shall be fifty shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary. 27.4. And if it be a female, then thy valuation shall be thirty shekels. 27.5. And if it be from five years old even unto twenty years old, then thy valuation shall be for the male twenty shekels, and for the female ten shekels. 27.6. And if it be from a month old even unto five years old, then thy valuation shall be for the male five shekels of silver, and for the female thy valuation shall be three shekels of silver. 27.7. And if it be from sixty years old and upward: if it be a male, then thy valuation shall be fifteen shekels, and for the female ten shekels. 2
7.8. But if he be too poor for thy valuation, then he shall be set before the priest, and the priest shall value him; according to the means of him that vowed shall the priest value him.
27.30. And all the tithe of the land, whether of the seed of the land, or of the fruit of the tree, is the LORD’S; it is holy unto the LORD.' '. None
7. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 1.10-1.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • sacrifice, animal • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 397, 398; Petropoulou (2012) 276

1.11. כִּי מִמִּזְרַח־שֶׁמֶשׁ וְעַד־מְבוֹאוֹ גָּדוֹל שְׁמִי בַּגּוֹיִם וּבְכָל־מָקוֹם מֻקְטָר מֻגָּשׁ לִשְׁמִי וּמִנְחָה טְהוֹרָה כִּי־גָדוֹל שְׁמִי בַּגּוֹיִם אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃ 1.12. וְאַתֶּם מְחַלְּלִים אוֹתוֹ בֶּאֱמָרְכֶם שֻׁלְחַן אֲדֹנָי מְגֹאָל הוּא וְנִיבוֹ נִבְזֶה אָכְלוֹ׃' '. None
1.10. Oh that there were even one among you that would shut the doors, That ye might not kindle fire on Mine altar in vain! I have no pleasure in you, Saith the LORD of hosts, Neither will I accept an offering at your hand. 1.11. For from the rising of the sun even unto the going down of the same My name is great among the nations; And in every place offerings are presented unto My name, Even pure oblations; For My name is great among the nations, Saith the LORD of hosts. 1.12. But ye profane it, In that ye say: ‘The table of the LORD is polluted, And the fruit thereof, even the food thereof, is contemptible.’''. None
8. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 18.8-18.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Yahweh, animals of • animals, • animals, sacred, in Judea

 Found in books: Gordon (2020) 36, 73, 79, 185; Wilson (2010) 240

18.8. וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן וַאֲנִי הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי לְךָ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת תְּרוּמֹתָי לְכָל־קָדְשֵׁי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ נְתַתִּים לְמָשְׁחָה וּלְבָנֶיךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם׃ 18.9. זֶה־יִהְיֶה לְךָ מִקֹּדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים מִן־הָאֵשׁ כָּל־קָרְבָּנָם לְכָל־מִנְחָתָם וּלְכָל־חַטָּאתָם וּלְכָל־אֲשָׁמָם אֲשֶׁר יָשִׁיבוּ לִי קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים לְךָ הוּא וּלְבָנֶיךָ׃' '18.11. וְזֶה־לְּךָ תְּרוּמַת מַתָּנָם לְכָל־תְּנוּפֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ נְתַתִּים וּלְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֹתֶיךָ אִתְּךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם כָּל־טָהוֹר בְּבֵיתְךָ יֹאכַל אֹתוֹ׃ 18.12. כֹּל חֵלֶב יִצְהָר וְכָל־חֵלֶב תִּירוֹשׁ וְדָגָן רֵאשִׁיתָם אֲשֶׁר־יִתְּנוּ לַיהוָה לְךָ נְתַתִּים׃ 18.13. בִּכּוּרֵי כָּל־אֲשֶׁר בְּאַרְצָם אֲשֶׁר־יָבִיאוּ לַיהוָה לְךָ יִהְיֶה כָּל־טָהוֹר בְּבֵיתְךָ יֹאכֲלֶנּוּ׃ 18.14. כָּל־חֵרֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ יִהְיֶה׃ 18.15. כָּל־פֶּטֶר רֶחֶם לְכָל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר־יַקְרִיבוּ לַיהוָה בָּאָדָם וּבַבְּהֵמָה יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ אַךְ פָּדֹה תִפְדֶּה אֵת בְּכוֹר הָאָדָם וְאֵת בְּכוֹר־הַבְּהֵמָה הַטְּמֵאָה תִּפְדֶּה׃ 18.16. וּפְדוּיָו מִבֶּן־חֹדֶשׁ תִּפְדֶּה בְּעֶרְכְּךָ כֶּסֶף חֲמֵשֶׁת שְׁקָלִים בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ עֶשְׂרִים גֵּרָה הוּא׃ 18.17. אַךְ בְּכוֹר־שׁוֹר אוֹ־בְכוֹר כֶּשֶׂב אוֹ־בְכוֹר עֵז לֹא תִפְדֶּה קֹדֶשׁ הֵם אֶת־דָּמָם תִּזְרֹק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְאֶת־חֶלְבָּם תַּקְטִיר אִשֶּׁה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃ 18.18. וּבְשָׂרָם יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ כַּחֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה וּכְשׁוֹק הַיָּמִין לְךָ יִהְיֶה׃ 18.19. כֹּל תְּרוּמֹת הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר יָרִימוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לַיהוָה נָתַתִּי לְךָ וּלְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֹתֶיךָ אִתְּךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם בְּרִית מֶלַח עוֹלָם הִוא לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְךָ וּלְזַרְעֲךָ אִתָּךְ׃''. None
18.8. And the LORD spoke unto Aaron: ‘And I, behold, I have given thee the charge of My heave-offerings; even of all the hallowed things of the children of Israel unto thee have I given them for a consecrated portion, and to thy sons, as a due for ever. 18.9. This shall be thine of the most holy things, reserved from the fire: every offering of theirs, even every meal-offering of theirs, and every sin-offering of theirs, and every guilt-offering of theirs, which they may render unto Me, shall be most holy for thee and for thy sons. 18.10. In a most holy place shalt thou eat thereof; every male may eat thereof; it shall be holy unto thee. 18.11. And this is thine: the heave-offering of their gift, even all the wave-offerings of the children of Israel; I have given them unto thee, and to thy sons and to thy daughters with thee, as a due for ever; every one that is clean in thy house may eat thereof. 18.12. All the best of the oil, and all the best of the wine, and of the corn, the first part of them which they give unto the LORD, to thee have I given them. 18.13. The first-ripe fruits of all that is in their land, which they bring unto the LORD, shall be thine; every one that is clean in thy house may eat thereof. 18.14. Every thing devoted in Israel shall be thine. 18.15. Every thing that openeth the womb, of all flesh which they offer unto the LORD, both of man and beast, shall be thine; howbeit the first-born of man shalt thou surely redeem, and the firstling of unclean beasts shalt thou redeem. 18.16. And their redemption-money—from a month old shalt thou redeem them—shall be, according to thy valuation, five shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary—the same is twenty gerahs. 18.17. But the firstling of an ox, or the firstling of a sheep, or the firstling of a goat, thou shalt not redeem; they are holy: thou shalt dash their blood against the altar, and shalt make their fat smoke for an offering made by fire, for a sweet savour unto the LORD. 18.18. And the flesh of them shall be thine, as the wave-breast and as the right thigh, it shall be thine. 18.19. All the heave-offerings of the holy things, which the children of Israel offer unto the LORD, have I given thee, and thy sons and thy daughters with thee, as a due for ever; it is an everlasting covet of salt before the LORD unto thee and to thy seed with thee.’ 18.20. And the LORD said unto Aaron: ‘Thou shalt have no inheritance in their land, neither shalt thou have any portion among them; I am thy portion and thine inheritance among the children of Israel.''. None
9. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.1, 104.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal • Animals • prey animals

 Found in books: Binder (2012) 137; Levison (2009) 26; Rosenblum (2016) 151; Stuckenbruck (2007) 288

1.1. אַשְׁרֵי־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא הָלַךְ בַּעֲצַת רְשָׁעִים וּבְדֶרֶךְ חַטָּאִים לֹא עָמָד וּבְמוֹשַׁב לֵצִים לֹא יָשָׁב׃
104.18. הָרִים הַגְּבֹהִים לַיְּעֵלִים סְלָעִים מַחְסֶה לַשְׁפַנִּים׃''. None
1.1. HAPPY IS the man that hath not walked in the counsel of the wicked, Nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seat of the scornful.
104.18. The high mountains are for the wild goats; The rocks are a refuge for the conies.''. None
10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 7.11-7.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals, • animals, fish, and birds, fast/ mourn/ in sackcloth

 Found in books: Bay (2022) 301; Gera (2014) 180

7.11. וַיֵּצְאוּ אַנְשֵׁי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִן־הַמִּצְפָּה וַיִּרְדְּפוּ אֶת־פְּלִשְׁתִּים וַיַּכּוּם עַד־מִתַּחַת לְבֵית כָּר׃ 7.12. וַיִּקַּח שְׁמוּאֵל אֶבֶן אַחַת וַיָּשֶׂם בֵּין־הַמִּצְפָּה וּבֵין הַשֵּׁן וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמָהּ אֶבֶן הָעָזֶר וַיֹּאמַר עַד־הֵנָּה עֲזָרָנוּ יְהוָה׃ 7.13. וַיִּכָּנְעוּ הַפְּלִשְׁתִּים וְלֹא־יָסְפוּ עוֹד לָבוֹא בִּגְבוּל יִשְׂרָאֵל וַתְּהִי יַד־יְהוָה בַּפְּלִשְׁתִּים כֹּל יְמֵי שְׁמוּאֵל׃''. None
7.11. And the men of Yisra᾽el went out of Miżpa and pursued the Pelishtim, and smote them, until they came under Bet-kar. 7.12. Then Shemu᾽el took a stone, and set it between Miżpa and Shen, and called the name of it Even-ha῾ezer, saying, Hitherto the Lord has helped us. 7.13. So the Pelishtim were subdued, and they came no more into the territory of Yisra᾽el: and the hand of the Lord was against the Pelishtim all the days of Shemu᾽el.''. None
11. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 11.6, 65.25 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal imagery • peace, among animals,

 Found in books: Corley (2002) 135; Huttner (2013) 228

11.6. וְגָר זְאֵב עִם־כֶּבֶשׂ וְנָמֵר עִם־גְּדִי יִרְבָּץ וְעֵגֶל וּכְפִיר וּמְרִיא יַחְדָּו וְנַעַר קָטֹן נֹהֵג בָּם׃
65.25. זְאֵב וְטָלֶה יִרְעוּ כְאֶחָד וְאַרְיֵה כַּבָּקָר יֹאכַל־תֶּבֶן וְנָחָשׁ עָפָר לַחְמוֹ לֹא־יָרֵעוּ וְלֹא־יַשְׁחִיתוּ בְּכָל־הַר קָדְשִׁי אָמַר יְהוָה׃''. None
11.6. And the wolf shall dwell with the lamb, And the leopard shall lie down with the kid; And the calf and the young lion and the fatling together; And a little child shall lead them.
65.25. The wolf and the lamb shall feed together, And the lion shall eat straw like the ox; And dust shall be the serpent’s food. They shall not hurt nor destroy in all My holy mountain, Saith the LORD.''. None
12. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 23.1-23.2, 25.31 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal imagery • animal life • animals, fish, and birds

 Found in books: Corley (2002) 138; Garcia (2021) 121; Gera (2014) 143, 364

23.1. הוֹי רֹעִים מְאַבְּדִים וּמְפִצִים אֶת־צֹאן מַרְעִיתִי נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃
23.1. כִּי מְנָאֲפִים מָלְאָה הָאָרֶץ כִּי־מִפְּנֵי אָלָה אָבְלָה הָאָרֶץ יָבְשׁוּ נְאוֹת מִדְבָּר וַתְּהִי מְרוּצָתָם רָעָה וּגְבוּרָתָם לֹא־כֵן׃ 23.2. לָכֵן כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל־הָרֹעִים הָרֹעִים אֶת־עַמִּי אַתֶּם הֲפִצֹתֶם אֶת־צֹאנִי וַתַּדִּחוּם וְלֹא פְקַדְתֶּם אֹתָם הִנְנִי פֹקֵד עֲלֵיכֶם אֶת־רֹעַ מַעַלְלֵיכֶם נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃ 23.2. לֹא יָשׁוּב אַף־יְהוָה עַד־עֲשֹׂתוֹ וְעַד־הֲקִימוֹ מְזִמּוֹת לִבּוֹ בְּאַחֲרִית הַיָּמִים תִּתְבּוֹנְנוּ בָהּ בִּינָה׃
25.31. בָּא שָׁאוֹן עַד־קְצֵה הָאָרֶץ כִּי רִיב לַיהוָה בַּגּוֹיִם נִשְׁפָּט הוּא לְכָל־בָּשָׂר הָרְשָׁעִים נְתָנָם לַחֶרֶב נְאֻם־יְהוָה׃''. None
23.1. Woe unto the shepherds that destroy and scatter the sheep of My pasture! saith the LORD. 23.2. Therefore thus saith the LORD, the God of Israel, against the shepherds that feed My people: Ye have scattered My flock, and driven them away, and have not taken care of them; behold, I will visit upon you the evil of your doings, saith the LORD.
25.31. A noise is come even to the end of the earth; For the LORD hath a controversy with the nations, He doth plead with all flesh; As for the wicked, He hath given them to the sword, Saith the LORD.''. None
13. Hesiod, Works And Days, 190-201, 276-278 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • animals

 Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006) 160, 161; Lateiner and Spatharas (2016) 144; Seim and Okland (2009) 31

190. οὐδέ τις εὐόρκου χάρις ἔσσεται οὔτε δικαίου'191. οὔτʼ ἀγαθοῦ, μᾶλλον δὲ κακῶν ῥεκτῆρα καὶ ὕβριν 192. ἀνέρες αἰνήσουσι· δίκη δʼ ἐν χερσί, καὶ αἰδὼς 193. οὐκ ἔσται· βλάψει δʼ ὁ κακὸς τὸν ἀρείονα φῶτα 194. μύθοισιν σκολιοῖς ἐνέπων, ἐπὶ δʼ ὅρκον ὀμεῖται. 195. ζῆλος δʼ ἀνθρώποισιν ὀιζυροῖσιν ἅπασι 196. δυσκέλαδος κακόχαρτος ὁμαρτήσει, στυγερώπης. 197. καὶ τότε δὴ πρὸς Ὄλυμπον ἀπὸ χθονὸς εὐρυοδείης 198. λευκοῖσιν φάρεσσι καλυψαμένα χρόα καλὸν 199. ἀθανάτων μετὰ φῦλον ἴτον προλιπόντʼ ἀνθρώπους 200. Αἰδὼς καὶ Νέμεσις· τὰ δὲ λείψεται ἄλγεα λυγρὰ 201. θνητοῖς ἀνθρώποισι· κακοῦ δʼ οὐκ ἔσσεται ἀλκή.
276. τόνδε γὰρ ἀνθρώποισι νόμον διέταξε Κρονίων 277. ἰχθύσι μὲν καὶ θηρσὶ καὶ οἰωνοῖς πετεηνοῖς 278. ἐσθέμεν ἀλλήλους, ἐπεὶ οὐ δίκη ἐστὶ μετʼ αὐτοῖς· '. None
190. But mix good with the bad. Zeus will destroy'191. Them too when babies in their cribs shall grow 192. Grey hair. No bond a father with his boy 193. Shall share, nor guest with host, nor friend with friend – 194. No love of brothers as there was erstwhile, 195. Respect for aging parents at an end. 196. Their wretched children shall with words of bile 197. Find fault with them in their irreverence 198. And not repay their bringing up. We’ll find 199. Cities brought down. There’ll be no deference 200. That’s given to the honest, just and kind. 201. The evil and the proud will get acclaim,
276. For evil. You who hold supremacy 277. And swallow bribes, beware of this and shun 278. All crooked laws and deal in what is best. '. None
14. Homer, Iliad, 2.148, 2.459-2.463, 2.551, 3.103-3.106, 3.270, 3.273-3.274, 3.278-3.279, 3.284-3.287, 3.292-3.301, 3.310, 4.34-4.36, 12.200-12.209, 18.417-18.418, 19.252-19.254, 19.259-19.260, 19.266-19.268, 19.404-19.418 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Destruction, of animals/objects • Homer, animals in • Oath-rituals, sacrificial animals • Sacrificial animals • Sacrificial animals, species: boar • animal species, cattle • animal speech • animal victim, parts of, intestines • animal victim, parts of,testicles • animal victim, treatment of burning of a part or parts of the victim • animal victim, treatment of, throat cut, slit or pierced • animals • animals as diet for Achilles • animals as oath sacrifices • animals as oath sacrifices, and perjury • animals as oath sacrifices, burning of • animals as oath sacrifices, contact of oath-takers with • animals, weak or precipitate • animate/inanimate • animation, of statues • destruction of animal victim by fire • destruction sacrifice, partial destruction of animal victim • destruction sacrifice, total destruction of animal victim • sacrifice, animal, rejection of, Empedocles • statues, animation of • triad of sacrificial animals

 Found in books: Braund and Most (2004) 279; Ekroth (2013) 189, 252; Gale (2000) 98, 133, 262; Graver (2007) 244; Kanellakis (2020) 94; Kneebone (2020) 268, 269, 270, 327, 328; Lightfoot (2021) 204; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 86; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 22, 139, 140, 154; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 184, 186, 187, 190, 191, 197, 198; Steiner (2001) 117; Thonemann (2020) 91, 129

2.148. λάβρος ἐπαιγίζων, ἐπί τʼ ἠμύει ἀσταχύεσσιν,
2.459. τῶν δʼ ὥς τʼ ὀρνίθων πετεηνῶν ἔθνεα πολλὰ 2.460. χηνῶν ἢ γεράνων ἢ κύκνων δουλιχοδείρων 2.461. Ἀσίω ἐν λειμῶνι Καϋστρίου ἀμφὶ ῥέεθρα 2.462. ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα ποτῶνται ἀγαλλόμενα πτερύγεσσι 2.463. κλαγγηδὸν προκαθιζόντων, σμαραγεῖ δέ τε λειμών,
2.551. κοῦροι Ἀθηναίων περιτελλομένων ἐνιαυτῶν·
3.103. οἴσετε ἄρνʼ, ἕτερον λευκόν, ἑτέρην δὲ μέλαιναν, 3.104. Γῇ τε καὶ Ἠελίῳ· Διὶ δʼ ἡμεῖς οἴσομεν ἄλλον· 3.105. ἄξετε δὲ Πριάμοιο βίην, ὄφρʼ ὅρκια τάμνῃ 3.106. αὐτός, ἐπεί οἱ παῖδες ὑπερφίαλοι καὶ ἄπιστοι,
3.270. μίσγον, ἀτὰρ βασιλεῦσιν ὕδωρ ἐπὶ χεῖρας ἔχευαν.
3.273. ἀρνῶν ἐκ κεφαλέων τάμνε τρίχας· αὐτὰρ ἔπειτα 3.274. κήρυκες Τρώων καὶ Ἀχαιῶν νεῖμαν ἀρίστοις.
3.278. καὶ ποταμοὶ καὶ γαῖα, καὶ οἳ ὑπένερθε καμόντας 3.279. ἀνθρώπους τίνυσθον ὅτις κʼ ἐπίορκον ὀμόσσῃ,
3.284. εἰ δέ κʼ Ἀλέξανδρον κτείνῃ ξανθὸς Μενέλαος, 3.285. Τρῶας ἔπειθʼ Ἑλένην καὶ κτήματα πάντʼ ἀποδοῦναι, 3.286. τιμὴν δʼ Ἀργείοις ἀποτινέμεν ἥν τινʼ ἔοικεν, 3.287. ἥ τε καὶ ἐσσομένοισι μετʼ ἀνθρώποισι πέληται.
3.292. ἦ, καὶ ἀπὸ στομάχους ἀρνῶν τάμε νηλέϊ χαλκῷ· 3.293. καὶ τοὺς μὲν κατέθηκεν ἐπὶ χθονὸς ἀσπαίροντας 3.294. θυμοῦ δευομένους· ἀπὸ γὰρ μένος εἵλετο χαλκός. 3.295. οἶνον δʼ ἐκ κρητῆρος ἀφυσσόμενοι δεπάεσσιν 3.296. ἔκχεον, ἠδʼ εὔχοντο θεοῖς αἰειγενέτῃσιν. 3.297. ὧδε δέ τις εἴπεσκεν Ἀχαιῶν τε Τρώων τε· 3.298. Ζεῦ κύδιστε μέγιστε καὶ ἀθάνατοι θεοὶ ἄλλοι 3.299. ὁππότεροι πρότεροι ὑπὲρ ὅρκια πημήνειαν 3.300. ὧδέ σφʼ ἐγκέφαλος χαμάδις ῥέοι ὡς ὅδε οἶνος 3.301. αὐτῶν καὶ τεκέων, ἄλοχοι δʼ ἄλλοισι δαμεῖεν.
3.310. ἦ ῥα καὶ ἐς δίφρον ἄρνας θέτο ἰσόθεος φώς,
4.34. εἰ δὲ σύ γʼ εἰσελθοῦσα πύλας καὶ τείχεα μακρὰ 4.35. ὠμὸν βεβρώθοις Πρίαμον Πριάμοιό τε παῖδας 4.36. ἄλλους τε Τρῶας, τότε κεν χόλον ἐξακέσαιο.
12.200. ὄρνις γάρ σφιν ἐπῆλθε περησέμεναι μεμαῶσιν 12.201. αἰετὸς ὑψιπέτης ἐπʼ ἀριστερὰ λαὸν ἐέργων 12.202. φοινήεντα δράκοντα φέρων ὀνύχεσσι πέλωρον 12.203. ζωὸν ἔτʼ ἀσπαίροντα, καὶ οὔ πω λήθετο χάρμης, 12.204. κόψε γὰρ αὐτὸν ἔχοντα κατὰ στῆθος παρὰ δειρὴν 12.205. ἰδνωθεὶς ὀπίσω· ὃ δʼ ἀπὸ ἕθεν ἧκε χαμᾶζε 12.206. ἀλγήσας ὀδύνῃσι, μέσῳ δʼ ἐνὶ κάββαλʼ ὁμίλῳ, 12.207. αὐτὸς δὲ κλάγξας πέτετο πνοιῇς ἀνέμοιο. 12.208. Τρῶες δʼ ἐρρίγησαν ὅπως ἴδον αἰόλον ὄφιν 12.209. κείμενον ἐν μέσσοισι Διὸς τέρας αἰγιόχοιο.
18.417. χωλεύων· ὑπὸ δʼ ἀμφίπολοι ῥώοντο ἄνακτι 18.418. χρύσειαι ζωῇσι νεήνισιν εἰοικυῖαι.
19.252. Ἀτρεΐδης δὲ ἐρυσσάμενος χείρεσσι μάχαιραν, 19.253. ἥ οἱ πὰρ ξίφεος μέγα κουλεὸν αἰὲν ἄωρτο, 19.254. κάπρου ἀπὸ τρίχας ἀρξάμενος Διὶ χεῖρας ἀνασχὼν
19.259. Γῆ τε καὶ Ἠέλιος καὶ Ἐρινύες, αἵ θʼ ὑπὸ γαῖαν 19.260. ἀνθρώπους τίνυνται, ὅτις κʼ ἐπίορκον ὀμόσσῃ,
19.266. ἦ, καὶ ἀπὸ στόμαχον κάπρου τάμε νηλέϊ χαλκῷ. 19.267. τὸν μὲν Ταλθύβιος πολιῆς ἁλὸς ἐς μέγα λαῖτμα 19.268. ῥῖψʼ ἐπιδινήσας βόσιν ἰχθύσιν· αὐτὰρ Ἀχιλλεὺς
19.404. τὸν δʼ ἄρʼ ὑπὸ ζυγόφι προσέφη πόδας αἰόλος ἵππος 19.405. Ξάνθος, ἄφαρ δʼ ἤμυσε καρήατι· πᾶσα δὲ χαίτη 19.406. ζεύγλης ἐξεριποῦσα παρὰ ζυγὸν οὖδας ἵκανεν· 19.407. αὐδήεντα δʼ ἔθηκε θεὰ λευκώλενος Ἥρη· 19.408. καὶ λίην σʼ ἔτι νῦν γε σαώσομεν ὄβριμʼ Ἀχιλλεῦ· 19.409. ἀλλά τοι ἐγγύθεν ἦμαρ ὀλέθριον· οὐδέ τοι ἡμεῖς 19.410. αἴτιοι, ἀλλὰ θεός τε μέγας καὶ Μοῖρα κραταιή. 19.411. οὐδὲ γὰρ ἡμετέρῃ βραδυτῆτί τε νωχελίῃ τε 19.412. Τρῶες ἀπʼ ὤμοιιν Πατρόκλου τεύχεʼ ἕλοντο· 19.413. ἀλλὰ θεῶν ὤριστος, ὃν ἠΰκομος τέκε Λητώ, 19.414. ἔκτανʼ ἐνὶ προμάχοισι καὶ Ἕκτορι κῦδος ἔδωκε. 19.415. νῶϊ δὲ καί κεν ἅμα πνοιῇ Ζεφύροιο θέοιμεν, 19.416. ἥν περ ἐλαφροτάτην φάσʼ ἔμμεναι· ἀλλὰ σοὶ αὐτῷ 19.417. μόρσιμόν ἐστι θεῷ τε καὶ ἀνέρι ἶφι δαμῆναι. 19.418. ὣς ἄρα φωνήσαντος Ἐρινύες ἔσχεθον αὐδήν.''. None
2.148. which the East Wind or the South Wind has raised, rushing upon them from the clouds of father Zeus. And even as when the West Wind at its coming stirreth a deep cornfield with its violent blast, and the ears bow thereunder, even so was all their gathering stirred, and they with loud shouting rushed towards the ships;
2.459. Even as a consuming fire maketh a boundless forest to blaze on the peaks of a mountain, and from afar is the glare thereof to be seen, even so from their innumerable bronze, as they marched forth, went the dazzling gleam up through the sky unto the heavens. And as the many tribes of winged fowl, 2.460. wild geese or cranes or long-necked swans on the Asian mead by the streams of Caystrius, fly this way and that, glorying in their strength of wing, and with loud cries settle ever onwards, and the mead resoundeth; even so their many tribes poured forth from ships and huts
2.551. and there the youths of the Athenians, as the years roll on in their courses, seek to win his favour with sacrifices of bulls and rams;—these again had as leader Menestheus, son of Peteos. Like unto him was none other man upon the face of the earth for the marshalling of chariots and of warriors that bear the shield. ' "
3.103. because of my quarrel and Alexander's beginning thereof. And for whichsoever of us twain death and fate are appointed, let him lie dead; but be ye others parted with all speed. Bring ye two lambs, a white ram and a black ewe, for Earth and Sun, and for Zeus we will bring another; " "3.104. because of my quarrel and Alexander's beginning thereof. And for whichsoever of us twain death and fate are appointed, let him lie dead; but be ye others parted with all speed. Bring ye two lambs, a white ram and a black ewe, for Earth and Sun, and for Zeus we will bring another; " '3.105. and fetch ye hither the mighty Priam, that he may himself swear an oath with sacrifice, seeing that his sons are over-weening and faithless; lest any by presumptuous act should do violence to the oaths of Zeus. Ever unstable are the hearts of the young; but in whatsoever an old man taketh part, he looketh both before and after,
3.270. and poured water over the hands of the kings. And the son of Atreus drew forth with his hand the knife that ever hung beside the great sheath of his sword, and cut hair from off the heads of the lambs; and the heralds portioned it out to the chieftans of the Trojans and Achaeans.
3.278. Then in their midst Agamemnon lifted up his hands and prayed aloud:Father Zeus, that rulest from Ida, most glorious, most great, and thou Sun, that beholdest all things and hearest all things, and ye rivers and thou earth, and ye that in the world below take vengeance on men that are done with life, whosoever hath sworn a false oath;
3.284. be ye witnesses, and watch over the oaths of faith. If Alexander slay Menelaus, then let him keep Helen and all her treasure; and we will depart in our seafaring ships. But if so be fair-haired Menelaus shall slay Alexander, 3.285. then let the Trojans give back Helen and all her treasure, and pay to the Argives in requital such recompense as beseemeth, even such as shall abide in the minds of men that are yet to be. Howbeit, if Priam and the sons of Priam be not minded to pay recompense unto me, when Alexander falleth, 3.287. then let the Trojans give back Helen and all her treasure, and pay to the Argives in requital such recompense as beseemeth, even such as shall abide in the minds of men that are yet to be. Howbeit, if Priam and the sons of Priam be not minded to pay recompense unto me, when Alexander falleth, ' "
3.292. then will I fight on even thereafter, to get me recompense, and will abide here until I find an end of war. He spake, and cut the lambs' throats with the pitiless bronze; and laid them down upon the ground gasping and failing of breath, for the bronze had robbed them of their strength. " "3.294. then will I fight on even thereafter, to get me recompense, and will abide here until I find an end of war. He spake, and cut the lambs' throats with the pitiless bronze; and laid them down upon the ground gasping and failing of breath, for the bronze had robbed them of their strength. " '3.295. Then they drew wine from the bowl into the cups, and poured it forth, and made prayer to the gods that are for ever. And thus would one of the Achaeans and Trojans say:Zeus, most glorious, most great, and ye other immortal gods, which host soever of the twain shall be first to work harm in defiance of the oaths, 3.299. Then they drew wine from the bowl into the cups, and poured it forth, and made prayer to the gods that are for ever. And thus would one of the Achaeans and Trojans say:Zeus, most glorious, most great, and ye other immortal gods, which host soever of the twain shall be first to work harm in defiance of the oaths, ' "3.300. may their brains be thus poured forth upon the ground even as this wine, theirs and their children's; and may their wives be made slaves to others. " "
3.310. So spake the godlike man, and let place the lambs in his chariot, and himself mounted, and drew back the reins, and by his side Antenor mounted the beauteous car; and the twain departed back to Ilios. But Hector, Priam's son, and goodly Odysseus " '
4.34. Then, stirred to hot anger, spake to her Zeus, the cloud-gatherer:Strange queen, wherein do Priam and the sons of Priam work thee ills so many, that thou ragest unceasingly to lay waste the well-built citadel of Ilios? If thou wert to enter within the gates and the high walls, 4.35. and to devour Priam raw and the sons of Priam and all the Trojans besides, then perchance mightest thou heal thine anger. Do as thy pleasure is; let not this quarrel in time to come be to thee and me a grievous cause of strife between us twain. And another thing will I tell thee, and do thou lay it to heart.
12.200. For a bird had come upon them, as they were eager to cross over, an eagle of lofty flight, skirting the host on the left, and in its talons it bore a blood-red, monstrous snake, still alive as if struggling, nor was it yet forgetful of combat, it writhed backward, and smote him that held it on the breast beside the neck, 12.205. till the eagle, stung with pain, cast it from him to the ground, and let it fall in the midst of the throng, and himself with a loud cry sped away down the blasts of the wind. And the Trojans shuddered when they saw the writhing snake lying in the midst of them, a portent of Zeus that beareth the aegis.
18.417. and his mighty neck and shaggy breast, and put upon him a tunic, and grasped a stout staff, and went forth halting; but there moved swiftly to support their lord handmaidens wrought of gold in the semblance of living maids. In them is understanding in their hearts, and in them speech 18.418. and his mighty neck and shaggy breast, and put upon him a tunic, and grasped a stout staff, and went forth halting; but there moved swiftly to support their lord handmaidens wrought of gold in the semblance of living maids. In them is understanding in their hearts, and in them speech ' "
19.252. rose up, and Talthybius, whose voice was like a god's, took his stand by the side of the shepherd of the people, holding a boar in his hands. And the son of Atreus drew forth with his hand the knife that ever hung beside the great sheath of his sword, and cut the firstling hairs from the boar, and lifting up his hands " "19.254. rose up, and Talthybius, whose voice was like a god's, took his stand by the side of the shepherd of the people, holding a boar in his hands. And the son of Atreus drew forth with his hand the knife that ever hung beside the great sheath of his sword, and cut the firstling hairs from the boar, and lifting up his hands " '
19.259. made prayer to Zeus; and all the Argives sat thereby in silence, hearkening as was meet unto the king. And he spake in prayer, with a look up to the wide heaven:Be Zeus my witness first, highest and best of gods, and Earth and Sun, and the Erinyes, that under earth ' "19.260. take vengeance on men, whosoever hath sworn a false oath, that never laid I hand upon the girl Briseis either by way of a lover's embrace or anywise else, but she ever abode untouched in my huts. And if aught of this oath be false, may the gods give me woes " "
19.266. full many, even all that they are wont to give to him whoso sinneth against them in his swearing. He spake, and cut the boar's throat with the pitiless bronze, and the body Talthybius whirled and flung into the great gulf of the grey sea, to be food for the fishes; but Achilles uprose, and spake among the war-loving Argives: " "19.268. full many, even all that they are wont to give to him whoso sinneth against them in his swearing. He spake, and cut the boar's throat with the pitiless bronze, and the body Talthybius whirled and flung into the great gulf of the grey sea, to be food for the fishes; but Achilles uprose, and spake among the war-loving Argives: " '
19.404. Xanthus and Balius, ye far-famed children of Podarge, in some other wise bethink you to bring your charioteer back safe to the host of the Danaans, when we have had our fill of war, and leave ye not him there dead, as ye did Patroclus. Then from beneath the yoke spake to him the horse Xanthus, of the swift-glancing feet; 19.405. on a sudden he bowed his head, and all his mane streamed from beneath the yoke-pad beside the yoke, and touched the ground; and the goddess, white-armed Hera, gave him speech: Aye verily, yet for this time will we save thee, mighty Achilles, albeit the day of doom is nigh thee, nor shall we be the cause thereof, 19.410. but a mighty god and overpowering Fate. For it was not through sloth or slackness of ours that the Trojans availed to strip the harness from the shoulders of Patroclus, but one, far the best of gods, even he that fair-haired Leto bare, slew him amid the foremost fighters and gave glory to Hector. 19.415. But for us twain, we could run swift as the blast of the West Wind, which, men say, is of all winds the fleetest; nay, it is thine own self that art fated to be slain in fight by a god and a mortal. When he had thus spoken, the Erinyes checked his voice. Then, his heart mightily stirred, spake to him swift-footed Achilles: 19.418. But for us twain, we could run swift as the blast of the West Wind, which, men say, is of all winds the fleetest; nay, it is thine own self that art fated to be slain in fight by a god and a mortal. When he had thus spoken, the Erinyes checked his voice. Then, his heart mightily stirred, spake to him swift-footed Achilles: ''. None
15. Homeric Hymns, To Hermes, 567-568 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Artemis, animals, association with • Hermes, animals, association with • animals, Artemis as “Mistress of Beasts,” • animals, Hermes and • herdsman, master of animals

 Found in books: Miller and Clay (2019) 15; Simon (2021) 327

567. About. I give you them. If you enquire'568. Strictly of them, you’ll gain your heart’s desire. '. None
16. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Asklepios, as healer of animals • Hermes, animals, association with • Oath-rituals, sacrificial animals • Podalirios, heroon at Mt. Drion, healing of domestic animals • Religion (Egyptian and Greco-Egyptian), healing of domestic animals • Sarapis, tales of curing animals • animal species, cow • animal species, ewe • animal victim, parts of,head • animal victim, parts of,muzzle • animal victim, parts of,skin • animal victim, treatment of, decapitated • animal victim, treatment of, killed with head bent towards the ground • animal victim, treatment of, throat cut, slit or pierced • animal, burial • animal, in ritual • animal, morality • animal, subjugation • animals • animals, Hermes and • animals, in relation to the natural slave • animals, sacred • animation, of statues • colour of animal victim, black • sacrifice (thysia), animal slaughter • statues, animation of

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 242, 472; Ekroth (2013) 62, 254, 265, 273; Fortenbaugh (2006) 244; Lupu(2005) 29; Mackay (2022) 73, 99; Renberg (2017) 305, 306; Simon (2021) 396; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 186; Steiner (2001) 117; Thonemann (2020) 95

17. Aeschylus, Agamemnon, 136, 224-247, 720, 735, 1036-1037, 1056 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Artemis, animals, association with • animal imagery • animals • animals, Artemis as “Mistress of Beasts,” • animals, sacrificial • bride, as animal • sacrifice, animal • sacrifice, animal, Aegisthus in Euripides Electra • sacrifice, animal, human, of Iphigenia in the Agamemnon

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 104; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 134, 136, 137, 138, 139, 140, 229; Pillinger (2019) 40; Seaford (2018) 289; Simon (2021) 166, 175

136. 720. ἐν βιότου προτελείοις
1036. ἐπεί σʼ ἔθηκε Ζεὺς ἀμηνίτως δόμοις'1037. κοινωνὸν εἶναι χερνίβων, πολλῶν μέτα
1056. τρίβειν· τὰ μὲν γὰρ ἑστίας μεσομφάλου '. None
136. 224. The sacrificer of his daughter — strange! — 225. He dared become, to expedite 226. Woman-avenging warfare, — anchors weighed 227. With such prelusive rite! 228. Prayings and callings 720. Gentle as yet,
1036. Since Zeus — not angrily—in household placed thee ' 1037. Partaker of hand-sprinklings, with the many
1056. To waste time: as concerns the hearth mid-navelled, '. None
18. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 1.19-1.20, 34.8, 44.16 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal • Animals • Yahweh, animals of • animal imagery • animals • animals, fish, and birds • animals, sacred, in Judea • sacrifice, animal

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 397; Corley (2002) 138; Gera (2014) 364; Gordon (2020) 93; Levison (2009) 98; Seim and Okland (2009) 217

1.19. וּבְלֶכֶת הַחַיּוֹת יֵלְכוּ הָאוֹפַנִּים אֶצְלָם וּבְהִנָּשֵׂא הַחַיּוֹת מֵעַל הָאָרֶץ יִנָּשְׂאוּ הָאוֹפַנִּים׃' '
34.8. חַי־אָנִי נְאֻם אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה אִם־לֹא יַעַן הֱיוֹת־צֹאנִי לָבַז וַתִּהְיֶינָה צֹאנִי לְאָכְלָה לְכָל־חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה מֵאֵין רֹעֶה וְלֹא־דָרְשׁוּ רֹעַי אֶת־צֹאנִי וַיִּרְעוּ הָרֹעִים אוֹתָם וְאֶת־צֹאנִי לֹא רָעוּ׃
44.16. הֵמָּה יָבֹאוּ אֶל־מִקְדָּשִׁי וְהֵמָּה יִקְרְבוּ אֶל־שֻׁלְחָנִי לְשָׁרְתֵנִי וְשָׁמְרוּ אֶת־מִשְׁמַרְתִּי׃''. None
1.19. And when the living creatures went, the wheels went hard by them; and when the living creatures were lifted up from the bottom, the wheels were lifted up. 1.20. Whithersoever the spirit was to go, as the spirit was to go thither, so they went; and the wheels were lifted up beside them; for the spirit of the living creature was in the wheels.
34.8. As I live, saith the Lord GOD, surely forasmuch as My sheep became a prey, and My sheep became food to all the beasts of the field, because there was no shepherd, neither did My shepherds search for My sheep, but the shepherds fed themselves, and fed not My sheep;
44.16. they shall enter into My sanctuary, and they shall come near to My table, to minister unto Me, and they shall keep My charge.''. None
19. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Destruction, of animals/objects • animal victim, parts of, intestines • animal victim, parts of,testicles • animal victim, treatment of burning of a part or parts of the victim • animal victim, treatment of, throat cut, slit or pierced • animals as oath sacrifices, burning of • animals as oath sacrifices, contact of oath-takers with • destruction of animal victim by fire • destruction sacrifice, partial destruction of animal victim • destruction sacrifice, total destruction of animal victim

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 252; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 22, 139; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 204

20. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal • animal bones, thigh-bones • animal victim, god's portion at sacrifice • animal victim, treatment of burning of divinity's portion

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 115; Gagné (2020) 14

21. Euripides, Bacchae, 726 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals, rejoicing • Joy, of animals, houses and day itself • Rejoicing, of animals, houses and day itself • skin, animal

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 47; Griffiths (1975) 169

726. Βρόμιον καλοῦσαι· πᾶν δὲ συνεβάκχευʼ ὄρος''. None
726. calling on Iacchus, the son of Zeus, Bromius, with united voice. The whole mountain revelled along with them and the beasts, and nothing was unmoved by their running. Agave happened to be leaping near me, and I sprang forth, wanting to snatch her,''. None
22. Euripides, Electra, 260-261 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal species, boar • animal species, dog • animal victim, treatment of burning of entire victim • destruction of animal victim by fire • sacrifice, animal, Aegisthus in Euripides Electra

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 255; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 229

260. ξυνῆκ': ̓Ορέστῃ μή ποτ' ἐκτείσῃ δίκην."261. τοῦτ' αὐτὸ ταρβῶν, πρὸς δὲ καὶ σώφρων ἔφυ." "". None
260. I understand; he fears that he may someday be punished by Orestes. Electra'261. He does fear that, but he is also a virtuous man. Oreste '. None
23. Euripides, Medea, 1200 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal imagery, disease as an animal • animals, affected by disease, disease compared to

 Found in books: Jouanna (2012) 89; Kazantzidis (2021) 93

1200. σάρκες δ' ἀπ' ὀστέων ὥστε πεύκινον δάκρυ"". None
1200. and from her bones the flesh kept peeling off beneath the gnawing of those secret drugs, e’en as when the pine-tree weeps its tears of pitch, a fearsome sight to see. And all were afraid to touch the corpse, for we were warned by what had chanced. Anon came her hapless father''. None
24. Euripides, Orestes, 255-259 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals, complex behavior in • animals, impressions of • impressions, of animals • sacrifice, animal, pre-battle

 Found in books: Graver (2007) 240; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 219

255. ὦ μῆτερ, ἱκετεύω σε, μὴ 'πίσειέ μοι"256. τὰς αἱματωποὺς καὶ δρακοντώδεις κόρας. 257. αὗται γὰρ αὗται πλησίον θρῴσκουσί μου.' "258. μέν', ὦ ταλαίπωρ', ἀτρέμα σοῖς ἐν δεμνίοις:" "259. ὁρᾷς γὰρ οὐδὲν ὧν δοκεῖς σάφ' εἰδέναι." "'. None
255. Mother, I implore you! Do not shake at me those maidens with their bloodshot eyes and snaky hair. Here they are, close by, to leap on me! Electra'256. Mother, I implore you! Do not shake at me those maidens with their bloodshot eyes and snaky hair. Here they are, close by, to leap on me! Electra 258. Lie still, poor sufferer, on your couch; your eye sees nothing, you only imagine that you recognize them. Oreste '. None
25. Euripides, Suppliant Women, 1194-1202 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sacrificial animals, species: sheep • animal victim, god's portion at sacrifice • animal victim, parts of, intestines • animal victim, parts of,testicles • animal victim, treatment of burning of a part or parts of the victim • animal victim, treatment of burning of divinity's portion • animal victim, treatment of, throat cut, slit or pierced • animals as oath sacrifices, burning of • destruction of animal victim by fire • destruction sacrifice, partial destruction of animal victim • destruction sacrifice, total destruction of animal victim • triad of sacrificial animals

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 42, 252; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 139, 140; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 196

1194. ἢν δ' ὅρκον ἐκλιπόντες ἔλθωσιν, πάλιν"1195. κακῶς ὀλέσθαι πρόστρεπ' ̓Αργείων χθόνα." "1196. ἐν ᾧ δὲ τέμνειν σφάγια χρή ς', ἄκουέ μου." '1197. ἔστιν τρίπους σοι χαλκόπους ἔσω δόμων,' "1198. ὃν ̓Ιλίου ποτ' ἐξαναστήσας βάθρα" "1199. σπουδὴν ἐπ' ἄλλην ̔Ηρακλῆς ὁρμώμενος" "1200. στῆσαί ς' ἐφεῖτο Πυθικὴν πρὸς ἐσχάραν." '1201. ἐν τῷδε λαιμοὺς τρεῖς τριῶν μήλων τεμὼν 1202. ἔγγραψον ὅρκους τρίποδος ἐν κοίλῳ κύτει,' "". None
1194. to take the oath for the whole realm of Argos. And this shall be the form thereof: We Argives swear we never will against this land lead on our mail-clad troops to war, and, if others come, we will repel them. But if they violate their oath and come against the city, pray'1195. that the land of Argos may be miserably destroyed. 1196. Now hearken while I tell thee where thou must slay the victims. Thou hast within thy halls a tripod with brazen feet, which Heracles, in days gone by, after he had o’erthrown the foundations of Ilium and was starting on another enterprise, 1200. enjoined thee to set up at the Pythian shrine. O’er it cut the throats of three sheep; then grave within the tripod’s hollow belly the oath; this done, deliver it to the god who watches over Delphi to keep, a witness and memorial unto Hellas of the oath. '. None
26. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 3.19-3.21 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal • animal imagery • animating breath

 Found in books: Corley (2002) 131; Garcia (2021) 65; Levison (2009) 21

3.19. כִּי מִקְרֶה בְנֵי־הָאָדָם וּמִקְרֶה הַבְּהֵמָה וּמִקְרֶה אֶחָד לָהֶם כְּמוֹת זֶה כֵּן מוֹת זֶה וְרוּחַ אֶחָד לַכֹּל וּמוֹתַר הָאָדָם מִן־הַבְּהֵמָה אָיִן כִּי הַכֹּל הָבֶל׃' '3.21. מִי יוֹדֵעַ רוּחַ בְּנֵי הָאָדָם הָעֹלָה הִיא לְמָעְלָה וְרוּחַ הַבְּהֵמָה הַיֹּרֶדֶת הִיא לְמַטָּה לָאָרֶץ׃''. None
3.19. For that which befalleth the sons of men befalleth beasts; even one thing befalleth them; as the one dieth, so dieth the other; yea, they have all one breath; so that man hath no pre-eminence above a beast; for all is vanity. 3.20. All go unto one place; all are of the dust, and all return to dust. 3.21. Who knoweth the spirit of man whether it goeth upward, and the spirit of the beast whether it goeth downward to the earth?''. None
27. Herodotus, Histories, 2.38-2.47, 2.57, 2.64, 2.73, 2.81, 3.24 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal victim, god's portion at sacrifice • animal victim, parts of,head • animal victim, parts of,leg • animal victim, parts of,shoulder • animal victim, parts of,thigh • animal victim, treatment of burning of a ninth of the meat • animal victim, treatment of burning of a part or parts of the victim • animal victim, treatment of, killed with head bent towards the ground • animals, horses • destruction of animal victim by fire • destruction sacrifice, partial destruction of animal victim • destruction sacrifice, total destruction of animal victim • ethnicity, and animality • holding an animal above the head, in Egyptian sacrifice • non-Greeks, characterized as animals • sacrifice, animal • sacrifice, animal, Olympian • sacrifice, animal, chthonian • sacrifice, animal, in Greek religion v, vi • sacrifice, animal, in Pythagoras • seals, marking animals • skin, animal

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 422, 478; Bosak-Schroeder (2020) 66; Ekroth (2013) 171, 219, 220, 226, 288, 297; Hitch (2017) 259, 260; Petropoulou (2012) 34; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 57; Torok (2014) 82; Waldner et al (2016) 74

2.38. τοὺς δὲ βοῦς τοὺς ἔρσενας τοῦ Ἐπάφου εἶναι νομίζουσι, καὶ τούτου εἵνεκα δοκιμάζουσι αὐτοὺς ὧδε· τρίχα ἢν καὶ μίαν ἴδηται ἐπεοῦσαν μέλαιναν, οὐ καθαρὸν εἶναι νομίζει. δίζηται δὲ ταῦτα ἐπὶ τούτῳ τεταγμένος τῶν τις ἱρέων καὶ ὀρθοῦ ἑστεῶτος τοῦ κτήνεος καὶ ὑπτίου, καὶ τὴν γλῶσσαν ἐξειρύσας, εἰ καθαρὴ τῶν προκειμένων σημηίων, τὰ ἐγὼ ἐν ἄλλῳ λόγῳ ἐρέω· κατορᾷ δὲ καὶ τὰς τρίχας τῆς οὐρῆς εἰ κατὰ φύσιν ἔχει πεφυκυίας. ἢν δὲ τούτων πάντων ᾖ καθαρός, σημαίνεται βύβλῳ περὶ τὰ κέρεα εἱλίσσων καὶ ἔπειτα γῆν σημαντρίδα ἐπιπλάσας ἐπιβάλλει τὸν δακτύλιον, καὶ οὕτω ἀπάγουσι. ἀσήμαντον δὲ θύσαντι θάνατος ἡ ζημίη ἐπικέεται. δοκιμάζεται μέν νυν τὸ κτῆνος τρόπῳ τοιῷδε, θυσίη δέ σφι ἥδε κατέστηκε. 2.39. ἀγαγόντες τὸ σεσημασμένον κτῆνος πρὸς τὸν βωμὸν ὅκου ἂν θύωσι, πῦρ ἀνακαίουσι, ἔπειτα δὲ ἐπʼ αὐτοῦ οἶνον κατὰ τοῦ ἱρηίου ἐπισπείσαντες καὶ ἐπικαλέσαντες τὸν θεὸν σφάζουσι, σφάξαντες δὲ ἀποτάμνουσι τὴν κεφαλήν. σῶμα μὲν δὴ τοῦ κτήνεος δείρουσι, κεφαλῇ δὲ κείνῃ πολλὰ καταρησάμενοι φέρουσι, τοῖσι μὲν ἂν ᾖ ἀγορὴ καὶ Ἕλληνές σφι ἔωσι ἐπιδήμιοι ἔμποροι, οἳ δὲ φέροντες ἐς τὴν ἀγορὴν ἀπʼ ὦν ἔδοντο, τοῖσι δὲ ἂν μὴ παρέωσι Ἕλληνες, οἳ δʼ ἐκβάλλουσι ἐς τὸν ποταμόν· καταρῶνται δὲ τάδε λέγοντες τῇσι κεφαλῇσι, εἴ τι μέλλοι ἢ σφίσι τοῖσι θύουσι ἢ Αἰγύπτῳ τῇ συναπάσῃ κακὸν γενέσθαι, ἐς κεφαλὴν ταύτην τραπέσθαι. κατὰ μέν νυν τὰς κεφαλὰς τῶν θυομένων κτηνέων καὶ τὴν ἐπίσπεισιν τοῦ οἴνου πάντες Αἰγύπτιοι νόμοισι τοῖσι αὐτοῖσι χρέωνται ὁμοίως ἐς πάντα τὰ ἱρά, καὶ ἀπὸ τούτου τοῦ νόμου οὐδὲ ἄλλου οὐδενὸς ἐμψύχου κεφαλῆς γεύσεται Αἰγυπτίων οὐδείς. 2.40. ἡ δὲ δὴ ἐξαίρεσις τῶν ἱρῶν καὶ ἡ καῦσις ἄλλη περὶ ἄλλο ἱρόν σφι κατέστηκε· τὴν δʼ ὦν μεγίστην τε δαίμονα ἥγηνται εἶναι καὶ μεγίστην οἱ ὁρτὴν ἀνάγουσι, ταύτην ἔρχομαι ἐρέων ἐπεὰν ἀποδείρωσι τὸν βοῦν, κατευξάμενοι κοιλίην μὲν κείνην πᾶσαν ἐξ ὦν εἷλον, σπλάγχνά δὲ αὐτοῦ λείπουσι ἐν τῷ σώματι καὶ τὴν πιμελήν, σκέλεα δὲ ἀποτάμνουσι καὶ τὴν ὀσφὺν ἄκρην καὶ τοὺς ὤμους τε καὶ τὸν τράχηλον. ταῦτα δὲ ποιήσαντες τὸ ἄλλο σῶμα τοῦ βοὸς πιμπλᾶσι ἄρτων καθαρῶν καὶ μέλιτος καὶ ἀσταφίδος καὶ σύκων καὶ λιβανωτοῦ καὶ σμύρνης καὶ τῶν ἄλλων θυωμάτων, πλήσαντες δὲ τούτων καταγίζουσι, ἔλαιον ἄφθονον καταχέοντες· προνηστεύσαντες δὲ θύουσι, καιομένων δὲ τῶν ἱρῶν τύπτονται πάντες, ἐπεὰν δὲ ἀποτύψωνται, δαῖτα προτίθενται τὰ ἐλίποντο τῶν ἱρῶν. 2.41. τοὺς μέν νυν καθαροὺς βοῦς τοὺς ἔρσενας καὶ τοὺς μόσχους οἱ πάντες Αἰγύπτιοι θύουσι, τὰς δὲ θηλέας οὔ σφι ἔξεστι θύειν, ἀλλὰ ἱραί εἰσι τῆς Ἴσιος· τὸ γὰρ τῆς Ἴσιος ἄγαλμα ἐὸν γυναικήιον βούκερων ἐστὶ κατά περ Ἕλληνες τὴν Ἰοῦν γράφουσι, καὶ τὰς βοῦς τὰς θηλέας Αἰγύπτιοι πάντες ὁμοίως σέβονται προβάτων πάντων μάλιστα μακρῷ. τῶν εἵνεκα οὔτε ἀνὴρ Αἰγύπτιος οὔτε γυνὴ ἄνδρα Ἕλληνα φιλήσειε ἂν τῷ στόματι, οὐδὲ μαχαίρῃ ἀνδρὸς Ἕλληνος χρήσεται οὐδὲ ὀβελοῖσι οὐδὲ λέβητι, οὐδὲ κρέως καθαροῦ βοὸς διατετμημένου Ἑλληνικῇ μαχαίρῃ γεύσεται. θάπτουσι δὲ τοὺς ἀποθνήσκοντας βοῦς τρόπον τόνδε· τὰς μὲν θηλέας ἐς τὸν ποταμὸν ἀπιεῖσι, τοὺς δὲ ἔρσενας κατορύσσουσι ἕκαστοι ἐν τοῖσι προαστείοισι, τὸ κέρας τὸ ἕτερον ἢ καὶ ἀμφότερα ὑπερέχοντα σημηίου εἵνεκεν· ἐπεὰν δὲ σαπῇ καὶ προσίῃ ὁ τεταγμένος χρόνος, ἀπικνέεται ἐς ἑκάστην πόλιν βᾶρις ἐκ τῆς Προσωπίτιδος καλευμένης νήσου. ἣ δʼ ἔστι μὲν ἐν τῷ Δέλτα, περίμετρον δὲ αὐτῆς εἰσὶ σχοῖνοι ἐννέα. ἐν ταύτῃ ὦ τῇ Προσωπίτιδι νήσῳ ἔνεισι μὲν καὶ ἄλλαι πόλιες συχναί, ἐκ τῆς δὲ αἱ βάριες παραγίνονται ἀναιρησόμεναι τὰ ὀστέα τῶν βοῶν, οὔνομα τῇ πόλι Ἀτάρβηχις, ἐν δʼ αὐτῇ Ἀφροδίτης ἱρὸν ἅγιον ἵδρυται. ἐκ ταύτης τῆς πόλιος πλανῶνται πολλοὶ ἄλλοι ἐς ἄλλας πόλις, ἀνορύξαντες δὲ τὰ ὀστέα ἀπάγουσι καὶ θάπτουσι ἐς ἕνα χῶρον πάντες. κατὰ ταὐτὰ δὲ τοῖσι βουσὶ καὶ τἆλλα κτήνεα θάπτουσι ἀποθνήσκοντα· καὶ γὰρ περὶ ταῦτα οὕτω σφι νενομοθέτηται· κτείνουσι γὰρ δὴ οὐδὲ ταῦτα. 2.42. ὅσοι μὲν δὴ Διὸς Θηβαιέος ἵδρυνται ἱρὸν ἤ νομοῦ τοῦ Θηβαίου εἰσί, οὗτοι μέν νυν πάντες ὀίων ἀπεχόμενοι αἶγας θύουσι. θεοὺς γὰρ δὴ οὐ τοὺς αὐτοὺς ἅπαντες ὁμοίως Αἰγύπτιοι σέβονται, πλὴν Ἴσιός τε καὶ Ὀσίριος, τὸν δὴ Διόνυσον εἶναι λέγουσι· τούτους δὲ ὁμοίως ἅπαντες σέβονται. ὅσοι δὲ τοῦ Μένδητος ἔκτηνται ἱρὸν ἢ νομοῦ τοῦ Μενδησίου εἰσί, οὗτοι δὲ αἰγῶν ἀπεχόμενοι ὄις θύουσι. Θηβαῖοι μέν νυν καὶ ὅσοι διὰ τούτους ὀίων ἀπέχονται, διὰ τάδε λέγουσι τὸν νόμον τόνδε σφίσι τεθῆναι. Ἡρακλέα θελῆσαι πάντως ἰδέσθαι τὸν Δία, καὶ τὸν οὐκ ἐθέλειν ὀφθῆναι ὑπʼ αὐτοῦ· τέλος δέ, ἐπείτε λιπαρέειν τὸν Ἡρακλέα, τάδε τὸν Δία μηχανήσασθαι· κριὸν ἐκδείραντα προσχέσθαι τε τὴν κεφαλὴν ἀποταμόντα τοῦ κριοῦ καὶ ἐνδύντα τὸ νάκος οὕτω οἱ ἑωυτὸν ἐπιδέξαι. ἀπὸ τούτου κριοπρόσωπον τοῦ Διὸς τὤγαλμα ποιεῦσι Αἰγύπτιοι, ἀπὸ δὲ Αἰγυπτίων Ἀμμώνιοι, ἐόντες Αἰγυπτίων τε καὶ Αἰθιόπων ἄποικοι καὶ φωνὴν μεταξὺ ἀμφοτέρων νομίζοντες. δοκέειν δέ μοι, καὶ τὸ οὔνομα Ἀμμώνιοι ἀπὸ τοῦδε σφίσι τὴν ἐπωνυμίην ἐποιήσαντο· Ἀμοῦν γὰρ Αἰγύπτιοι καλέουσι τὸν Δία. τοὺς δὲ κριοὺς οὐ θύουσι Θηβαῖοι, ἀλλʼ εἰσί σφι ἱροὶ διὰ τοῦτο. μιῇ δὲ ἡμέρῃ τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ, ἐν ὁρτῇ τοῦ Διός, κριὸν ἕνα κατακόψαντες καὶ ἀποδείραντες κατὰ τὠυτὸ ἐνδύουσι τὤγαλμα τοῦ Διός, καὶ ἔπειτα ἄλλο ἄγαλμα Ἡρακλέος προσάγουσι πρὸς αὐτό. ταῦτα δὲ ποιήσαντες τύπτονται οἱ περὶ τὸ ἱρὸν ἅπαντες τὸν κριὸν καὶ ἔπειτα ἐν ἱρῇ θήκῃ θάπτουσι αὐτόν. 2.43. Ἡρακλέος δὲ πέρι τόνδε τὸν λόγον ἤκουσα, ὅτι εἴη τῶν δυώδεκα θεῶν· τοῦ ἑτέρου δὲ πέρι Ἡρακλέος, τὸν Ἕλληνες οἴδασι, οὐδαμῇ Αἰγύπτου ἐδυνάσθην ἀκοῦσαι. καὶ μὴν ὅτι γε οὐ παρʼ Ἑλλήνων ἔλαβον τὸ οὔνομα Αἰγύπτιοι τοῦ Ἡρακλέος, ἀλλὰ Ἕλληνες μᾶλλον παρʼ Αἰγυπτίων καὶ Ἑλλήνων οὗτοι οἱ θέμενοι τῷ Ἀμφιτρύωνος γόνῳ τοὔνομα Ἡρακλέα, πολλά μοι καὶ ἄλλα τεκμήρια ἐστὶ τοῦτο οὕτω ἔχειν, ἐν δὲ καὶ τόδε, ὅτι τε τοῦ Ἡρακλέος τούτου οἱ γονέες ἀμφότεροι ἦσαν Ἀμφιτρύων καὶ Ἀλκμήνη γεγονότες τὸ ἀνέκαθεν ἀπʼ Αἰγύπτου, καὶ διότι Αἰγύπτιοι οὔτε Ποσειδέωνος οὔτε Διοσκούρων τὰ οὐνόματα φασὶ εἰδέναι, οὐδέ σφι θεοὶ οὗτοι ἐν τοῖσι ἄλλοισι θεοῖσι ἀποδεδέχαται. καὶ μὴν εἴ γε παρʼ Ἑλλήνων ἔλαβον οὔνομά τευ δαίμονος, τούτων οὐκ ἥκιστα ἀλλὰ μάλιστα ἔμελλον μνήμην ἕξειν, εἴ περ καὶ τότε ναυτιλίῃσι ἐχρέωντο καὶ ἦσαν Ἑλλήνων τινὲς ναυτίλοι, ὡς ἔλπομαί τε καὶ ἐμὴ γνώμη αἱρέει· ὥστε τούτων ἂν καὶ μᾶλλον τῶν θεῶν τὰ οὐνόματα ἐξεπιστέατο Αἰγύπτιοι ἢ τοῦ Ἡρακλέος. ἀλλά τις ἀρχαῖος ἐστὶ θεὸς Αἰγυπτίοισι Ἡρακλέης· ὡς δὲ αὐτοὶ λέγουσι, ἔτεα ἐστὶ ἑπτακισχίλια καὶ μύρια ἐς Ἄμασιν βασιλεύσαντα, ἐπείτε ἐκ τῶν ὀκτὼ θεῶν οἱ δυώδεκα θεοὶ ἐγένοντο τῶν Ἡρακλέα ἕνα νομίζουσι. 2.44. καὶ θέλων δὲ τούτων πέρι σαφές τι εἰδέναι ἐξ ὧν οἷόν τε ἦν, ἔπλευσα καὶ ἐς Τύρον τῆς Φοινίκης, πυνθανόμενος αὐτόθι εἶναι ἱρὸν Ἡρακλέος ἅγιον. καὶ εἶδον πλουσίως κατεσκευασμένον ἄλλοισί τε πολλοῖσι ἀναθήμασι, καὶ ἐν αὐτῷ ἦσαν στῆλαι δύο, ἣ μὲν χρυσοῦ ἀπέφθου, ἣ δὲ σμαράγδου λίθου λάμποντος τὰς νύκτας μέγαθος. ἐς λόγους δὲ ἐλθὼν τοῖσι ἱρεῦσι τοῦ θεοῦ εἰρόμην ὁκόσος χρόνος εἴη ἐξ οὗ σφι τὸ ἱρὸν ἵδρυται. εὗρον δὲ οὐδὲ τούτους τοῖσι Ἕλλησι συμφερομένους· ἔφασαν γὰρ ἅμα Τύρῳ οἰκιζομένῃ καὶ τὸ ἱρὸν τοῦ θεοῦ ἱδρυθῆναι, εἶναι δὲ ἔτεα ἀπʼ οὗ Τύρον οἰκέουσι τριηκόσια καὶ δισχίλια. εἶδον δὲ ἐν τῇ Τύρῳ καὶ ἄλλο ἱρὸν Ἡρακλέος ἐπωνυμίην ἔχοντος Θασίου εἶναι· ἀπικόμην δὲ καὶ ἐς Θάσον, ἐν τῇ εὗρον ἱρὸν Ἡρακλέος ὑπὸ Φοινίκων ἱδρυμένον, οἳ κατʼ Εὐρώπης ζήτησιν ἐκπλώσαντες Θάσον ἔκτισαν· καὶ ταῦτα καὶ πέντε γενεῇσι ἀνδρῶν πρότερα ἐστὶ ἢ τὸν Ἀμφιτρύωνος Ἡρακλέα ἐν τῇ Ἑλλάδι γενέσθαι. τὰ μέν νυν ἱστορημένα δηλοῖ σαφέως παλαιὸν θεὸν Ἡρακλέα ἐόντα, καὶ δοκέουσι δέ μοι οὗτοι ὀρθότατα Ἑλλήνων ποιέειν, οἳ διξὰ Ἡράκλεια ἱδρυσάμενοι ἔκτηνται, καὶ τῷ μὲν ὡς ἀθανάτῳ Ὀλυμπίῳ δὲ ἐπωνυμίην θύουσι, τῷ δὲ ἑτέρῳ ὡς ἥρωι ἐναγίζουσι. 2.45. λέγουσι δὲ πολλὰ καὶ ἄλλα ἀνεπισκέπτως οἱ Ἕλληνες, εὐήθης δὲ αὐτῶν καὶ ὅδε ὁ μῦθος ἐστὶ τὸν περὶ τοῦ Ἡρακλέος λέγουσι, ὡς αὐτὸν ἀπικόμενον ἐς Αἴγυπτον στέψαντες οἱ Αἰγύπτιοι ὑπὸ πομπῆς ἐξῆγον ὡς θύσοντες τῷ Διί· τὸν δὲ τέως μὲν ἡσυχίην ἔχειν, ἐπεὶ δὲ αὐτοῦ πρὸς τῷ βωμῷ κατάρχοντο, ἐς ἀλκὴν τραπόμενον πάντας σφέας καταφονεῦσαι. ἐμοὶ μέν νυν δοκέουσι ταῦτα λέγοντες τῆς Αἰγυπτίων φύσιος καὶ τῶν νόμων πάμπαν ἀπείρως ἔχειν οἱ Ἕλληνες· τοῖσι γὰρ οὐδὲ κτήνεα ὁσίη θύειν ἐστὶ χωρὶς ὑῶν καὶ ἐρσένων βοῶν καὶ μόσχων, ὅσοι ἂν καθαροὶ ἔωσι, καὶ χηνῶν, κῶς ἂν οὗτοι ἀνθρώπους θύοιεν; ἔτι δὲ ἕνα ἐόντα τὸν Ἡρακλέα καὶ ἔτι ἄνθρωπον, ὡς δὴ φασί, κῶς φύσιν ἔχει πολλὰς μυριάδας φονεῦσαι; καὶ περὶ μὲν τούτων τοσαῦτα ἡμῖν εἰποῦσι καὶ παρὰ τῶν θεῶν καὶ παρὰ τῶν ἡρώων εὐμένεια εἴη. 2.46. τὰς δὲ δὴ αἶγας καὶ τοὺς τράγους τῶνδε εἵνεκα οὐ θύουσι Αἰγυπτίων οἱ εἰρημένοι· τὸν Πᾶνα τῶν ὀκτὼ θεῶν λογίζονται εἶναι οἱ Μενδήσιοι, τοὺς δὲ ὀκτὼ θεοὺς τούτους προτέρους τῶν δυώδεκα θεῶν φασι γενέσθαι. γράφουσί τε δὴ καὶ γλύφουσι οἱ ζωγράφοι καὶ οἱ ἀγαλματοποιοὶ τοῦ Πανὸς τὤγαλμα κατά περ Ἕλληνες αἰγοπρόσωπον καὶ τραγοσκελέα, οὔτι τοιοῦτον νομίζοντες εἶναί μιν ἀλλὰ ὁμοῖον τοῖσι ἄλλοισι θεοῖσι· ὅτευ δὲ εἵνεκα τοιοῦτον γράφουσι αὐτόν, οὔ μοι ἥδιον ἐστὶ λέγειν. σέβονται δὲ πάντας τοὺς αἶγας οἱ Μενδήσιοι, καὶ μᾶλλον τοὺς ἔρσενας τῶν θηλέων, καὶ τούτων οἱ αἰπόλοι τιμὰς μέζονας ἔχουσι· ἐκ δὲ τούτων ἕνα μάλιστα, ὅστις ἐπεὰν ἀποθάνῃ, πένθος μέγα παντὶ τῷ Μενδησίῳ νομῷ τίθεται. καλέεται δὲ ὅ τε τράγος καὶ ὁ Πὰν Αἰγυπτιστὶ Μένδης. ἐγένετο δὲ ἐν τῷ νομῷ τούτῳ ἐπʼ ἐμεῦ τοῦτο τὸ τέρας· γυναικὶ τράγος ἐμίσγετο ἀναφανδόν. τοῦτο ἐς ἐπίδεξιν ἀνθρώπων ἀπίκετο. 2.47. ὗν δὲ Αἰγύπτιοι μιαρὸν ἥγηνται θηρίον εἶναι, καὶ τοῦτο μὲν ἤν τις ψαύσῃ αὐτῶν παριὼν αὐτοῖσι τοῖσι ἱματίοισι ἀπʼ ὦν ἔβαψε ἑωυτὸν βὰς ἐς τὸν ποταμόν· τοῦτο δὲ οἱ συβῶται ἐόντες Αἰγύπτιοι ἐγγενέες ἐς ἱρὸν οὐδὲν τῶν ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ ἐσέρχονται μοῦνοι πάντων, οὐδέ σφι ἐκδίδοσθαι οὐδεὶς θυγατέρα ἐθέλει οὐδʼ ἄγεσθαι ἐξ αὐτῶν, ἀλλʼ ἐκδίδονταί τε οἱ συβῶται καὶ ἄγονται ἐξ ἀλλήλων. τοῖσι μέν νυν ἄλλοισι θεοῖσι θύειν ὗς οὐ δικαιοῦσι Αἰγύπτιοι, Σελήνῃ δὲ καὶ Διονύσῳ μούνοισι τοῦ αὐτοῦ χρόνου, τῇ αὐτῇ πανσελήνῳ, τοὺς ὗς θύσαντες πατέονται τῶν κρεῶν. διότι δὲ τοὺς ὗς ἐν μὲν τῇσι ἄλλῃσι ὁρτῇσι ἀπεστυγήκασι ἐν δὲ ταύτῃ θύουσι, ἔστι μὲν λόγος περὶ αὐτοῦ ὑπʼ Αἰγυπτίων λεγόμενος, ἐμοὶ μέντοι ἐπισταμένῳ οὐκ εὐπρεπέστερος ἐστὶ λέγεσθαι. θυσίη δὲ ἥδε τῶν ὑῶν τῇ Σελήνῃ ποιέεται· ἐπεὰν θύσῃ, τὴν οὐρὴν ἄκρην καὶ τὸν σπλῆνα καὶ τὸν ἐπίπλοον συνθεὶς ὁμοῦ κατʼ ὦν ἐκάλυψε πάσῃ τοῦ κτήνεος τῇ πιμελῇ τῇ περὶ τὴν νηδὺν γινομένῃ, καὶ ἔπειτα καταγίζει πυρί· τὰ δὲ ἄλλα κρέα σιτέονται ἐν τῇ πανσελήνῳ ἐν τῇ ἂν τὰ ἱρὰ θύσωσι, ἐν ἄλλῃ δὲ ἡμέρῃ οὐκ ἂν ἔτι γευσαίατο. οἱ δὲ πένητες αὐτῶν ὑπʼ ἀσθενείης βίου σταιτίνας πλάσαντες ὗς καὶ ὀπτήσαντες ταύτας θύουσι.
2.57. πελειάδες δέ μοι δοκέουσι κληθῆναι πρὸς Δωδωναίων ἐπὶ τοῦδε αἱ γυναῖκες, διότι βάρβαροι ἦσαν, ἐδόκεον δέ σφι ὁμοίως ὄρνισι φθέγγεσθαι· μετὰ δὲ χρόνον τὴν πελειάδα ἀνθρωπηίῃ φωνῇ αὐδάξασθαι λέγουσι, ἐπείτε συνετά σφι ηὔδα ἡ γυνή· ἕως δὲ ἐβαρβάριζε, ὄρνιθος τρόπον ἐδόκεέ σφι φθέγγεσθαι, ἐπεὶ τέῳ ἂν τρόπῳ πελειάς γε ἀνθρωπηίῃ φωνῇ φθέγξαιτο; μέλαιναν δὲ λέγοντες εἶναι τὴν πελειάδα σημαίνουσι ὅτι Αἰγυπτίη ἡ γυνὴ ἦν. ἡ δὲ μαντηίη ἥ τε ἐν Θήβῃσι τῇσι Αἰγυπτίῃσι καὶ ἐν Δωδώνῃ παραπλήσιαι ἀλλήλῃσι τυγχάνουσι ἐοῦσαι. ἔστι δὲ καὶ τῶν ἱρῶν ἡ μαντικὴ ἀπʼ Αἰγύπτου ἀπιγμένη.
2.64. καὶ τὸ μὴ μίσγεσθαι γυναιξὶ ἐν ἱροῖσι μηδὲ ἀλούτους ἀπὸ γυναικῶν ἐς ἱρὰ ἐσιέναι οὗτοι εἰσὶ οἱ πρῶτοι θρησκεύσαντες. οἱ μὲν γὰρ ἄλλοι σχεδὸν πάντες ἄνθρωποι, πλὴν Αἰγυπτίων καὶ Ἑλλήνων, μίσγονται ἐν ἱροῖσι καὶ ἀπὸ γυναικῶν ἀνιστάμενοι ἄλουτοι ἐσέρχονται ἐς ἱρόν, νομίζοντες ἀνθρώπους εἶναι κατά περ τὰ ἄλλα κτήνεα· καὶ γὰρ τὰ ἄλλα κτήνεα ὁρᾶν καὶ ὀρνίθων γένεα ὀχευόμενα ἔν τε τοῖσι νηοῖσι τῶν θεῶν καὶ ἐν τοῖσι τεμένεσι· εἰ ὦν εἶναι τῷ θεῷ τοῦτο μὴ φίλον, οὐκ ἂν οὐδὲ τὰ κτήνεα ποιέειν. οὗτοι μέν νυν τοιαῦτα ἐπιλέγοντες ποιεῦσι ἔμοιγε οὐκ ἀρεστά·
2.73. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἄλλος ὄρνις ἱρός, τῷ οὔνομα φοῖνιξ. ἐγὼ μέν μιν οὐκ εἶδον εἰ μὴ ὅσον γραφῇ· καὶ γὰρ δὴ καὶ σπάνιος ἐπιφοιτᾷ σφι, διʼ ἐτέων, ὡς Ἡλιοπολῖται λέγουσι, πεντακοσίων· φοιτᾶν δὲ τότε φασὶ ἐπεάν οἱ ἀποθάνῃ ὁ πατήρ. ἔστι δέ, εἰ τῇ γραφῇ παρόμοιος, τοσόσδε καὶ τοιόσδε· τὰ μὲν αὐτοῦ χρυσόκομα τῶν πτερῶν τὰ δὲ ἐρυθρὰ ἐς τὰ μάλιστα· αἰετῷ περιήγησιν ὁμοιότατος καὶ τὸ μέγαθος. τοῦτον δὲ λέγουσι μηχανᾶσθαι τάδε, ἐμοὶ μὲν οὐ πιστὰ λέγοντες· ἐξ Ἀραβίης ὁρμώμενον ἐς τὸ ἱρὸν τοῦ Ἡλίου κομίζειν τὸν πατέρα ἐν σμύρνῃ ἐμπλάσσοντα καὶ θάπτειν ἐν τοῦ Ἡλίου τῷ ἱρῷ, κομίζειν δὲ οὕτω· πρῶτον τῆς σμύρνης ᾠὸν πλάσσειν ὅσον τε δυνατός ἐστι φέρειν, μετὰ δὲ πειρᾶσθαι αὐτὸ φορέοντα, ἐπεὰν δὲ ἀποπειρηθῇ, οὕτω δὴ κοιλήναντα τὸ ᾠὸν τὸν πατέρα ἐς αὐτὸ ἐντιθέναι, σμύρνῃ δὲ ἄλλῃ ἐμπλάσσειν τοῦτο κατʼ ὅ τι τοῦ ᾠοῦ ἐκκοιλήνας ἐνέθηκε τὸν πατέρα· ἐσκειμένου δὲ τοῦ πατρὸς γίνεσθαι τὠυτὸ βάρος· ἐμπλάσαντα δὲ κομίζειν μιν ἐπʼ Αἰγύπτου ἐς τοῦ Ἡλίου τὸ ἱρόν. ταῦτα μὲν τοῦτον τὸν ὄρνιν λέγουσι ποιέειν.
2.81. ἐνδεδύκασι δὲ κιθῶνας λινέους περὶ τὰ σκέλεα θυσανωτούς, τοὺς καλέουσι καλασίρις· ἐπὶ τούτοισι δὲ εἰρίνεα εἵματα λευκὰ ἐπαναβληδὸν φορέουσι. οὐ μέντοι ἔς γε τὰ ἱρὰ ἐσφέρεται εἰρίνεα οὐδὲ συγκαταθάπτεταί σφι· οὐ γὰρ ὅσιον. ὁμολογέουσι δὲ ταῦτα τοῖσι Ὀρφικοῖσι καλεομένοισι καὶ Βακχικοῖσι, ἐοῦσι δὲ Αἰγυπτίοισι καὶ Πυθαγορείοισι· οὐδὲ γὰρ τούτων τῶν ὀργίων μετέχοντα ὅσιον ἐστὶ ἐν εἰρινέοισι εἵμασι θαφθῆναι. ἔστι δὲ περὶ αὐτῶν ἱρὸς λόγος λεγόμενος.
3.24. μετὰ δὲ ταύτην τελευταίας ἐθεήσαντο τὰς θήκας αὐτῶν, αἳ λέγονται σκευάζεσθαι ἐξ ὑέλου τρόπῳ τοιῷδε· ἐπεὰν τὸν νεκρὸν ἰσχνήνωσι, εἴτε δὴ κατά περ Αἰγύπτιοι εἴτε ἄλλως κως, γυψώσαντες ἅπαντα αὐτὸν γραφῇ κοσμέουσι, ἐξομοιεῦντες τὸ εἶδος ἐς τὸ δυνατόν, ἔπειτα δέ οἱ περιιστᾶσι στήλην ἐξ ὑέλου πεποιημένην κοίλην· ἣ δέ σφι πολλὴ καὶ εὐεργὸς ὀρύσσεται. ἐν μέσῃ δὲ τῇ στήλῃ ἐνεὼν διαφαίνεται ὁ νέκυς, οὔτε ὀδμὴν οὐδεμίαν ἄχαριν παρεχόμενος οὔτε ἄλλο ἀεικὲς οὐδέν, καὶ ἔχει πάντα φανερὰ ὁμοίως αὐτῷ τῷ νέκυϊ. ἐνιαυτὸν μὲν δὴ ἔχουσι τὴν στήλην ἐν τοῖσι οἰκίοισι οἱ μάλιστα προσήκοντες, πάντων ἀπαρχόμενοι καὶ θυσίας οἱ προσάγοντες· μετὰ δὲ ταῦτα ἐκκομίσαντες ἱστᾶσι περὶ τὴν πόλιν.''. None
2.38. They believe that bulls belong to Epaphus, and for this reason scrutinize them as follows; if they see even one black hair on them, the bull is considered impure. ,One of the priests, appointed to the task, examines the beast, making it stand and lie, and drawing out its tongue, to determine whether it is clean of the stated signs which I shall indicate hereafter. He looks also to the hairs of the tail, to see if they grow naturally. ,If it is clean in all these respects, the priest marks it by wrapping papyrus around the horns, then smears it with sealing-earth and stamps it with his ring; and after this they lead the bull away. But the penalty is death for sacrificing a bull that the priest has not marked. Such is the manner of approving the beast; I will now describe how it is sacrificed. 2.39. After leading the marked beast to the altar where they will sacrifice it, they kindle a fire; then they pour wine on the altar over the victim and call upon the god; then they cut its throat, and having done so sever the head from the body. ,They flay the carcass of the victim, then invoke many curses on its head, which they carry away. Where there is a market, and Greek traders in it, the head is taken to the market and sold; where there are no Greeks, it is thrown into the river. ,The imprecation which they utter over the heads is that whatever ill threatens those who sacrifice, or the whole of Egypt, fall upon that head. ,In respect of the heads of sacrificed beasts and the libation of wine, the practice of all Egyptians is the same in all sacrifices; and from this ordice no Egyptian will taste of the head of anything that had life. 2.40. But in regard to the disembowelling and burning of the victims, there is a different way for each sacrifice. I shall now, however, speak of that goddess whom they consider the greatest, and in whose honor they keep highest festival. ,After praying in the foregoing way, they take the whole stomach out of the flayed bull, leaving the entrails and the fat in the carcass, and cut off the legs, the end of the loin, the shoulders, and the neck. ,Having done this, they fill what remains of the carcass with pure bread, honey, raisins, figs, frankincense, myrrh, and other kinds of incense, and then burn it, pouring a lot of oil on it. ,They fast before the sacrifice, and while it is burning, they all make lamentation; and when their lamentation is over, they set out a meal of what is left of the victim. ' "2.41. All Egyptians sacrifice unblemished bulls and bull-calves; they may not sacrifice cows: these are sacred to Isis. ,For the images of Isis are in woman's form, horned like a cow, exactly as the Greeks picture Io, and cows are held by far the most sacred of all beasts of the herd by all Egyptians alike. ,For this reason, no Egyptian man or woman will kiss a Greek man, or use a knife, or a spit, or a cauldron belonging to a Greek, or taste the flesh of an unblemished bull that has been cut up with a Greek knife. ,Cattle that die are dealt with in the following way. Cows are cast into the river, bulls are buried by each city in its suburbs, with one or both horns uncovered for a sign; then, when the carcass is decomposed, and the time appointed is at hand, a boat comes to each city from the island called Prosopitis, ,an island in the Delta, nine schoeni in circumference. There are many other towns on Prosopitis; the one from which the boats come to gather the bones of the bulls is called Atarbekhis; a temple of Aphrodite stands in it of great sanctity. ,From this town many go out, some to one town and some to another, to dig up the bones, which they then carry away and all bury in one place. As they bury the cattle, so do they all other beasts at death. Such is their ordice respecting these also; for they, too, may not be killed. " "2.42. All that have a temple of Zeus of Thebes or are of the Theban district sacrifice goats, but will not touch sheep. ,For no gods are worshipped by all Egyptians in common except Isis and Osiris, who they say is Dionysus; these are worshipped by all alike. Those who have a temple of Mendes or are of the Mendesian district sacrifice sheep, but will not touch goats. ,The Thebans, and those who by the Theban example will not touch sheep, give the following reason for their ordice: they say that Heracles wanted very much to see Zeus and that Zeus did not want to be seen by him, but that finally, when Heracles prayed, Zeus contrived ,to show himself displaying the head and wearing the fleece of a ram which he had flayed and beheaded. It is from this that the Egyptian images of Zeus have a ram's head; and in this, the Egyptians are imitated by the Ammonians, who are colonists from Egypt and Ethiopia and speak a language compounded of the tongues of both countries. ,It was from this, I think, that the Ammonians got their name, too; for the Egyptians call Zeus “Amon”. The Thebans, then, consider rams sacred for this reason, and do not sacrifice them. ,But one day a year, at the festival of Zeus, they cut in pieces and flay a single ram and put the fleece on the image of Zeus, as in the story; then they bring an image of Heracles near it. Having done this, all that are at the temple mourn for the ram, and then bury it in a sacred coffin. " '2.43. Concerning Heracles, I heard it said that he was one of the twelve gods. But nowhere in Egypt could I hear anything about the other Heracles, whom the Greeks know. ,I have indeed a lot of other evidence that the name of Heracles did not come from Hellas to Egypt, but from Egypt to Hellas (and in Hellas to those Greeks who gave the name Heracles to the son of Amphitryon), besides this: that Amphitryon and Alcmene, the parents of this Heracles, were both Egyptian by descent ; and that the Egyptians deny knowing the names Poseidon and the Dioscuri, nor are these gods reckoned among the gods of Egypt . ,Yet if they got the name of any deity from the Greeks, of these not least but in particular would they preserve a recollection, if indeed they were already making sea voyages and some Greeks, too, were seafaring men, as I expect and judge; so that the names of these gods would have been even better known to the Egyptians than the name of Heracles. ,But Heracles is a very ancient god in Egypt ; as the Egyptians themselves say, the change of the eight gods to the twelve, one of whom they acknowledge Heracles to be, was made seventeen thousand years before the reign of Amasis. 2.44. Moreover, wishing to get clear information about this matter where it was possible so to do, I took ship for Tyre in Phoenicia, where I had learned by inquiry that there was a holy temple of Heracles. ,There I saw it, richly equipped with many other offerings, besides two pillars, one of refined gold, one of emerald: a great pillar that shone at night; and in conversation with the priests, I asked how long it was since their temple was built. ,I found that their account did not tally with the belief of the Greeks, either; for they said that the temple of the god was founded when Tyre first became a city, and that was two thousand three hundred years ago. At Tyre I saw yet another temple of the so-called Thasian Heracles. ,Then I went to Thasos, too, where I found a temple of Heracles built by the Phoenicians, who made a settlement there when they voyaged in search of Europe ; now they did so as much as five generations before the birth of Heracles the son of Amphitryon in Hellas . ,Therefore, what I have discovered by inquiry plainly shows that Heracles is an ancient god. And furthermore, those Greeks, I think, are most in the right, who have established and practise two worships of Heracles, sacrificing to one Heracles as to an immortal, and calling him the Olympian, but to the other bringing offerings as to a dead hero. 2.45. And the Greeks say many other ill-considered things, too; among them, this is a silly story which they tell about Heracles: that when he came to Egypt, the Egyptians crowned him and led him out in a procession to sacrifice him to Zeus; and for a while (they say) he followed quietly, but when they started in on him at the altar, he resisted and killed them all. ,Now it seems to me that by this story the Greeks show themselves altogether ignorant of the character and customs of the Egyptians; for how should they sacrifice men when they are forbidden to sacrifice even beasts, except swine and bulls and bull-calves, if they are unblemished, and geese? ,And furthermore, as Heracles was alone, and, still, only a man, as they say, how is it natural that he should kill many myriads? In talking so much about this, may I keep the goodwill of gods and heroes! 2.46. This is why the Egyptians of whom I have spoken sacrifice no goats, male or female: the Mendesians reckon Pan among the eight gods who, they say, were before the twelve gods. ,Now in their painting and sculpture, the image of Pan is made with the head and the legs of a goat, as among the Greeks; not that he is thought to be in fact such, or unlike other gods; but why they represent him so, I have no wish to say. ,The Mendesians consider all goats sacred, the male even more than the female, and goatherds are held in special estimation: one he-goat is most sacred of all; when he dies, it is ordained that there should be great mourning in all the Mendesian district. ,In the Egyptian language Mendes is the name both for the he-goat and for Pan. In my lifetime a strange thing occurred in this district: a he-goat had intercourse openly with a woman. This came to be publicly known. 2.47. Swine are held by the Egyptians to be unclean beasts. In the first place, if an Egyptian touches a hog in passing, he goes to the river and dips himself in it, clothed as he is; and in the second place, swineherds, though native born Egyptians, are alone of all men forbidden to enter any Egyptian temple; nor will any give a swineherd his daughter in marriage, nor take a wife from their women; but swineherds intermarry among themselves. ,Nor do the Egyptians think it right to sacrifice swine to any god except the Moon and Dionysus; to these, they sacrifice their swine at the same time, in the same season of full moon; then they eat the meat. The Egyptians have an explanation of why they sacrifice swine at this festival, yet abominate them at others; I know it, but it is not fitting that I relate it. ,But this is how they sacrifice swine to the Moon: the sacrificer lays the end of the tail and the spleen and the caul together and covers them up with all the fat that he finds around the belly, then consigns it all to the fire; as for the rest of the flesh, they eat it at the time of full moon when they sacrifice the victim; but they will not taste it on any other day. Poor men, with but slender means, mold swine out of dough, which they then take and sacrifice.
2.57. I expect that these women were called “doves” by the people of Dodona because they spoke a strange language, and the people thought it like the cries of birds; ,then the woman spoke what they could understand, and that is why they say that the dove uttered human speech; as long as she spoke in a foreign tongue, they thought her voice was like the voice of a bird. For how could a dove utter the speech of men? The tale that the dove was black signifies that the woman was Egyptian . ,The fashions of divination at Thebes of Egypt and at Dodona are like one another; moreover, the practice of divining from the sacrificed victim has also come from Egypt .
2.64. Furthermore, it was the Egyptians who first made it a matter of religious observance not to have intercourse with women in temples or to enter a temple after such intercourse without washing. Nearly all other peoples are less careful in this matter than are the Egyptians and Greeks, and consider a man to be like any other animal; ,for beasts and birds (they say) are seen to mate both in the temples and in the sacred precincts; now were this displeasing to the god, the beasts would not do so. This is the reason given by others for practices which I, for my part, dislike;
2.73. There is another sacred bird, too, whose name is phoenix. I myself have never seen it, only pictures of it; for the bird seldom comes into Egypt : once in five hundred years, as the people of Heliopolis say. ,It is said that the phoenix comes when his father dies. If the picture truly shows his size and appearance, his plumage is partly golden and partly red. He is most like an eagle in shape and size. ,What they say this bird manages to do is incredible to me. Flying from Arabia to the temple of the sun, they say, he conveys his father encased in myrrh and buries him at the temple of the Sun. ,This is how he conveys him: he first molds an egg of myrrh as heavy as he can carry, then tries lifting it, and when he has tried it, he then hollows out the egg and puts his father into it, and plasters over with more myrrh the hollow of the egg into which he has put his father, which is the same in weight with his father lying in it, and he conveys him encased to the temple of the Sun in Egypt . This is what they say this bird does.
2.81. They wear linen tunics with fringes hanging about the legs, called “calasiris,” and loose white woolen mantles over these. But nothing woolen is brought into temples, or buried with them: that is impious. ,They agree in this with practices called Orphic and Bacchic, but in fact Egyptian and Pythagorean: for it is impious, too, for one partaking of these rites to be buried in woolen wrappings. There is a sacred legend about this.
3.24. Last after this they viewed the Ethiopian coffins; these are said to be made of alabaster, as I shall describe: ,they cause the dead body to shrink, either as the Egyptians do or in some other way, then cover it with gypsum and paint it all as far as possible in the likeness of the living man; ,then they set it within a hollow pillar of alabaster, which they dig in abundance from the ground, and it is easily worked; the body can be seen in the pillar through the alabaster, no evil stench nor anything unpleasant proceeding from it, and showing clearly all its parts, as if it were the man himself. ,The nearest of kin keep the pillar in their house for a year, giving it of the first-fruits and offering it sacrifices; after which they bring the pillars out and set them round about the city. ''. None
28. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • sacrifice, animal, in Pythagoras • sacrifice, animal, in Zaleucus • soul, animism

 Found in books: Frede and Laks (2001) 90; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 66

886a. ΑΘ. πῶς; ΚΛ. πρῶτον μὲν γῆ καὶ ἥλιος ἄστρα τε καὶ τὰ σύμπαντα, καὶ τὰ τῶν ὡρῶν διακεκοσμημένα καλῶς οὕτως, ἐνιαυτοῖς τε καὶ μησὶν διειλημμένα· καὶ ὅτι πάντες Ἕλληνές τε καὶ βάρβαροι νομίζουσιν εἶναι θεούς. ΑΘ. φοβοῦμαί γε, ὦ μακάριε, τοὺς μοχθηρούς—οὐ γὰρ δή ποτε εἴποιμʼ ἂν ὥς γε αἰδοῦμαι—μή πως ἡμῶν καταφρονήσωσιν. ὑμεῖς μὲν γὰρ οὐκ ἴστε αὐτῶν πέρι τὴν τῆς διαφορᾶς αἰτίαν, ἀλλʼ ἡγεῖσθε ἀκρατείᾳ μόνον ἡδονῶν τε''. None
886a. that gods exist? Ath. How so? Clin. First, there is the evidence of the earth, the sun, the stars, and all the universe, and the beautiful ordering of the seasons, marked out by years and months; and then there is the further fact that all Greeks and barbarians believe in the existence of gods. Ath. My dear sir, these bad men cause me alarm—for I will never call it awe —lest haply they scoff at us. For the cause of the corruption in their case is one you are not aware of; since you imagine that it is solely by their incontinence in regard to pleasures and desire''. None
29. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • sacrifice, animal, rejection of, Theophrastus

 Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006) 176; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 76

69b. καὶ τούτου μὲν πάντα καὶ μετὰ τούτου ὠνούμενά τε καὶ πιπρασκόμενα τῷ ὄντι ᾖ καὶ ἀνδρεία καὶ σωφροσύνη καὶ δικαιοσύνη καὶ συλλήβδην ἀληθὴς ἀρετή, μετὰ φρονήσεως, καὶ προσγιγνομένων καὶ ἀπογιγνομένων καὶ ἡδονῶν καὶ φόβων καὶ τῶν ἄλλων πάντων τῶν τοιούτων: χωριζόμενα δὲ φρονήσεως καὶ ἀλλαττόμενα ἀντὶ ἀλλήλων μὴ σκιαγραφία τις ᾖ ἡ τοιαύτη ἀρετὴ καὶ τῷ ὄντι ἀνδραποδώδης τε καὶ οὐδὲν ὑγιὲς οὐδ’ ἀληθὲς ἔχῃ, τὸ δ’ ἀληθὲς τῷ ὄντι ᾖ''. None
69b. must be exchanged and by means of and with which all these things are to be bought and sold, is in fact wisdom; and courage and self-restraint and justice and, in short, true virtue exist only with wisdom, whether pleasures and fears and other things of that sort are added or taken away. And virtue which consists in the exchange of such things for each other without wisdom, is but a painted imitation of virtue and is really slavish and has nothing healthy or true in it; but truth is in fact a purification''. None
30. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals, as virtuous • Animals, connected to reincarnation • animal, non-human • celestial animal • sacrifice (thysia), animal slaughter

 Found in books: Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 481, 483, 486; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 654; Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 43, 149; d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 151

40a. πτηνὸν καὶ ἀεροπόρον, τρίτη δὲ ἔνυδρον εἶδος, πεζὸν δὲ καὶ χερσαῖον τέταρτον. τοῦ μὲν οὖν θείου τὴν πλείστην ἰδέαν ἐκ πυρὸς ἀπηργάζετο, ὅπως ὅτι λαμπρότατον ἰδεῖν τε κάλλιστον εἴη, τῷ δὲ παντὶ προσεικάζων εὔκυκλον ἐποίει, τίθησίν τε εἰς τὴν τοῦ κρατίστου φρόνησιν ἐκείνῳ συνεπόμενον, νείμας περὶ πάντα κύκλῳ τὸν οὐρανόν, κόσμον ἀληθινὸν αὐτῷ πεποικιλμένον εἶναι καθʼ ὅλον. κινήσεις δὲ δύο προσῆψεν ἑκάστῳ, τὴν μὲν ἐν ταὐτῷ κατὰ ταὐτά, περὶ τῶν αὐτῶν ἀεὶ 42b. τε ἑπόμενα αὐτοῖς καὶ ὁπόσα ἐναντίως πέφυκε διεστηκότα· ὧν εἰ μὲν κρατήσοιεν, δίκῃ βιώσοιντο, κρατηθέντες δὲ ἀδικίᾳ. καὶ ὁ μὲν εὖ τὸν προσήκοντα χρόνον βιούς, πάλιν εἰς τὴν τοῦ συννόμου πορευθεὶς οἴκησιν ἄστρου, βίον εὐδαίμονα καὶ συνήθη ἕξοι, σφαλεὶς δὲ τούτων εἰς γυναικὸς φύσιν ἐν τῇ' '. None
40a. another the winged kind which traverses the air; thirdly, the class which inhabits the waters; and fourthly, that which goes on foot on dry land. The form of the divine class He wrought for the most part out of fire, that this kind might be as bright as possible to behold and as fair; and likening it to the All He made it truly spherical; and He placed it in the intelligence of the Supreme to follow therewith, distributing it round about over all the Heaven, to be unto it a veritable adornment cunningly traced over the whole. And each member of this class He endowed with two motions, whereof the one is uniform motion in the same spot, whereby it conceives always identical thoughts about the same objects, 42b. and all such emotions as are naturally allied thereto, and all such as are of a different and opposite character. And if they shall master these they will live justly, but if they are mastered, unjustly. And he that has lived his appointed time well shall return again to his abode in his native star, and shall gain a life that is blessed and congenial but whoso has failed therein shall be changed into woman’s nature at the second birth; and if, in that shape, he still refraineth not from wickedne' '. None
31. Xenophon, The Persian Expedition, 2.2.8-2.2.9, 5.3.7-5.3.10 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Destruction, of animals/objects • Sacrificial animals, domestic • Sacrificial animals, mutilation of • Sacrificial animals, species: sheep • animal victim, parts of, intestines • animal victim, parts of,testicles • animal victim, prices and financial considerations • animal victim, treatment of burning of a part or parts of the victim • animal victim, treatment of, throat cut, slit or pierced • animals as oath sacrifices, burning of • animals as oath sacrifices, contact of oath-takers with • animals, sacrificial • destruction of animal victim by fire • destruction sacrifice, partial destruction of animal victim • destruction sacrifice, total destruction of animal victim

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 252, 292; Gygax and Zuiderhoek (2021) 52; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 22, 139; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 124, 194, 196, 204

2.2.8. Κλέαρχος δὲ τοῖς ἄλλοις ἡγεῖτο κατὰ τὰ παρηγγελμένα, οἱ δʼ εἵποντο· καὶ ἀφικνοῦνται εἰς τὸν πρῶτον σταθμὸν παρʼ Ἀριαῖον καὶ τὴν ἐκείνου στρατιὰν ἀμφὶ μέσας νύκτας· καὶ ἐν τάξει θέμενοι τὰ ὅπλα συνῆλθον οἱ στρατηγοὶ καὶ λοχαγοὶ τῶν Ἑλλήνων παρʼ Ἀριαῖον· καὶ ὤμοσαν οἵ τε Ἕλληνες καὶ ὁ Ἀριαῖος καὶ τῶν σὺν αὐτῷ οἱ κράτιστοι μήτε προδώσειν ἀλλήλους σύμμαχοί τε ἔσεσθαι· οἱ δὲ βάρβαροι προσώμοσαν καὶ ἡγήσεσθαι ἀδόλως. 2.2.9. ταῦτα δʼ ὤμοσαν, σφάξαντες ταῦρον καὶ κάπρον καὶ κριὸν εἰς ἀσπίδα, οἱ μὲν Ἕλληνες βάπτοντες ξίφος, οἱ δὲ βάρβαροι λόγχην.
5.3.7. ἐπειδὴ δʼ ἔφευγεν ὁ Ξενοφῶν, κατοικοῦντος ἤδη αὐτοῦ ἐν Σκιλλοῦντι ὑπὸ τῶν Λακεδαιμονίων οἰκισθέντος παρὰ τὴν Ὀλυμπίαν ἀφικνεῖται Μεγάβυζος εἰς Ὀλυμπίαν θεωρήσων καὶ ἀποδίδωσι τὴν παρακαταθήκην αὐτῷ. Ξενοφῶν δὲ λαβὼν χωρίον ὠνεῖται τῇ θεῷ ὅπου ἀνεῖλεν ὁ θεός. 5.3.8. ἔτυχε δὲ διαρρέων διὰ τοῦ χωρίου ποταμὸς Σελινοῦς. καὶ ἐν Ἐφέσῳ δὲ παρὰ τὸν τῆς Ἀρτέμιδος νεὼν Σελινοῦς ποταμὸς παραρρεῖ. καὶ ἰχθύες τε ἐν ἀμφοτέροις ἔνεισι καὶ κόγχαι· ἐν δὲ τῷ ἐν Σκιλλοῦντι χωρίῳ καὶ θῆραι πάντων ὁπόσα ἐστὶν ἀγρευόμενα θηρία. 5.3.9. ἐποίησε δὲ καὶ βωμὸν καὶ ναὸν ἀπὸ τοῦ ἱεροῦ ἀργυρίου, καὶ τὸ λοιπὸν δὲ ἀεὶ δεκατεύων τὰ ἐκ τοῦ ἀγροῦ ὡραῖα θυσίαν ἐποίει τῇ θεῷ, καὶ πάντες οἱ πολῖται καὶ οἱ πρόσχωροι ἄνδρες καὶ γυναῖκες μετεῖχον τῆς ἑορτῆς. παρεῖχε δὲ ἡ θεὸς τοῖς σκηνοῦσιν ἄλφιτα, ἄρτους, οἶνον, τραγήματα, καὶ τῶν θυομένων ἀπὸ τῆς ἱερᾶς νομῆς λάχος, καὶ τῶν θηρευομένων δέ. 5.3.10. καὶ γὰρ θήραν ἐποιοῦντο εἰς τὴν ἑορτὴν οἵ τε Ξενοφῶντος παῖδες καὶ οἱ τῶν ἄλλων πολιτῶν, οἱ δὲ βουλόμενοι καὶ ἄνδρες ξυνεθήρων· καὶ ἡλίσκετο τὰ μὲν ἐξ αὐτοῦ τοῦ ἱεροῦ χώρου, τὰ δὲ καὶ ἐκ τῆς Φολόης, σύες καὶ δορκάδες καὶ ἔλαφοι.''. None
2.2.8. But Clearchus put himself at the head of the rest of the troops, following out the plan of his previous orders, and they followed; and they reached the first stopping-place, See Xen. Anab. 2.1.3 . and there joined Ariaeus and his army, at about midnight. Then, while they halted under arms in line of battle, the generals and captains had a meeting with Ariaeus; and the two parties—the Greek officers, and Ariaeus together with the highest in rank of his followers—made oath that they would not betray each other and that they would be allies, while the barbarians took an additional pledge to lead the way without treachery. 2.2.9. These oaths they sealed by sacrificing a bull, a boar, and a ram over a shield, the Greeks dipping a sword in the blood and the barbarians a lance.
5.3.7. In the time of Xenophon’s exile Which was probably due to his taking part in the expedition of Cyrus . cp. Xen. Anab. 3.1.5 . and while he was living at Scillus, near Olympia, where he had been established as a colonist by the Lacedaemonians, Megabyzus came to Olympia to attend the games and returned to him his deposit. Upon receiving it Xenophon bought a plot of ground for the goddess in a place which Apollo’s oracle appointed.
5.3.7. Such were his words. And the soldiers—not only his own men, but the rest also—when they heard that he said he would not go on to the King’s capital, commended him; and more than two thousand of the troops under Xenias and Pasion took their arms and their baggage train and encamped with Clearchus. 5.3.8. As it chanced, there flowed through the plot a river named Selinus ; and at Ephesus likewise a Selinus river flows past the temple of Artemis. In both streams, moreover, there are fish and mussels, while in the plot at Scillus there is hunting of all manner of beasts of the chase. 5.3.8. But Cyrus, perplexed and distressed by this situation, sent repeatedly for Clearchus. Clearchus refused to go to him, but without the knowledge of the soldiers he sent a messenger and told him not to be discouraged, because, he said, this matter would be settled in the right way. He directed Cyrus, however, to keep on sending for him, though he himself, he said, would refuse to go. 5.3.9. After this Clearchus gathered together his own soldiers, those who had come over to him, and any others who wanted to be present, and spoke as follows: Fellow-soldiers, it is clear that the relation of Cyrus to us is precisely the same as ours to him; that is, we are no longer his soldiers, since we decline to follow him, and likewise he is no longer our paymaster. 5.3.9. Here Xenophon built an altar and a temple with the sacred money, and from that time forth he would every year take the tithe of the products of the land in their season and offer sacrifice to the goddess, all the citizens and the men and women of the neighbourhood taking part in the festival. And the goddess would provide for the banqueters barley meal and loaves of bread, wine and sweetmeats, and a portion of the sacrificial victims from the sacred herd as well as of the victims taken in the chase. 5.3.10. I know, however, that he considers himself wronged by us. Therefore, although he keeps sending for me, I decline to go, chiefly, it is true, from a feeling of shame, because I am conscious that I have proved utterly false to him, but, besides that, from fear that he may seize me and inflict punishment upon me for the wrongs he thinks he has suffered at my hands. 5.3.10. For Xenophon’s sons and the sons of the other citizens used to have a hunting expedition at the time of the festival, and any grown men who so wished would join them; and they captured their game partly from the sacred precinct itself and partly from Mount Pholoe—boars and gazelles and stags. ''. None
32. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal nicknames • animals, misogynistic likening to women

 Found in books: Brule (2003) 194; Faraone (1999) 154

33. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Destruction, of animals/objects • Sacrificial animals, mutilation of • Sacrificial animals, species: bull • Sacrificial animals, species: lamb • animals as oath sacrifices, contact of oath-takers with • triad of sacrificial animals

 Found in books: Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 22, 43, 140; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 195, 204

34. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Destruction, of animals/objects • Sacrificial animals, species: boar • animals as oath sacrifices, contact of oath-takers with

 Found in books: Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 22; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 191, 198

35. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sacred animals (Greek), dogs at Athens Asklepieion • Sacred animals (Greek), serpents in Aristophaness Plutus scene • animals

 Found in books: Kanellakis (2020) 80; Renberg (2017) 185, 239

36. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal imagery • animals

 Found in books: Kanellakis (2020) 100; Michalopoulos et al. (2021) 152

37. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal worship, Egyptians and • sacrifice, animal, in Pythagoras

 Found in books: Gruen (2011) 105; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 57

38. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal material • sacrifice, animal, rejection of, Empedocles

 Found in books: Bortolani et al (2019) 49; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 83

39. Aeschines, Letters, 1.114, 2.87 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Destruction, of animals/objects • Sacrificial animals, mutilation of • animals as oath sacrifices • animals as oath sacrifices, and perjury • animals as oath sacrifices, contact of oath-takers with

 Found in books: Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 22, 154; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 194, 204

1.114. In consequence of this experience so great became his contempt for you that immediately, on the occasion of the revision of the citizen lists, he gathered in two thousand drachmas. For he asserted that Philotades of Cydathenaeon, a citizen, was a former slave of his own, and he persuaded the members of the deme to disfranchise him. He took charge of the prosecution in court,See on Aeschin. 1.77. and after he had taken the sacred offerings in his hand and sworn that he had not taken a bribe and would not,
2.87. Is it not, therefore, an outrage, gentlemen, if one dares utter such lies about a man who is his own—no, I hasten to correct myself, not his own, but your—fellow citizen, when he is in peril of his life? Wisely, indeed, did our fathers prescribe that, in the trials for bloodshed which are held at the Palladion, the one who wins his case must cut in pieces the sacrificial flesh, and take a solemn oath (and the custom of your fathers is in force to this day), affirming that those jurors who have voted on his side have voted what is true and right, and that he himself has spoken no falsehood; and he calls down destruction upon himself and his household, if this be not true, and prays for many blessings for the jurors. A right provision, fellow citizens, and worthy of a democracy.''. None
40. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal sacrifice • animals • animals, sacrificial

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 107; Lateiner and Spatharas (2016) 144; Williams and Vol (2022) 177

41. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sacrificial animals, mutilation of • animals as oath sacrifices, contact of oath-takers with

 Found in books: Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 22; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 194

42. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • non-rational animals

 Found in books: Segev (2017) 26; Thonemann (2020) 5; van der EIjk (2005) 187

43. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle,, Generation of Animals • Aristotle,, Parts of Animals • Seneca, the Younger, Stoic, Posidonius' animals also lack genuine emotion, since they are capable of appearance but not of judgement • animals • animals, emotions (affections, passions) of • animals, intelligence of • emotions (passions, affections, pathē), human and animal • soul,, in relation to characteristic activities of animal species

 Found in books: Sattler (2021) 119; Singer and van Eijk (2018) 10, 92; Sorabji (2000) 72; van der EIjk (2005) 226

44. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals, Responsible for what they do? • Aristotle, Voluntariness extends more widely than proairesis to acts of animals and children • Democritus, Presocratic, Animals responsible for what they do • Epicurus, Tame animals responsible for what they do • Heracleides of Pontos, Platonist, In favour of erotic love, Animals responsible for what they do • action, denied to animals • animals • animals, complex behavior in • animals, impressions of • impressions, of animals

 Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006) 67, 170, 171; Graver (2007) 240; Sorabji (2000) 326, 327

45. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • Aristotle, History of Animals • animals • animals, emotions (affections, passions) of • emotions (passions, affections, pathē), human and animal • friendship, animals • oikeiōsis = Lat. commendatio or conciliatio, of animals

 Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006) 184, 186; Sattler (2021) 116, 117; Stuckenbruck (2007) 288; Tsouni (2019) 187

46. Anon., 1 Enoch, 90.8 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Adamin the Animal Apocalypse • Animal Apocalypse • animal imagery

 Found in books: Collins (2016) 85, 86, 87; Corley (2002) 136; Piotrkowski (2019) 133

83. And now, my son Methuselah, I will show thee all my visions which I have seen, recounting,them before thee. Two visions I saw before I took a wife, and the one was quite unlike the other: the first when I was learning to write: the second before I took thy mother, (when) I saw a terrible,vision. And regarding them I prayed to the Lord. I had laid me down in the house of my grandfather Mahalalel, (when) I saw in a vision how the heaven collapsed and was borne off and fell to,the earth. And when it fell to the earth I saw how the earth was swallowed up in a great abyss, and mountains were suspended on mountains, and hills sank down on hills, and high trees were rent,from their stems, and hurled down and sunk in the abyss. And thereupon a word fell into my mouth,,and I lifted up (my voice) to cry aloud, and said: ' The earth is destroyed.' And my grandfather Mahalalel waked me as I lay near him, and said unto me: ' Why dost thou cry so, my son, and why,dost thou make such lamentation' And I recounted to him the whole vision which I had seen, and he said unto me: ' A terrible thing hast thou seen, my son, and of grave moment is thy dream- vision as to the secrets of all the sin of the earth: it must sink into the abyss and be destroyed with,a great destruction. And now, my son, arise and make petition to the Lord of glory, since thou art a believer, that a remt may remain on the earth, and that He may not destroy the whole,earth. My son, from heaven all this will come upon the earth, and upon the earth there will be great,destruction. After that I arose and prayed and implored and besought, and wrote down my prayer for the generations of the world, and I will show everything to thee, my son Methuselah. And when I had gone forth below and seen the heaven, and the sun rising in the east, and the moon setting in the west, and a few stars, and the whole earth, and everything as He had known it in the beginning, then I blessed the Lord of judgement and extolled Him because He had made the sun to go forth from the windows of the east, and he ascended and rose on the face of the heaven, and set out and kept traversing the path shown unto him."84. And I lifted up my hands in righteousness and blessed the Holy and Great One, and spake with the breath of my mouth, and with the tongue of flesh, which God has made for the children of the flesh of men, that they should speak therewith, and He gave them breath and a tongue and a mouth that they should speak therewith:,Blessed be Thou, O Lord, King, Great and mighty in Thy greatness, Lord of the whole creation of the heaven, King of kings and God of the whole world.And Thy power and kingship and greatness abide for ever and ever, And throughout all generations Thy dominion; And all the heavens are Thy throne for ever, And the whole earth Thy footstool for ever and ever.,For Thou hast made and Thou rulest all things, And nothing is too hard for Thee, Wisdom departs not from the place of Thy throne, Nor turns away from Thy presence. And Thou knowest and seest and hearest everything, And there is nothing hidden from Thee for Thou seest everything.,And now the angels of Thy heavens are guilty of trespass, And upon the flesh of men abideth Thy wrath until the great day of judgement.,And now, O God and Lord and Great King, I implore and beseech Thee to fulfil my prayer, To leave me a posterity on earth, And not destroy all the flesh of man, And make the earth without inhabitant, So that there should be an eternal destruction.,And now, my Lord, destroy from the earth the flesh which has aroused Thy wrath, But the flesh of righteousness and uprightness establish as a plant of the eternal seed, And hide not Thy face from the prayer of Thy servant, O Lord.'" "85. And after this I saw another dream, and I will show the whole dream to thee, my son. And Enoch lifted up (his voice) and spake to his son Methuselah: ' To thee, my son, will I speak: hear my words-incline thine ear to the dream-vision of thy father. Before I took thy mother Edna, I saw in a vision on my bed, and behold a bull came forth from the earth, and that bull was white; and after it came forth a heifer, and along with this (latter) came forth two bulls, one of them black and,the other red. And that black bull gored the red one and pursued him over the earth, and thereupon,I could no longer see that red bull. But that black bull grew and that heifer went with him, and,I saw that many oxen proceeded from him which resembled and followed him. And that cow, that first one, went from the presence of that first bull in order to seek that red one, but found him,not, and lamented with a great lamentation over him and sought him. And I looked till that first,bull came to her and quieted her, and from that time onward she cried no more. And after that she bore another white bull, and after him she bore many bulls and black cows.,And I saw in my sleep that white bull likewise grow and become a great white bull, and from Him proceeded many white bulls, and they resembled him. And they began to beget many white bulls, which resembled them, one following the other, (even) many." '86. And again I saw with mine eyes as I slept, and I saw the heaven above, and behold a star fell,from heaven, and it arose and eat and pastured amongst those oxen. And after that I saw the large and the black oxen, and behold they all changed their stalls and pastures and their cattle, and began,to live with each other. And again I saw in the vision, and looked towards the heaven, and behold I saw many stars descend and cast themselves down from heaven to that first star, and they became,bulls amongst those cattle and pastured with them amongst them. And I looked at them and saw, and behold they all let out their privy members, like horses, and began to cover the cows of the oxen,,and they all became pregt and bare elephants, camels, and asses. And all the oxen feared them and were affrighted at them, and began to bite with their teeth and to devour, and to gore with their,horns. And they began, moreover, to devour those oxen; and behold all the children of the earth began to tremble and quake before them and to flee from them.' "87. And again I saw how they began to gore each other and to devour each other, and the earth,began to cry aloud. And I raised mine eyes again to heaven, and I saw in the vision, and behold there came forth from heaven beings who were like white men: and four went forth from that place,and three with them. And those three that had last come forth grasped me by my hand and took me up, away from the generations of the earth, and raised me up to a lofty place, and showed me,a tower raised high above the earth, and all the hills were lower. And one said unto me: ' Remain here till thou seest everything that befalls those elephants, camels, and asses, and the stars and the oxen, and all of them.'" '88. And I saw one of those four who had come forth first, and he seized that first star which had fallen from the heaven, and bound it hand and foot and cast it into an abyss: now that abyss was,narrow and deep, and horrible and dark. And one of them drew a sword, and gave it to those elephants and camels and asses: then they began to smite each other, and the whole earth quaked,because of them. And as I was beholding in the vision, lo, one of those four who had come forth stoned (them) from heaven, and gathered and took all the great stars whose privy members were like those of horses, and bound them all hand and foot, and cast them in an abyss of the earth. 89. And one of those four went to that white bull and instructed him in a secret, without his being terrified: he was born a bull and became a man, and built for himself a great vessel and dwelt thereon;,and three bulls dwelt with him in that vessel and they were covered in. And again I raised mine eyes towards heaven and saw a lofty roof, with seven water torrents thereon, and those torrents,flowed with much water into an enclosure. And I saw again, and behold fountains were opened on the surface of that great enclosure, and that water began to swell and rise upon the surface,,and I saw that enclosure till all its surface was covered with water. And the water, the darkness, and mist increased upon it; and as I looked at the height of that water, that water had risen above the height of that enclosure, and was streaming over that enclosure, and it stood upon the earth.,And all the cattle of that enclosure were gathered together until I saw how they sank and were",swallowed up and perished in that water. But that vessel floated on the water, while all the oxen and elephants and camels and asses sank to the bottom with all the animals, so that I could no longer see them, and they were not able to escape, (but) perished and sank into the depths. And again I saw in the vision till those water torrents were removed from that high roof, and the chasms,of the earth were leveled up and other abysses were opened. Then the water began to run down into these, till the earth became visible; but that vessel settled on the earth, and the darkness,retired and light appeared. But that white bull which had become a man came out of that vessel, and the three bulls with him, and one of those three was white like that bull, and one of them was red as blood, and one black: and that white bull departed from them.,And they began to bring forth beasts of the field and birds, so that there arose different genera: lions, tigers, wolves, dogs, hyenas, wild boars, foxes, squirrels, swine, falcons, vultures, kites, eagles, and ravens; and among them was born a white bull. And they began to bite one another; but that white bull which was born amongst them begat a wild ass and a white bull with it, and the,wild asses multiplied. But that bull which was born from him begat a black wild boar and a white",sheep; and the former begat many boars, but that sheep begat twelve sheep. And when those twelve sheep had grown, they gave up one of them to the asses, and those asses again gave up that sheep to the wolves, and that sheep grew up among the wolves. And the Lord brought the eleven sheep to live with it and to pasture with it among the wolves: and they multiplied and became many flocks of sheep. And the wolves began to fear them, and they oppressed them until they destroyed their little ones, and they cast their young into a river of much water: but those sheep began to,cry aloud on account of their little ones, and to complain unto their Lord. And a sheep which had been saved from the wolves fled and escaped to the wild asses; and I saw the sheep how they lamented and cried, and besought their Lord with all their might, till that Lord of the sheep descended at the voice of the sheep from a lofty abode, and came to them and pastured them. And He called that sheep which had escaped the wolves, and spake with it concerning the wolves that it should,admonish them not to touch the sheep. And the sheep went to the wolves according to the word of the Lord, and another sheep met it and went with it, and the two went and entered together into the assembly of those wolves, and spake with them and admonished them not to touch the,sheep from henceforth. And thereupon I saw the wolves, and how they oppressed the sheep,exceedingly with all their power; and the sheep cried aloud. And the Lord came to the sheep and they began to smite those wolves: and the wolves began to make lamentation; but the sheep became",quiet and forthwith ceased to cry out. And I saw the sheep till they departed from amongst the wolves; but the eyes of the wolves were blinded, and those wolves departed in pursuit of the sheep,with all their power. And the Lord of the sheep went with them, as their leader, and all His sheep,followed Him: and his face was dazzling and glorious and terrible to behold. But the wolves",began to pursue those sheep till they reached a sea of water. And that sea was divided, and the water stood on this side and on that before their face, and their Lord led them and placed Himself between,them and the wolves. And as those wolves did not yet see the sheep, they proceeded into the midst of that sea, and the wolves followed the sheep, and those wolves ran after them into that sea.,And when they saw the Lord of the sheep, they turned to flee before His face, but that sea gathered itself together, and became as it had been created, and the water swelled and rose till it covered,those wolves. And I saw till all the wolves who pursued those sheep perished and were drowned.",But the sheep escaped from that water and went forth into a wilderness, where there was no water and no grass; and they began to open their eyes and to see; and I saw the Lord of the sheep,pasturing them and giving them water and grass, and that sheep going and leading them. And that,sheep ascended to the summit of that lofty rock, and the Lord of the sheep sent it to them. And after that I saw the Lord of the sheep who stood before them, and His appearance was great and,terrible and majestic, and all those sheep saw Him and were afraid before His face. And they all feared and trembled because of Him, and they cried to that sheep with them which was amongst,them: \' We are not able to stand before our Lord or to behold Him.\' And that sheep which led them again ascended to the summit of that rock, but the sheep began to be blinded and to wander,from the way which he had showed them, but that sheep wot not thereof. And the Lord of the sheep was wrathful exceedingly against them, and that sheep discovered it, and went down from the summit of the rock, and came to the sheep, and found the greatest part of them blinded and fallen,away. And when they saw it they feared and trembled at its presence, and desired to return to their,folds. And that sheep took other sheep with it, and came to those sheep which had fallen away, and began to slay them; and the sheep feared its presence, and thus that sheep brought back those,sheep that had fallen away, and they returned to their folds. And I saw in this vision till that sheep became a man and built a house for the Lord of the sheep, and placed all the sheep in that house.,And I saw till this sheep which had met that sheep which led them fell asleep: and I saw till all the great sheep perished and little ones arose in their place, and they came to a pasture, and,approached a stream of water. Then that sheep, their leader which had become a man, withdrew,from them and fell asleep, and all the sheep sought it and cried over it with a great crying. And I saw till they left off crying for that sheep and crossed that stream of water, and there arose the two sheep as leaders in the place of those which had led them and fallen asleep (lit. \' had fallen asleep and led,them \'). And I saw till the sheep came to a goodly place, and a pleasant and glorious land, and I saw till those sheep were satisfied; and that house stood amongst them in the pleasant land.,And sometimes their eyes were opened, and sometimes blinded, till another sheep arose and led them and brought them all back, and their eyes were opened.,And the dogs and the foxes and the wild boars began to devour those sheep till the Lord of the sheep raised up another sheep a ram from their",midst, which led them. And that ram began to butt on either side those dogs, foxes, and wild,boars till he had destroyed them all. And that sheep whose eyes were opened saw that ram, which was amongst the sheep, till it forsook its glory and began to butt those sheep, and trampled upon them, and behaved itself,unseemly. And the Lord of the sheep sent the lamb to another lamb and raised it to being a ram and leader of the sheep instead of that",ram which had forsaken its glory. And it went to it and spake to it alone, and raised it to being a ram, and made it the prince and leader of the sheep; but during all these things those dogs,oppressed the sheep. And the first ram pursued that second ram, and that second ram arose and fled before it; and I saw till those dogs pulled,down the first ram. And that second ram arose",and led the little sheep. And those sheep grew and multiplied; but all the dogs, and foxes, and wild boars feared and fled before it, and that ram butted and killed the wild beasts, and those wild beasts had no longer any power among the,sheep and robbed them no more of ought. And that ram begat many sheep and fell asleep; and a little sheep became ram in its stead, and became prince and leader of those sheep.,And that house became great and broad, and it was built for those sheep: (and) a tower lofty and great was built on the house for the Lord of the sheep, and that house was low, but the tower was elevated and lofty, and the Lord of the sheep stood on that tower and they offered a full table before Him.,And again I saw those sheep that they again erred and went many ways, and forsook that their house, and the Lord of the sheep called some from amongst the sheep and sent them to the sheep,,but the sheep began to slay them. And one of them was saved and was not slain, and it sped away and cried aloud over the sheep; and they sought to slay it, but the Lord of the sheep saved it from,the sheep, and brought it up to me, and caused it to dwell there. And many other sheep He sent to those sheep to testify unto them and lament over them. And after that I saw that when they forsook the house of the Lord and His tower they fell away entirely, and their eyes were blinded; and I saw the Lord of the sheep how He wrought much slaughter amongst them in their herds until,those sheep invited that slaughter and betrayed His place. And He gave them over into the hands of the lions and tigers, and wolves and hyenas, and into the hand of the foxes, and to all the wild,beasts, and those wild beasts began to tear in pieces those sheep. And I saw that He forsook that their house and their tower and gave them all into the hand of the lions, to tear and devour them,,into the hand of all the wild beasts. And I began to cry aloud with all my power, and to appeal to the Lord of the sheep, and to represent to Him in regard to the sheep that they were devoured,by all the wild beasts. But He remained unmoved, though He saw it, and rejoiced that they were devoured and swallowed and robbed, and left them to be devoured in the hand of all the beasts.,And He called seventy shepherds, and cast those sheep to them that they might pasture them, and He spake to the shepherds and their companions: \' Let each individual of you pasture the sheep,henceforward, and everything that I shall command you that do ye. And I will deliver them over unto you duly numbered, and tell you which of them are to be destroyed-and them destroy ye.\' And,He gave over unto them those sheep. And He called another and spake unto him: \' Observe and mark everything that the shepherds will do to those sheep; for they will destroy more of them than",I have commanded them. And every excess and the destruction which will be wrought through the shepherds, record (namely) how many they destroy according to my command, and how many according to their own caprice: record against every individual shepherd all the destruction he,effects. And read out before me by number how many they destroy, and how many they deliver over for destruction, that I may have this as a testimony against them, and know every deed of the shepherds, that I may comprehend and see what they do, whether or not they abide by my,command which I have commanded them. But they shall not know it, and thou shalt not declare it to them, nor admonish them, but only record against each individual all the destruction which,the shepherds effect each in his time and lay it all before me.\' And I saw till those shepherds pastured in their season, and they began to slay and to destroy more than they were bidden, and they delivered,those sheep into the hand of the lions. And the lions and tigers eat and devoured the greater part of those sheep, and the wild boars eat along with them; and they burnt that tower and demolished,that house. And I became exceedingly sorrowful over that tower because that house of the sheep was demolished, and afterwards I was unable to see if those sheep entered that house.,And the shepherds and their associates delivered over those sheep to all the wild beasts, to devour them, and each one of them received in his time a definite number: it was written by the other,in a book how many each one of them destroyed of them. And each one slew and destroyed many",more than was prescribed; and I began to weep and lament on account of those sheep. And thus in the vision I saw that one who wrote, how he wrote down every one that was destroyed by those shepherds, day by day, and carried up and laid down and showed actually the whole book to the Lord of the sheep-(even) everything that they had done, and all that each one of them had made,away with, and all that they had given over to destruction. And the book was read before the Lord of the sheep, and He took the book from his hand and read it and sealed it and laid it down.,And forthwith I saw how the shepherds pastured for twelve hours, and behold three of those sheep turned back and came and entered and began to build up all that had fallen down of that,house; but the wild boars tried to hinder them, but they were not able. And they began again to build as before, and they reared up that tower, and it was named the high tower; and they began again to place a table before the tower, but all the bread on it was polluted and not pure.,And as touching all this the eyes of those sheep were blinded so that they saw not, and (the eyes of) their shepherds likewise; and they delivered them in large numbers to their shepherds for,destruction, and they trampled the sheep with their feet and devoured them. And the Lord of the sheep remained unmoved till all the sheep were dispersed over the field and mingled with them (i.e. the,beasts), and they (i.e. the shepherds) did not save them out of the hand of the beasts. And this one who wrote the book carried it up, and showed it and read it before the Lord of the sheep, and implored Him on their account, and besought Him on their account as he showed Him all the doings,of the shepherds, and gave testimony before Him against all the shepherds. And he took the actual book and laid it down beside Him and departed.
90.8. them, but were exceedingly deaf, and their eyes were very exceedingly blinded. And I saw in the vision how the ravens flew upon those lambs and took one of those lambs, and dashed the sheep' "90. And I saw till that in this manner thirty-five shepherds undertook the pasturing (of the sheep), and they severally completed their periods as did the first; and others received them into their,hands, to pasture them for their period, each shepherd in his own period. And after that I saw in my vision all the birds of heaven coming, the eagles, the vultures, the kites, the ravens; but the eagles led all the birds; and they began to devour those sheep, and to pick out their eyes and to,devour their flesh. And the sheep cried out because their flesh was being devoured by the birds,,and as for me I looked and lamented in my sleep over that shepherd who pastured the sheep. And I saw until those sheep were devoured by the dogs and eagles and kites, and they left neither flesh nor skin nor sinew remaining on them till only their bones stood there: and their bones too fell,to the earth and the sheep became few. And I saw until that twenty-three had undertaken the pasturing and completed in their several periods fifty-eight times.",But behold lambs were borne by those white sheep, and they began to open their eyes and to see,,and to cry to the sheep. Yea, they cried to them, but they did not hearken to what they said to,them, but were exceedingly deaf, and their eyes were very exceedingly blinded. And I saw in the vision how the ravens flew upon those lambs and took one of those lambs, and dashed the sheep,in pieces and devoured them. And I saw till horns grew upon those lambs, and the ravens cast down their horns; and I saw till there sprouted a great horn of one of those sheep, and their eyes,were opened. And it looked at them and their eyes opened, and it cried to the sheep, and the,rams saw it and all ran to it. And notwithstanding all this those eagles and vultures and ravens and kites still kept tearing the sheep and swooping down upon them and devouring them: still the sheep remained silent, but the rams lamented and cried out. And those ravens fought and battled with it and sought to lay low its horn, but they had no power over it. All the eagles and vultures and ravens and kites were gathered together, and there came with them all the sheep of the field, yea, they all came together, and helped each other to break that horn of the ram.,And I saw till a great sword was given to the sheep, and the sheep proceeded against all the beasts of the field to slay them, and all the beasts and the birds of the heaven fled before their face. And I saw that man, who wrote the book according to the command of the Lord, till he opened that book concerning the destruction which those twelve last shepherds had wrought, and showed that they had destroyed much more than their predecessors, before the Lord of the sheep. And I saw till the Lord of the sheep came unto them and took in His hand the staff of His wrath, and smote the earth, and the earth clave asunder, and all the beasts and all the birds of the heaven fell from among those sheep, and were swallowed up in the earth and it covered them.,And I saw till a throne was erected in the pleasant land, and the Lord of the sheep sat Himself thereon, and the other took the sealed books and opened those books before the Lord of the sheep.,And the Lord called those men the seven first white ones, and commanded that they should bring before Him, beginning with the first star which led the way, all the stars whose privy members,were like those of horses, and they brought them all before Him. And He said to that man who wrote before Him, being one of those seven white ones, and said unto him: \' Take those seventy shepherds to whom I delivered the sheep, and who taking them on their own authority slew more,than I commanded them.\' And behold they were all bound, I saw, and they all stood before Him.,And the judgement was held first over the stars, and they were judged and found guilty, and went to the place of condemnation, and they were cast into an abyss, full of fire and flaming, and full,of pillars of fire. And those seventy shepherds were judged and found guilty, and they were cast,into that fiery abyss. And I saw at that time how a like abyss was opened in the midst of the earth, full of fire, and they brought those blinded sheep, and they were all judged and found guilty and,cast into this fiery abyss, and they burned; now this abyss was to the right of that house. And I saw those sheep burning and their bones burning.,And I stood up to see till they folded up that old house; and carried off all the pillars, and all the beams and ornaments of the house were at the same time folded up with it, and they carried,it off and laid it in a place in the south of the land. And I saw till the Lord of the sheep brought a new house greater and loftier than that first, and set it up in the place of the first which had beer folded up: all its pillars were new, and its ornaments were new and larger than those of the first, the old one which He had taken away, and all the sheep were within it.,And I saw all the sheep which had been left, and all the beasts on the earth, and all the birds of the heaven, falling down and doing homage to those sheep and making petition to and obeying,them in every thing. And thereafter those three who were clothed in white and had seized me by my hand who had taken me up before, and the hand of that ram also seizing hold of me, they,took me up and set me down in the midst of those sheep before the judgement took place. And those",sheep were all white, and their wool was abundant and clean. And all that had been destroyed and dispersed, and all the beasts of the field, and all the birds of the heaven, assembled in that house, and the Lord of the sheep rejoiced with great joy because they were all good and had returned to,His house. And I saw till they laid down that sword, which had been given to the sheep, and they brought it back into the house, and it was sealed before the presence of the Lord, and all the sheep,were invited into that house, but it held them not. And the eyes of them all were opened, and they,saw the good, and there was not one among them that did not see. And I saw that that house was large and broad and very full.,And I saw that a white bull was born, with large horns and all the beasts of the field and all the,birds of the air feared him and made petition to him all the time. And I saw till all their generations were transformed, and they all became white bulls; and the first among them became a lamb, and that lamb became a great animal and had great black horns on its head; and the Lord of the sheep,rejoiced over it and over all the oxen. And I slept in their midst: and I awoke and saw everything.",This is the vision which I saw while I slept, and I awoke and blessed the Lord of righteousness and,gave Him glory. Then I wept with a great weeping and my tears stayed not till I could no longer endure it: when I saw, they flowed on account of what I had seen; for everything shall come and,be fulfilled, and all the deeds of men in their order were shown to me. On that night I remembered the first dream, and because of it I wept and was troubled-because I had seen that vision.Section V. XCI-CIV (i.e. XCII, XCI.,XCIII.",XCI.",XCIV-CIV.). A Book of Exhortation and Promised Blessing for the Righteous and of Malediction and Woe for the Sinners."' "'. None
47. Cato, Marcus Porcius, On Agriculture, 141 (3rd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • animals, sacrificial • young animals

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 106; Hitch (2017) 130

141. The following is the formula for purifying land: Bidding the suovetaurilia to be led around, use the words: "That with the good help of the gods success may crown our work, I\xa0bid thee, Manius, to take care to purify my farm, my land, my ground with this suovetaurilia, in whatever part thou thinkest best for them to be driven or carried around." \xa0Make a prayer with wine to Janus and Jupiter, and say: "Father Mars, I\xa0pray and beseech thee that thou be gracious and merciful to me, my house, and my household; to which intent I\xa0have bidden this suovetaurilia to be led around my land, my ground, my farm; that thou keep away, ward off, and remove sickness, seen and unseen, barrenness and destruction, ruin and unseasonable influence; \xa0and that thou permit my harvests, my grain, my vineyards, and my plantations to flourish and to come to good issue, preserve in health my shepherds and my flocks, and give good health and strength to me, my house, and my household. To this intent, to the intent of purifying my farm, my land, my ground, and of making an expiation, as I\xa0have said, deign to accept the offering of these suckling victims; Father Mars, to the same intent deign to accept the offering of these suckling offering." \xa0Also heap the cakes with the knife and see that the oblation cake be hard by, then present the victims. When you offer up the pig, the lamb, and the calf, use this formula: "To this intent deign to accept the offering of these victims." .\xa0.\xa0. If favourable omens are not obtained in response to all, speak thus: "Father Mars, if aught hath not pleased thee in the offering of those sucklings, I\xa0make atonement with these victims." If there is doubt about one or two, use these words: "Father Mars, inasmuch as thou wast not pleased by the offering of that pig, I\xa0make atonement with this pig."''. None
48. Anon., Jubilees, 6.4-6.16, 7.28-7.32, 21.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Flesh, Animal • prey animals

 Found in books: Rosenblum (2016) 74; Stuckenbruck (2007) 99, 366

6.4. and placed a burnt sacrifice on the altar, and poured thereon an offering mingled with oil, and sprinkled wine and strewed frankincense over everything, and caused a goodly savour to arise, acceptable before the Lord. 6.5. And the Lord smelt the goodly savour, and He made a covet with him that there should not be any more a flood to destroy the earth; 6.6. that all the days of the earth seed-time and harvest should never cease; cold and heat, and summer and winter, and day and night should not change their order, nor cease for ever. 6.7. "And you, increase ye and multiply upon the earth, and become many upon it, and be a blessing upon it. 6.8. The fear of you and the dread of you I shall inspire in everything that is on earth and in the sea. 6.9. And behold I have given unto you all beasts, and all winged things, and everything that moveth on the earth, and the fish in the waters, and all things for food; as the green herbs, I have given you all things to eat. 6.10. But flesh, with the life thereof, with the blood, ye shall not eat; for the life of all flesh is in the blood, lest your blood of your lives be required. 6.11. At the hand of every man, at the hand of every (beast), shall I require the blood of man.' "6.12. Whoso sheddeth man's blood by man shall his blood be shed; for in the image of God made He man." '6.13. And you, increase ye, and multiply on the earth." 6.14. And Noah and his sons swore that they would not eat any blood that was in any flesh, 6.15. and he made a covet before the Lord God for ever throughout all the generations of the earth in this month. 6.16. On this account He spake to thee that thou shouldst make a covet with the children of Israel in this month upon the mountain with an oath, and that thou shouldst sprinkle blood upon them because of all the words of the covet, which the Lord made with them for ever.
7.28. And every one sold himself to work iniquity and to shed much blood, and the earth was filled with iniquity. 7.29. And after this they sinned against the beasts and birds, and all that moveth and walketh on the earth: and much blood was shed on the earth, 7.30. and every imagination and desire of men imagined vanity and evil continually. 7.31. And the Lord destroyed everything from off the face of the earth; because of the wickedness of their deeds, and because of the blood which they had shed in the midst of the earth He destroyed everything. 7.32. "And we were left, I and you, my sons, and everything that entered with us into the ark,
21.18. (but) hard and clean, without fault, a sound and new growth; and do not lay (thereon) old wood, for its fragrance is gone for there is no longer fragrance in it as before.''. None
49. Cicero, On Divination, 2.37-2.38 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • animals as divinatory • animals, oxen

 Found in books: Eidinow and Driediger-Murphy (2019) 181, 185; Johnston (2008) 128

2.37. Qui fit, ut alterum intellegas, sine corde non potuisse bovem vivere, alterum non videas, cor subito non potuisse nescio quo avolare? Ego enim possum vel nescire, quae vis sit cordis ad vivendum, vel suspicari contractum aliquo morbo bovis exile et exiguum et vietum cor et dissimile cordis fuisse; tu vero quid habes, quare putes, si paulo ante cor fuerit in tauro opimo, subito id in ipsa immolatione interisse? an quod aspexit vestitu purpureo excordem Caesarem, ipse corde privatus est? Urbem philosophiae, mihi crede, proditis, dum castella defenditis; nam, dum haruspicinam veram esse vultis, physiologiam totam pervertitis. Caput est in iecore, cor in extis; iam abscedet, simul ac molam et vinum insperseris; deus id eripiet, vis aliqua conficiet aut exedet. Non ergo omnium ortus atque obitus natura conficiet, et erit aliquid, quod aut ex nihilo oriatur aut in nihilum subito occidat. Quis hoc physicus dixit umquam? haruspices dicunt; his igitur quam physicis credendum potius existumas? 2.38. Quid? cum pluribus deis immolatur, qui tandem evenit, ut litetur aliis, aliis non litetur? quae autem inconstantia deorum est, ut primis minentur extis, bene promittant secundis? aut tanta inter eos dissensio, saepe etiam inter proxumos, ut Apollinis exta bona sint, Dianae non bona? Quid est tam perspicuum quam, cum fortuito hostiae adducantur, talia cuique exta esse, qualis cuique obtigerit hostia? At enim id ipsum habet aliquid divini, quae cuique hostia obtingat, tamquam in sortibus, quae cui ducatur. Mox de sortibus; quamquam tu quidem non hostiarum causam confirmas sortium similitudine, sed infirmas sortis conlatione hostiarum.''. None
2.37. How does it happen that you understand the one fact, that the bull could not have lived without a heart and do not realize the other, that the heart could not suddenly have vanished I know not where? As for me, possibly I do not know what vital function the heart performs; if I do I suspect that the bulls heart, as the result of a disease, became much wasted and shrunken and lost its resemblance to a heart. But, assuming that only a little while before the heart was in the sacrificial bull, why do you think it suddenly disappeared at the very moment of immolation? Dont you think, rather, that the bull lost his heart when he saw that Caesar in his purple robe had lost his head?Upon my word you Stoics surrender the very city of philosophy while defending its outworks! For, by your insistence on the truth of soothsaying, you utterly overthrow physiology. There is a head to the liver and a heart in the entrails, presto! they will vanish the very second you have sprinkled them with meal and wine! Aye, some god will snatch them away! Some invisible power will destroy them or eat them up! Then the creation and destruction of all things are not due to nature, and there are some things which spring from nothing or suddenly become nothing. Was any such statement ever made by any natural philosopher? It is made, you say, by soothsayers. Then do you think that soothsayers are worthier of belief than natural philosophers? 17 2.38. Again, when sacrifices are offered to more than one god at the same time, how does it happen that the auspices are favourable in one case and unfavourable in another? Is it not strange fickleness in the gods to threaten disaster in the first set of entrails and to promise a blessing in the next? Or is there such discord among the gods — often even among those who are nearest of kin — that the entrails of the sacrifice you offer to Apollo, for example, are favourable and of those you offer at the same time to Diana are unfavourable? When victims for the sacrifice are brought up at haphazard it is perfectly clear that the character of entrails that you will receive will depend on the victim chance may bring. Oh! but someone will say, The choice itself is a matter of divine guidance, just as in the case of lots the drawing is directed by the gods! I shall speak of lots presently; although you really do not strengthen the cause of sacrifices by comparing them to lots; but you do weaken the cause of lots by comparing them with sacrifices.''. None
50. Cicero, On The Ends of Good And Evil, 1.30, 3.62 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Lucretius, animals in • animals • animals, • animals, complex behavior in • animals, cross-species comparisons • animals, in Lucretius

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 168, 176; Gale (2000) 90; Graver (2007) 176

3.62. Pertinere autem ad rem arbitrantur intellegi natura fieri ut liberi a parentibus amentur. a quo initio profectam communem humani generis societatem persequimur. quod primum intellegi debet figura membrisque corporum, quae ipsa declarant procreandi a natura habitam esse rationem. neque vero haec inter se congruere possent, possent N 2 possint ut natura et procreari vellet et diligi procreatos non curaret. atque etiam in bestiis vis naturae perspici potest; quarum in fetu et in educatione laborem cum cernimus, naturae ipsius vocem videmur audire. quare ut perspicuum est natura nos a dolore add. P. Man. abhorrere, sic apparet a natura ipsa, ut eos, quos genuerimus, amemus, inpelli.' '. None
3.62. \xa0"Again, it is held by the Stoics to be important to understand that nature creates in parents an affection for their children; and parental affection is the source to which we trace the origin of the association of the human race in communities. This cannot but be clear in the first place from the conformation of the body and its members, which by themselves are enough to show that nature\'s scheme included the procreation of offspring. Yet it could not be consistent that nature should at once intend offspring to be born and make no provision for that offspring when born to be loved and cherished. Even in the lower animals nature\'s operation can be clearly discerned; when we observe the labour that they spend on bearing and rearing their young, we seem to be listening to the actual voice of nature. Hence as it is manifest that it is natural for us to shrink from pain, so it is clear that we derive from nature herself the impulse to love those to whom we have given birth. <' '. None
51. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.133, 2.146, 2.160, 3.5 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Lucretius, animals in • animal life • animals • animals, Animal-human behavior • animals, in Lucretius • animals, sacrificial • oikeiōsis = Lat. commendatio or conciliatio, of animals

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 90, 112; Long (2006) 116; Mackey (2022) 351; Nuno et al (2021) 14; Tsouni (2019) 185

2.133. "Here somebody will ask, for whose sake was all this vast system contrived? For the sake of the trees and plants, for these, though without sensation, have their sustece from nature? But this at any rate is absurd. Then for the sake of the animals? It is no more likely that the gods took all this trouble for the sake of dumb, irrational creatures/ For whose sake then shall one pronounce the world to have been created? Doubtless for the sake of those living beings which have the use of reason; these are the gods and mankind, who assuredly surpass all other things in excellence, since the most excellent of all things is reason. Thus we are led to believe that the world and all the things that it contains were made for the sake of gods and men. "And that man has been cared for by divine providence will be more readily understood if we survey the whole structure of man and all the conformation and perfection of human nature.
2.146. The ears are likewise marvellously skilful organs of discrimination; they judge differences of tone, of pitch and of key in the music of the voice and of wind and stringed instruments, and many different qualities of voice, sonorous and dull, smooth and rough, bass and treble, flexible and hard, distinctions discriminated by the human ear alone. Likewise the nostrils, the taste and in some measure the touch have highly sensitive faculties of discrimination. And the arts invented to appeal to and indulge these senses are even more numerous than I could wish. The developments of perfumery and of the meretricious adornment of the person are obvious examples. ' "
2.160. As for the pig, it can only furnish food; indeed Chrysippus actually says that its soul was given it to serve as salt and keep it from putrefaction; and because this animal was fitted for the food of man, nature made it the most prolific of all her offspring. Why should I speak of the teeming swarms of delicious fish? or of birds, which afford us so much pleasure that our Stoic Providence appears to have been at times a disciple of Epicurus? and they could not even be caught save by man's intelligence and cunning; — although some birds, birds of flight and birds of utterance as our augurs call them, we believe to have been created for the purpose of giving omens. " '
3.5. "Very well," rejoined Cotta, "let us then proceed as the argument itself may lead us. But before we come to the subject, let me say a few words about myself. I am considerably influenced by your authority, Balbus, and by the plea that you put forward at the conclusion of your discourse, when you exhorted me to remember that I am both a Cotta and a pontife. This no doubt meant that I ought to uphold the beliefs about the immortal gods which have come down to us from our ancestors, and the rites and ceremonies and duties of religion. For my part I always shall uphold them and always have done so, and no eloquence of anybody, learned or unlearned, shall ever dislodge me from the belief as to the worship of the immortal gods which I have inherited from our forefathers. But on any question of el I am guided by the high pontifes, Titus Coruncanius, Publius Scipio and Publius Scaevola, not by Zeno or Cleanthes or Chrysippus; and I have Gaius Laelius, who was both an augur and a philosopher, to whose discourse upon religion, in his famous oration, I would rather listen than to any leader of the Stoics. The religion of the Roman people comprises ritual, auspices, and the third additional division consisting of all such prophetic warnings as the interpreters of the Sybil or the soothsayers have derived from portents and prodigies. While, I have always thought that none of these departments of religion was to be despised, and I have held the conviction that Romulus by his auspices and Numa by his establishment of our ritual laid the foundations of our state, which assuredly could never have been as great as it is had not the fullest measure of divine favour been obtained for it. ''. None
52. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 6.1, 24.23, 25.15, 25.21, 25.23, 33.13 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal imagery • animal life • animals, • sacrifice, animal

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 401; Corley (2002) 33, 71, 183, 200; Garcia (2021) 82, 119; Wilson (2010) 278

24.23. All this is the book of the covet of the Most High God,the law which Moses commanded us as an inheritance for the congregations of Jacob.
25.21. Do not be ensnared by a womans beauty,and do not desire a woman for her possessions.
25.23. A dejected mind, a gloomy face,and a wounded heart are caused by an evil wife. Drooping hands and weak knees are caused by the wife who does not make her husband happy.
33.13. As clay in the hand of the potter -- for all his ways are as he pleases -- so men are in the hand of him who made them,to give them as he decides.' '. None
53. Septuagint, Judith, 16.17, 16.19 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Yahweh, animals of • animal imagery • animals, fish, and birds • animals, sacred, in Judea

 Found in books: Corley (2002) 200; Gera (2014) 48, 364, 465; Gordon (2020) 79

16.17. Woe to the nations that rise up against my people! The Lord Almighty will take vengeance on them in the day of judgment; fire and worms he will give to their flesh; they shall weep in pain for ever.
16.19. Judith also dedicated to God all the vessels of Holofernes, which the people had given her; and the canopy which she took for herself from his bedchamber she gave as a votive offering to the Lord. ''. None
54. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 15.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal • animal life

 Found in books: Garcia (2021) 121; Levison (2009) 142

15.11. And the inheritance of sinners is destruction and darkness, And their iniquities shall pursue them unto Sheol beneath.
15.11. because he failed to know the one who formed him and inspired him with an active soul and breathed into him a living spirit."''. None
55. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Lucretius, animals in • animals • animals, • animals, in Lucretius

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 168; Gale (2000) 90

56. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal life • animals, • animals, corrupted

 Found in books: Atkins and Bénatouïl (2021) 190; Graver (2007) 247; Long (2006) 62

57. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal worship • animal worship, Egyptians and • animals, humans compared with

 Found in books: Gruen (2011) 109; Isaac (2004) 357; Keane (2015) 194

58. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal Apocalypse

 Found in books: Collins (2016) 87; Piotrkowski (2019) 133

59. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 1.28-1.29, 1.87, 5.56.5-5.56.6 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Library (Diodorus Siculus),, animals in • animal bones • animal bones, burnt at sacrifices • animal species, cattle • animal worship, Egyptians and • animals • ethnicity, and animality • sacrifice, animal, continuity in • sacrifice, animal, in Greek religion v, vi

 Found in books: Bosak-Schroeder (2020) 67, 141; Ekroth (2013) 32; Gale (2000) 52; Gruen (2011) 113; Petropoulou (2012) 51

1.28. 1. \xa0Now the Egyptians say that also after these events a great number of colonies were spread from Egypt over all the inhabited world. To Babylon, for instance, colonists were led by Belus, who was held to be the son of Poseidon and Libya; and after establishing himself on the Euphrates river he appointed priests, called Chaldaeans by the Babylonians, who were exempt from taxation and free from every kind of service to the state, as are the priests of Egypt; and they also make observations of the stars, following the example of the Egyptian priests, physicists, and astrologers.,2. \xa0They say also that those who set forth with Danaus, likewise from Egypt, settled what is practically the oldest city in Greece, Argos, and that the nation of the Colchi in Pontus and that of the Jews, which lies between Arabia and Syria, were founded as colonies by certain emigrants from their country;,3. \xa0and this is the reason why it is a long-established institution among these two peoples to circumcise their male children, the custom having been brought over from Egypt.,4. \xa0Even the Athenians, they say, are colonists from Saïs in Egypt, and they undertake to offer proofs of such a relationship; for the Athenians are the only Greeks who call their city "Asty," a name brought over from the city Asty in Egypt. Furthermore, their body politic had the same classification and division of the people as found in Egypt, where the citizens have been divided into three orders:,5. \xa0the first Athenian class consisted of the "eupatrids," as they were called, being those who were such as had received the best education and were held worthy of the highest honour, as is the case with the priests of Egypt; the second was that of the "geomoroi," who were expected to possess arms and to serve in defence of the state, like those in Egypt who are known as husbandmen and supply the warriors; and the last class was reckoned to be that of the "demiurgoi," who practise the mechanical arts and render only the most menial services to the state, this class among the Egyptians having a similar function.,6. \xa0Moreover, certain of the rulers of Athens were originally Egyptians, they say. Petes, for instance, the father of that Menestheus who took part in the expedition against Troy, having clearly been an Egyptian, later obtained citizenship at Athens and the kingship. .\xa0.\xa0.,7. \xa0He was of double form, and yet the Athenians are unable from their own point of view to give the true explanation of this nature of his, although it is patent to all that it was because of his double citizenship, Greek and barbarian, that he was held to be of double form, that is, part animal and part man. 1.29. 1. \xa0In the same way, they continue, Erechtheus also, who was by birth an Egyptian, became king of Athens, and in proof of this they offer the following considerations. Once when there was a great drought, as is generally agreed, which extended over practically all the inhabited earth except Egypt because of the peculiar character of that country, and there followed a destruction both of crops and of men in great numbers, Erechtheus, through his racial connection with Egypt, brought from there to Athens a great supply of grain, and in return those who had enjoyed this aid made their benefactor king.,2. \xa0After he had secured the throne he instituted the initiatory rites of Demeter in Eleusis and established the mysteries, transferring their ritual from Egypt. And the tradition that an advent of the goddess into Attica also took place at that time is reasonable, since it was then that the fruits which are named after her were brought to Athens, and this is why it was thought that the discovery of the seed had been made again, as though Demeter had bestowed the gift.,3. \xa0And the Athenians on their part agree that it was in the reign of Erechtheus, when a lack of rain had wiped out the crops, that Demeter came to them with the gift of grain. Furthermore, the initiatory rites and mysteries of this goddess were instituted at Eleusis at that time.,4. \xa0And their sacrifices as well as their ancient ceremonies are observed by the Athenians in the same way as by the Egyptians; for the Eumolpidae were derived from the priests of Egypt and the Ceryces from the pastophoroi. They are also the only Greeks who swear by Isis, and they closely resemble the Egyptians in both their appearance and manners.,5. \xa0By many other statements like these, spoken more out of a love for glory than with regard for the truth, as I\xa0see the matter, they claim Athens as a colony of theirs because of the fame of that city. In general, the Egyptians say that their ancestors sent forth numerous colonies to many parts of the inhabited world, the pre-eminence of their former kings and their excessive population;,6. \xa0but since they offer no precise proof whatsoever for these statements, and since no historian worthy of credence testifies in their support, we have not thought that their accounts merited recording. So far as the ideas of the Egyptians about the gods are concerned, let what we have said suffice, since we are aiming at due proportion in our account, but with regard to the land, the Nile, and everything else worth hearing about we shall endeavour, in each case, to give the several facts in summary.' "
1.87. 1. \xa0The third cause which they adduce in connection with the dispute in question is the service which each one of these animals renders for the benefit of community life and of mankind.,2. \xa0The cow, for example, bears workers and ploughs the lighter soil; the sheep lamb twice in the year and provide by their wool both protection for the body and its decorous covering, while by their milk and cheese they furnish food that is both appetizing and abundant. Again, the dog is useful both for the hunt and for man's protection, and this is why they represent the god whom they call Anubis with a dog's head, showing in this way that he was the bodyguard of Osiris and Isis.,3. \xa0There are some, however, who explain that dogs guided Isis during her search for Osiris and protected her from wild beasts and wayfarers, and that they helped her in her search, because of the affection they bore for her, by baying; and this is the reason why at the Festival of Isis the procession is led by dogs, those who introduced the rite showing forth in this way the kindly service rendered by this animal of old.,4. \xa0The cat is likewise useful against asps with their deadly bite and the other reptiles that sting, while the ichneumon keeps a look-out for the newly-laid seed of the crocodile and crushes the eggs left by the female, doing this carefully and zealously even though it receives no benefit from the act.,5. \xa0Were this not done, the river would have become impassable because of the multitude of beasts that would be born. And the crocodiles themselves are also killed by this animal in an astonishing and quite incredible manner; for the ichneumons roll themselves over and over in the mud, and when the crocodiles go to sleep on the land with their mouths open they jump down their mouths into the centre of their body; then, rapidly gnawing through the bowels, they get out unscathed themselves and at the same time kill their victims instantly.,6. \xa0And of the sacred birds the ibis is useful as a protector against the snakes, the locusts, and the caterpillars, and the hawk against the scorpions, horned serpents, and the small animals of noxious bite which cause the greatest destruction of men.,7. \xa0But some maintain that the hawk is honoured because it is used as a bird of omen by the soothsayers in predicting to the Egyptians events which are to come.,8. \xa0Others, however, say that in primitive times a hawk brought to the priests in Thebes a book wrapped about with a purple band, which contained written directions concerning the worship of gods and the honours due to them; and it is for this reason, they add, that the sacred scribes wear on their heads a purple band and the wing of a hawk.,9. \xa0The eagle also is honoured by the Thebans because it is believed to be a royal animal and worthy of Zeus. " '
5.56.5. \xa0His seven sons were Ochimus, Cercaphus, Macar, Actis, Tenages, Triopas, and Candalus, and there was one daughter, Electryonê, who quit this life while still a maiden and attained at the hands of the Rhodians to honours like those accorded to the heroes. And when the Heliadae attained to manhood they were told by Helius that the first people to offer sacrifices to Athena would ever enjoy the presence of the goddess; and the same thing, we are told, was disclosed by him to the inhabitants of Attica. 5.56.6. \xa0Consequently, men say, the Heliadae, forgetting in their haste to put fire beneath the victims, nevertheless laid them on the altars at the time, whereas Cecrops, who was king at the time of the Athenians, performed the sacrifice over fire, but later than the Heliadae.''. None
60. Horace, Sermones, 2.8 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • animals as effigies

 Found in books: Faraone (1999) 67; Lateiner and Spatharas (2016) 205

2.8. 2. Now, although I cannot but think that I have already demonstrated, and that abundantly, more than was necessary, that our fathers were not originally Egyptians, nor were thence expelled, either on account of bodily diseases, or any other calamities of that sort,
2.8. for Apion hath the impudence to pretend, that “the Jews placed an ass’s head in their holy place;” and he affirms that this was discovered when Antiochus Epiphanes spoiled our temple, and found that ass’s head there made of gold, and worth a great deal of money. ''. None
61. Ovid, Fasti, 1.337-1.456, 5.444, 5.585-5.594 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • agency, animal • agents, animal • animal sacrifice • animals • animals, Animal-human behavior • animals, Sacrifice of • animals, burial • animals, dogs • animals, fastidium ascribed to, pudor ascribed to • animals, sacrificial • pudor, ascribed to animals

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 107, 108, 109, 111; Kaster(2005) 165; Mackey (2022) 353, 363; Nuno et al (2021) 14, 246; Waldner et al (2016) 95; Williams and Vol (2022) 177, 178, 179

1.337. ante, deos homini quod conciliare valeret, 1.338. far erat et puri lucida mica salis, 1.339. nondum pertulerat lacrimatas cortice murras 1.340. acta per aequoreas hospita navis aquas, 1.341. tura nec Euphrates nec miserat India costum, 1.342. nec fuerant rubri cognita fila croci. 1.343. ara dabat fumos herbis contenta Sabinis 1.344. et non exiguo laurus adusta sono. 1.345. si quis erat, factis prati de flore coronis 1.346. qui posset violas addere, dives erat. 1.347. hic, qui nunc aperit percussi viscera tauri, 1.348. in sacris nullum culter habebat opus. 1.349. prima Ceres avidae gavisa est sanguine porcae 1.350. ulta suas merita caede nocentis opes; 1.351. nam sata vere novo teneris lactentia sulcis 1.352. eruta saetigerae comperit ore suis. 1.353. sus dederat poenas: exemplo territus huius 1.354. palmite debueras abstinuisse, caper. 1.355. quem spectans aliquis dentes in vite prementem 1.356. talia non tacito dicta dolore dedit: 1.357. ‘rode, caper, vitem! tamen hinc, cum stabis ad aram, 1.358. in tua quod spargi cornua possit, erit.’ 1.359. verba fides sequitur: noxae tibi deditus hostis 1.360. spargitur adfuso cornua, Bacche, mero. 1.361. culpa sui nocuit, nocuit quoque culpa capellae: 1.362. quid bos, quid placidae commeruistis oves? 1.363. flebat Aristaeus, quod apes cum stirpe necatas 1.364. viderat inceptos destituisse favos. 1.365. caerula quem genetrix aegre solata dolentem 1.366. addidit haec dictis ultima verba suis: 1.367. ‘siste, puer, lacrimas! Proteus tua damna levabit, 1.368. quoque modo repares quae periere, dabit, 1.369. decipiat ne te versis tamen ille figuris, 1.370. impediant geminas vincula firma manus.’ 1.371. pervenit ad vatem iuvenis resolutaque somno 1.372. alligat aequorei brachia capta senis, 1.373. ille sua faciem transformis adulterat arte: 1.374. mox domitus vinclis in sua membra redit, 1.375. oraque caerulea tollens rorantia barba, 1.376. qua dixit ‘repares arte, requiris, apes? 1.377. obrue mactati corpus tellure iuvenci: 1.378. quod petis a nobis, obrutus ille dabit.’ 1.379. iussa facit pastor: fervent examina putri 1.380. de bove: mille animas una necata dedit, 1.381. poscit ovem fatum: verbenas improba carpsit, 1.382. quas pia dis ruris ferre solebat anus. 1.383. quid tuti superest, animam cum ponat in aris 1.384. lanigerumque pecus ruricolaeque boves? 1.385. placat equo Persis radiis Hyperiona cinctum, 1.386. ne detur celeri victima tarda deo. 1.387. quod semel est triplici pro virgine caesa Dianae, 1.388. nunc quoque pro nulla virgine cerva cadit, 1.389. exta canum vidi Triviae libare Sapaeos, 1.390. et quicumque tuas accolit, Haeme, nives, 1.391. caeditur et rigido custodi ruris asellus; 1.392. causa pudenda quidem, sed tamen apta deo. 1.393. festa corymbiferi celebrabas, Graecia, Bacchi, 1.394. tertia quae solito tempore bruma refert. 1.395. di quoque cultores in idem venere Lyaei, 1.396. et quicumque iocis non alienus erat, 1.397. Panes et in Venerem Satyrorum prona iuventus, 1.398. quaeque colunt amnes solaque rura deae. 1.399. venerat et senior pando Silenus asello, 1.400. quique ruber pavidas inguine terret aves, 1.401. dulcia qui dignum nemus in convivia nacti 1.402. gramine vestitis accubuere toris, vina 1.403. vina dabat Liber, tulerat sibi quisque coronam, 1.404. miscendas parce rivus agebat aquas. 1.405. Naides effusis aliae sine pectinis usu, 1.406. pars aderant positis arte manuque comis: 1.407. illa super suras tunicam collecta ministrat, 1.408. altera dissuto pectus aperta sinu: 1.409. exserit haec humerum, vestem trahit illa per herbas, 1.410. impediunt teneros vincula nulla pedes, 1.411. hinc aliae Satyris incendia mitia praebent, 1.412. pars tibi, qui pinu tempora nexa geris, 1.413. te quoque, inextinctae Silene libidinis, urunt: 1.414. nequitia est, quae te non sinit esse senem. 1.415. at ruber, hortorum decus et tutela, Priapus 1.416. omnibus ex illis Lotide captus erat: 1.417. hanc cupit, hanc optat, sola suspirat in illa, 1.418. signaque dat nutu, sollicitatque notis, 1.419. fastus inest pulchris, sequiturque superbia formam: 1.420. irrisum voltu despicit illa suo. 1.421. nox erat, et vino somnum faciente iacebant 1.422. corpora diversis victa sopore locis. 1.423. Lotis in herbosa sub acernis ultima ramis, 1.424. sicut erat lusu fessa, quievit humo. 1.425. surgit amans animamque tenens vestigia furtim 1.426. suspenso digitis fert taciturna gradu, 1.427. ut tetigit niveae secreta cubilia nymphae, 1.428. ipsa sui flatus ne sonet aura, cavet, 1.429. et iam finitima corpus librabat in herba: 1.430. illa tamen multi plena soporis erat. 1.431. gaudet et, a pedibus tracto velamine, vota 1.432. ad sua felici coeperat ire via. 1.433. ecce rudens rauco Sileni vector asellus 1.434. intempestivos edidit ore sonos. 1.435. territa consurgit nymphe manibusque Priapum 1.436. reicit et fugiens concitat omne nemus; 1.437. at deus obscena nimium quoque parte paratus 1.438. omnibus ad lunae lumina risus erat. 1.439. morte dedit poenas auctor clamoris, et haec est 1.440. Hellespontiaco victima grata deo. 1.441. intactae fueratis aves, solacia ruris, 1.442. adsuetum silvis innocuumque genus, 1.443. quae facitis nidos et plumis ova fovetis 1.444. et facili dulces editis ore modos; 1.445. sed nil ista iuvant, quia linguae crimen habetis, 1.446. dique putant mentes vos aperire suas. 1.447. nec tamen hoc falsum: nam, dis ut proxima quaeque, 1.448. nunc penna veras, nunc datis ore notas, 1.449. tuta diu volucrum proles tum denique caesa est, 1.450. iuveruntque deos indicis exta sui. 1.451. ergo saepe suo coniunx abducta marito 1.452. uritur Idaliis alba columba focis; 1.453. nec defensa iuvant Capitolia, quo minus anser 1.454. det iecur in lances, Inachi lauta, tuas; 1.455. nocte deae Nocti cristatus caeditur ales, 1.456. quod tepidum vigili provocet ore diem.
5.444. respicit et pure sacra peracta putat.
5.585. signa, decus belli, Parthus Romana tenebat, 5.586. Romanaeque aquilae signifer hostis erat. 5.587. isque pudor mansisset adhuc, nisi fortibus armis 5.588. Caesaris Ausoniae protegerentur opes. 5.589. ille notas veteres et longi dedecus aevi 5.590. sustulit: agnorunt signa recepta suos. 5.591. quid tibi nunc solitae mitti post terga sagittae, 5.592. quid loca, quid rapidi profuit usus equi, 5.593. Parthe? refers aquilas, victos quoque porrigis arcus: 5.594. pignora iam nostri nulla pudoris habes.''. None
1.337. Cornmeal, and glittering grains of pure salt, 1.338. Were once the means for men to placate the gods. 1.339. No foreign ship had yet brought liquid myrrh 1.340. Extracted from tree’s bark, over the ocean waves: 1.341. Euphrates had not sent incense, nor India balm, 1.342. And the threads of yellow saffron were unknown. 1.343. The altar was happy to fume with Sabine juniper, 1.344. And the laurel burned with a loud crackling. 1.345. He was rich, whoever could add violet 1.346. To garlands woven from meadow flowers. 1.347. The knife that bares the entrails of the stricken bull, 1.348. Had no role to perform in the sacred rites. 1.349. Ceres was first to delight in the blood of the greedy sow, 1.350. Her crops avenged by the rightful death of the guilty creature, 1.351. She learned that in spring the grain, milky with sweet juice, 1.352. Had been uprooted by the snouts of bristling pigs. 1.353. The swine were punished: terrified by that example, 1.354. You should have spared the vine-shoots, he-goat. 1.355. Watching a goat nibbling a vine someone once 1.356. Vented their indignation in these words: 1.357. ‘Gnaw the vine, goat! But when you stand at the altar 1.358. There’ll be something from it to sprinkle on your horns.’ 1.359. Truth followed: Bacchus, your enemy is given you 1.360. To punish, and sprinkled wine flows over its horns. 1.361. The sow suffered for her crime, and the goat for hers: 1.362. But what were you guilty of you sheep and oxen? 1.363. Aristaeus wept because he saw his bees destroyed, 1.364. And the hives they had begun left abandoned. 1.365. His azure mother, Cyrene, could barely calm his grief, 1.366. But added these final words to what she said: 1.367. ‘Son, cease your tears! Proteus will allay your loss, 1.368. And show you how to recover what has perished. 1.369. But lest he still deceives you by changing shape, 1.370. Entangle both his hands with strong fastenings.’ 1.371. The youth approached the seer, who was fast asleep, 1.372. And bound the arms of that Old Man of the Sea. 1.373. He by his art altered his shape and transformed his face, 1.374. But soon reverted to his true form, tamed by the ropes. 1.375. Then raising his dripping head, and sea-green beard, 1.376. He said: ‘Do you ask how to recover your bees? 1.377. Kill a heifer and bury its carcase in the earth, 1.378. Buried it will produce what you ask of me.’ 1.379. The shepherd obeyed: the beast’s putrid corpse 1.380. Swarmed: one life destroyed created thousands. 1.381. Death claims the sheep: wickedly, it grazed the vervain 1.382. That a pious old woman offered to the rural gods. 1.383. What creature’s safe if woolly sheep, and oxen 1.384. Broken to the plough, lay their lives on the altar? 1.385. Persia propitiates Hyperion, crowned with rays, 1.386. With horses, no sluggish victims for the swift god. 1.387. Because a hind was once sacrificed to Diana the twin, 1.388. Instead of Iphigeneia, a hind dies, though not for a virgin now. 1.389. I have seen a dog’s entrails offered to Trivia by Sapaeans, 1.390. Whose homes border on your snows, Mount Haemus. 1.391. A young ass too is sacrificed to the erect rural guardian, 1.392. Priapus, the reason’s shameful, but appropriate to the god. 1.393. Greece, you held a festival of ivy-berried Bacchus, 1.394. That used to recur at the appointed time, every third winter. 1.395. There too came the divinities who worshipped him as Lyaeus, 1.396. And whoever else was not averse to jesting, 1.397. The Pans and the young Satyrs prone to lust, 1.398. And the goddesses of rivers and lonely haunts. 1.399. And old Silenus came on a hollow-backed ass, 1.400. And crimson Priapus scaring the timid birds with his rod. 1.401. Finding a grove suited to sweet entertainment, 1.402. They lay down on beds of grass covered with cloths. 1.403. Liber offered wine, each had brought a garland, 1.404. A stream supplied ample water for the mixing. 1.405. There were Naiads too, some with uncombed flowing hair, 1.406. Others with their tresses artfully bound. 1.407. One attends with tunic tucked high above the knee, 1.408. Another shows her breast through her loosened robe: 1.409. One bares her shoulder: another trails her hem in the grass, 1.410. Their tender feet are not encumbered with shoes. 1.411. So some create amorous passion in the Satyrs, 1.412. Some in you, Pan, brows wreathed in pine. 1.413. You too Silenus, are on fire, insatiable lecher: 1.414. Wickedness alone prevents you growing old. 1.415. But crimson Priapus, guardian and glory of gardens, 1.416. of them all, was captivated by Lotis: 1.417. He desires, and prays, and sighs for her alone, 1.418. He signals to her, by nodding, woos her with signs. 1.419. But the lovely are disdainful, pride waits on beauty: 1.420. She laughed at him, and scorned him with a look. 1.421. It was night, and drowsy from the wine, 1.422. They lay here and there, overcome by sleep. 1.423. Tired from play, Lotis rested on the grassy earth, 1.424. Furthest away, under the maple branches. 1.425. Her lover stood, and holding his breath, stole 1.426. Furtively and silently towards her on tiptoe. 1.427. Reaching the snow-white nymph’s secluded bed, 1.428. He took care lest the sound of his breath escaped. 1.429. Now he balanced on his toes on the grass nearby: 1.430. But she was still completely full of sleep. 1.431. He rejoiced, and drawing the cover from her feet, 1.432. He happily began to have his way with her. 1.433. Suddenly Silenus’ ass braying raucously, 1.434. Gave an untimely bellow from its jaws. 1.435. Terrified the nymph rose, pushed Priapus away, 1.436. And, fleeing, gave the alarm to the whole grove. 1.437. But the over-expectant god with his rigid member, 1.438. Was laughed at by them all, in the moonlight. 1.439. The creator of that ruckus paid with his life, 1.440. And he’s the sacrifice dear to the Hellespontine god. 1.441. You were chaste once, you birds, a rural solace, 1.442. You harmless race that haunt the woodlands, 1.443. Who build your nests, warm your eggs with your wings, 1.444. And utter sweet measures from your ready beaks, 1.445. But that is no help to you, because of your guilty tongues, 1.446. And the gods’ belief that you reveal their thoughts. 1.447. Nor is that false: since the closer you are to the gods, 1.448. The truer the omens you give by voice and flight. 1.449. Though long untouched, birds were killed at last, 1.450. And the gods delighted in the informers’ entrails. 1.451. So the white dove, torn from her mate, 1.452. Is often burned in the Idalian flames: 1.453. Nor did saving the Capitol benefit the goose, 1.454. Who yielded his liver on a dish to you, Inachus’ daughter: 1.455. The cock is sacrificed at night to the Goddess, Night, 1.456. Because he summons the day with his waking cries,
5.444. And asks the spirit to leave his house.
5.585. The nation’s pride had been roused by the death 5.586. of the Crassi, when army, leader, standards all were lost. 5.587. The Parthians kept the Roman standards, ornament 5.588. of war, and an enemy bore the Roman eagle. 5.589. That shame would have remained, if Italy’s power 5.590. Had not been defended by Caesar’s strong weapons. 5.591. He ended the old reproach, a generation of disgrace: 5.592. The standards were regained, and knew their own. 5.593. What use now the arrows fired from behind your backs, 5.594. Your deserts and your swift horses, you Parthians?''. None
62. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 1.76-1.86, 1.381-1.412, 1.414-1.415, 3.482, 6.318, 6.339-6.347, 6.349-6.350, 6.352-6.364, 6.366-6.371, 6.373-6.381, 8.93 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • Animals, place of • Lucretius, animals in • animals • animals, color descriptions and uses of, horses • animals, in Lucretius • animals, punishment of • lions, sacred animal • punishment, of animals

 Found in books: Alvar Ezquerra (2008) 109; Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 185; Gale (2000) 90, 128, 130, 134; Goldman (2013) 43; Marek (2019) 125; Seim and Okland (2009) 222

1.76. Sanctius his animal mentisque capacius altae 1.77. deerat adhuc et quod dominari in cetera posset. 1.78. Natus homo est, sive hunc divino semine fecit 1.79. ille opifex rerum, mundi melioris origo, 1.80. sive recens tellus seductaque nuper ab alto 1.81. aethere cognati retinebat semina caeli; 1.82. quam satus Iapeto mixtam pluvialibus undis 1.83. finxit in effigiem moderantum cuncta deorum. 1.84. Pronaque cum spectent animalia cetera terram, 1.85. os homini sublime dedit, caelumque videre 1.86. iussit et erectos ad sidera tollere vultus.
1.381. Mota dea est sortemque dedit: “Discedite templo 1.382. et velate caput cinctasque resolvite vestes 1.383. ossaque post tergum magnae iactate parentis.” 1.384. Obstipuere diu, rumpitque silentia voce 1.385. Pyrrha prior iussisque deae parere recusat, 1.386. detque sibi veniam pavido rogat ore, pavetque 1.387. laedere iactatis maternas ossibus umbras. 1.389. verba datae sortis secum inter seque volutant. 1.390. Inde Promethides placidis Epimethida dictis 1.391. mulcet et “aut fallax” ait “est sollertia nobis, 1.392. aut pia sunt nullumque nefas oracula suadent. 1.393. Magna parens terra est, lapides in corpore terrae 1.394. ossa reor dici; iacere hos post terga iubemur.” 1.395. Coniugis augurio quamquam Titania mota est, 1.396. spes tamen in dubio est: adeo caelestibus ambo 1.397. diffidunt monitis. Sed quid temptare nocebit? 1.398. Discedunt velantque caput tunicasque recingunt 1.399. et iussos lapides sua post vestigia mittunt. 1.400. Saxa (quis hoc credat, nisi sit pro teste vetustas?) 1.401. ponere duritiem coepere suumque rigorem 1.402. mollirique mora mollitaque ducere formam. 1.403. Mox ubi creverunt naturaque mitior illis 1.404. contigit, ut quaedam, sic non manifesta, videri 1.405. forma potest hominis, sed, uti de marmore coepta, 1.406. non exacta satis rudibusque simillima signis. 1.407. Quae tamen ex illis aliquo pars umida suco 1.408. et terrena fuit, versa est in corporis usum; 1.409. quod solidum est flectique nequit, mutatur in ossa; 1.410. quae modo vena fuit, sub eodem nomine mansit; 1.411. inque brevi spatio superorum numine saxa 1.412. missa viri manibus faciem traxere virorum,
1.414. Inde genus durum sumus experiensque laborum 1.415. et documenta damus qua simus origine nati.
6.318. non impune deam veteres sprevere coloni.
6.339. Iamque Chimaeriferae, cum sol gravis ureret arva, 6.340. finibus in Lyciae longo dea fessa labore 6.341. sidereo siccata sitim conlegit ab aestu, 6.342. uberaque ebiberant avidi lactantia nati. 6.343. Forte lacum mediocris aquae prospexit in imis 6.345. vimina cum iuncis gratamque paludibus ulvam. 6.346. Accessit positoque genu Titania terram 6.347. pressit, ut hauriret gelidos potura liquores.
6.349. “Quid prohibetis aquis? usus communis aquarum est. 6.350. Nec solem proprium natura nec aera fecit
6.352. Quae tamen ut detis, supplex peto. Non ego nostros 6.353. abluere hic artus lassataque membra parabam, 6.354. sed relevare sitim. Caret os umore loquentis 6.355. et fauces arent, vixque est via vocis in illis. 6.356. Haustus aquae mihi nectar erit, vitamque fatebor 6.357. accepisse simul: vitam dederitis in unda. 6.358. Hi quoque vos moveant, qui nostro bracchia tendunt 6.359. parva sinu:” et casu tendebant bracchia nati. 6.360. Quem non blanda deae potuissent verba movere? 6.361. Hi tamen orantem perstant prohibere minasque, 6.362. ni procul abscedat, conviciaque insuper addunt. 6.363. Nec satis est, ipsos etiam pedibusque manuque 6.364. turbavere lacus imoque e gurgite mollem
6.366. Distulit ira sitim: neque enim iam filia Coei 6.367. supplicat indignis nec dicere sustinet ultra 6.368. verba minora dea, tollensque ad sidera palmas 6.369. “aeternum stagno” dixit “vivatis in isto.” 6.370. Eveniunt optata deae: iuvat esse sub undis 6.371. et modo tota cava submergere membra palude,
6.373. saepe super ripam stagni consistere, saepe 6.374. in gelidos resilire lacus. Sed nunc quoque turpes 6.375. litibus exercent linguas pulsoque pudore, 6.376. quamvis sint sub aqua, sub aqua maledicere temptant. 6.377. Vox quoque iam rauca est, inflataque colla tumescunt, 6.378. ipsaque dilatant patulos convicia rictus. 6.379. Terga caput tangunt, colla intercepta videntur, 6.380. spina viret, venter, pars maxima corporis, albet, 6.381. limosoque novae saliunt in gurgite ranae.””
8.93. purpureum crinem, nec me nunc tradere crinem,' '. None
1.76. and brought the lightning on destructive wind 1.77. that also waft the cold. Nor did the great 1.78. Artificer permit these mighty wind 1.79. to blow unbounded in the pathless skies, 1.80. but each discordant brother fixed in space, 1.81. although His power can scarce restrain their rage 1.82. to rend the universe. At His command 1.83. to far Aurora, Eurus took his way, 1.84. to Nabath, Persia , and that mountain range' "1.85. first gilded by the dawn; and Zephyr's flight" '1.86. was towards the evening star and peaceful shores,
1.381. and holy temples, and their sacred urns. 1.382. The mansions that remained, resisting vast 1.383. and total ruin, deepening waves concealed 1.384. and whelmed their tottering turrets in the flood 1.385. and whirling gulf. And now one vast expanse, 1.386. the land and sea were mingled in the waste 1.387. of endless waves—a sea without a shore. 1.389. another sitting in his curved boat, 1.390. plied the long oar where he was wont to plow; 1.391. another sailed above his grain, above 1.392. his hidden dwelling; and another hooked 1.393. a fish that sported in a leafy elm. 1.394. Perchance an anchor dropped in verdant fields, 1.395. or curving keels were pushed through tangled vines; 1.396. and where the gracile goat enjoyed the green, 1.397. unsightly seals reposed. Beneath the wave 1.398. were wondering Nereids, viewing cities, grove 1.399. and houses. Dolphins darting mid the trees, 1.400. meshed in the twisted branches, beat against 1.401. the shaken oak trees. There the sheep, affrayed, 1.402. wim with the frightened wolf, the surging wave 1.403. float tigers and lions: availeth naught 1.404. his lightning shock the wild boar, nor avail' "1.405. the stag's fleet footed speed. The wandering bird," '1.406. eeking umbrageous groves and hidden vales, 1.407. with wearied pinion droops into the sea. 1.408. The waves increasing surge above the hills, 1.409. and rising waters dash on mountain tops. 1.410. Myriads by the waves are swept away, 1.411. and those the waters spare, for lack of food, 1.412. tarvation slowly overcomes at last.
1.414. beneath a wilderness of rising waves,' "1.415. 'Twixt Oeta and Aonia , Phocis lies," '
6.318. and must no longer worship, in despite
6.339. Even so deprived, I could not be reduced 6.340. to only two, as this Latona , who, 6.341. might quite as well be childless.—Get you gone 6.342. from this insensate sacrifice. Make haste! 6.343. Cast off the wreathing laurels from your brows!” 6.345. the sacrifice, obedient to her will, 6.346. although in gentle murmurs they adored 6.347. the goddess Niobe had so defamed.
6.349. flew swiftly to the utmost peak of Cynthus, 6.350. and spoke to her two children in these words:
6.352. uch glorious children! I will yield 6.353. prestige before no goddess—save alone 6.354. immortal Juno ! I have been debased, 6.355. and driven for all ages from my own— 6.356. my altars, unto me devoted long, 6.357. and so must languish through eternity, 6.358. unless by you sustained. Nor is this all;. 6.359. That daughter of Tantalus, bold Niobe, 6.360. has added curses to her evil deeds,' "6.361. and with a tongue as wicked as her sire's," '6.362. has raised her base-born children over mine. 6.363. Has even called me childless! A sad fate 6.364. more surely should be hers! Oh, I entreat”—
6.366. is necessary, for it only serve 6.367. to hinder the swift sequel of her doom.” 6.368. And with the same words Phoebe answered her. 6.369. And having spoken, they descended through 6.370. the shielding shadows of surrounding clouds, 6.371. and hovered on the citadel of Cadmus .
6.373. which swept around those walls; where trampling steeds, 6.374. with horny hoofs, and multitudinous wheels, 6.375. had beaten a wide track. And on the field 6.376. the older sons of Niobe on steed 6.377. emblazoned with bright dyes and harness rich 6.378. with studded gold were circling.—One of these, 6.379. Ismenus, first-born of his mother, while' "6.380. controlling his fleet courser's foaming mouth," '6.381. cried out, “Ah wretched me!” A shaft had pierced
8.93. instead of my consuming love, prevail' '. None
63. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 74, 76-80 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Yahweh, animals of • animals, sacred • animals, sacred, at Leontopolis • animals, sacred, in Judea • sacrifice, animal

 Found in books: Gordon (2020) 95, 127; Janowitz (2002b) 98; Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 219, 220

74. Do you therefore pray to become like those erections of yours, that so you may reap the most supreme happiness, neither seeing with your eyes, nor hearing with your ears, nor respiring, nor smelling with your nostrils, nor speaking, nor tasting with your mouth, nor taking, nor giving, nor doing anything with your hands, nor walking with your feet, nor doing anything at all with any one of your members, but being as it were confined and guarded in the temple, as if in a prison, and day and night continually imbibing the steam from the sacrifices offered up; for this is the only one good thing which can be attributed to any kind of building or erection." '
76. Let no one therefore of those beings who are endowed with souls, worship any thing that is devoid of a soul; for it would be one of the most absurd things possible for the works of nature to be diverted to the service of those things which are made by hand; and against Egypt, not only is that common accusation brought, to which the whole country is liable, but another charge also, which is of a more special character, and with great fitness; for besides falling down to statues, and images they have also introduced irrational animals, to the honours due to the gods, such as bulls, and rams, and goats, inventing some prodigious fiction with regard to each of them; 77. and as to these particular animals, they have indeed some reason for what they do, for they are the most domestic, and the most useful to life. The bull, as a plougher, draws furrows for the reception of the seed, and is again the most powerful of all animals to thresh the corn out when it is necessary to purify it of the chaff; the ram gives us the most beautiful garments for the coverings of our persons; for if our bodies were naked, they would easily be destroyed either through heat, or though intense cold, caused at one time by the blaze of the sun, and at another by the cooling of the air. 78. But as it is they go beyond these animals, and select the most fierce, and untameable of all wild animals, honouring lions, and crocodiles, and of reptiles the poisonous asp, with temples, and sacred precincts, and sacrifices, and assemblies in their honour, and solemn processions, and things of that kind. For if they were to seek out in both elements, among all the things given to man for his use by God, searching through earth and water, they would never find any animal on the land more savage than the lion, or any aquatic animal more fierce than the crocodile, both which creatures they honour and worship; 79. they have also deified many other animals, dogs, ichneumons, wolves, birds, ibises, and hawks, and even fish, taking sometimes the whole, and sometimes only a part; and what can be more ridiculous than this Conduct? 80. And, accordingly, the first foreigners who arrived in Egypt were quite worn out with laughing at and ridiculing these superstitions, till their minds had become impregnated with the conceit of the natives; but all those who have tasted of right instruction, are amazed and struck with consternation, at their system of ennobling things which are not noble, and pity those who give into it, thinking the men, as is very natural, more miserable than even the objects which they honour, since they in their souls are changed into those very animals, so as to appear to be merely brutes in human form, now returning to their original nature. '. None
64. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 88 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals, • animals, punishment of • punishment, of animals

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 185; Wilson (2010) 301

88. for the charioteers sit behind their beasts of burden, and are placed at, their backs, and yet when they have the reins in their hands, they guide them wherever they choose, and at one time they urge them on to a swift pace, and at another time they hold them back, if they are going on at a speed greater than is desirable. And pilots again, sitting in the hindmost part of the ship, that is the stern are, as one may say, the most important of all the people in the ship, inasmuch as they have the safety of the ship and of all those who are in it, in their hands. And so the Creator has made man to be as it were a charioteer and pilot over all other animals, in order that he may hold the reins and direct the course of every thing upon earth, having the superintendence of all animals and plants, as a sort of viceroy of the principal and mighty King. XXX. ''. None
65. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.74-1.75, 1.150-1.151, 1.260, 2.148, 4.117, 4.122-4.125 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals, skins • Yahweh, animals of • animal, domestic, sacrificial • animals, • animals, sacred, at Leontopolis • animals, sacred, in Judea • goats, as specific type of animal • prey animals • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 148; Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 366; Gordon (2020) 95, 127; Petropoulou (2012) 151, 155, 160, 162, 163, 164, 169, 170, 183; Rosenblum (2016) 74, 151; Wilson (2010) 301, 308

1.74. But there is no grove of plantation in the space which surrounds it, in accordance with the prohibitions of the law, which for many reasons forbid this. In the first place, because a building which is truly a temple does not aim at pleasure and seductive allurements, but at a rigid and austere sanctity. Secondly, because it is not proper that those things which conduce to the verdure of trees should be introduced, such as the dung of irrational animals and of men. Thirdly, because those trees which do not admit of cultivation are of no use, but are as the poets say, the burden of the earth; while those which do admit of cultivation, and which are productive of wholesome fruit, draw off the attention of the fickle-minded from the thoughts of the respect due to the holy place itself, and to the ceremonies in which they are engaged. 1.75. And besides these reasons, shady places and dense thickets are places of refuge for evil doers, since by their enveloping them in darkness they give them safety and enable them, as from an ambuscade, suddenly to fall upon any whom they choose to attack. But wide spaces, open and uncovered in every direction, where there is nothing which can hinder the sight, are the most suitable for the distinct sight of all those who enter and remain in the temple.XIV.
1.150. Appetite therefore, being a profane, and impure, and unholy thing, is driven beyond the territories of virtue, and is banished as it ought to be; but temperance, being a pure and unblemished virtue, neglecting everything which relates to eating and drinking, and boasting itself as superior to the pleasures of the belly, may be allowed to approach the sacred altars, bringing forward as it does the excrescence of the body, as a memorial that it may be reminded to despise all insatiability and gluttony, and all those things which excite the appetites to this pitch.XXX. 1.151. And beyond all these things he also orders that the priests who minister the offering of the sacrifices, shall receive the skins of the whole burnt offerings (and they amount to an unspeakable number, this being no slight gift, but one of the most exceeding value and importance
1.260. for you will find that this exceeding accuracy of investigation into the animals, figuratively signifies the amelioration of your own disposition and conduct; for the law was not established for the sake of irrational animals, but for that of those who have intellect and reason." So that the real object taken care of is not the condition of the victims sacrificed in order that they may have no blemish, but that of the sacrificers that they may not be defiled by any unlawful passion.
2.148. And each house is at that time invested with the character and dignity of a temple, the victim being sacrificed so as to make a suitable feast for the man who has provided it and of those who are collected to share in the feast, being all duly purified with holy ablutions. And those who are to share in the feast come together not as they do to other entertainments, to gratify their bellies with wine and meat, but to fulfil their hereditary custom with prayer and songs of praise.
4.117. But doves, and pigeons, and turtle-doves, and all the flocks of cranes, and geese, and birds of that kind, he numbers in the class of domestic, and tame, and eatable creatures, allowing every one who chooses to partake of them with impunity.
4.122. But some men, with open mouths, carry even the excessive luxury and boundless intemperance of Sardanapalus to such an indefinite and unlimited extent, being wholly absorbed in the invention of senseless pleasures, that they prepare sacrifices which ought never be offered, strangling their victims, and stifling the essence of life, {26}{4.123. On which account Moses, in another passage, establishes a law concerning blood, that one may not eat the blood nor the Fat.{27}{4.124. But Moses commanded men to abstain from eating fat, because it is gross. And again, he gave us this injunction, in order to inculcate temperance and a zeal for an austere life: for some things we easily abandon, and without any hesitation; though we do not willingly encounter any anxieties or labours for the sake of the acquisition of virtue. 4.125. For which reason these two parts are to be taken out of every victim and burnt with fire, as a kind of first fruits, namely, the fat and the blood; the one being poured upon the altar as a libation; and the other as a fuel to the flame, being applied instead of oil, by reason of its fatness, to the consecrated and holy flame. ''. None
66. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 2.27, 2.60, 2.65 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sennaar, animals and • animals, as irrational • animals, punishment of • animals, sacred • animals, senses and • punishment, of animals • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 185, 187, 401; Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 219, 221; Petropoulou (2012) 160

2.27. but when, from the daily and uninterrupted respect shown to them by those to whom they had been given, and from their ceaseless observance of their ordices, other nations also obtained an understanding of them, their reputation spread over all lands; for what was really good, even though it may through envy be overshadowed for a short time, still in time shines again through the intrinsic excellence of its nature. Some persons, thinking it a scandalous thing that these laws should only be known among one half portion of the human race, namely, among the barbarians, and that the Greek nation should be wholly and entirely ignorant of them, turned their attention to their translation.
2.60. For he, being considered a fit man, not only to be exempted from the common calamity which was to overwhelm the world, but also to be himself the beginning of a second generation of men, in obedience to the divine commands which were conveyed to him by the word of God, built a most enormous fabric of wood, three hundred cubits in length, and fifty in width, and thirty in height, and having prepared a number of connected chambers within it, both on the ground floor and in the upper story, the whole building consisting of three, and in some parts of four stories, and having prepared food, brought into it some of every description of animals, beasts and also birds, both male and female, in order to preserve a means of propagating the different species in the times that should come hereafter; ' "
2.65. These are the rewards and honours for pre-eminent excellence given to good men, by means of which, not only did they themselves and their families obtain safety, having escaped from the greatest dangers which were thus aimed against all men all over the earth, by the change in the character of the elements; but they became also the founders of a new generation, and the chiefs of a second period of the world, being left behind as sparks of the most excellent kind of creatures, namely, of men, man having received the supremacy over all earthly creatures whatsoever, being a kind of copy of the powers of God, a visible image of his invisible nature, a created image of an uncreated and immortal Original.{1}{yonge's translation includes a separate treatise title at this point: On the Life of Moses, That Is to Say, On the Theology and Prophetic office of Moses, Book III. Accordingly, his next paragraph begins with roman numeral I (= XIII in the Loeb"'. None
67. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 82 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Dialogue on the Rationality of Animals, diction, problem of • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi

 Found in books: Niehoff (2011) 115; Petropoulou (2012) 157

82. Would you not say that the perfect high priest when, being in the inmost shrine, he is performing his national sacrifices, is both within and without at the same time? within in respect of his visible body, but without in respect of his soul, which is roaming about and wandering? And again, on the other hand, would you not say that a man who was not of the family consecrated to the priesthood, but who was a lover of God and beloved by God, though standing without the holy shrine, was nevertheless in reality in its inmost parts? looking upon his whole life in the body as a sojourning in a foreign land; but while he is able to live only in the soul, then he thinks that he is abiding in his own country. ''. None
68. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 139 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals, as criterion of emotion • animals, passions and • passions, animal imagery and

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 180; Graver (2007) 238

139. On which account Moses, after he had previously mentioned with respect to Enos that "he hoped to call upon the name of the Lord his God," adds in express words, "This is the book of the generation of Men;" speaking with perfect correctness: for it is written in the book of God that man is the only creature with a good hope. So that arguing by contraries, he who has no good hope is not a man. The definition, therefore, of our concrete being is that it is a living rational mortal being; but the definition of man, according to Moses, is a disposition of the soul hoping in the truly living God. ''. None
69. Vitruvius Pollio, On Architecture, 8.3.21 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • chorus, khoros, animals in myth turned into dancers in ritual • sacrifice, animal substituting mythical characters

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 127; Kowalzig (2007) 282

8.3.21. 21. In Arcadia, at the well-known city of Clitorium, is a cave flowing with water, of which those who drink become abstemious. At the spring is an epigram inscribed on stone, in Greek verses, to the following effect: that it is not fit for bathing, and also that it is injurious to the vine, because, near the spot, Melampus cured the daughters of Proteus of their madness, and restored them to reason. The epigram is as follows: Rustic, by Clitor's stream who takest thy way, Should thirst oppress thee in the noon of day Drink at this fount, and in the holy keep of guardian Naiads place thy goats and sheep. But dip not thou thy hand, if wine inflame, Lest e'en the vapour chill thy fever'd frame; Fly thou my sober spring. Melampus here Cleansed the mad Proetides, what time the seer Arcadia's rugged hills from Argos sought, With purifying power my stream was fraught."". None
70. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • animals, Orpheus and

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 186; Johnson (2008) 102

71. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • peace, among animals,

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 226; Huttner (2013) 228

72. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal • Celsus, against the superiority of humans over animals • Lucretius, animals in • Skins, Animal • animal imagery, animalization caused by disease • animal imagery, humans and animals • animal imagery, humans as animals • animal imagery, the animal” within the human body • animal life • animal sacrifice • animal sacrifice, epistemology • animal sacrifice, eschatology • animals • animals, horses • animals, in Lucretius • animals, sacrificial • pelles (animal skins)

 Found in books: Brouwer and Vimercati (2020) 279; Faure (2022) 88, 89; Gale (2000) 29, 45, 46, 47, 48, 51, 56, 76, 88, 90, 91, 93, 94, 96, 97, 98, 99, 101, 104, 105, 110, 111, 124, 126, 136, 137, 139, 140, 165, 173, 175, 176, 177, 178, 186, 191, 204, 206, 216, 220, 221, 223, 226, 261, 262, 264; Hankinson (1998) 231; Kazantzidis (2021) 69, 76, 81, 95, 119, 149; Long (2006) 160; Radicke (2022) 48; Simmons(1995) 146, 147, 148; Waldner et al (2016) 74; Williams and Vol (2022) 179

73. Apollodorus, Bibliotheca, 1.9.12 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • skin, animal

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 52; Gale (2000) 127

1.9.12. Βίας δὲ 3 -- ἐμνηστεύετο Πηρὼ τὴν Νηλέως· ὁ δὲ πολλῶν αὐτῷ μνηστευομένων τὴν θυγατέρα δώσειν ἔφη τῷ τὰς Φυλάκου 1 -- βόας κομίσαντι αὐτῷ. αὗται δὲ ἦσαν ἐν Φυλάκῃ, καὶ κύων ἐφύλασσεν αὐτὰς οὗ οὔτε ἄνθρωπος οὔτε θηρίον πέλας ἐλθεῖν ἠδύνατο. ταύτας ἀδυνατῶν Βίας τὰς βόας κλέψαι παρεκάλει τὸν ἀδελφὸν συλλαβέσθαι. Μελάμπους δὲ ὑπέσχετο, καὶ προεῖπεν ὅτι φωραθήσεται κλέπτων καὶ δεθεὶς ἐνιαυτὸν οὕτω τὰς βόας λήψεται. μετὰ δὲ τὴν ὑπόσχεσιν εἰς Φυλάκην ἀπῄει καί, καθάπερ προεῖπε, φωραθεὶς ἐπὶ τῇ κλοπῇ δέσμιος 2 -- ἐν οἰκήματι ἐφυλάσσετο. λειπομένου δὲ τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ βραχέος χρόνου, τῶν κατὰ τὸ κρυφαῖον 3 -- τῆς στέγης σκωλήκων ἀκούει, τοῦ μὲν ἐρωτῶντος πόσον ἤδη μέρος τοῦ δοκοῦ διαβέβρωται, τῶν δὲ ἀποκρινομένων 4 -- λοιπὸν ἐλάχιστον εἶναι. καὶ ταχέως ἐκέλευσεν αὑτὸν εἰς ἕτερον οἴκημα μεταγαγεῖν, γενομένου δὲ τούτου μετʼ οὐ πολὺ συνέπεσε τὸ οἴκημα. θαυμάσας δὲ Φύλακος, καὶ μαθὼν ὅτι ἐστὶ μάντις ἄριστος, λύσας παρεκάλεσεν εἰπεῖν ὅπως αὐτοῦ τῷ παιδὶ Ἰφίκλῳ παῖδες γένωνται. ὁ δὲ ὑπέσχετο ἐφʼ ᾧ τὰς βόας λήψεται. καὶ καταθύσας ταύρους δύο καὶ μελίσας τοὺς οἰωνοὺς προσεκαλέσατο· παραγενομένου δὲ αἰγυπιοῦ, παρὰ τούτου μανθάνει δὴ ὅτι Φύλακός ποτε κριοὺς τέμνων ἐπὶ τῶν αἰδοίων 5 -- παρὰ τῷ Ἰφίκλῳ τὴν μάχαιραν ᾑμαγμένην ἔτι κατέθετο, δείσαντος δὲ τοῦ παιδὸς καὶ φυγόντος αὖθις κατὰ τῆς ἱερᾶς δρυὸς αὐτὴν ἔπηξε, καὶ ταύτην ἀμφιτροχάσας 1 -- ἐκάλυψεν ὁ φλοιός. ἔλεγεν οὖν, εὑρεθείσης τῆς μαχαίρας εἰ ξύων τὸν ἰὸν ἐπὶ ἡμέρας δέκα Ἰφίκλῳ δῷ πιεῖν, παῖδα γεννήσειν. ταῦτα μαθὼν παρʼ αἰγυπιοῦ Μελάμπους τὴν μὲν μάχαιραν εὗρε, τῷ δὲ Ἰφίκλῳ τὸν ἰὸν ξύσας ἐπὶ ἡμέρας δέκα δέδωκε πιεῖν, καὶ παῖς αὐτῷ Ποδάρκης ἐγένετο. τὰς δὲ βόας εἰς Πύλον ἤλασε, καὶ τῷ ἀδελφῷ τὴν Νηλέως θυγατέρα λαβὼν ἔδωκε. καὶ μέχρι μέν τινος ἐν Μεσσήνῃ κατῴκει, ὡς δὲ τὰς ἐν Ἄργει γυναῖκας ἐξέμηνε Διόνυσος, ἐπὶ 2 -- μέρει τῆς 3 -- βασιλείας ἰασάμενος αὐτὰς ἐκεῖ μετὰ Βίαντος κατῴκησε.''. None
1.9.12. Bias wooed Pero, daughter of Neleus. But as there were many suitors for his daughter's hand, Neleus said that he would give her to him who should bring him the kine of Phylacus. These were in Phylace, and they were guarded by a dog which neither man nor beast could come near. Unable to steal these kine, Bias invited his brother to help him. Melampus promised to do so, and foretold that he should be detected in the act of stealing them, and that he should get the kine after being kept in bondage for a year. After making this promise he repaired to Phylace and, just as he had foretold, he was detected in the theft and kept a prisoner in a cell. When the year was nearly up, he heard the worms in the hidden part of the roof, one of them asking how much of the beam had been already gnawed through, and others answering that very little of it was left. At once he bade them transfer him to another cell, and not long after that had been done the cell fell in. Phylacus marvelled, and perceiving that he was an excellent soothsayer, he released him and invited him to say how his son Iphiclus might get children. Melampus promised to tell him, provided he got the kine. And having sacrificed two bulls and cut them in pieces he summoned the birds; and when a vulture came, he learned from it that once, when Phylacus was gelding rams, he laid down the knife, still bloody, beside Iphiclus, and that when the child was frightened and ran away, he stuck the knife on the sacred oak, and the bark encompassed the knife and hid it. He said, therefore, that if the knife were found, and he scraped off the rust, and gave it to Iphiclus to drink for ten days, he would beget a son. Having learned these things from the vulture, Melampus found the knife, scraped the rust, and gave it to Iphiclus for ten days to drink, and a son Podarces was born to him. But he drove the kine to Pylus, and having received the daughter of Neleus he gave her to his brother. For a time he continued to dwell in Messene, but when Dionysus drove the women of Argos mad, he healed them on condition of receiving part of the kingdom, and settled down there with Bias."". None
74. Epictetus, Discourses, 2.9.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal life • human beings, as „mortal rational animals“

 Found in books: Dürr (2022) 140; Long (2006) 337

2.9.1. It is no common (easy) thing to do this only, to fulfil the promise of a man’s nature. For what is a man? The answer is, a rational and mortal being. Then by the rational faculty from whom are we separated? From wild beasts. And from what others? From sheep and like animals. Take care then to do nothing like a wild beast; but if you do, you have lost the character of a man; you have not fulfilled your promise. See that you do nothing like a sheep; but if you do, in this case also the man is lost. What then do we do as sheep? When we act gluttonously, when we act lewdly, when we act rashly, filthily, inconsiderately, to what have we declined? To sheep. What have we lost? The rational faculty. When we act contentiously and harmfully and passionately, and violently, to what have we declined? To wild beasts. Consequently some of us are great wild beasts, and others little beasts, of a bad disposition and small, whence we may say, Let me be eaten by a lion. But in all these ways the promise of a man acting as a man is destroyed. For when is a conjunctive (complex) proposition maintained? When it fulfils what its nature promises; so that the preservation of a complex proposition is when it is a conjunction of truths. When is a disjunctive maintained? When it fulfils what it promises. When are flutes, a lyre, a horse, a dog, preserved? (when they severally keep their promise). What is the wonder then if man also in like manner is preserved, and in like manner is lost? Each man is improved and preserved by corresponding acts, the carpenter by acts of carpentry, the grammarian by acts of grammar. But if a man accustoms himself to write ungrammatically, of necessity his art will be corrupted and destroyed. Thus modest actions preserve the modest man, and immodest actions destroy him: and actions of fidelity preserve the faithful man, and the contrary actions destroy him. And on the other hand contrary actions strengthen contrary characters: shamelessness strengthens the shameless man, faithlessness the faithless man, abusive words the abusive man, anger the man of an angry temper, and unequal receiving and giving make the avaricious man more avaricious. For this reason philosophers admonish us not to be satisfied with learning only, but also to add study, and then practice. For we have long been accustomed to do contrary things, and we put in practice opinions which are contrary to true opinions. If then we shall not also put in practice right opinions, we shall be nothing more than the expositors of the opinions of others. For now who among us is not able to discourse according to the rules of art about good and evil things (in this fashion)? That of things some are good, and some are bad, and some are indifferent: the good then are virtues, and the things which participate in virtues; and the bad are the contrary; and the indifferent are wealth, health, reputation.— Then, if in the midst of our talk there should happen some greater noise than usual, or some of those who are present should laugh at us, we are disturbed. Philosopher, where are the things which you were talking about? Whence did you produce and utter them. From the lips, and thence only. Why then do you corrupt the aids provided by others? Why do you treat the weightiest matters as if you were playing a game of dice? For it is one thing to lay up bread and wine as in a storehouse, and another thing to eat. That which has been eaten, is digested, distributed, and is become sinews, flesh, bones, blood, healthy colour, healthy breath. Whatever is stored up, when you choose you can readily take and show it; but you have no other advantage from it except so far as to appear to possess it. For what is the difference between explaining these doctrines and those of men who have different opinions? Sit down now and explain according to the rules of art the opinions of Epicurus, and perhaps you will explain his opinions in a more useful manner than Epicurus himself. Why then do you call yourself a Stoic? Why do you deceive the many? Why do you act the part of a Jew, when you are a Greek? Do you not see how (why) each is called a Jew, or a Syrian or an Egyptian? and when we see a man inclining to two sides, we are accustomed to say, This man is not a Jew, but he acts as one. But when he has assumed the affects of one who has been imbued with Jewish doctrine and has adopted that sect, then he is in fact and he is named a Jew. Thus we too being falsely imbued (baptized), are in name Jews, but in fact we are something else. Our affects (feelings) are inconsistent with our words; we are far from practising what we say, and that of which we are proud, as if we knew it. Thus being unable to fulfil even what the character of a man promises, we even add to it the profession of a philosopher, which is as heavy a burden, as if a man who is unable to bear ten pounds should attempt to raise the stone which Ajax lifted.''. None
75. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 11.323, 12.146, 13.66-13.71 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals, abundant in Judaea • Animals, skins • Yahweh, animals of • animal worship • animals, sacred, at Leontopolis • animals, sacred, in Judea • prey animals • sacrifice, animal, fices of • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 364, 365, 366; Gordon (2020) 95, 125, 126, 127; Petropoulou (2012) 142; Piotrkowski (2019) 72, 408; Rosenblum (2016) 74

11.323. τοῦτο δ' εἶναι καὶ τῷ βασιλεῖ συμφέρον εἰς δύο διῃρῆσθαι τὴν ̓Ιουδαίων δύναμιν, ἵνα μὴ ὁμογνωμονοῦν τὸ ἔθνος μηδὲ συνεστός, εἰ νεωτερίσειέν ποτε, χαλεπὸν ᾖ τοῖς βασιλεῦσιν, καθὼς καὶ πρότερον τοῖς ̓Ασσυρίων ἄρξασιν ἐγένετο." "
12.146. μηδ' εἰς τὴν πόλιν εἰσφερέσθω ἵππεια κρέα μηδὲ ἡμιόνεια μηδὲ ἀγρίων ὄνων καὶ ἡμέρων παρδάλεών τε καὶ ἀλωπέκων καὶ λαγῶν καὶ καθόλου δὲ πάντων τῶν ἀπηγορευμένων ζῴων τοῖς ̓Ιουδαίοις: μηδὲ τὰς δορὰς εἰσφέρειν ἐξεῖναι, ἀλλὰ μηδὲ τρέφειν τι τούτων ἐν τῇ πόλει: μόνοις δὲ τοῖς προγονικοῖς θύμασιν, ἀφ' ὧν καὶ τῷ θεῷ δεῖ καλλιερεῖν, ἐπιτετράφθαι χρῆσθαι. ὁ δέ τι τούτων παραβὰς ἀποτινύτω τοῖς ἱερεῦσιν ἀργυρίου δραχμὰς τρισχιλίας.”" '
13.66. καὶ πλείστους εὑρὼν παρὰ τὸ καθῆκον ἔχοντας ἱερὰ καὶ διὰ τοῦτο δύσνους ἀλλήλοις, ὃ καὶ Αἰγυπτίοις συμβέβηκεν διὰ τὸ πλῆθος τῶν ἱερῶν καὶ τὸ περὶ τὰς θρησκείας οὐχ ὁμόδοξον, ἐπιτηδειότατον εὑρὼν τόπον ἐν τῷ προσαγορευομένῳ τῆς ἀγρίας Βουβάστεως ὀχυρώματι βρύοντα ποικίλης ὕλης καὶ τῶν ἱερῶν ζῴων μεστόν,' "13.67. δέομαι συγχωρῆσαί μοι τὸ ἀδέσποτον ἀνακαθάραντι ἱερὸν καὶ συμπεπτωκὸς οἰκοδομῆσαι ναὸν τῷ μεγίστῳ θεῷ καθ' ὁμοίωσιν τοῦ ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις αὐτοῖς μέτροις ὑπὲρ σοῦ καὶ τῆς σῆς γυναικὸς καὶ τῶν τέκνων, ἵν' ἔχωσιν οἱ τὴν Αἴγυπτον κατοικοῦντες ̓Ιουδαῖοι εἰς αὐτὸ συνιόντες κατὰ τὴν πρὸς ἀλλήλους ὁμόνοιαν ταῖς σαῖς ἐξυπηρετεῖν χρείαις:" '13.68. καὶ γὰρ ̔Ησαί̈ας ὁ προφήτης τοῦτο προεῖπεν: ἔσται θυσιαστήριον ἐν Αἰγύπτῳ κυρίῳ τῷ θεῷ: καὶ πολλὰ δὲ προεφήτευσεν ἄλλα τοιαῦτα διὰ τὸν τόπον.”' "13.69. Καὶ ταῦτα μὲν ὁ ̓Ονίας τῷ βασιλεῖ Πτολεμαίῳ γράφει. κατανοήσειε δ' ἄν τις αὐτοῦ τὴν εὐσέβειαν καὶ Κλεοπάτρας τῆς ἀδελφῆς αὐτοῦ καὶ γυναικὸς ἐξ ἧς ἀντέγραψαν ἐπιστολῆς: τὴν γὰρ ἁμαρτίαν καὶ τὴν τοῦ νόμου παράβασιν εἰς τὴν ̓Ονίου κεφαλὴν ἀνέθεσαν:" "13.71. ἐπεὶ δὲ σὺ φῂς ̔Ησαί̈αν τὸν προφήτην ἐκ πολλοῦ χρόνου τοῦτο προειρηκέναι, συγχωροῦμέν σοι, εἰ μέλλει τοῦτ' ἔσεσθαι κατὰ τὸν νόμον: ὥστε μηδὲν ἡμᾶς δοκεῖν εἰς τὸν θεὸν ἐξημαρτηκέναι.”" ". None
11.323. that it would be for the king’s advantage to have the strength of the Jews divided into two parts, lest when the nation is of one mind, and united, upon any attempt for innovation, it prove troublesome to kings, as it had formerly proved to the kings of Assyria.
12.146. Nor let any flesh of horses, or of mules, or of asses, he brought into the city, whether they be wild or tame; nor that of leopards, or foxes, or hares; and, in general, that of any animal which is forbidden for the Jews to eat. Nor let their skins be brought into it; nor let any such animal be bred up in the city. Let them only be permitted to use the sacrifices derived from their forefathers, with which they have been obliged to make acceptable atonements to God. And he that transgresseth any of these orders, let him pay to the priests three thousand drachmae of silver.”
13.66. where I found that the greatest part of your people had temples in an improper manner, and that on this account they bare ill-will one against another, which happens to the Egyptians by reason of the multitude of their temples, and the difference of opinions about divine worship. Now I found a very fit place in a castle that hath its name from the country Diana; this place is full of materials of several sorts, and replenished with sacred animals; 13.67. I desire therefore that you will grant me leave to purge this holy place, which belongs to no master, and is fallen down, and to build there a temple to Almighty God, after the pattern of that in Jerusalem, and of the same dimensions, that may be for the benefit of thyself, and thy wife and children, that those Jews which dwell in Egypt may have a place whither they may come and meet together in mutual harmony one with another, and he subservient to thy advantages; 13.68. for the prophet Isaiah foretold that, ‘there should be an altar in Egypt to the Lord God;’” and many other such things did he prophesy relating to that place. 13.69. 2. And this was what Onias wrote to king Ptolemy. Now any one may observe his piety, and that of his sister and wife Cleopatra, by that epistle which they wrote in answer to it; for they laid the blame and the transgression of the law upon the head of Onias. And this was their reply: 13.71. But since thou sayest that Isaiah the prophet foretold this long ago, we give thee leave to do it, if it may be done according to your law, and so that we may not appear to have at all offended God herein.”' '. None
76. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.148, 7.426-7.430 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal species, goat • animal species, lamb • animal victim, treatment of burning of a ninth of the meat • animal victim, treatment of burning of a part or parts of the victim • animal victim, treatment of burning of divinity's portion • animal victim, treatment of burning of entire victim • animals, sacred, at Leontopolis • colour of animal victim, black • destruction of animal victim by fire • destruction sacrifice, partial destruction of animal victim • destruction sacrifice, total destruction of animal victim • sacrifice, animal, decline of • sacrifice, animal, fices of • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 112, 113, 235; Gordon (2020) 125; Petropoulou (2012) 127, 142

1.148. ̓́Ενθα δὴ πολλὰ τῶν ̔Ρωμαίων κακοπαθούντων ὁ Πομπήιος τά τε ἄλλα τῆς καρτερίας τοὺς ̓Ιουδαίους ἀπεθαύμαζεν καὶ μάλιστα τοῦ μηδὲν παραλῦσαι: τῆς θρησκείας ἐν μέσοις τοῖς βέλεσιν ἀνειλημένους: ὥσπερ γὰρ εἰρήνης βαθείας κατεχούσης τὴν πόλιν αἵ τε θυσίαι καθ' ἡμέραν καὶ οἱ ἐναγισμοὶ καὶ πᾶσα θεραπεία κατὰ τἀκριβὲς ἐξετελεῖτο τῷ θεῷ, καὶ οὐδὲ κατ' αὐτὴν τὴν ἅλωσιν περὶ τῷ βωμῷ φονευόμενοι τῶν καθ' ἡμέραν νομίμων εἰς τὴν θρησκείαν ἀπέστησαν." "
7.426. Πεισθεὶς Πτολεμαῖος τοῖς λεγομένοις δίδωσιν αὐτῷ χώραν ἑκατὸν ἐπὶ τοῖς ὀγδοήκοντα σταδίους ἀπέχουσαν Μέμφεως: νομὸς δ' οὗτος ̔Ηλιοπολίτης καλεῖται." '7.427. φρούριον ἔνθα κατασκευασάμενος ̓Ονίας τὸν μὲν ναὸν οὐχ ὅμοιον ᾠκοδόμησε τῷ ἐν ̔Ιεροσολύμοις, ἀλλὰ πύργῳ παραπλήσιον λίθων μεγάλων εἰς ἑξήκοντα πήχεις ἀνεστηκότα: 7.428. τοῦ βωμοῦ δὲ τὴν κατασκευὴν πρὸς τὸν οἰκεῖον ἐξεμιμήσατο καὶ τοῖς ἀναθήμασιν ὁμοίως ἐκόσμησεν χωρὶς τῆς περὶ τὴν λυχνίαν κατασκευῆς: 7.429. οὐ γὰρ ἐποίησε λυχνίαν, αὐτὸν δὲ χαλκευσάμενος λύχνον χρυσοῦν ἐπιφαίνοντα σέλας χρυσῆς ἁλύσεως ἐξεκρέμασε. τὸ δὲ τέμενος πᾶν ὀπτῇ πλίνθῳ περιτετείχιστο πύλας ἔχον λιθίνας.' ". None
1.148. 4. Now, here it was that, upon the many hardships which the Romans underwent, Pompey could not but admire not only at the other instances of the Jews’ fortitude, but especially that they did not at all intermit their religious services, even when they were encompassed with darts on all sides; for, as if the city were in full peace, their daily sacrifices and purifications, and every branch of their religious worship, was still performed to God with the utmost exactness. Nor indeed when the temple was actually taken, and they were every day slain about the altar, did they leave off the instances of their Divine worship that were appointed by their law;
7.426. 3. So Ptolemy complied with his proposals, and gave him a place one hundred and eighty furlongs distant from Memphis. That Nomos was called the Nomos of Heliopoli 7.427. where Onias built a fortress and a temple, not like to that at Jerusalem, but such as resembled a tower. He built it of large stones to the height of sixty cubits; 7.428. he made the structure of the altar in imitation of that in our own country, and in like manner adorned with gifts, excepting the make of the candlestick, 7.429. for he did not make a candlestick, but had a single lamp hammered out of a piece of gold, which illuminated the place with its rays, and which he hung by a chain of gold;' '. None
77. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.225, 2.66, 2.81, 2.86, 2.112-2.114, 2.213 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Types of Animals Sacrificed, Worship of an Ass • Yahweh, animals of • animals, • animals, sacred • animals, sacred, at Leontopolis • animals, sacred, in Judea • slaughter, of animals

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 524; Gordon (2020) 95, 127; Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 220; Rosenblum (2016) 58; Wilson (2010) 276, 307

1.225. κοινὸν μὲν γὰρ αὐτοῖς ἐστι πάτριον τὸ ταῦτα θεοὺς νομίζειν, ἰδίᾳ δὲ πρὸς ἀλλήλους ἐν ταῖς τιμαῖς αὐτῶν διαφέρονται. κοῦφοι δὲ καὶ ἀνόητοι παντάπασιν ἄνθρωποι κακῶς ἐξ ἀρχῆς εἰθισμένοι δοξάζειν περὶ θεῶν μιμήσασθαι μὲν τὴν σεμνότητα τῆς ἡμετέρας θεολογίας οὐκ
2.66. φοεδερε δε ρελιγιονε ξοντενδιτις? αν ξερτε προπτερεα νον υος ομνες διξιμυς αεγψπτιος ετ νεθυε ξομμυνιτερ ηομινες, θυονιαμ βεστιας αδυερσαντες νατυραε νοστραε ξολιτις μυλτα διλιγεντια νυτριεντες, ξυμ
2.81. αδ ηαεξ ιγιτυρ πριυς εθυιδεμ διξο, θυονιαμ αεγψπτιυς, υελ σι αλιθυιδ ταλε απυδ νος φυισσετ, νεθυαθυαμ δεβυερατ ινξρεπαρε, ξυμ νον σιτ δετεριορ ασινυς φυρονιβυς ετ ηιρξις ετ αλιις, θυαε συντ απυδ εος διι.
2.86. νος ιταθυε ασινις νεθυε ηονορεμ νεθυε ποτεστατεμ αλιθυαμ δαμυς, σιξυτ αεγψπτιι ξροξοδιλλις ετ ασπιδιβυς, θυανδο εος θυι αβ ιστις μορδεντυρ ετ α ξροξοδιλλις ραπιυντυρ φελιξες ετ δεο διγνι αρβιτραντυρ.
2.112. ρυρσυμθυε ταμθυαμ πιισσιμυς δεριδετ αδιξιενς φαβυλαε συαε μνασεαμ. αιτ ενιμ ιλλυμ ρετυλισσε, δυμ βελλυμ ιυδαει ξοντρα ιυδαεος ηαβερεντ λονγο θυοδαμ τεμπορε ιν αλιθυα ξιυιτατε ιυδαεορυμ, θυι δοριι νομιναντυρ, θυενδαμ εορυμ θυι ιν εα απολλινεμ ξολεβατ υενισσε αδ ιυδαεος, ξυιυς ηομινις νομεν διξιτ ζαβιδον δεινδε θυι εις προμισισσετ τραδιτυρυμ σε εις απολλινεμ δευμ δοριενσιυμ υεντυρυμθυε ιλλυμ αδ νοστρυμ τεμπλυμ, σι ομνες αβσξεδερεντ. 2.113. ετ ξρεδιδισσε ομνεμ μυλτιτυδινεμ ιυδαεορυμ; ζαβιδον υερο φεξισσε θυοδδαμ μαξηιναμεντυμ λιγνευμ ετ ξιρξυμποσυισσε σιβι ετ ιν εο τρες ορδινες ινφιχισσε λυξερναρυμ ετ ιτα αμβυλασσε, υτ προξυλ σταντιβυς αππαρερετ, θυασι στελλαε περ τερραμ 2.114. τὴν πορείαν ποιουμένων, τοὺς μὲν ̓Ιουδαίους ὑπὸ τοῦ παραδόξου τῆς θέας καταπεπληγμένους πόρρω μένοντας ἡσυχίαν ἄγειν, τὸν δὲ Ζάβιδον ἐπὶ πολλῆς ἡσυχίας εἰς τὸν ναὸν παρελθεῖν καὶ τὴν χρυσῆν ἀποσῦραι τοῦ κάνθωνος κεφαλήν, οὕτω γὰρ ἀστεϊζόμενος' "
2.213. μάλιστα δὲ γυναικῶν. οὕτως δ' ἡμερότητα καὶ φιλανθρωπίαν ἡμᾶς ἐξεπαίδευσεν, ὡς μηδὲ τῶν ἀλόγων ζῴων ὀλιγωρεῖν, ἀλλὰ μόνην ἐφῆκε τούτων χρῆσιν τὴν νόμιμον, πᾶσαν δ' ἑτέραν ἐκώλυσεν: ἃ δ' ὥσπερ ἱκετεύοντα προσφεύγει ταῖς οἰκίαις ἀπεῖπεν ἀνελεῖν. οὐδὲ νεοττοῖς τοὺς γονέας αὐτῶν ἐπέτρεψε συνεξαιρεῖν, φείδεσθαι δὲ κἀν τῇ πολεμίᾳ τῶν ἐργαζομένων ζῴων"'. None
1.225. for so far they all agree through the whole country, to esteem such animals as gods, although they differ from one another in the peculiar worship they severally pay to them; and certainly men they are entirely of vain and foolish minds, who have thus accustomed themselves from the beginning to have such bad notions concerning their gods, and could not think of imitating that decent form of divine worship which we made use of, though, when they saw our institutions approved of by many others, they could not but envy us on that account;
2.66. At this rate we must not call you all Egyptians, nor indeed in general men, because you breed up with great care beasts of a nature quite contrary to that of men, although the nature of all men seems to be one and the same.
2.81. To this my first answer shall be this, that had there been any such thing among us, an Egyptian ought by no means to have thrown it in our teeth, since an ass is not a more contemptible animal than ... and goats, and other such creatures, which among them are gods.
2.86. Asses are the same with us which they are with other wise men, viz., creatures that bear the burdens that we lay upon them;
2.112. 10. Nay, this miracle of piety derides us farther, and adds the following pretended facts to his former fable; for he says that this man related how, “while the Jews were once in a long war with the Idumeans, there came a man out of one of the cities of the Idumeans, who there had worshipped Apollo. This man, whose name is said to have been Zabidus, came to the Jews, and promised that he would deliver Apollo, the god of Dora into their hands, and that he would come to our temple, if they would all come up with him, 2.113. and bring the whole multitude of the Jews with them; that Zabidus made him a certain wooden instrument, and put it round about him, and set three rows of lamps therein, and walked after such a manner, that he appeared to those that stood a great way off him, to be a kind of star walking upon the earth: 2.114. that the Jews were terribly frightened at so surprising an appearance, and stood very quiet at a distance; and that Zabidus, while they continued so very quiet, went into the holy house, and carried off that golden head of an ass (for so facetiously does he write), and then went his way back again to Dora in great haste.”
2.213. Indeed he hath taught us gentleness and humanity so effectually, that he hath not despised the care of brute beasts, by permitting no other than a regular use of them, and forbidding any other; and if any of them come to our houses, like supplicants, we are forbidden to slay them: nor may we kill the dams, together with their young ones; but we are obliged, even in an enemy’s country, to spare and not kill those creatures that labor for mankind. ''. None
78. Lucan, Pharsalia, 1.207 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal, gaze • animal, lament • animals, in similes

 Found in books: Braund and Most (2004) 248; Mackay (2022) 48

1.207. To rise above their country: might their law: Decrees are forced from Senate and from Plebs: Consul and Tribune break the laws alike: Bought are the fasces, and the people sell For gain their favour: bribery's fatal curse Corrupts the annual contests of the Field. Then covetous usury rose, and interest Was greedier ever as the seasons came; Faith tottered; thousands saw their gain in war. Caesar has crossed the Alps, his mighty soul "". None
79. Mishnah, Bava Metzia, 2.10 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • animals,

 Found in books: Porton (1988) 98; Wilson (2010) 276

2.10. If he found an animal in a stable, he is not responsible for it even though the stable door was loose and unguarded. But if he found it in the public domain he is responsible for it. If it was in a cemetery he need not contract uncleanness because of it. If his father said to him, “Contract uncleanness”, or if he said to him, “Do not return it”, he may not listen to him. If he unloaded the ass fallen under its load and reloaded it and again unloaded it and reloaded it, even four or five times he is still obligated, for it is written, “You must surely raise it with him”. If the owner went and sat down and said, “Since the commandment is upon you, if you wish to unload, unload”, he is not obligated, for it is written “with him”. But if the owner was aged or sick, he is obligated. It is a commandment from the Torah to unload but not to reload. Rabbi Shimon says, “To reload as well.” Rabbi Yose the Galilean says, “If the beast was carrying more than its proper load he is not obligated to help unload it, for it is written, “under its load”, which is to say a load which it is able to endure.''. None
80. Mishnah, Beitzah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • Animals’ food • slaughter, of animals

 Found in books: Porton (1988) 95; Rosenblum (2016) 98

2.1. יוֹם טוֹב שֶׁחָל לִהְיוֹת עֶרֶב שַׁבָּת, לֹא יְבַשֵּׁל אָדָם בַּתְּחִלָּה מִיּוֹם טוֹב לַשַּׁבָּת, אֲבָל מְבַשֵּׁל הוּא לְיוֹם טוֹב, וְאִם הוֹתִיר, הוֹתִיר לַשַּׁבָּת, וְעוֹשֶׂה תַבְשִׁיל מֵעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב וְסוֹמֵךְ עָלָיו לַשַּׁבָּת. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, שְׁנֵי תַבְשִׁילִין. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, תַּבְשִׁיל אֶחָד. וְשָׁוִין בְּדָג וּבֵיצָה שֶׁעָלָיו שֶׁהֵן שְׁנֵי תַבְשִׁילִין. אֲכָלוֹ אוֹ שֶׁאָבַד, לֹא יְבַשֵּׁל עָלָיו בַּתְּחִלָּה. וְאִם שִׁיֵּר מִמֶּנּוּ כָל שֶׁהוּא, סוֹמֵךְ עָלָיו לַשַּׁבָּת:
2.1. עֲגָלָה שֶׁל קָטָן טְמֵאָה מִדְרָס וְנִטֶּלֶת בְּשַׁבָּת, וְאֵינָהּ נִגְרֶרֶת אֶלָּא עַל גַּבֵּי כֵלִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, כָּל הַכֵּלִים אֵין נִגְרָרִין חוּץ מִן הָעֲגָלָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהִיא כוֹבֶשֶׁת:''. None
2.1. Yom Tov which fell on the eve of Shabbat, one should not begin to cook on Yom Tov for Shabbat. But he may cook for Yom Tov, and if any is left over it is left over for Shabbat. And he may prepare a dish on the eve of Yom Tov and rely upon it to prepare food for Shabbat. Bet Shammai says: two dishes. But Bet Hillel says: one dish. Yet they both agree that a fish and an egg upon it are considered as two dishes. If he ate it or it was lost, he may not begin to cook relying on it. But if he left over any small portion of it, he may rely on it to cook for Shabbat.''. None
81. Mishnah, Bekhorot, 1.2, 3.1, 5.1, 5.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • Animals’ food • animal, domestic, topology of its body • sacrifice, animal, comparison between Greek and Jewish • sacrifice, animal, fices of • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi • wild animals

 Found in books: Petropoulou (2012) 194, 196, 201, 202; Porton (1988) 20, 26, 62, 267; Rosenblum (2016) 99

1.2. פָּרָה שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין חֲמוֹר, וַחֲמוֹר שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין סוּס, פָּטוּר מִן הַבְּכוֹרָה, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר פֶּטֶר חֲמוֹר, שְׁנֵי פְעָמִים, עַד שֶׁיְּהֵא הַיּוֹלֵד חֲמוֹר וְהַנּוֹלָד חֲמוֹר. וּמָה הֵם בַּאֲכִילָה. בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין בְּהֵמָה טְמֵאָה, מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה. וּטְמֵאָה שֶׁיָּלְדָה כְּמִין בְּהֵמָה טְהוֹרָה, אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה, שֶׁהַיּוֹצֵא מֵהַטָּמֵא, טָמֵא. וְהַיּוֹצֵא מִן הַטָּהוֹר, טָהוֹר. דָּג טָמֵא שֶׁבָּלַע דָּג טָהוֹר, מֻתָּר בַּאֲכִילָה. וְטָהוֹר שֶׁבָּלַע דָּג טָמֵא, אָסוּר בַּאֲכִילָה, לְפִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ גִדּוּלָיו:
3.1. הַלּוֹקֵחַ בְּהֵמָה מִן הַנָּכְרִי וְאֵין יָדוּעַ אִם בִּכְּרָה וְאִם לֹא בִכְּרָה, רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, עֵז בַּת שְׁנָתָהּ וַדַּאי לַכֹּהֵן, מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ סָפֵק. רָחֵל בַּת שְׁתַּיִם וַדַּאי לַכֹּהֵן, מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ סָפֵק. פָּרָה וַחֲמוֹר בְּנוֹת שָׁלשׁ וַדַּאי לַכֹּהֵן, מִכָּאן וְאֵילָךְ סָפֵק. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, אִלּוּ בַּוָּלָד בִּלְבַד בְּהֵמָה נִפְטֶרֶת, הָיָה כִדְבָרֶיךָ, אֶלָּא אָמְרוּ, סִימַן הַוָּלָד בִּבְהֵמָה דַקָּה, טִנוּף. וּבְגַסָּה, שִׁלְיָא. וּבְאִשָּׁה, שְׁפִיר וְשִׁלְיָא. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כֹּל שֶׁיָדוּעַ שֶׁבִּכְּרָה, אֵין כָּאן לַכֹּהֵן כְּלוּם. וְכֹל שֶׁלֹּא בִכְּרָה, הֲרֵי זֶה לַכֹּהֵן. אִם סָפֵק, יֵאָכֵל בְּמוּמוֹ לַבְּעָלִים. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר, בְּהֵמָה גַסָּה שֶׁשָּׁפְעָה חֲרָרַת דָּם, הֲרֵי זוֹ תִקָּבֵר, וְנִפְטְרָה מִן הַבְּכוֹרָה:
5.1. כָּל פְּסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין (הֲנָאָתָן לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ), נִמְכָּרִין בָּאִטְלִיז (וְנִשְׁחָטִין בָּאִטְלִיז) וְנִשְׁקָלִין בְּלִטְרָא, חוּץ מִן הַבְּכוֹר וּמִן הַמַּעֲשֵׂר, שֶׁהֲנָיָתָן לַבְּעָלִים. פְּסוּלֵי הַמֻּקְדָּשִׁין הֲנָיָתָן לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ. וְשׁוֹקְלִין מָנֶה כְנֶגֶד מָנֶה בַּבְּכוֹר:
5.3. הַצּוֹרֵם בְּאֹזֶן הַבְּכוֹר, הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִשָּׁחֵט עוֹלָמִית, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, כְּשֶׁיִּוָּלֵד לוֹ מוּם אַחֵר, יִשָּׁחֵט עָלָיו. מַעֲשֶׂה בְזָכָר שֶׁל רְחֵלִים זָקֵן וּשְׂעָרוֹ מְדֻלְדָּל, רָאָהוּ קַסְדּוֹר אֶחָד, אָמַר, מַה טִּיבוֹ שֶׁל זֶה. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, בְּכוֹר הוּא וְאֵינוֹ נִשְׁחָט אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה בּוֹ מוּם. נָטַל פִּגְיוֹן וְצָרַם בְּאָזְנוֹ, וּבָא מַעֲשֶׂה לִפְנֵי חֲכָמִים וְהִתִּירוּהוּ. רָאָה שֶׁהִתִּירוּ, וְהָלַךְ וְצָרַם בְּאָזְנֵי בְכוֹרוֹת אֲחֵרִים, וְאָסָרוּ. פַּעַם אַחַת הָיוּ תִינוֹקוֹת מְשַׂחֲקִין בַּשָּׂדֶה וְקָשְׁרוּ זַנְבוֹת טְלָאִים זֶה לָזֶה, וְנִפְסְקָה זְנָבוֹ שֶׁל אֶחָד מֵהֶם וַהֲרֵי הוּא בְכוֹר, וּבָא מַעֲשֶׂה לִפְנֵי חֲכָמִים וְהִתִּירוּהוּ. רָאוּ שֶׁהִתִּירוּ, וְהָלְכוּ וְקָשְׁרוּ זַנְבוֹת בְּכוֹרוֹת אֲחֵרִים, וְאָסָרוּ. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כֹּל שֶׁהוּא לְדַעְתּוֹ, אָסוּר. וְשֶׁלֹּא לְדַעְתּוֹ, מֻתָּר:''. None
1.2. If a cow gave birth to a species of donkey, or a donkey gave birth to a species of horse, it is exempt from the law of the firstling, for it is said, “the firstling of a donkey,” “the firstling of a donkey,” twice to teach that the law of the firstling does not apply until that which gives birth is a donkey and that which is born is a donkey. And what is the law with regard to eating them? If a clean animal gave birth to a species of unclean animal, it is permitted to be eaten. But if an unclean animal gave birth to a species of a clean animal, it is forbidden to be eaten, for that which comes out of the unclean is unclean and that which comes out of the clean is clean. If an unclean fish swallowed a clean fish, it is permitted to be eaten. But if a clean fish has swallowed an unclean fish, the latter is forbidden to be eaten, because it is not the clean fish's growth." '
3.1. If one buys an animal from a non-Jew and it is not known whether it had given birth or had not given birth: Rabbi Ishmael says: that born of a goat in its first year certainly belongs to the priest; after that, it is a questionable case of a first-born. That born of a ewe two years old certainly belongs to the priest; after that, it is a questionable case of a first born. That born of a cow or a donkey three years old certainly belongs to the priest; after that, it is a questionable case of a first born. Rabbi Akiva to him: if an animal were exempted from the law of the first born only with the birth of actual offspring, it would be as you say. But they said: the sign of offspring in small cattle is a discharge from the womb. In large cattle, the after-birth; in a woman, the signs are the fetus and the after-birth. This is the general rule: Whenever it is known that it had given birth, the priest receives nothing. Whenever it had never given birth, it belongs to the priest. If there is a doubt, it shall be eaten blemished by the owners. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: if a large domestic animal has discharged a clot of blood, it the clot shall be buried, and it the mother is exempted from the law of the first born.
5.1. All dedicated animals which became unfit for the altar are sold in a market, slaughtered in a market and weighed by the liter, except for a first born or a tithed animal, as their profit goes to the owners, whereas the profit on dedicated objects which became unfit goes to the Temple. One can weigh one piece of meat of the first-born against another piece of ordinary meat.
5.3. If one makes a slit in the ear of a firstborn animal, he may never slaughter it, the words of Rabbi Eliezer. But the sages say: when another blemish appears, he may slaughter it on account of it. It happened that a quaestor (a Roman official) saw an old male lamb with its long wool hanging down and asked: what is the meaning of this? They replied: “It is a first born and is not to be slaughtered until it has a blemish,” The quaestor took a dagger and slit its ear. The matter came before the sages and they permitted it. After they had permitted, he went and sliced the ears of other first borns. The sages forbade them. Once children were once playing in a field. They tied the tails of sheep one to the other and one tail which belonged to a first born was severed. The matter came before the rabbis and they permitted the first born. When the children saw that they had permitted the first born to be slaughtered, they proceeded to tie the tails of other first borns. The sages forbade the other first borns. This is the rule: wherever the blemish is caused with the knowledge and consent of the owner it is forbidden, but, if it is not with his knowledge and consent, it is permitted.'". None
82. Mishnah, Eduyot, 5.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • wild animals

 Found in books: Porton (1988) 43; Rosenblum (2016) 96

5.2. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, שִׁשָּׁה דְבָרִים מִקֻּלֵי בֵית שַׁמַּאי וּמֵחֻמְרֵי בֵית הִלֵּל. הָעוֹף עוֹלֶה עִם הַגְּבִינָה עַל הַשֻּׁלְחָן וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל, כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית שַׁמָּאי. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ עוֹלֶה וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל. תּוֹרְמִין זֵיתִים עַל שֶׁמֶן, וַעֲנָבִים עַל יַיִן, כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית שַׁמָּאי. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אֵין תּוֹרְמִין. הַזּוֹרֵעַ אַרְבַּע אַמּוֹת שֶׁבַּכֶּרֶם, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, קִדֵּשׁ שׁוּרָה אַחַת, וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, קִדֵּשׁ שְׁתֵּי שׁוּרוֹת. הַמְּעִיסָה, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי פּוֹטְרִין, וּבֵית הִלֵּל מְחַיְּבִין. מַטְבִּילִין בְּחַרְדָּלִית, כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית שַׁמָּאי. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אֵין מַטְבִּילִין. גֵּר שֶׁנִּתְגַּיֵּר עַרְבֵי פְסָחִים, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, טוֹבֵל וְאוֹכֵל אֶת פִּסְחוֹ לָעֶרֶב. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, הַפּוֹרֵשׁ מִן הָעָרְלָה, כְּפוֹרֵשׁ מִן הַקָּבֶר:''. None
5.2. Rabbi Yose says: there are six instances of lenient rulings by Beth Shammai and stringent rulings by Beth Hillel.A fowl may be put on a table together with cheese but may not be eaten with it, according to the opinion of Beth Shammai. But Beth Hillel says: it may neither be put on the table together with it nor eaten with it. Olives may be given as terumah for oil and grapes for wine, according to the opinion of Beth Shammai. But Beth Hillel says: they may not be given. One who sows seed within four cubits of a vineyard: Beth Shammai says: he has caused one row of vines to be prohibited. But Beth Hillel says: he has caused two rows to be prohibited. Flour paste flour that had been mixed with boiling water: Beth Shammai exempts from the law of hallah; But Beth Hillel pronounces it liable. One may immerse oneself in a rain-torrent, according to the opinion of Beth Shammai; But Beth Hillel say: one may not immerse oneself therein. One who became a proselyte on the eve of Passover: Beth Shammai says: he may immerse himself and eat his Passover sacrifice in the evening. But Beth Hillel says: one who separates himself from uncircumcision is as one who separates himself from the grave.''. None
83. Mishnah, Hulin, 1.1-1.2, 2.4, 2.8-2.10, 3.1, 3.5-3.6, 5.3-5.4, 6.1-6.2, 6.7, 8.5, 9.2, 9.4, 10.3, 11.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • Animals, skins • Animals’ food • animal, domestic, topology of its body • animal, unfit for consumption (terefah) • carrion/torn animal • sacrifice, animal, comparison between Greek and Jewish • sacrifice, animal, fices of • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi • sacrifice, animal, women and • slaughter, of animals • wild animals

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 200, 201; Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 366; Petropoulou (2012) 146, 191, 196, 200, 201, 202; Porton (1988) 31, 32, 43, 44, 61, 62, 69, 77, 99, 100, 227, 266; Rosenblum (2016) 26, 96, 98, 99, 101, 111, 112

1.1. הַכֹּל שׁוֹחֲטִין וּשְׁחִיטָתָן כְּשֵׁרָה, חוּץ מֵחֵרֵשׁ, שׁוֹטֶה, וְקָטָן, שֶׁמָּא יְקַלְקְלוּ בִשְׁחִיטָתָן. וְכֻלָּן שֶׁשָּׁחֲטוּ וַאֲחֵרִים רוֹאִין אוֹתָן, שְׁחִיטָתָן כְּשֵׁרָה. שְׁחִיטַת נָכְרִי, נְבֵלָה, וּמְטַמְּאָה בְמַשָּׂא. הַשּׁוֹחֵט בַּלַּיְלָה, וְכֵן הַסּוּמָא שֶׁשָּׁחַט, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְשֵׁרָה. הַשּׁוֹחֵט בְּשַׁבָּת, וּבְיוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמִּתְחַיֵּב בְּנַפְשׁוֹ, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְשֵׁרָה: 1.2. הַשּׁוֹחֵט בְּמַגַּל יָד, בְּצוֹר, וּבְקָנֶה, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ כְשֵׁרָה. הַכֹּל שׁוֹחֲטִין וּלְעוֹלָם שׁוֹחֲטִין, וּבַכֹּל שׁוֹחֲטִין, חוּץ מִמַּגַּל קָצִיר, וְהַמְּגֵרָה, וְהַשִּׁנַּיִם, וְהַצִּפֹּרֶן, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן חוֹנְקִין. הַשּׁוֹחֵט בְּמַגַּל קָצִיר בְּדֶרֶךְ הֲלִיכָתָהּ, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי פּוֹסְלִין, וּבֵית הִלֵּל מַכְשִׁירִין. וְאִם הֶחֱלִיקוּ שִׁנֶּיהָ, הֲרֵי הִיא כְסַכִּין:
2.4. שָׁחַט אֶת הַוֶּשֶׁט וּפָסַק אֶת הַגַּרְגֶּרֶת, אוֹ שָׁחַט אֶת הַגַּרְגֶּרֶת וּפָסַק אֶת הַוֶּשֶׁט, אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁחַט אַחַד מֵהֶן וְהִמְתִּין לָהּ עַד שֶׁמֵּתָה, אוֹ שֶׁהֶחֱלִיד אֶת הַסַּכִּין תַּחַת הַשֵּׁנִי וּפְסָקוֹ, רַבִּי יְשֵׁבָב אוֹמֵר, נְבֵלָה. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, טְרֵפָה. כְּלָל אָמַר רַבִּי יְשֵׁבָב מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ, כֹּל שֶׁנִּפְסְלָה בִשְׁחִיטָתָהּ, נְבֵלָה. כֹּל שֶׁשְּׁחִיטָתָהּ כָּרָאוּי וְדָבָר אַחֵר גָּרַם לָהּ לִפָּסֵל, טְרֵפָה. וְהוֹדָה לוֹ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא:
2.8. הַשּׁוֹחֵט לְשֵׁם הָרִים, לְשֵׁם גְּבָעוֹת, לְשֵׁם יַמִּים, לְשֵׁם נְהָרוֹת, לְשֵׁם מִדְבָּרוֹת, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ פְסוּלָה. שְׁנַיִם אוֹחֲזִין בְּסַכִּין וְשׁוֹחֲטִין, אֶחָד לְשֵׁם אַחַד מִכָּל אֵלּוּ, וְאֶחָד לְשֵׁם דָּבָר כָּשֵׁר, שְׁחִיטָתוֹ פְסוּלָה: 2.9. אֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין לֹא לְתוֹךְ יַמִּים, וְלֹא לְתוֹךְ נְהָרוֹת, וְלֹא לְתוֹךְ כֵּלִים. אֲבָל שׁוֹחֵט הוּא לְתוֹךְ עוּגָא שֶׁל מַיִם, וּבִסְפִינָה, עַל גַּבֵּי כֵלִים. אֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין לְגֻמָּא כָּל עִקָּר, אֲבָל עוֹשֶׂה גֻמָּא בְתוֹךְ בֵּיתוֹ בִּשְׁבִיל שֶׁיִּכָּנֵס הַדָּם לְתוֹכָהּ. וּבַשּׁוּק לֹא יַעֲשֶׂה כֵן, שֶׁלֹּא יְחַקֶּה אֶת הַמִּינִין:' '
3.1. אֵלּוּ טְרֵפוֹת בַּבְּהֵמָה. נְקוּבַת הַוֶּשֶׁט, וּפְסוּקַת הַגַּרְגֶּרֶת, נִקַּב קְרוּם שֶׁל מֹחַ, נִקַּב הַלֵּב לְבֵית חֲלָלוֹ, נִשְׁבְּרָה הַשִּׁדְרָה וְנִפְסַק הַחוּט שֶׁלָּהּ, נִטַּל הַכָּבֵד וְלֹא נִשְׁתַּיֵּר הֵימֶנּוּ כְלוּם, הָרֵאָה שֶׁנִּקְּבָה, אוֹ שֶׁחָסְרָה, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, עַד שֶׁתִּנָּקֵב לְבֵית הַסִּמְפּוֹנוֹת. נִקְּבָה הַקֵּבָה, נִקְּבָה הַמָּרָה, נִקְּבוּ הַדַּקִּין, הַכֶּרֶס הַפְּנִימִית שֶׁנִּקְּבָה, אוֹ שֶׁנִּקְרַע רֹב הַחִיצוֹנָה, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הַגְּדוֹלָה טֶפַח, וְהַקְּטַנָּה בְּרֻבָּהּ. הַמְסֵס וּבֵית הַכּוֹסוֹת שֶׁנִּקְּבוּ לַחוּץ, נָפְלָה מִן הַגַּג, נִשְׁתַּבְּרוּ רֹב צַלְעוֹתֶיהָ, וּדְרוּסַת הַזְּאֵב. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, דְּרוּסַת הַזְּאֵב בַּדַּקָּה, וּדְרוּסַת אֲרִי בַּגַּסָּה, דְּרוּסַת הַנֵּץ בָּעוֹף הַדַּק, וּדְרוּסַת הַגַּס בָּעוֹף הַגָּס. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כֹּל שֶׁאֵין כָּמוֹהָ חַיָּה, טְרֵפָה:
3.5. אֲחוּזַת הַדָּם, וְהַמְּעֻשֶּׁנֶת, וְהַמְצֻנֶּנֶת, וְשֶׁאָכְלָה הַרְדֻּפְנִי, וְשֶׁאָכְלָה צוֹאַת תַּרְנְגוֹלִים, אוֹ שֶׁשָּׁתְתָה מַיִם הָרָעִים, כְּשֵׁרָה. אָכְלָה סַם הַמָּוֶת אוֹ שֶׁהִכִּישָׁהּ נָחָשׁ, מֻתֶּרֶת מִשּׁוּם טְרֵפָה, וַאֲסוּרָה מִשּׁוּם סַכָּנַת נְפָשׁוֹת: 3.6. סִימָנֵי בְהֵמָה וְחַיָּה נֶאֶמְרוּ מִן הַתּוֹרָה, וְסִימָנֵי הָעוֹף לֹא נֶאֱמָרוּ. אֲבָל אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים, כָּל עוֹף הַדּוֹרֵס, טָמֵא. כֹּל שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ אֶצְבַּע יְתֵרָה, וְזֶפֶק, וְקֻרְקְבָנוֹ נִקְלָף, טָהוֹר. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בַּר צָדוֹק אוֹמֵר, כָּל עוֹף הַחוֹלֵק אֶת רַגְלָיו, טָמֵא:
5.3. הַשּׁוֹחֵט וְנִמְצָא טְרֵפָה, הַשּׁוֹחֵט לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, וְהַשּׁוֹחֵט פָּרַת חַטָּאת, וְשׁוֹר הַנִּסְקָל, וְעֶגְלָה עֲרוּפָה, רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן פּוֹטֵר, וַחֲכָמִים מְחַיְּבִין. הַשּׁוֹחֵט וְנִתְנַבְּלָה בְיָדוֹ, וְהַנּוֹחֵר, וְהַמְּעַקֵּר, פָּטוּר מִשּׁוּם אוֹתוֹ וְאֶת בְּנוֹ. שְׁנַיִם שֶׁלָּקְחוּ פָרָה וּבְנָהּ, אֵיזֶה שֶׁלָּקַח רִאשׁוֹן, יִשְׁחֹט רִאשׁוֹן. וְאִם קָדַם הַשֵּׁנִי, זָכָה. שָׁחַט פָּרָה וְאַחַר כָּךְ שְׁנֵי בָנֶיהָ, סוֹפֵג שְׁמוֹנִים. שָׁחַט שְׁנֵי בָנֶיהָ וְאַחַר כָּךְ שְׁחָטָהּ, סוֹפֵג אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים. שְׁחָטָהּ וְאֶת בִּתָּהּ וְאֶת בַּת בִּתָּהּ, סוֹפֵג שְׁמוֹנִים. שְׁחָטָהּ וְאֶת בַּת בִּתָּהּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ שָׁחַט אֶת בִּתָּהּ, סוֹפֵג אֶת הָאַרְבָּעִים. סוּמְכוֹס אוֹמֵר מִשּׁוּם רַבִּי מֵאִיר, סוֹפֵג שְׁמוֹנִים. בְּאַרְבָּעָה פְרָקִים בַּשָּׁנָה הַמּוֹכֵר בְּהֵמָה לַחֲבֵרוֹ צָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעוֹ, אִמָּהּ מָכַרְתִּי לִשְׁחֹט, בִּתָּהּ מָכַרְתִּי לִשְׁחֹט. וְאֵלּוּ הֵן, עֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב הָאַחֲרוֹן שֶׁל חָג, וְעֶרֶב יוֹם טוֹב הָרִאשׁוֹן שֶׁל פֶּסַח, וְעֶרֶב עֲצֶרֶת, וְעֶרֶב רֹאשׁ הַשָּׁנָה, וּכְדִבְרֵי רַבִּי יוֹסֵי הַגְּלִילִי, אַף עֶרֶב יוֹם הַכִּפּוּרִים בַּגָּלִיל. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁאֵין לוֹ רֶוַח. אֲבָל יֶשׁ לוֹ רֶוַח, אֵין צָרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעוֹ. וּמוֹדֶה רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בְּמוֹכֵר אֶת הָאֵם לֶחָתָן וְאֶת הַבַּת לַכַּלָּה, שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לְהוֹדִיעַ, בְּיָדוּעַ שֶׁשְּׁנֵיהֶם שׁוֹחֲטִין בְּיוֹם אֶחָד: 5.4. בְּאַרְבָּעָה פְרָקִים אֵלּוּ מַשְׁחִיטִין אֶת הַטַּבָּח בְּעַל כָּרְחוֹ. אֲפִלּוּ שׁוֹר שָׁוֶה אֶלֶף דִּינָרִין וְאֵין לוֹ לַלּוֹקֵחַ אֶלָּא דִינָר, כּוֹפִין אוֹתוֹ לִשְׁחֹט, לְפִיכָךְ, אִם מֵת, מֵת לַלּוֹקֵחַ. אֲבָל בִּשְׁאָר יְמוֹת הַשָּׁנָה, אֵינוֹ כֵן. לְפִיכָךְ, אִם מֵת, מֵת לַמּוֹכֵר:
6.1. כִּסּוּי הַדָּם נוֹהֵג בָּאָרֶץ וּבְחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ, בִּפְנֵי הַבַּיִת וְשֶׁלֹּא בִפְנֵי הַבַּיִת, בְּחֻלִּין אֲבָל לֹא בְמֻקְדָּשִׁים. וְנוֹהֵג בְּחַיָּה וּבְעוֹף, בִּמְזֻמָּן וּבְשֶׁאֵינוֹ מְזֻמָּן. וְנוֹהֵג בְּכוֹי, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא סָפֵק. וְאֵין שׁוֹחֲטִין אוֹתוֹ בְיוֹם טוֹב. וְאִם שְׁחָטוֹ, אֵין מְכַסִּין אֶת דָּמוֹ: 6.2. הַשּׁוֹחֵט וְנִמְצָא טְרֵפָה, וְהַשּׁוֹחֵט לַעֲבוֹדָה זָרָה, וְהַשּׁוֹחֵט חֻלִּין בִּפְנִים, וְקָדָשִׁים בַּחוּץ, חַיָּה וָעוֹף הַנִּסְקָלִים, רַבִּי מֵאִיר מְחַיֵּב, וַחֲכָמִים פּוֹטְרִין. הַשׁוֹחֵט וְנִתְנַבְּלָה בְיָדוֹ, הַנּוֹחֵר, וְהַמְעַקֵּר, פָּטוּר מִלְּכַסּוֹת:
6.7. בַּמֶּה מְכַסִּין, וּבַמָּה אֵין מְכַסִּין. מְכַסִּין בְּזֶבֶל הַדַּק, וּבְחֹל הַדַּק, בְּסִיד, וּבְחַרְסִית, וּבִלְבֵנָה וּבִמְגוּפָה שֶׁכְּתָשָׁן. אֲבָל אֵין מְכַסִּין לֹא בְזֶבֶל הַגַּס, וְלֹא בְחוֹל הַגַּס, וְלֹא בִלְבֵנָה וּמְגוּפָה שֶׁלֹא כְתָשָׁן, וְלֹא יִכְפֶּה עָלָיו אֶת הַכֶּלִי. כְּלָל אָמַר רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, דָּבָר שֶׁמְּגַדֵּל בּוֹ צְמָחִין, מְכַסִּין בּוֹ. וְשֶׁאֵינוֹ מְגַדֵּל צְמָחִין, אֵין מְכַסִּין בּוֹ:
8.5. קֵבַת נָכְרִי וְשֶׁל נְבֵלָה, הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲסוּרָה. הַמַּעֲמִיד בְּעוֹר שֶׁל קֵבָה כְשֵׁרָה, אִם יֵשׁ בְּנוֹתֵן טַעַם, הֲרֵי זוֹ אֲסוּרָה. כְּשֵׁרָה שֶׁיָּנְקָה מִן הַטְּרֵפָה, קֵבָתָהּ אֲסוּרָה. טְרֵפָה שֶׁיָּנְקָה מִן הַכְּשֵׁרָה, קֵבָתָהּ מֻתֶּרֶת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁכָּנוּס בְּמֵעֶיהָ:
9.2. אֵלּוּ שֶׁעוֹרוֹתֵיהֶן כִּבְשָׂרָן, עוֹר הָאָדָם, וְעוֹר חֲזִיר שֶׁל יִשּׁוּב. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אַף עוֹר חֲזִיר הַבָּר. וְעוֹר חֲטוֹטֶרֶת שֶׁל גָּמָל הָרַכָּה, וְעוֹר הָרֹאשׁ שֶׁל עֵגֶל הָרַךְ, וְעוֹר הַפְּרָסוֹת, וְעוֹר בֵּית הַבֹּשֶׁת, וְעוֹר הַשָּׁלִיל, וְעוֹר שֶׁתַּחַת הָאַלְיָה, וְעוֹר הָאֲנָקָה וְהַכֹּחַ וְהַלְּטָאָה וְהַחֹמֶט. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הַלְּטָאָה כַחֻלְדָּה. וְכֻלָּן שֶׁעִבְּדָן אוֹ שֶׁהִלֵּךְ בָּהֶן כְּדֵי עֲבוֹדָה, טְהוֹרִין, חוּץ מֵעוֹר הָאָדָם. רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן נוּרִי אוֹמֵר, שְׁמֹנָה שְׁרָצִים יֵשׁ לָהֶן עוֹרוֹת:
9.4. עוֹר שֶׁיֵּשׁ עָלָיו כַּזַּיִת בָּשָׂר, הַנּוֹגֵע בְּצִיב הַיּוֹצֵא מִמֶּנּוּ, וּבְשַׂעֲרָה שֶׁכְּנֶגְדּוֹ, טָמֵא. הָיוּ עָלָיו כִּשְׁנֵי חֲצָאֵי זֵיתִים, מְטַמֵּא בְמַשָּׂא וְלֹא בְמַגָּע, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, לֹא בְמַגָּע וְלֹא בְמַשָּׂא. וּמוֹדֶה רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא בִּשְׁנֵי חֲצָאֵי זֵיתִים שֶׁתְּחָבָן בְּקֵיסָם וֶהֱסִיטָן, שֶׁהוּא טָמֵא. וּמִפְּנֵי מָה רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא מְטַהֵר בָּעוֹר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהָעוֹר מְבַטְּלָן:
10.3. בְּכוֹר שֶׁנִּתְעָרֵב בְּמֵאָה, בִּזְמַן שֶׁמֵּאָה שׁוֹחֲטִין אֶת כֻּלָּן, פּוֹטְרִין אֶת כֻּלָּן. אֶחָד שׁוֹחֵט אֶת כֻּלָּן, פּוֹטְרִין לוֹ אֶחָד. הַשּׁוֹחֵט לְכֹהֵן וּלְנָכְרִי, פָּטוּר מִן הַמַּתָּנוֹת. וְהַמִּשְׁתַּתֵּף עִמָּהֶן, צָרִיךְ שֶׁיִּרְשֹׁם. וְאִם אָמַר חוּץ מִן הַמַּתָּנוֹת, פָּטוּר מִן הַמַּתָּנוֹת. אָמַר, מְכֹר לִי בְנֵי מֵעֶיהָ שֶׁל פָּרָה, וְהָיוּ בָהֶן מַתָּנוֹת, נוֹתְנָן לְכֹהֵן וְאֵינוֹ מְנַכֶּה לוֹ מִן הַדָּמִים. לָקַח הֵימֶנּוּ בְמִשְׁקָל, נוֹתְנָן לְכֹהֵן וּמְנַכֶּה לוֹ מִן הַדָּמִים:
11.2. וְכַמָּה הוּא מְרֻבֶּה. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, שְׁתֵּי רְחֵלוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ישעיה ז), יְחַיֶּה אִישׁ עֶגְלַת בָּקָר וּשְׁתֵּי צֹאן. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, חָמֵשׁ, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל א כה), חָמֵשׁ צֹאן עֲשׂוּיוֹת. רַבִּי דוֹסָא בֶּן הַרְכִּינָס אוֹמֵר, חָמֵשׁ רְחֵלוֹת גּוֹזְזוֹת מָנֶה מָנֶה וּפְרָס, חַיָּבוֹת בְּרֵאשִׁית הַגֵּז. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, חָמֵשׁ רְחֵלוֹת גּוֹזְזוֹת כָּל שֶׁהֵן. וְכַמָּה נוֹתְנִין לוֹ. מִשְׁקַל חָמֵשׁ סְלָעִים בִּיהוּדָה, שֶׁהֵן עֶשֶׂר סְלָעִים בַּגָּלִיל, מְלֻבָּן וְלֹא צוֹאִי, כְּדֵי לַעֲשׂוֹת מִמֶּנּוּ בֶגֶד קָטָן, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים יח), תִּתֶּן לוֹ, שֶׁיְּהֵא בוֹ כְדֵי מַתָּנָה. לֹא הִסְפִּיק לִתְּנוֹ לוֹ עַד שֶׁצְּבָעוֹ, פָּטוּר. לִבְּנוֹ וְלֹא צְבָעוֹ, חַיָּב. הַלּוֹקֵחַ גֵּז צֹאנוֹ שֶׁל נָכְרִי, פָּטוּר מֵרֵאשִׁית הַגֵּז. הַלּוֹקֵחַ גֵּז צֹאנוֹ שֶׁל חֲבֵרוֹ, אִם שִׁיֵּר הַמּוֹכֵר, הַמּוֹכֵר חַיָּב. לֹא שִׁיֵּר, הַלּוֹקֵחַ חַיָּב. הָיוּ לוֹ שְׁנֵי מִינִים, שְׁחוּפוֹת וּלְבָנוֹת, מָכַר לוֹ שְׁחוּפוֹת אֲבָל לֹא לְבָנוֹת, זְכָרִים אֲבָל לֹא נְקֵבוֹת, זֶה נוֹתֵן לְעַצְמוֹ וְזֶה נוֹתֵן לְעַצְמוֹ:''. None
1.1. All may slaughter, and their slaughtering is valid, except a deaf-mute, an imbecile or a minor, lest they mess up the animal through their slaughtering. And if any of these slaughtered while others were standing over them, their slaughtering is valid. That which is slaughtered by a non-Jew is a nevelah and defiles by carrying. If one slaughtered at night, and also a blind man that slaughtered, the slaughtering is valid. One who slaughtered on Shabbat or Yom Kippur, even though he is liable for his own life, the slaughtering is valid. 1.2. If one slaughtered with the smooth edge of a hand sickle, with a flint or with a reed, the slaughtering is valid. All may slaughter; at all times one may slaughter; and with any implement one may slaughter, except a scythe, a saw, teeth or a finger nail, since these strangle. One who slaughtered with a scythe, moving it forward only: Bet Shammai declare it invalid, But Bet Hillel declare it valid. If the teeth of the scythe were filed away it is regarded as an ordinary knife.
2.4. If one first sliced the esophagus and then cut away the windpipe, or first cut away the windpipe and then sliced the esophagus; or if he sliced one of these organs and paused until the animal died; or if he thrust the knife underneath the second organ and cut it: In all these cases Rabbi Yeshevav says: the animal is nevelah; Rabbi Akiva says: it is terefah. Rabbi Yeshevav stated this general rule in the name of Rabbi Joshua: whenever an animal is rendered invalid by a fault in the slaughtering it is nevelah; whenever an animal has been duly slaughtered but is rendered invalid by some other defect it is terefah. And Rabbi Akiba ultimately agreed with him.
2.8. If one slaughtered an animal as a sacrifice to mountains, hills, seas, rivers, or deserts, the slaughtering is invalid. If two persons held a knife and slaughtered an animal, one intending it as a sacrifice to one of these things and the other for a legitimate purpose, the slaughtering is invalid. 2.9. One may not slaughter so that the blood runs into the sea or into rivers, or into vessels, But one may slaughter into a pool (or vessel) of water. And when on board a ship on to vessels. One may not slaughter at all into a hole, but one may dig a hole in his own house for the blood to run into. In the street, however, he should not do so as not to follow the ways of the heretics. 2.10. If one slaughtered an unconsecrated animal outside the Temple court for it to be an olah or a shelamim or an asham for a doubtful sin or as a Pesah or a todah, the slaughtering is invalid. But Rabbi Shimon declares it valid. If two persons held one knife and slaughtered an unconsecrated animal outside the Temple court, one declaring it to be one of the above and the other intending it for a legitimate purpose, the slaughtering is invalid. If one slaughtered an unconsecrated animal outside the Temple court for it to be a hatat or an asham or a first-born or the tithe of cattle or a substitute offering, the slaughtering is valid. This is the general rule: if one slaughtered an animal declaring it to be a sacrifice which can be brought either as a voluntary or a freewill-offering it is invalid, but if he declares it to be a sacrifice which cannot be brought either as a votive or a freewill-offering it is valid.
3.1. The following defects render cattle terefah:If the esophagus was pierced; If the windpipe severed; If the membrane of the brain was pierced; If the heart was pierced as far as its cavity thereof; If the spine was broken and the cord severed; If the liver was gone and none of it remained; If the lung was pierced, Or if part of it was missing Rabbi Shimon says: only if it was pierced as far as the main bronchi; If the stomach, If the gall-bladder was pierced, If the intestines were pierced; If the innermost stomach was pierced, If the greater part of the outer stomach was pierced. Rabbi Judah says: in a large animal if it was torn to the extent of a handbreadth, and in a small animal the greater part. If the omasum (the third stomach of a rumit) was pierced; of if the second stomach was pierced on the outside; If the animal fell from the roof; If most of its ribs were fractured; Or if it was mauled by a wolf Rabbi Judah says: small animals are terefah if mauled by a wolf, large cattle if mauled by a lion; small fowl if mauled by a hawk, large fowl if mauled by a falcon. This is the rule: if an animal with a similar defect could not continue to live, it is terefah.
3.5. If an animal suffered from congestion of the blood, or was overcome by smoke or by a cold, or if it ate oleander or chicken dung, or if it drank noxious water, it is permitted. If it ate poison or was bitten by a snake, it is not forbidden as trefah but it is forbidden as a danger to life. 3.6. The characteristics of cattle and of wild animals are stated in the Torah. The characteristics of birds are not stated, but the sages said: every bird that seizes its prey is unclean. Every bird that has an extra toe, or a crop and a gizzard that can be peeled, is clean. Rabbi Elazar bar Zadok says: every bird that parts its toes is unclean.' "
5.3. If a person slaughtered an animal and it was found to be terefah, or if he slaughtered it as an offering to idols, or if he slaughtered the red cow, or an ox which was condemned to be stoned, or a heifer whose neck was to be broken: Rabbi Shimon exempts him from having transgressed the law of “it and its young”; But the sages make him liable. If a person slaughtered an animal and it became nevelah under his hand, or if he stabbed it, or tore away the organs of the throat, he does not thereby transgress the law of it and its young. If two people bought a cow and its young, he who bought first can slaughter first; but if the second preceded him, he holds his advantage. If a person slaughtered a cow and then two of its calves, he is liable for eighty lashes. If he slaughtered its two calves and then the cow, he is liable for forty lashes. If he slaughtered it and then its calf and then the calf's offspring, he is liable for eighty lashes. If he slaughtered it and then its calf's offspring and then the calf, he is liable for forty lashes. Symmachos says in the name of r. Meir: he is liable for eighty lashes. At four periods in the year he who sells a beast to another must inform him, “I sold today its mother to be slaughtered,” or “I sold today its young to be slaughtered,” and these are they: on the eve of the last day of the feast of Sukkot, on the eve of the first day of Pesah, on the eve of Shavuot, and on the eve of Rosh Hashanah. According to Rabbi Yose the Galilean, also on the eve of Yom Kippur, in the Galilee. Rabbi Judah says, this is so, only when there was no time in between the sales, but if there was time, he need not inform him. Rabbi Judah agrees that if he sold the mother to the bridegroom and the young to the bride, he must inform them of it, for it is certain that they will each slaughter on the same day." '5.4. At these four periods a butcher can be compelled to slaughter against his will. Even if the ox was worth a thousand dinars and the purchaser has only paid a dinar, they can force the butcher to slaughter it. Therefore if the animal died, the loss is upon the purchaser. At other times of the year it is not so, therefore if the animal died, the loss is upon the seller.' "
6.1. The law of “covering up the blood” applies both within the land of Israel and outside it, both during the existence of the Temple and after it, It applies to unconsecrated animal, but not consecrated animals. It applies only to wild animals and birds, whether they are at one's disposal or not. It applies also to a koy, for it is an animal about which there is a doubt. It may therefore not be slaughtered on a festival; and if it was slaughtered on a festival one may not cover up its blood." '6.2. If a person slaughtered a wild animal or a bird and it was found to be terefah, or if he slaughtered it as an offering to idols, or if he slaughtered that which was unconsecrated inside the sanctuary or that which was consecrated outside, or if he slaughtered a wild animal or a bird that was condemned to be stoned: Rabbi Meir makes him liable to cover up the blood; But the sages make him exempt. If he slaughtered a wild animal or a bird and it became nevelah under his hand, or if he stabbed it, or tore away the organs of the throat, he is exempt from covering up the blood.
6.7. With what may one cover up the blood and with what may one not cover it up?One may cover it up with fine dung, with fine sand, with lime, with white clay, or a brick or an earthenware stopper of a cask that have been ground into powder. But one may not cover it up with coarse dung or coarse sand, or with a brick or an earthenware stopper of a cask that have not been ground into powder. Nor may one cover it with a vessel. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel stated a general rule: one may cover it with anything in which plants would grow; but one may not cover it with anything in which plants would not grow.
8.5. The milk in the stomach of an animal of a Gentile or in the stomach of a nevelah is forbidden. If a man curdled milk with the skin of the stomach of an animal that was validly slaughtered and it imparted its flavor to the milk it is forbidden. The milk in the stomach of a validly slaughtered animal which had suckled from a terefah animal is forbidden. The milk in the stomach of a terefah animal which had suckled from a kosher animal is permitted, because the milk is collected inside.
9.2. In the following cases the skin is considered flesh: The skin of a person, The skin of the domesticated pig. Rabbi Yose says: even the skin of the wild pig. The skin of the hump of a young camel. The skin of the head of a young calf. The skin around the hooves. The skin of the pudenda. The skin of a fetus. The skin beneath the fat tail. The skin of the gecko, the monitor, the lizard and the skink. Rabbi Judah says: the lizard is like the weasel. If any of these skins was tanned or trampled upon as much as was usual for tanning, it becomes clean, excepting the skin of a man. Rabbi Yoha ben Nuri says: the eight reptiles have real skins.
9.4. A hide which had an olive’s bulk of unclean flesh clinging to it, one who touches a shred hanging from it, or a hair that was opposite to it, he becomes unclean. If there were two pieces of flesh attached to it, each the size of half an olive, they convey uncleanness by carrying but not by contact, the words of Rabbi Ishmael. Rabbi Akiva says: neither by contact nor by carrying. Rabbi Akiva agrees that if there were two pieces of flesh, each the size of half of an olive, that he stuck on a twig and he waved them, he becomes unclean. Why then does Rabbi Akiva declare him clean in the case where they cling to the hide? Because the hide renders them negligible.
10.3. A first-born got mixed up with a hundred other animals: If a hundred and one persons slaughtered them all, they are all exempt from the gifts. If one person slaughtered them all, only one animal is exempt from the gifts. If a man slaughtered an animal for a priest or a non-Jew, he is exempt from the gifts. If he had a share in the animal with them, he must indicate this by some sign. If he said, “Except the gifts” he is exempt from giving the gifts. If he said, “Sell me the entrails of a cow” and among them were the gifts, he must give them to a priest and the seller does not need to reduce the price. But if he bought them from him by weight, he must give them to a priest, and the seller must reduce the price.
11.2. How much is “many”? Bet Shammai say: at least two sheep, as it is said, “A man shall rear a young cow and two sheep (tzon)” (Isaiah 7:21). Bet Hillel say: five, as it is said, “Five dressed sheep (tzon)” (I Samuel 28:18). Rabbi Dosa ben Harkinas says: five sheep, which each produce a fleece which weighs a maneh and a half, are subject to the law of the first of the fleece. But the sages say: five sheep, whatever their fleeces weigh. And how much should one give him? The weight of five selas in Judah, which is equal to ten selas in Galilee. Bleached wool and not dirty wool, sufficient to make from it a small garment, for it is written, “Give him,” when there is enough to be considered a gift. If the owner did not manage to give the fleece to the priest until he dyed it, he is exempt. If he bleached it but did not dye it, he is still liable. If a man bought the fleeces of a flock belonging to a non-Jew, he is exempt from the law of the first of the fleece. If a man bought the fleeces of a flock belonging to his neighbor: If the seller kept some back, the seller is liable, But if he did not withhold anything, the buyer is liable. If he had two kinds of wool, grey and white, and he sold the grey but not the white, or if he sold the wool of the males but not of the females, each must give the first of the fleece for himself.''. None
84. Mishnah, Maaser Sheni, 5.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Yahweh, animals of • animals, • animals, sacred, in Judea • tithes, of animals

 Found in books: Gordon (2020) 190; Wilson (2010) 337

5.2. כֶּרֶם רְבָעִי הָיָה עוֹלֶה לִירוּשָׁלַיִם מַהֲלַךְ יוֹם אֶחָד לְכָל צָד. וְאֵיזוֹ הִיא תְחוּמָהּ, אֵילַת מִן הַדָּרוֹם וְעַקְרַבַּת מִן הַצָּפוֹן, לוֹד מִן הַמַּעֲרָב וְהַיַּרְדֵּן מִן הַמִּזְרָח. וּמִשֶּׁרַבּוּ הַפֵּרוֹת, הִתְקִינוּ שֶׁיְּהֵא נִפְדֶּה סָמוּךְ לַחוֹמָה. וּתְנַאי הָיָה הַדָּבָר, שֶׁאֵימָתַי שֶׁיִּרְצוּ, יַחֲזֹר הַדָּבָר לִכְמוֹת שֶׁהָיָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁחָרַב בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, הָיָה הַתְּנַאי הַזֶּה. וּתְנַאי הָיָה, אֵימָתַי שֶׁיִּבָּנֶה בֵּית הַמִּקְדָּשׁ, יַחֲזֹר הַדָּבָר לִכְמוֹת שֶׁהָיָה:''. None
5.2. The produce of a vineyard in its fourth year was brought up to Jerusalem within a distance of one day’s journey on each side. And what is the border of a day’s journey on each side? Eilat to the south, Akrabat on the north, Lod to the west, and the Jordan river to the east. When produce increased, it was decreed that it can be redeemed even if the vineyard was close to the wall. And there was a stipulation on this matter, that whenever it was so desired, the arrangement would be restored as it had been before. Rabbi Yose says: this was the stipulation after the Temple was destroyed, and the stipulation was that when the Temple should be rebuilt the arrangement would be restored as it had been before.''. None
85. Mishnah, Miqvaot, 8.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • horvat Anim

 Found in books: Levine (2005) 335; Porton (1988) 153

8.1. אֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל טְהוֹרָה, וּמִקְוְאוֹתֶיהָ טְהוֹרִים. מִקְוְאוֹת הָעַמִּים שֶׁבְּחוּצָה לָאָרֶץ, כְּשֵׁרִים לְבַעֲלֵי קְרָיִין, אֲפִלּוּ נִתְמַלְּאוּ בְקִילוֹן. שֶׁבְּאֶרֶץ יִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁחוּץ לַמַּפְתֵּחַ, כְּשֵׁרִים אַף לְנִדּוֹת. מִלִּפְנִים מִן הַמַּפְתֵּחַ, כְּשֵׁרִים לְבַעֲלֵי קְרָיִין, וּפְסוּלִים לְכָל הַטְּמֵאִים. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, הַקְּרוֹבִים לָעִיר וְלַדֶּרֶךְ, טְמֵאִים, מִפְּנֵי הַכְּבִיסָה. וְהָרְחוֹקִים, טְהוֹרִים:''. None
8.1. The land of Israel is clean and its mikvaot are clean. The mikvaot of the nations outside the land are valid for those who had a seminal emission even though they have been filled by a pump-beam; Those in the land of Israel: when outside the entrance to the city are valid even for menstruants, and those within the entrance to the city are valid for those who had a seminal emission but invalid for all others who are unclean. Rabbi Eliezer says: those which are near to a city or to a road are unclean because of laundering; but those at a distance are clean.''. None
86. Mishnah, Pesahim, 5.6, 8.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal, specification of • goats, as specific type of animal • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi • sacrifice, animal, women and

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 148, 168, 169; Petropoulou (2012) 200

5.6. שָׁחַט יִשְׂרָאֵל וְקִבֵּל הַכֹּהֵן, נוֹתְנוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ וַחֲבֵרוֹ לַחֲבֵרוֹ, וּמְקַבֵּל אֶת הַמָּלֵא וּמַחֲזִיר אֶת הָרֵיקָן. כֹּהֵן הַקָּרוֹב אֵצֶל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ זוֹרְקוֹ זְרִיקָה אַחַת כְּנֶגֶד הַיְסוֹד:
8.2. הָאוֹמֵר לְעַבְדּוֹ, צֵא וּשְׁחֹט עָלַי אֶת הַפֶּסַח, שָׁחַט גְּדִי, יֹאכַל. שָׁחַט טָלֶה, יֹאכַל. שָׁחַט גְּדִי וְטָלֶה, יֹאכַל מִן הָרִאשׁוֹן. שָׁכַח מָה אָמַר לוֹ רַבּוֹ, כֵּיצַד יַעֲשֶׂה, יִשְׁחַט טָלֶה וּגְדִי וְיֹאמַר, אִם גְּדִי אָמַר לִי רַבִּי, גְּדִי שֶׁלּוֹ וְטָלֶה שֶׁלִּי. וְאִם טָלֶה אָמַר לִי רַבִּי, הַטָּלֶה שֶׁלּוֹ וּגְדִי שֶׁלִּי. שָׁכַח רַבּוֹ מָה אָמַר לוֹ, שְׁנֵיהֶם יֵצְאוּ לְבֵית הַשְּׂרֵפָה, וּפְטוּרִין מִלַּעֲשׂוֹת פֶּסַח שֵׁנִי:''. None
5.6. The Israelite killed the lamb; And the priest caught the blood. He would hand it to his colleague and his colleague would hand it to his colleague. And he would receive the full basin and give back the empty one. The priest nearest the altar would sprinkle it once over against the base or the altar.
8.2. One who says to his slave, “Go out and slaughter the pesah on my behalf”, if he slaughtered a kid, he may eat it; if he slaughtered a lamb, he may eat it; if he slaughtered a kid and a lamb, he eats the first. If he forgot what his master told him, how should he act? He should slaughter a lamb and a kid and declare, “If my master told me to slaughter a kid, the kid is his and the lamb is mine; and if my master told me to slaughter a lamb, the lamb is his and the kid is mine.” If his master also forgot what he told him, both animals go to the place of burning, but they the master and the slave are exempt from sacrificing the second pesah.''. None
87. Mishnah, Zevahim, 5.8, 9.1, 10.2, 10.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • offerings, sacrificial, animals • Yahweh, animals of • animal • animals, sacred, in Judea • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi • substitution, of animal for self • tithes, of animals

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 50, 78; Gordon (2020) 190; Neusner (2001) 161, 163; Petropoulou (2012) 192, 193

5.8. הַבְּכוֹר וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר וְהַפֶּסַח, קָדָשִׁים קַלִּים, שְׁחִיטָתָן בְּכָל מָקוֹם בָּעֲזָרָה, וְדָמָן טָעוּן מַתָּנָה אַחַת, וּבִלְבָד שֶׁיִּתֵּן כְּנֶגֶד הַיְסוֹד. שִׁנָּה בַאֲכִילָתָן, הַבְּכוֹר נֶאֱכָל לַכֹּהֲנִים, וְהַמַּעֲשֵׂר לְכָל אָדָם, וְנֶאֱכָלִין בְּכָל הָעִיר, לְכָל אָדָם, בְּכָל מַאֲכָל, לִשְׁנֵי יָמִים וְלַיְלָה אֶחָד. הַפֶּסַח אֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל אֶלָּא בַלַּיְלָה, וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל אֶלָּא עַד חֲצוֹת, וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל אֶלָּא לִמְנוּיָו, וְאֵינוֹ נֶאֱכָל אֶלָּא צָלִי:
9.1. הַמִּזְבֵּחַ מְקַדֵּשׁ אֶת הָרָאוּי לוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, כָּל הָרָאוּי לָאִשִּׁים, אִם עָלָה לֹא יֵרֵד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (ויקרא ו), הִוא הָעֹלָה עַל מוֹקְדָה עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. מָה עוֹלָה שֶׁהִיא רְאוּיָה לָאִשִּׁים, אִם עָלְתָה לֹא תֵרֵד, אַף כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לָאִשִּׁים, אִם עָלָה לֹא יֵרֵד. רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, כָּל הָרָאוּי לַמִּזְבֵּחַ, אִם עָלָה לֹא יֵרֵד, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר, הִוא הָעֹלָה עַל מוֹקְדָה עַל הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. מַה עוֹלָה שֶׁהִיא רְאוּיָה לַמִּזְבֵּחַ אִם עָלְתָה לֹא תֵרֵד, אַף כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁהוּא רָאוּי לַמִּזְבֵּחַ אִם עָלָה לֹא יֵרֵד. אֵין בֵּין דִּבְרֵי רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל לְדִבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אֶלָּא הַדָּם וְהַנְּסָכִים, שֶׁרַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר לֹא יֵרְדוּ, וְרַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר יֵרֵדוּ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, הַזֶּבַח כָּשֵׁר וְהַנְּסָכִים פְּסוּלִים, הַנְּסָכִים כְּשֵׁרִין וְהַזֶּבַח פָּסוּל, אֲפִלּוּ זֶה וָזֶה פְּסוּלִין, הַזֶּבַח לֹא יֵרֵד, וְהַנְּסָכִים יֵרֵדוּ:
10.2. וְכֹל הַמְקֻדָּשׁ מֵחֲבֵרוֹ, קוֹדֵם אֶת חֲבֵרוֹ. דַּם חַטָּאת קוֹדֵם לְדַם עוֹלָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מְרַצֶּה. אֵבְרֵי עוֹלָה קוֹדְמִין לְאֵמוּרֵי חַטָּאת, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן כָּלִיל לָאִשִּׁים. חַטָּאת קוֹדֶמֶת לְאָשָׁם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁדָּמָהּ נִתָּן עַל אַרְבַּע קְרָנוֹת וְעַל הַיְּסוֹד. אָשָׁם קוֹדֵם לְתוֹדָה וּלְאֵיל נָזִיר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא קָדְשֵׁי קָדָשִׁים. הַתּוֹדָה וְאֵיל נָזִיר קוֹדְמִין לִשְׁלָמִים, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵן נֶאֱכָלִין לְיוֹם אֶחָד, וּטְעוּנִים לָחֶם. שְׁלָמִים קוֹדְמִין לִבְכוֹר, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהֵם טְעוּנִין מַתַּן אַרְבַּע, וּסְמִיכָה וּנְּסָכִים וּתְנוּפַת חָזֶה וָשׁוֹק:
10.5. כָּל הַחַטָּאוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה, קוֹדְמוֹת לָאֲשָׁמוֹת, חוּץ מֵאֲשַׁם מְצֹרָע, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בָא עַל יְדֵי הֶכְשֵׁר. כָּל הָאֲשָׁמוֹת שֶׁבַּתּוֹרָה בָּאִין בְּנֵי שְׁתַּיִם וּבָאִין בְּכֶסֶף שְׁקָלִים, חוּץ מֵאֲשַׁם נָזִיר וַאֲשַׁם מְצֹרָע, שֶׁהֵן בָּאִין בְּנֵי שְׁנָתָן וְאֵינָן בָּאִין בְּכֶסֶף שְׁקָלִים:''. None
5.8. The first-born animal, tithe and the pesah are sacrifices of lesser sanctity. They are slaughtered in any part of the Temple court, and their blood requires one sprinkling, provided that he applies it against the base of the altar. They differ in the rules governing their eating: The first-born animal is eaten by priests only, the tithe is eaten by anyone and they can be eaten in any part of the city, prepared in any manner, during two days and one night. The pesah can be eaten only at night, only until midnight, and it can be eaten only by those registered for it, and it can be eaten only when roasted.
9.1. The altar sanctifies whatever is eligible for it. Rabbi Joshua says: whatever is eligible for the altar fire does not descend once it has ascended, as it is said, “The olah itself shall remain where it is burned upon the altar all night until morning, while the fire of the altar is kept going on it” (Leviticus 6:: just as the olah, which is eligible for the altar fire, does not descend once it has ascended, so whatever is eligible for the altar fire does not descend once it ascended. Rabbi Gamaliel said: whatever is eligible for the altar does not descend once it ascended, as it is said: “The olah itself shall remain where it is burned upon the altar all night until morning, while the fire of the altar is kept going on it” (Leviticus 6:2): just as the olah, which is eligible for the altar, does not descend once it ascended, so whatever is eligible for the altar does not descend once it ascended. The only difference between Rabban Gamaliel and Rabbi Joshua is in respect of the blood and libations, for Rabban Gamaliel says that they cannot descend, while Rabbi Joshua says that they can descend. Rabbi Shimon says: if the sacrifice is fit while the libations which accompanied it are unfit; or if the libations are fit while the sacrifice is unfit; or even if both are unfit, the sacrifice does not descend, while the libations do descend.' "
10.2. Whatever is more sacred than another precedes the other. The blood of a hatat precedes the blood of a olah, because it propitiates. The limbs of a olah precede the innards of a hatat, because it the former is entirely for the fires of the altar. A hatat precedes an asham, because its blood is sprinkled on the four horns and on the base. An asham precedes a today and a nazirite’s ram, because it is a most holy sacrifice. A todah and a nazirite's ram precede a shelamim, because they are eaten one day only and require the accompaniment of loaves. A shelamim precedes a firstling, because it requires four blood applications and laying of hands, libations, and the waving of the breast and the thigh." '
10.5. All hatats in the Torah precede ashams, except the asham of a metzora (one with a skin affliction), because it comes to make a person fit. All ashams of the Torah must be two-year olds and two silver shekels in value, except a nazirite’s asham and the asham of a metzorah, for they are a year old, and need not be two silver shekels in value.''. None
88. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 10.21, 15.42-15.57 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal • Animals • Animism • Judaean/Jewish,animal sacrifice • animals • bodies, animal bodies • sacrifice, animal

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 397, 398; Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 192; Levison (2009) 315; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 237, 239; Seim and Okland (2009) 12, 30, 31, 90; Wiebe (2021) 79

10.21. οὐ δύνασθε ποτήριον Κυρίου πίνειν καὶ ποτήριον δαιμονίων· οὐ δύνασθετραπέζης Κυρίουμετέχειν καὶ τραπέζης δαιμονίων.
15.42. οὕτως καὶ ἡ ἀνάστασις τῶν νεκρῶν. 15.43. σπείρεται ἐν φθορᾷ, ἐγείρεται ἐν ἀφθαρσίᾳ· σπείρεται ἐν ἀτιμίᾳ, ἐγείρεται ἐν δόξῃ· σπείρεται ἐν ἀσθενείᾳ, ἐγείρεται ἐν δυνάμει· 15.44. σπείρεται σῶμα ψυχικόν, ἐγείρεται σῶμα πνευματικόν. Εἰ ἔστιν σῶμα ψυχικόν, ἔστιν καὶ πνευματικόν. 15.45. οὕτως καὶ γέγραπταιἘγένετο ὁ πρῶτος ἄνθρωπος Ἀδὰμ εἰς ψυχὴν ζῶσαν·ὁ ἔσχατος Ἀδὰμ εἰς πνεῦμα ζωοποιοῦν. 15.46. ἀλλʼ οὐ πρῶτον τὸ πνευματικὸν ἀλλὰ τὸ ψυχικόν, ἔπειτα τὸ πνευματικόν. ὁ πρῶτοςἄνθρωπος ἐκ γῆς Χοϊκός, 15.47. ὁ δεύτερος ἄνθρωπος ἐξ οὐρανοῦ. 15.48. οἷος ὁ χοϊκός, τοιοῦτοι καὶ οἱ χοϊκοί, καὶ οἷος ὁ ἐπουράνιος, τοιοῦτοι καὶ οἱ ἐπουράνιοι· 15.49. καὶ καθὼς ἐφορέσαμεν τὴν εἰκόνα τοῦ χοϊκοῦ φορέσωμεν καὶ τὴν εἰκόνα τοῦ ἐπουρανίου. 15.50. Τοῦτο δέ φημι, ἀδελφοί, ὅτι σὰρξ καὶ αἷμα βασιλείαν θεοῦ κληρονομῆσαι οὐ δύναται, οὐδὲ ἡ φθορὰ τὴν ἀφθαρσίαν κληρονομεῖ. 15.51. ἰδοὺ μυστήριον ὑμῖν λέγω· πάντες οὐ κοιμηθησόμεθα πάντες δὲ ἀλλαγησόμεθα, 15.52. ἐν ἀτόμῳ, ἐν ῥιπῇ ὀφθαλμοῦ, ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ σάλπιγγι· σαλπίσει γάρ, καὶ οἱ νεκροὶ ἐγερθήσονται ἄφθαρτοι, καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀλλαγησόμεθα. 15.53. δεῖ γὰρ τὸ φθαρτὸν τοῦτο ἐνδύσασθαι ἀφθαρσίαν καὶ τὸ θνητὸν τοῦτο ἐνδύσασθαι ἀθανασίαν. 15.54. ὅταν δὲ τὸ θνητὸν τοῦτο ἐνδύσηται τὴν ἀθανασίαν, τότε γενήσεται ὁ λόγος ὁ γεγραμμένος Κατεπόθη ὁ θάνατος εἰς νῖκος. 15.55. ποῦ σου, θάνατε, τὸ νῖκος; ποῦ σου, θάνατε, τὸ κέντρον; 15.56. τὸ δὲ κέντρον τοῦ θανάτου ἡ ἁμαρτία, ἡ δὲ δύναμις τῆς ἁμαρτίας ὁ νόμος· 15.57. τῷ δὲ θεῷ χάρις τῷ διδόντι ἡμῖντὸ νῖκοςδιὰ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ.' '. None
10.21. You can't both drink the cup of the Lord and the cup of demons.You can't both partake of the table of the Lord, and of the table ofdemons." '
15.42. So also is the resurrection of the dead.It is sown in corruption; it is raised in incorruption. 15.43. It issown in dishonor; it is raised in glory. It is sown in weakness; it israised in power. 15.44. It is sown a natural body; it is raised aspiritual body. There is a natural body and there is also a spiritualbody. 15.45. So also it is written, "The first man, Adam, became a livingsoul." The last Adam became a life-giving spirit.' "15.46. However thatwhich is spiritual isn't first, but that which is natural, then thatwhich is spiritual." '15.47. The first man is of the earth, made ofdust. The second man is the Lord from heaven. 15.48. As is the onemade of dust, such are those who are also made of dust; and as is theheavenly, such are they also that are heavenly.' "15.49. As we haveborne the image of those made of dust, let's also bear the image of theheavenly." "15.50. Now I say this, brothers, that flesh and blood can'tinherit the Kingdom of God; neither does corruption inheritincorruption." '15.51. Behold, I tell you a mystery. We will not all sleep, but wewill all be changed, 15.52. in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye,at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will beraised incorruptible, and we will be changed. 15.53. For thiscorruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put onimmortality. 15.54. But when this corruptible will have put onincorruption, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then whatis written will happen: "Death is swallowed up in victory." 15.55. "Death, where is your sting?Hades, where is your victory?" 15.56. The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. 15.57. But thanks be to God, who gives us the victory through our LordJesus Christ.' ". None
89. New Testament, Acts, 6.14, 14.8-14.18, 15.19, 15.29, 17.23 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal • Animals • Animals, Devoured by the Giants • Animals, Dietary Regulations • animals • blood, of animal sacrifices • sacrifice, animal • sacrifice, animal, in Christianity, to the Christian God or to saints • sacrifice, animal, in Christianity,objection to • sacrifice, animal, in Greek religion v, vi • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi • slaughter, of animals

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 396; Levison (2009) 348; Petropoulou (2012) 229, 237, 239, 279; Rosenblum (2016) 153; Stuckenbruck (2007) 367, 666

6.14. ἀκηκόαμεν γὰρ αὐτοῦ λέγοντος ὅτι Ἰησοῦς ὁ Ναζωραῖος οὗτος καταλύσει τὸν τόπον τοῦτον καὶ ἀλλάξει τὰ ἔθη ἃ παρέδωκεν ἡμῖν Μωυσῆς.
14.8. Καί τις ἀνὴρ ἀδύνατος ἐν Λύστροις τοῖς ποσὶν ἐκάθητο, χωλὸς ἐκ κοιλίας μητρὸς αὐτοῦ, ὃς οὐδέποτε περιεπάτησεν. 14.9. οὗτος ἤκουεν τοῦ Παύλου λαλοῦντος· ὃς ἀτενίσας αὐτῷ καὶ ἰδὼν ὅτι ἔχει πίστιν τοῦ σωθῆναι εἶπεν μεγάλῃ φωνῇ 14.10. Ἀνάστηθι ἐπὶ τοὺς πόδας σου ὀρθός· καὶ ἥλατο καὶ περιεπάτει. 14.11. οἵ τε ὄχλοι ἰδόντες ὃ ἐποίησεν Παῦλος ἐπῆραν τὴν φωνὴν αὐτῶν Λυκαονιστὶ λέγοντες Οἱ θεοὶ ὁμοιωθέντες ἀνθρώποις κατέβησαν πρὸς ἡμᾶς, 14.12. ἐκάλουν τε τὸν Βαρνάβαν Δία, τὸν δὲ Παῦλον Ἑρμῆν ἐπειδὴ αὐτὸς ἦν ὁ ἡγούμενος τοῦ λόγου. 14.13. ὅ τε ἱερεὺς τοῦ Διὸς τοῦ ὄντος πρὸ τῆς πόλεως ταύρους καὶ στέμματα ἐπὶ τοὺς πυλῶνας ἐνέγκας σὺν τοῖς ὄχλοις ἤθελεν θύειν. 14.14. ἀκούσαντες δὲ οἱ ἀπόστολοι Βαρνάβας καὶ Παῦλος, διαρρήξαντες τὰ ἱμάτια ἑαυτῶν ἐξεπήδησαν εἰς τὸν ὄχλον, κράζοντες 14.15. καὶ λέγοντες Ἄνδρες, τί ταῦτα ποιεῖτε; καὶ ἡμεῖς ὁμοιοπαθεῖς ἐσμ ὑμῖν ἄνθρωποι, εὐαγγελιζόμενοι ὑμᾶς ἀπὸ τούτων τῶν ματαίων ἐπιστρέφειν ἐπὶ θεὸν ζῶντα ὃς ἐποίησεν τὸν οὐρανὸν καὶ τὴν γῆν καὶ τὴν θάλασσαν καὶ πάντα τὰ ἐν αὐτοῖς· 14.16. ὃς ἐν ταῖς παρῳχημέναις γενεαῖς εἴασεν πάντα τὰ ἔθνη πορεύεσθαι ταῖς ὁδοῖς αὐτῶν· 14.17. καίτοι οὐκ ἀμάρτυρον αὑτὸν ἀφῆκεν ἀγαθουργῶν, οὐρανόθεν ὑμῖν ὑετοὺς διδοὺς καὶ καιροὺς καρποφόρους, ἐμπιπλῶν τροφῆς καὶ εὐφροσύνης τὰς καρδίας ὑμῶν. 14.18. καὶ ταῦτα λέγοντες μόλις κατέπαυσαν τοὺς ὄχλους τοῦ μὴ θύειν αὐτοῖς.
15.19. διὸ ἐγὼ κρίνω μὴ παρενοχλεῖν τοῖς ἀπὸ τῶν ἐθνῶν ἐπιστρέφουσιν ἐπὶ τὸν θεόν,
15.29. ἐξ ὧν διατηροῦντες ἑαυτοὺς εὖ πράξετε. Ἔρρωσθε.
17.23. διερχόμενος γὰρ καὶ ἀναθεωρῶν τὰ σεβάσματα ὑμῶν εὗρον καὶ βωμὸν ἐν ᾧ ἐπεγέγραπτο ΑΓΝΩΣΤΩ ΘΕΩ. ὃ οὖν ἀγνοοῦντες εὐσεβεῖτε, τοῦτο ἐγὼ καταγγέλλω ὑμῖν.''. None
6.14. For we have heard him say that this Jesus of Nazareth will destroy this place, and will change the customs which Moses delivered to us."' "
14.8. At Lystra a certain man sat, impotent in his feet, a cripple from his mother's womb, who never had walked. " '14.9. He was listening to Paul speaking, who, fastening eyes on him, and seeing that he had faith to be made whole, 14.10. said with a loud voice, "Stand upright on your feet!" He leaped up and walked. 14.11. When the multitude saw what Paul had done, they lifted up their voice, saying in the language of Lycaonia, "The gods have come down to us in the likeness of men!" 14.12. They called Barnabas "Jupiter," and Paul "Mercury," because he was the chief speaker. 14.13. The priest of Jupiter, whose temple was in front of their city, brought oxen and garlands to the gates, and would have made a sacrifice with the multitudes. 14.14. But when the apostles, Barnabas and Paul, heard of it, they tore their clothes, and sprang into the multitude, crying out, 14.15. "Men, why are you doing these things? We also are men of like passions with you, and bring you good news, that you should turn from these vain things to the living God, who made the sky and the earth and the sea, and all that is in them; 14.16. who in the generations gone by allowed all the nations to walk in their own ways. 14.17. Yet he didn\'t leave himself without witness, in that he did good and gave you rains from the sky and fruitful seasons, filling our hearts with food and gladness." 14.18. Even saying these things, they hardly stopped the multitudes from making a sacrifice to them.
15.19. "Therefore my judgment is that we don\'t trouble those from among the Gentiles who turn to God,
15.29. that you abstain from things sacrificed to idols, from blood, from things strangled, and from sexual immorality, from which if you keep yourselves, it will be well with you. Farewell."' "
17.23. For as I passed along, and observed the objects of your worship, I found also an altar with this inscription: 'TO AN UNKNOWN GOD.' What therefore you worship in ignorance, this I announce to you. "'. None
90. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.5, 7.14, 20.3-20.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal • animal, Jesus as parallel to • blood, of animal sacrifices • peace, among animals,

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 91; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 128, 133, 144; Huttner (2013) 227; Levison (2009) 16

1.5. καὶ ἀπὸ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ,ὁ μάρτυς ὁ πιστός,ὁπρωτότοκοςτῶν νεκρῶν καὶ ὁἄρχων τῶν βασιλέων τῆς γῆς.Τῷ ἀγαπῶντι ἡμᾶς καὶλύσαντιἡμᾶςἐκ τῶν αμαρτιῶνἡμῶν ἐν τῷ αἵματι αὐτοῦ,
7.14. καὶ εἴρηκα αὐτῷ Κύριέ μου, σὺ οἶδας. καὶ εἶπέν μοι Οὗτοί εἰσιν οἱ ἐρχόμενοι ἐκ τῆςθλίψεωςτῆς μεγάλης, καὶἔπλυναν τὰς στολὰς αὐτῶνκαὶ ἐλεύκαναν αὐτὰςἐν τῷ αἵματιτοῦ ἀρνίου.
20.3. καὶ ἔβαλεν αὐτὸν εἰς τὴν ἄβυσσον, καὶ ἔκλεισεν καὶ ἐσφράγισεν ἐπάνω αὐτοῦ, ἵνα μὴ πλανήσῃ ἔτι τὰ ἔθνη, ἄχρι τελεσθῇ τὰ χίλια ἔτη· μετὰ ταῦτα δεῖ λυθῆναι αὐτὸν μικρὸν χρόνον. 20.4. Καὶεἶδον θρόνους,καὶἐκάθισανἐπʼ αὐτούς,καὶ κρίμͅα ἐδόθηαὐτοῖς, καὶ τὰς ψυχὰς τῶν πεπελεκισμένων διὰ τὴν μαρτυρίαν Ἰησοῦ καὶ διὰ τὸν λόγον τοῦ θεοῦ, καὶ οἵτινες οὐ προσεκύνησαν τὸ θηρίον οὐδὲ τὴν εἰκόνα αὐτοῦ καὶ οὐκ ἔλαβον τὸ χάραγμα ἐπὶ τὸ μέτωπον καὶ ἐπὶ τὴν χεῖρα αὐτῶν· καὶ ἔζησαν καὶ ἐβασίλευσαν μετὰ τοῦ χριστοῦ χίλια ἔτη.' '. None
1.5. and from Jesus Christ, the faithful witness, the firstborn of the dead, and the ruler of the kings of the earth. To him who loves us, and washed us from our sins by his blood;
7.14. I told him, "My lord, you know."He said to me, "These are those who came out of the great tribulation. They washed their robes, and made them white in the Lamb\'s blood.
20.3. and cast him into the abyss, and shut it, and sealed it over him, that he should deceive the nations no more, until the thousand years were finished. After this, he must be freed for a short time.' "20.4. I saw thrones, and they sat on them, and judgment was given to them. I saw the souls of those who had been beheaded for the testimony of Jesus, and for the word of God, and such as didn't worship the beast nor his image, and didn't receive the mark on their forehead and on their hand. They lived, and reigned with Christ for the thousand years." '. None
91. New Testament, Hebrews, 13.11-13.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Judaean/Jewish,animal sacrifice • animal, Jesus as parallel to • sacrifice, animal

 Found in books: Balberg (2017) 92; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404; Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 191

13.11. ὧν γὰρεἰσφέρεταιζῴωντὸ αἷμα περὶ ἁμαρτίας εἰς τὰ ἅγιαδιὰ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως, τούτων τὰ σώματακατα καίεται ἔξω τῆς παρεμβολῆς· 13.12. διὸ καὶ Ἰησοῦς, ἵνα ἁγιάσῃ διὰ τοῦ ἰδίου αἵματος τὸν λαόν, ἔξω τῆς πύλης ἔπαθεν.' '. None
13.11. For the bodies of those animals, whose blood is brought into the holy place by the high priest as an offering for sin, are burned outside of the camp. 13.12. Therefore Jesus also, that he might sanctify the people through his own blood, suffered outside of the gate. ' '. None
92. New Testament, Romans, 7.5, 7.12 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animism • animalism • sacrifice, animal, in Greek religion v, vi • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi

 Found in books: Estes (2020) 263; Petropoulou (2012) 235, 238; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 239

7.5. ὅτε γὰρ ἦμεν ἐν τῇ σαρκί, τὰ παθήματα τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν τὰ διὰ τοῦ νόμου ἐνηργεῖτο ἐν τοῖς μέλεσιν ἡμῶν εἰς τὸ καρποφορῆσαι τῷ θανάτῳ·
7.12. ὥστε ὁ μὲν νόμος ἅγιος, καὶ ἡ ἐντολὴ ἁγία καὶ δικαία καὶ ἀγαθή.' '. None
7.5. For when we were in the flesh, the sinful passions which were through the law, worked in our members to bring forth fruit to death.
7.12. Therefore the law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, and righteous, and good. ' '. None
93. New Testament, Luke, 1.9, 22.19-22.21 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • animals • sacrifice, animal • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 397, 403, 404; Petropoulou (2012) 227; Stuckenbruck (2007) 666

1.9. κατὰ τὸ ἔθος τῆς ἱερατίας ἔλαχε τοῦ θυμιᾶσαι εἰσελθὼν εἰς τὸν ναὸν τοῦ κυρίου,
22.19. καὶ λαβὼν ἄρτον εὐχαριστήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς λέγων Τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου ⟦τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν διδόμενον· τοῦτο ποιεῖτε εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν. 22.20. καὶ τὸ ποτήριον ὡσαύτως μετὰ τὸ δειπνῆσαι, λέγων Τοῦτο τὸ ποτήριον ἡ καινὴ διαθήκη ἐν τῷ αἵματί μου, τὸ ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν ἐκχυννόμενον⟧. 22.21. πλὴν ἰδοὺ ἡ χεὶρ τοῦ παραδιδόντος με μετʼ ἐμοῦ ἐπὶ τῆς τραπέζης·''. None
1.9. according to the custom of the priest's office, his lot was to enter into the temple of the Lord and burn incense. " '
22.19. He took bread, and when he had given thanks, he broke it, and gave to them, saying, "This is my body which is given for you. Do this in memory of me." 22.20. Likewise, he took the cup after supper, saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood, which is poured out for you. 22.21. But behold, the hand of him who betrays me is with me on the table. '". None
94. New Testament, Mark, 14.22-14.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • sacrifice, animal • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404; Petropoulou (2012) 227

14.22. Καὶ ἐσθιόντων αὐτῶν λαβὼν ἄρτον εὐλογήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς καὶ εἶπεν Λάβετε, τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου. 14.23. καὶ λαβὼν ποτήριον εὐχαριστήσας ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς, καὶ ἔπιον ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες. 14.24. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ αἷμά μου τῆς διαθήκης τὸ ἐκχυννόμενον ὑπὲρ πολλῶν·''. None
14.22. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, and when he had blessed, he broke it, and gave to them, and said, "Take, eat. This is my body." 14.23. He took the cup, and when he had given thanks, he gave to them. They all drank of it. 14.24. He said to them, "This is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many. ''. None
95. New Testament, Matthew, 26.26-26.28 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • sacrifice, animal • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 404; Petropoulou (2012) 227

26.26. Ἐσθιόντων δὲ αὐτῶν λαβὼν ὁ Ἰησοῦς ἄρτον καὶ εὐλογήσας ἔκλασεν καὶ δοὺς τοῖς μαθηταῖς εἶπεν Λάβετε φάγετε, τοῦτό ἐστιν τὸ σῶμά μου. 26.27. καὶ λαβὼν ποτήριον καὶ εὐχαριστήσας ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς λέγων 26.28. Πίετε ἐξ αὐτοῦ πάντες, τοῦτο γάρ ἐστιν τὸ αἷμά μου τῆς διαθήκης τὸ περὶ πολλῶν ἐκχυννόμενον εἰς ἄφεσιν ἁμαρτιῶν·''. None
26.26. As they were eating, Jesus took bread, gave thanks for it, and broke it. He gave to the disciples, and said, "Take, eat; this is my body." 26.27. He took the cup, gave thanks, and gave to them, saying, "All of you drink it, 26.28. for this is my blood of the new covet, which is poured out for many for the remission of sins. ''. None
96. Plutarch, Alexander The Great, 72.2-72.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals, fish, and birds, fast/ mourn/ in sackcloth • colour of animal victim, black • communal laments, animals • sacrifice, animal, continuity in • sacrifice, animal, divination • sacrifice, animal, in Greek religion v, vi

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 99; Gera (2014) 183; Petropoulou (2012) 59

72.2. τοῦτο οὐδενὶ λογισμῷ τὸ πάθος Ἀλέξανδρος ἤνεγκεν, ἀλλʼ εὐθὺς μὲν ἵππους τε κεῖραι πάντας ἐπὶ πένθει καὶ ἡμιόνους ἐκέλευσε καὶ τῶν πέριξ πόλεων ἀφεῖλε τὰς ἐπάλξεις, τὸν δὲ ἄθλιον ἰατρὸν ἀνεσταύρωσεν, αὐλοὺς δὲ κατέπαυσε καὶ μουσικὴν πᾶσαν ἐν τῷ στρατοπέδῳ πολὺν χρόνον, ἕως ἐξ Ἄμμωνος ἦλθε μαντεία τιμᾶν Ἡφαιστίωνα καὶ θύειν ὡς ἥρωϊ παρακελεύουσα. 72.3. τοῦ δὲ πένθους παρηγορίᾳ τῷ πολέμῳ χρώμενος, ὥσπερ ἐπὶ θήραν καὶ κυνηγέσιον ἀνθρώπων ἐξῆλθε καὶ τὸ Κοσσαίων ἔθνος κατεστρέφετο, πάντας ἡβηδὸν ἀποσφάττων· τοῦτο δὲ · Ἡφαιστίωνος ἐναγισμὸς ἐκαλεῖτο. τύμβον δὲ καὶ ταφὴν αὐτοῦ καὶ τὸν περὶ ταῦτα κόσμον ἀπὸ μυρίων ταλάντων ἐπιτελέσαι διανοούμενος, ὑπερβαλέσθαι δὲ τῷ φιλοτέχνῳ καὶ περιττῷ τῆς κατασκευῆς τὴν δαπάνην, ἐπόθησε μάλιστα τῶν τεχνιτῶν Στασικράτην, μεγαλουργίαν τινὰ καὶ τόλμαν καὶ κόμπον ἐν ταῖς καινοτομίαις ἐπαγγελλόμενον.''. None
72.2. Alexander’s grief at this loss knew no bounds. Arrian finds great diversity in the accounts of Alexander’s displays of grief at Hephaestion’s death ( Anab. vii. 14 ). He immediately ordered that the manes and tails of all horses and mules should be shorn in token of mourning and took away the battlements of the cities round about; he also crucified the wretched physician, and put a stop to the sound of flutes and every kind of music in the camp for a long time, until an oracular response from Ammon came bidding him honour Hephaestion as a hero and sacrifice to him. 72.3. Moreover, making war a solace for his grief; he went forth to hunt and track down men, as it were, and overwhelmed the nation of the Cossaeans, slaughtering them all from the youth upwards. This was called an offering to the shade of Hephaestion. Upon a tomb and obsequies for his friend, and upon their embellishments, he purposed to expend ten thousand talents, and wished that the ingenuity and novelty of the construction should surpass the expense. He therefore longed for Stasicrates above all other artists, because in his innovations there was always promise of great magnificence, boldness, and ostentation.''. None
97. Plutarch, Aristides, 25.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sacrificial animals, species: sheep • animals as oath sacrifices, contact of oath-takers with

 Found in books: Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 22; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 196

25.1. ὁ δʼ Ἀριστείδης ὥρκισε μὲν τοὺς Ἕλληνας καὶ ὤμοσεν ὑπὲρ τῶν Ἀθηναίων, μύδρους ἐμβαλὼν ἐπὶ ταῖς ἀραῖς εἰς τὴν θάλατταν, ὕστερον δὲ τῶν πραγμάτων ἄρχειν ἐγκρατέστερον, ὡς ἔοικεν, ἐκβιαζομένων ἐκέλευε τοὺς Ἀθηναίους τὴν ἐπιορκίαν τρέψαντας εἰς ἑαυτὸν ἑαυτὸν Hercher and Blass with F a S: αὐτὸν . ᾗ συμφέρει χρῆσθαι τοῖς πράγμασι.''. None
25.1. ''. None
98. Plutarch, On Isis And Osiris, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal species, lamb • animal victim, treatment of burning of divinity's portion • animal victim, treatment of burning of entire victim • destruction of animal victim by fire • skin, animal

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 422; Ekroth (2013) 111, 112

359b. For they say that Diochites is the name given to a small town, on the ground that it alone contains the true tomb; and that the prosperous and influential men among the Egyptians are mostly buried in Abydos, since it is the object of their ambition to be buried in the same ground with the body of Osiris. In Memphis, however, they say, the Apis is kept, being the image of the soul of Osiris, whose body also lies there. The name of this city some interpret as "the haven of the good" and others as meaning properly the "tomb of Osiris." They also say that the sacred island by Philae at all other times is untrodden by man and quite unapproachable, and even birds do not alight on it nor fishes approach it; yet, at one special time, the priests cross over to it, and perform the sacrificial rites for the dead, and lay wreaths upon the tomb, which lies in the encompassing shade of a persea- tree, which surpasses in height any olive.''. None
99. Plutarch, Solon, 9.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • destruction sacrifice, total destruction of animal victim • sacrifice, animal, continuity in • sacrifice, animal, divination • sacrifice, animal, in Greek religion v, vi

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 207; Petropoulou (2012) 59

9.1. ἄλλοι δέ φασιν οὐ τοῦτον τὸν τρόπον γενέσθαι τὴν κατάληψιν, ἀλλὰ πρῶτον μὲν αὐτῷ τὸν ἐν Δελφοῖς θεὸν χρῆσαι·''. None
9.1. Others, however, say that the island was not taken in his way, but that Solon first received this oracle from the god at Delphi:— The tutelary heroes of the land where once they lived, with sacred rites Propitiate, whom the Asopian plain now hides in its bosom; There they lie buried with their faces toward the setting sun. Thereupon Solon sailed by night to the island and made sacrifices to the heroes Periphemus and Cychreus.''. None
100. Tacitus, Histories, 5.3-5.4 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals, as saviors • Types of Animals Sacrificed, Worship of an Ass • animals, sacred, at Leontopolis

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 518, 519, 520, 521, 522, 523, 524, 525, 526; Gordon (2020) 127

5.3. \xa0Most authors agree that once during a plague in Egypt which caused bodily disfigurement, King Bocchoris approached the oracle of Ammon and asked for a remedy, whereupon he was told to purge his kingdom and to transport this race into other lands, since it was hateful to the gods. So the Hebrews were searched out and gathered together; then, being abandoned in the desert, while all others lay idle and weeping, one only of the exiles, Moses by name, warned them not to hope for help from gods or men, for they were deserted by both, but to trust to themselves, regarding as a guide sent from heaven the one whose assistance should first give them escape from their present distress. They agreed, and then set out on their journey in utter ignorance, but trusting to chance. Nothing caused them so much distress as scarcity of water, and in fact they had already fallen exhausted over the plain nigh unto death, when a herd of wild asses moved from their pasturage to a rock that was shaded by a grove of trees. Moses followed them, and, conjecturing the truth from the grassy ground, discovered abundant streams of water. This relieved them, and they then marched six days continuously, and on the seventh seized a country, expelling the former inhabitants; there they founded a city and dedicated a temple. 5.4. \xa0To establish his influence over this people for all time, Moses introduced new religious practices, quite opposed to those of all other religions. The Jews regard as profane all that we hold sacred; on the other hand, they permit all that we abhor. They dedicated, in a shrine, a statue of that creature whose guidance enabled them to put an end to their wandering and thirst, sacrificing a ram, apparently in derision of Ammon. They likewise offer the ox, because the Egyptians worship Apis. They abstain from pork, in recollection of a plague, for the scab to which this animal is subject once afflicted them. By frequent fasts even now they bear witness to the long hunger with which they were once distressed, and the unleavened Jewish bread is still employed in memory of the haste with which they seized the grain. They say that they first chose to rest on the seventh day because that day ended their toils; but after a time they were led by the charms of indolence to give over the seventh year as well to inactivity. Others say that this is done in honour of Saturn, whether it be that the primitive elements of their religion were given by the Idaeans, who, according to tradition, were expelled with Saturn and became the founders of the Jewish race, or is due to the fact that, of the seven planets that rule the fortunes of mankind, Saturn moves in the highest orbit and has the greatest potency; and that many of the heavenly bodies traverse their paths and courses in multiples of seven.''. None
101. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal sacrifice, and the Varronian chronology • animals, color descriptions and uses of, horses

 Found in books: Goldman (2013) 139; Simmons(1995) 55

102. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Seneca, the Younger, Stoic, Posidonius' animals also lack genuine emotion, since they are capable of appearance but not of judgement • animals, and women’s anger • animals, complex behavior in • animals, in similes

 Found in books: Braund and Most (2004) 180, 285; Graver (2007) 242; Sorabji (2000) 72

103. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • insomnia, animal

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 14; Verhagen (2022) 14

104. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • Animals’ food • animals, sacred, protecting the byproducts of • slaughter, of animals

 Found in books: Gordon (2020) 217; Porton (1988) 116, 167, 247; Rosenblum (2016) 98

105. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • Animals’ food • slaughter, of animals • wild animals

 Found in books: Porton (1988) 99, 116, 132, 227, 228, 256; Rosenblum (2016) 99, 101

106. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • horvat Anim

 Found in books: Levine (2005) 335; Porton (1988) 132

107. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Lucretius, animals in • animal worship, Egyptians and • animals • animals as diet for Achilles • animals, in Lucretius • animals, sacred

 Found in books: Braund and Most (2004) 278; Gale (2000) 90; Gruen (2011) 110; Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 220

108. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Apuleius, human and animal food • animals • animals, color descriptions and uses of, dogs

 Found in books: Goldman (2013) 76; König (2012) 281; Lateiner and Spatharas (2016) 208, 219

109. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 16.6, 44.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • limb of a living animal • slaughter, of animals

 Found in books: Grypeou and Spurling (2009) 54, 157; Rosenblum (2016) 110, 111, 131

44.1. אַחַר הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה הָיָה דְבַר ה' אֶל אַבְרָם בַּמַּחֲזֶה לֵאמֹר וגו' (בראשית טו, א), (תהלים יח, לא): הָאֵל תָּמִים דַּרְכּוֹ אִמְרַת ה' צְרוּפָה מָגֵן הוּא לְכֹל הַחוֹסִים בּוֹ, אִם דְּרָכָיו תְּמִימִים, הוּא עַל אַחַת כַּמָּה וְכַמָּה, רַב אָמַר לֹא נִתְּנוּ הַמִּצְווֹת אֶלָּא לְצָרֵף בָּהֶן אֶת הַבְּרִיּוֹת, וְכִי מָה אִיכְפַּת לֵיהּ לְהַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא לְמִי שֶׁשּׁוֹחֵט מִן הַצַּוָּאר אוֹ מִי שֶׁשּׁוֹחֵט מִן הָעֹרֶף, הֱוֵי לֹא נִתְּנוּ הַמִּצְווֹת אֶלָּא לְצָרֵף בָּהֶם אֶת הַבְּרִיּוֹת. דָּבָר אַחֵר, הָאֵל תָּמִים דַּרְכּוֹ, זֶה אַבְרָהָם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (נחמיה ט, ח): וּמָצָאתָ אֶת לְבָבוֹ נֶאֱמָן לְפָנֶיךָ. אִמְרַת ה' צְרוּפָה, שֶׁצֵּרְפוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא בְּכִבְשַׁן הָאֵשׁ. מָגֵן הוּא לְכֹל הַחוֹסִים בּוֹ, (בראשית טו, א): אַל תִּירָא אַבְרָם אָנֹכִי מָגֵן לָךְ." '
44.1. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם הֵן לִי לֹא נָתַתָּ זָרַע (בראשית טו, ג), אָמַר רַב שְׁמוּאֵל בַּר רַב יִצְחָק הַמַּזָּל דּוֹחְקֵנִי וְאוֹמֵר לִי אַבְרָם אֵין אַתְּ מוֹלִיד. אָמַר לוֹ הַקָּדוֹשׁ בָּרוּךְ הוּא הֵן כִּדְבָרֶיךָ, אַבְרָם לֹא מוֹלִיד אַבְרָהָם מוֹלִיד. (בראשית יז, טו): שָׂרַי אִשְׁתְּךָ לֹא תִקְרָא שְׁמָהּ שָׂרָי, שָׂרַי לֹא תֵלֵד, שָׂרָה תֵּלֵד.' ". None
44.1. "After these things the word of Hashem came to Abram in a vision, saying, etc. (Psalms 18:31) \\"As for God — His ways are perfect; the Word of Hashem is tried; a shield is He for all who take refuge in Him.\\" If His way is perfect, how much more is He Himself! Rav said: Were not the mitzvot given so that man might be refined by them? . Do you really think that The Holy One of Blessing cares if an animal is slaughtered by front or by the back of the neck? Therefore, mitzvot were only given to make humans better.", ' '. None
110. Justin, First Apology, 9 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • sacrifice, animal, in Christianity, to the Christian God or to saints • sacrifice, animal, in Christianity,objection to

 Found in books: Lampe (2003) 324; Petropoulou (2012) 247

9. And neither do we honour with many sacrifices and garlands of flowers such deities as men have formed and set in shrines and called gods; since we see that these are soulless and dead, and have not the form of God (for we do not consider that God has such a form as some say that they imitate to His honour), but have the names and forms of those wicked demons which have appeared. For why need we tell you who already know, into what forms the craftsmen, Isaiah 44:
9-20; Jeremiah 10:3. carving and cutting, casting and hammering, fashion the materials? And often out of vessels of dishonour, by merely changing the form, and making an image of the requisite shape, they make what they call a god; which we consider not only senseless, but to be even insulting to God, who, having ineffable glory and form, thus gets His name attached to things that are corruptible, and require constant service. And that the artificers of these are both intemperate, and, not to enter into particulars, are practised in every vice, you very well know; even their own girls who work along with them they corrupt. What infatuation! That dissolute men should be said to fashion and make gods for your worship, and that you should appoint such men the guardians of the temples where they are enshrined; not recognising that it is unlawful even to think or say that men are the guardians of gods. ''. None
111. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 19.5-19.6 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Judaean/Jewish,animal sacrifice • prey animals • sacrifice, animal, in Judaism v, vi • slaughter, of animals

 Found in books: Dijkstra and Raschle (2020) 192; Petropoulou (2012) 268, 269; Rosenblum (2016) 110, 151

19.5. Justin: It is this about which we are at a loss, and with reason, because, while you endure such things, you do not observe all the other customs which we are now discussing. This circumcision is not, however, necessary for all men, but for you alone, in order that, as I have already said, you may suffer these things which you now justly suffer. Nor do we receive that useless baptism of cisterns, for it has nothing to do with this baptism of life. Wherefore also God has announced that you have forsaken Him, the living fountain, and dug for yourselves broken cisterns which can hold no water. Even you, who are the circumcised according to the flesh, have need of our circumcision; but we, having the latter, do not require the former. For if it were necessary, as you suppose, God would not have made Adam uncircumcised; would not have had respect to the gifts of Abel when, being uncircumcised, he offered sacrifice and would not have been pleased with the uncircumcision of Enoch, who was not found, because God had translated him. Lot, being uncircumcised, was saved from Sodom, the angels themselves and the Lord sending him out. Noah was the beginning of our race; yet, uncircumcised, along with his children he went into the ark. Melchizedek, the priest of the Most High, was uncircumcised; to whom also Abraham the first who received circumcision after the flesh, gave tithes, and he blessed him: after whose order God declared, by the mouth of David, that He would establish the everlasting priest. Therefore to you alone this circumcision was necessary, in order that the people may be no people, and the nation no nation; as also Hosea, one of the twelve prophets, declares. Moreover, all those righteous men already mentioned, though they kept no Sabbaths, were pleasing to God; and after them Abraham with all his descendants until Moses, under whom your nation appeared unrighteous and ungrateful to God, making a calf in the wilderness: wherefore God, accommodating Himself to that nation, enjoined them also to offer sacrifices, as if to His name, in order that you might not serve idols. Which precept, however, you have not observed; nay, you sacrificed your children to demons. And you were commanded to keep Sabbaths, that you might retain the memorial of God. For His word makes this announcement, saying, 'That you may know that I am God who redeemed you.' Ezekiel 20:12 " "20. Justin: Moreover, you were commanded to abstain from certain kinds of food, in order that you might keep God before your eyes while you ate and drank, seeing that you were prone and very ready to depart from His knowledge, as Moses also affirms: 'The people ate and drank, and rose up to play.' Exodus 32:6 And again: 'Jacob ate, and was satisfied, and grew fat; and he who was beloved kicked: he grew fat, he grew thick, he was enlarged, and he forsook God who had made him.' Deuteronomy 32:15 For it was told you by Moses in the book of Genesis, that God granted to Noah, being a just man, to eat of every animal, but not of flesh with the blood, which is dead. And as he was ready to say, as the green herbs, I anticipated him: Why do you not receive this statement, 'as the green herbs,' in the sense in which it was given by God, to wit, that just as God has granted the herbs for sustece to man, even so has He given the animals for the diet of flesh? But, you say, a distinction was laid down thereafter to Noah, because we do not eat certain herbs. As you interpret it, the thing is incredible. And first I shall not occupy myself with this, though able to say and to hold that every vegetable is food, and fit to be eaten. But although we discriminate between green herbs, not eating all, we refrain from eating some, not because they are common or unclean, but because they are bitter, or deadly, or thorny. But we lay hands on and take of all herbs which are sweet, very nourishing and good, whether they are marine or land plants. Thus also God by the mouth of Moses commanded you to abstain from unclean and improper and violent animals: when, moreover, though you were eating manna in the desert, and were seeing all those wondrous acts wrought for you by God, you made and worshipped the golden calf. Hence he cries continually, and justly, 'They are foolish children, in whom is no faith.' Deuteronomy 32:6, 20 " "22. Justin: And that you may learn that it was for the sins of your own nation, and for their idolatries and not because there was any necessity for such sacrifices, that they were likewise enjoined, listen to the manner in which He speaks of these by Amos, one of the twelve, saying: 'Woe unto you that desire the day of the Lord! To what end is this day of the Lord for you? It is darkness and not light, as when a man flees from the face of a lion, and a bear meets him; and he goes into his house, and leans his hands against the wall, and the serpent bites him. Shall not the day of the Lord be darkness and not light, even very dark, and no brightness in it? I have hated, I have despised your feast-days, and I will not smell in your solemn assemblies: wherefore, though you offer Me your burnt-offerings and sacrifices, I will not accept them; neither will I regard the peace-offerings of your presence. Take away from Me the multitude of your songs and psalms; I will not hear your instruments. But let judgment be rolled down as water, and righteousness as an impassable torrent. Have you offered unto Me victims and sacrifices in the wilderness, O house of Israel? Says the Lord. And have you taken up the tabernacle of Moloch, and the star of your god Raphan, the figures which you made for yourselves? And I will carry you away beyond Damascus, says the Lord, whose name is the Almighty God. Woe to them that are at ease in Zion, and trust in the mountain of Samaria: those who are named among the chiefs have plucked away the first-fruits of the nations: the house of Israel have entered for themselves. Pass all of you unto Calneh, and see; and from thence go unto Hamath the great, and go down thence to Gath of the strangers, the noblest of all these kingdoms, if their boundaries are greater than your boundaries. You who come to the evil day, who are approaching, and who hold to false Sabbaths; who lie on beds of ivory, and are at ease upon their couches; who eat the lambs out of the flock, and the sucking calves out of the midst of the herd; who applaud at the sound of the musical instruments; they reckon them as stable, and not as fleeting, who drink wine in bowls, and anoint themselves with the chief ointments, but they are not grieved for the affliction of Joseph. Wherefore now they shall be captives, among the first of the nobles who are carried away; and the house of evil-doers shall be removed, and the neighing of horses shall be taken away from Ephraim.' And again by Jeremiah: 'Collect your flesh, and sacrifices, and eat: for concerning neither sacrifices nor libations did I command your fathers in the day in which I took them by the hand to lead them out of Egypt.' And again by David, in the forty-ninth Psalm, He thus said: 'The God of gods, the Lord has spoken, and called the earth, from the rising of the sun unto the going down thereof. Out of Zion is the perfection of His beauty. God, even our God, shall come openly, and shall not keep silence. Fire shall burn before Him, and it shall be very tempestuous round about Him. He shall call to the heavens above, and to the earth, that He may judge His people. Assemble to Him His saints; those that have made a covet with Him by sacrifices. And the heavens shall declare His righteousness, for God is judge. Hear, O My people, and I will speak to you; O Israel, and I will testify to you, I am God, even your God. I will not reprove you for your sacrifices; your burnt-offerings are continually before me. I will take no bullocks out of your house, nor he-goats out of your folds: for all the beasts of the field are Mine, the herds and the oxen on the mountains. I know all the fowls of the heavens, and the beauty of the field is Mine. If I were hungry, I would not tell you; for the world is Mine, and the fullness thereof. Will I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats? offer unto God the sacrifice of praise, and pay your vows unto the Most High, and call upon Me in the day of trouble, and I will deliver you, and you shall glorify Me. But unto the wicked God says, What have you to do to declare My statutes, and to take My covet into your mouth? But you have hated instruction, and cast My words behind you. When you saw a thief, you consented with him; and hast been partaker with the adulterer. Your mouth has framed evil, and your tongue has enfolded deceit. You sit and speak against your brother; you slander your own mother's son. These things have you done, and I kept silence; you thought that I would be like yourself in wickedness. I will reprove you, and set your sins in order before your eyes. Now consider this, you that forget God, lest He tear you in pieces, and there be none to deliver. The sacrifice of praise shall glorify Me; and there is the way in which I shall show him My salvation.' Accordingly He neither takes sacrifices from you nor commanded them at first to be offered because they are needful to Him, but because of your sins. For indeed the temple, which is called the temple in Jerusalem, He admitted to be His house or court, not as though He needed it, but in order that you, in this view of it, giving yourselves to Him, might not worship idols. And that this is so, Isaiah says: 'What house have you built Me? Says the Lord. Heaven is My throne, and earth is My footstool.' Isaiah 66:1 "". None
112. Lucian, The Syrian Goddess, 49 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sacrificial animals, domestic • sacrifice (thysia), animal slaughter • sacrifice (thysia), wild animals

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 15; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 124

49. The greatest of the festivals that they celebrate is that held in the opening of spring; some call this the Pyre, others the Lamp. On this occasion the sacrifice is performed in this way. They cut down tall trees and set them up in the court; then they bring goats and sheep and cattle and hang them living to the trees; they add to these birds and garments and gold and silver work. After all is finished, they carry the gods around the trees and set fire under; in a moment all is in a blaze. To this solemn rite a great multitude flocks from Syria and all the regions around. Each brings his own god and the statues which each has of his own gods.''. None
113. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.19.3, 1.34.5, 2.10.1, 2.11.7, 2.26.9, 3.14.6, 3.15.9, 5.13.2-5.13.3, 5.15.10, 5.24.9-5.24.11, 9.3.7-9.3.8, 10.4.10, 10.32.14-10.32.17 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Artemis, animals, association with • Athens Asklepieion, reliefs showing sacrificial animals • Oropos Amphiareion, sacrificial animals • Sacred animals (Greek), serpents at Epidauros Asklepieion • Sacred animals (Greek), serpents at Lebena Asklepieion • Sacrificial animals, domestic • animal • animal bones, thigh-bones • animal species, bird • animal species, bull • animal species, ewe • animal species, goat • animal species, lamb • animal species, ox • animal victim, parts of, intestines • animal victim, parts of,feet • animal victim, parts of,gall-bladder • animal victim, parts of,testicles • animal victim, treatment of burning of a ninth of the meat • animal victim, treatment of burning of a part or parts of the victim • animal victim, treatment of burning of divinity's portion • animal victim, treatment of burning of entire victim • animal victim, treatment of, throat cut, slit or pierced • animals as oath sacrifices, burning of • animals, Artemis as “Mistress of Beasts,” • animals, sacrificial • colour of animal victim, black • colour of animal victim, white • colour of animal victim, white clothing • destruction of animal victim by fire • destruction sacrifice, partial destruction of animal victim • destruction sacrifice, total destruction of animal victim • oracles, animal oracles and Artemis • sacrifice (thysia), animal slaughter • sacrifice (thysia), wild animals • sacrifice, animal, Olympian • sacrifice, animal, apotropaic • sacrifice, animal, chthonian • sacrifice, animal, continuity in • sacrifice, animal, in Greek religion v, vi • sacrifice, animal, in oracles • sacrifice, animal, military • sacrifice, animal, oath- • sacrifice, animal, obligation of • sacrifice, animal, prominence of • sacrifice, animal, propitiatory • sacrifice, animal, purificatory • sacrifice, animal, variety of • sacrifice, animal, vitality of • sacrifice, animal, women and • sacrifice,non-animal

 Found in books: Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 15, 181; Ekroth (2013) 67, 68, 70, 101, 103, 236, 252, 259, 308, 334; Gagné (2020) 14; Petropoulou (2012) 34, 35, 36, 38, 54, 61, 69, 71, 73, 74, 96, 98; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 102, 186; Renberg (2017) 179, 254, 281, 562; Simon (2021) 174; Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 139; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 124

1.19.3. ἔστι δὲ Ἡρακλέους ἱερὸν καλούμενον Κυνόσαργες· καὶ τὰ μὲν ἐς τὴν κύνα εἰδέναι τὴν λευκὴν ἐπιλεξαμένοις ἔστι τὸν χρησμόν, βωμοὶ δέ εἰσιν Ἡρακλέους τε καὶ Ἥβης, ἣν Διὸς παῖδα οὖσαν συνοικεῖν Ἡρακλεῖ νομίζουσιν· Ἀλκμήνης τε βωμὸς καὶ Ἰολάου πεποίηται, ὃς τὰ πολλὰ Ἡρακλεῖ συνεπόνησε τῶν ἔργων. Λύκειον δὲ ἀπὸ μὲν Λύκου τοῦ Πανδίονος ἔχει τὸ ὄνομα, Ἀπόλλωνος δὲ ἱερὸν ἐξ ἀρχῆς τε εὐθὺς καὶ καθʼ ἡμᾶς ἐνομίζετο, Λύκ ε ιός τε ὁ θεὸς ἐνταῦθα ὠνομάσθη πρῶτον· λέγεται δὲ ὅτι καὶ Τερμίλαις, ἐς οὓς ἦλθεν ὁ Λύκος φεύγων Αἰγέα, καὶ τούτοις αἴτιός ἐστι Λυκίους ἀπʼ αὐτοῦ καλεῖσθαι.
1.34.5. δοκῶ δὲ Ἀμφιάραον ὀνειράτων διακρίσει μάλιστα προ ς κεῖσθαι· δῆλος δέ, ἡνίκα ἐνομίσθη θεός, διʼ ὀνειράτων μαντικὴν καταστησάμενος. καὶ πρῶτον μὲν καθήρασθαι νομίζουσιν ὅστις ἦλθεν Ἀμφιαράῳ χρησόμενος· ἔστι δὲ καθάρσιον τῷ θεῷ θύειν, θύουσι δὲ καὶ αὐτῷ καὶ πᾶσιν ὅσοις ἐστὶν ἐπὶ τῷ βωμῷ τὰ ὀνόματα· προεξειργασμένων δὲ τούτων κριὸν θύσαντες καὶ τὸ δέρμα ὑποστρωσάμενοι καθεύδουσιν ἀναμένοντες δήλωσιν ὀνείρατος.
2.10.1. ἐν δὲ τῷ γυμνασίῳ τῆς ἀγορᾶς ὄντι οὐ μακρὰν Ἡρακλῆς ἀνάκειται λίθου, Σκόπα ποίημα. ἔστι δὲ καὶ ἑτέρωθι ἱερὸν Ἡρακλέους· τὸν μὲν πάντα ἐνταῦθα περίβολον Παιδιζὴν ὀνομάζουσιν, ἐν μέσῳ δέ ἐστι τῷ περιβόλῳ τὸ ἱερόν, ἐν δὲ αὐτῷ ξόανον ἀρχαῖον, τέχνη Φλιασίου Λαφάους . ἐπὶ δὲ τῇ θυσίᾳ τοιάδε δρᾶν νομίζουσι. Φαῖστον ἐν Σικυωνίᾳ λέγουσιν ἐλθόντα καταλαβεῖν Ἡρακλεῖ σφᾶς ὡς ἥρωι ἐναγίζοντας· οὔκουν ἠξίου δρᾶν οὐδὲν ὁ Φαῖστος τῶν αὐτῶν, ἀλλʼ ὡς θεῷ θύειν. καὶ νῦν ἔτι ἄρνα οἱ Σικυώνιοι σφάξαντες καὶ τοὺς μηροὺς ἐπὶ τοῦ βωμοῦ καύσαντες τὰ μὲν ἐσθίουσιν ὡς ἀπὸ ἱερείου, τὰ δὲ ὡς ἥρωι τῶν κρεῶν ἐναγίζουσι. τῆς ἑορτῆς δέ, ἣν ἄγουσι τῷ Ἡρακλεῖ, τὴν προτέραν τῶν ἡμερῶν †ὀνόματα ὀνομάζοντες Ἡράκλεια δὴ καλοῦσι τὴν ὑστέραν.
2.11.7. τῷ δὲ Ἀλεξάνορι καὶ Εὐαμερίωνι—καὶ γὰρ τούτοις ἀγάλματά ἐστι—τῷ μὲν ὡς ἥρωι μετὰ ἥλιον δύναντα ἐναγίζουσιν, Εὐαμερίωνι δὲ ὡς θεῷ θύουσιν. εἰ δὲ ὀρθῶς εἰκάζω, τὸν Εὐαμερίωνα τοῦτον Περγαμηνοὶ Τελεσφόρον ἐκ μαντεύματος, Ἐπιδαύριοι δὲ Ἄκεσιν ὀνομάζουσι. τῆς δὲ Κορωνίδος ἔστι μὲν καὶ ταύτης ξόανον, καθίδρυται δὲ οὐδαμοῦ τοῦ ναοῦ· θυομένων δὲ τῷ θεῷ ταύρου καὶ ἀρνὸς καὶ ὑὸς ἐς Ἀθηνᾶς ἱερὸν τὴν Κορωνίδα μετενεγκόντες ἐνταῦθα τιμῶσιν. ὁπόσα δὲ τῶν θυομένων καθαγίζουσιν, οὐδὲ ἀποχρᾷ σφισιν ἐκτέμνειν τοὺς μηρούς· χαμαὶ δὲ καίουσι πλὴν τοὺς ὄρνιθας, τούτους δὲ ἐπὶ τοῦ βωμοῦ.
2.26.9. ἀπὸ δὲ τοῦ Περγαμηνῶν Σμυρναίοις γέγονεν ἐφʼ ἡμῶν Ἀσκληπιεῖον τὸ ἐπὶ θαλάσσῃ. τὸ δʼ ἐν Βαλάγραις ταῖς Κυρηναίων ἐστὶν Ἀσκληπιὸς καλούμενος Ἰατρὸς ἐξ Ἐπιδαύρου καὶ οὗτος. ἐκ δὲ τοῦ παρὰ Κυρηναίοις τὸ ἐν Λεβήνῃ τῇ Κρητῶν ἐστιν Ἀσκληπιεῖον. διάφορον δὲ Κυρηναίοις τοσόνδε ἐς Ἐπιδαυρίους ἐστίν, ὅτι αἶγας οἱ Κυρηναῖοι θύουσιν, Ἐπιδαυρίοις οὐ καθεστηκότος.
3.14.6. καλοῦσι δὲ Λακεδαιμόνιοι Δρόμον, ἔνθα τοῖς νέοις καὶ ἐφʼ ἡμῶν ἔτι δρόμου μελέτη καθέστηκεν. ἐς τοῦτον τὸν Δρόμον ἰόντι ἀπὸ τοῦ τάφου τῶν Ἀγιαδῶν ἔστιν ἐν ἀριστερᾷ μνῆμα Εὐμήδους, Ἱπποκόωντος δὲ καὶ οὗτος ἦν ὁ Εὐμήδης· ἔστι δὲ ἄγαλμα ἀρχαῖον Ἡρακλέους, ᾧ θύουσιν οἱ Σφαιρεῖς· οἱ δέ εἰσιν οἱ ἐκ τῶν ἐφήβων ἐς ἄνδρας ἀρχόμενοι συντελεῖν. πεποίηται δὲ καὶ γυμνάσια ἐν τῷ Δρόμῳ, τὸ ἕτερον Εὐρυκλέους ἀνάθημα ἀνδρὸς Σπαρτιάτου· τοῦ Δρόμου δὲ ἐκτὸς κατὰ τοῦ Ἡρακλέους τὸ ἄγαλμα ἔστιν οἰκία τὰ ἐφʼ ἡμῶν ἰδιώτου, Μενελάου τὸ ἀρχαῖον. προελθόντι δὲ ἀπὸ τοῦ Δρόμου Διοσκούρων ἱερὸν καὶ Χαρίτων, τὸ δὲ Εἰλειθυίας ἐστὶν Ἀπόλλωνός τε Καρνείου καὶ Ἀρτέμιδος Ἡγεμόνης·
3.15.9. μόνοις δὲ Ἑλλήνων Λακεδαιμονίοις καθέστηκεν Ἥραν ἐπονομάζειν Αἰγοφάγον καὶ αἶγας τῇ θεῷ θύειν. Ἡρακλέα δὲ λέγουσιν ἱδρύσασθαι τὸ ἱερὸν καὶ αἶγας θῦσαι πρῶτον, ὅτι μαχομένῳ οἱ πρὸς Ἱπποκόωντα καὶ τοὺς παῖδας οὐδὲν ἐκ τῆς Ἥρας ἀπήντησεν ἐμπόδιον, ὥσπερ γε ἐπὶ τῶν ἄλλων ἐδόξαζεν ἐναντιοῦσθαί οἱ τὴν θεόν· αἶγας δὲ αὐτὸν θῦσαί φασιν ἱερείων ἀπορήσαντα ἀλλοίων.
5.13.2. ἔσοδος δὲ ἐς αὐτὸ πρὸς δυσμῶν ἐστιν ἡλίου. τοῦτο ἀπονεῖμαι τῷ Πέλοπι Ἡρακλῆς ὁ Ἀμφιτρύωνος λέγεται· τέταρτος γὰρ δὴ ἀπόγονος καὶ οὗτος ἦν Πέλοπος, λέγεται δὲ καὶ ὡς ἔθυσεν ἐς τὸν βόθρον τῷ Πέλοπι. θύουσι δὲ αὐτῷ καὶ νῦν ἔτι οἱ κατὰ ἔτος τὰς ἀρχὰς ἔχοντες· τὸ δὲ ἱερεῖόν ἐστι κριὸς μέλας. ἀπὸ ταύτης οὐ γίνεται τῷ μάντει μοῖρα τῆς θυσίας, τράχηλον δὲ μόνον δίδοσθαι τοῦ κριοῦ καθέστηκε τῷ ὀνομαζομένῳ ξυλεῖ. 5.13.3. ἔστι δὲ ὁ ξυλεὺς ἐκ τῶν οἰκετῶν τοῦ Διός, ἔργον δὲ αὐτῷ πρόσκειται τὰ ἐς τὰς θυσίας ξύλα τεταγμένου λήμματος καὶ πόλεσι παρέχειν καὶ ἀνδρὶ ἰδιώτῃ· τὰ δὲ λεύκης μόνης ξύλα καὶ ἄλλου δένδρου ἐστὶν οὐδενός· ὃς δʼ ἂν ἢ αὐτῶν Ἠλείων ἢ ξένων τοῦ θυομένου τῷ Πέλοπι ἱερείου φάγῃ τῶν κρεῶν, οὐκ ἔστιν οἱ ἐσελθεῖν παρὰ τὸν Δία. τὸ δὲ αὐτὸ καὶ ἐν τῇ Περγάμῳ τῇ ὑπὲρ ποταμοῦ Καΐκου πεπόνθασιν οἱ τῷ Τηλέφῳ θύοντες· ἔστι γὰρ δὴ οὐδὲ τούτοις ἀναβῆναι πρὸ λουτροῦ παρὰ τὸν Ἀσκληπιόν.
5.15.10. ἑκάστου δὲ ἅπαξ τοῦ μηνὸς θύουσιν ἐπὶ πάντων Ἠλεῖοι τῶν κατειλεγμένων βωμῶν. θύουσι δὲ ἀρχαῖόν τινα τρόπον· λιβανωτὸν γὰρ ὁμοῦ πυροῖς μεμαγμένοις μέλιτι θυμιῶσιν ἐπὶ τῶν βωμῶν, τιθέασι δὲ καὶ κλῶνας ἐλαίας ἐπʼ αὐτῶν καὶ οἴνῳ χρῶνται σπονδῇ. μόναις δὲ ταῖς Νύμφαις οὐ νομίζουσιν οἶνον οὐδὲ ταῖς Δεσποίναις σπένδειν οὐδὲ ἐπὶ τῷ βωμῷ τῷ κοινῷ πάντων θεῶν. μέλει δὲ τὰ ἐς θυσίας θεηκόλῳ τε, ὃς ἐπὶ μηνὶ ἑκάστῳ τὴν τιμὴν ἔχει, καὶ μάντεσι καὶ σπονδοφόροις, ἔτι δὲ ἐξηγητῇ τε καὶ αὐλητῇ καὶ τῷ ξυλεῖ·
5.24.9. ὁ δὲ ἐν τῷ βουλευτηρίῳ πάντων ὁπόσα ἀγάλματα Διὸς μάλιστα ἐς ἔκπληξιν ἀδίκων ἀνδρῶν πεποίηται· ἐπίκλησις μὲν Ὅρκιός ἐστιν αὐτῷ, ἔχει δὲ ἐν ἑκατέρᾳ κεραυνὸν χειρί. παρὰ τούτῳ καθέστηκε τοῖς ἀθληταῖς καὶ πατράσιν αὐτῶν καὶ ἀδελφοῖς, ἔτι δὲ γυμνασταῖς ἐπὶ κάπρου κατόμνυσθαι τομίων, μηδὲν ἐς τὸν Ὀλυμπίων ἀγῶνα ἔσεσθαι παρʼ αὐτῶν κακούργημα. οἱ δὲ ἄνδρες οἱ ἀθληταὶ καὶ τόδε ἔτι προσκατόμνυνται, δέκα ἐφεξῆς μηνῶν ἀπηκριβῶσθαί σφισι τὰ πάντα ἐς ἄσκησιν. 5.24.10. ὀμνύουσι δὲ καὶ ὅσοι τοὺς παῖδας ἢ τῶν ἵππων τῶν ἀγωνιζομένων τοὺς πώλους κρίνουσιν, ἐπὶ δικαίῳ καὶ ἄνευ δώρων ποιεῖσθαι κρίσιν, καὶ τὰ ἐς τὸν δοκιμαζόμενόν τε καὶ μή, φυλάξειν καὶ ταῦτα ἐν ἀπορρήτῳ. τῷ κάπρῳ δὲ ὅ τι χρῆσθαί σφισι μετὰ τῶν ἀθλητῶν τὸν ὅρκον καθέστηκεν, οὐκ ἐμνημόνευσα ἐπερέσθαι, ἐπεὶ τοῖς γε ἀρχαιοτέροις ἐπὶ ἱερεῖα ἦν καθεστηκός, ἐφʼ ᾧ τις ὅρκον ἐποιήσατο, μηδὲ ἐδώδιμον εἶναι τοῦτο ἔτι ἀνθρώπῳ. δηλοῖ δὲ οὐχ ἥκιστα καὶ Ὅμηρος· 5.24.11. τὸν γοῦν κάπρον καθʼ ὅτου τῶν τομίων Ἀγαμέμνων ἐπώμοσεν ἦ μὴν εἶναι τὴν Βρισηίδα ἑαυτοῦ τῆς εὐνῆς ἀπείρατον, τοῦτον τὸν κάπρον ἀφιέμενον ὑπὸ τοῦ κήρυκος ἐποίησεν ἐς θάλασσαν· ἦ, καὶ ἀπὸ σφάραγον κάπρου τάμε νηλέι χαλκῷ. τὸν μὲν Ταλθύβιος πολιῆς ἁλὸς ἐς μέγα λαῖτμα ῥῖψʼ ἐπιδινήσας, βόσιν ἰχθύσιν. Hom. Il. 19.266-268 οὕτω μὲν τὸ ἀρχαῖον τὰ τοιαῦτα ἐνόμιζον· ἔστι δὲ πρὸ τῶν ποδῶν τοῦ Ὁρκίου πινάκιον χαλκοῦν, ἐπιγέγραπται δὲ ἐλεγεῖα ἐπʼ αὐτοῦ, δεῖμα ἐθέλοντα τοῖς ἐπιορκοῦσι παριστάναι.
9.3.7. τὸ δὲ ἄγαλμα κομίσαντες παρὰ τὸν Ἀσωπὸν καὶ ἀναθέντες ἐπὶ ἅμαξαν, γυναῖκα ἐφιστᾶσι νυμφεύτριαν· οἱ δὲ αὖθις κληροῦνται καθʼ ἥντινα τάξιν τὴν πομπὴν ἀνάξουσι· τὸ δὲ ἐντεῦθεν τὰς ἁμάξας ἀπὸ τοῦ ποταμοῦ πρὸς ἄκρον τὸν Κιθαιρῶνα ἐλαύνουσιν. εὐτρέπισται δέ σφισιν ἐπὶ τῇ κορυφῇ τοῦ ὄρους βωμός, ποιοῦσι δὲ τρόπῳ τοιῷδε τὸν βωμόν· ξύλα τετράγωνα ἁρμόζοντες πρὸς ἄλληλα συντιθέασι κατὰ ταὐτὰ καὶ εἰ λίθων ἐποιοῦντο οἰκοδομίαν, ἐξάραντες δὲ ἐς ὕψος φρύγανα ἐπιφέρουσιν. 9.3.8. αἱ μὲν δὴ πόλεις καὶ τὰ τέλη θήλειαν θύσαντες τῇ Ἥρᾳ βοῦν ἕκαστοι καὶ ταῦρον τῷ Διὶ τὰ ἱερεῖα οἴνου καὶ θυμιαμάτων πλήρη καὶ τὰ δαίδαλα ὁμοῦ καθαγίζουσιν ἐπὶ τοῦ βωμοῦ, ἰδιῶται δὲ ὁπόσα δὴ θύουσιν οἱ πλούσιοι· τοῖς δὲ οὐχ ὁμοίως δυναμ ένο ις τὰ λεπτότερα τῶν προβάτων θύειν καθέστηκε, καθαγίζειν δὲ τὰ ἱερεῖα ὁμοίως πάντα. σὺν δέ σφισι καὶ αὐτὸν τὸν βωμὸν ἐπιλαβὸν τὸ πῦρ ἐξανήλωσε· μεγίστην δὲ ταύτην φλόγα καὶ ἐκ μακροτάτου σύνοπτον οἶδα ἀρθεῖσαν.
10.4.10. ἔστι δὲ τῆς Δαυλίας χώρα καλουμένη Τρωνίς· ἐνταῦθα ἡρῷον ἥρω Ἀρχηγέτου πεποίηται· τὸν δὲ ἥρω τοῦτον Ξάνθιππον οὐκ ἀφανῆ τὰ ἐς πόλεμον, οἱ δὲ Φῶκον εἶναι τὸν Ὀρνυτίωνος τοῦ Σισύφου φασίν. ἔχει δʼ οὖν ἐπὶ ἡμέρᾳ τε πάσῃ τιμὰς καὶ ἄγοντες ἱερεῖα οἱ Φωκεῖς τὸ μὲν αἷμα διʼ ὀπῆς ἐσχέουσιν ἐς τὸν τάφον, τὰ δὲ κρέα ταύτῃ σφίσιν ἀναλοῦν καθέστηκεν.
10.32.14. ἐν δὲ τῇ Τιθορέων καὶ δὶς ἑκάστου τοῦ ἔτους τῇ Ἴσιδι πανήγυριν ἄγουσι, τὴν μὲν τῷ ἦρι, τὴν δὲ μετοπωρινήν· τρίτῃ δὲ ἡμέρᾳ πρότερον κατὰ ἑκατέραν τῶν πανηγύρεων, ὅσοις ἐστὶν ἐσελθεῖν ἄδεια, τὸ ἄδυτον ἐκκαθαίρουσι τρόπον τινὰ ἀπόρρητον, καὶ δὴ καὶ τῶν ἱερείων ἃ ἐπὶ τῆς προτέρας ἐνεβλήθη πανηγύρεως, τούτων ὁπόσα ἂν ὑπολειπόμενα εὕρωσι κομίζουσιν ἐς τὸ αὐτὸ ἀεὶ χωρίον καὶ κατορύσσουσιν ἐνταῦθα· δύο τε ἀπὸ τοῦ ἀδύτου στάδια ἐτεκμαιρόμεθα ἐς τοῦτο εἶναι τὸ χωρίον. 10.32.15. ταύτῃ μὲν δὴ τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τοσαῦτα περὶ τὸ ἱερὸν δρῶσι, τῇ δὲ ἐπιούσῃ σκηνὰς οἱ καπηλεύοντες ποιοῦνται καλάμου τε καὶ ἄλλης ὕλης αὐτοσχεδίου· τῇ τελευταίᾳ δὲ τῶν τριῶν πανηγυρίζουσι πιπράσκοντες καὶ ἀνδράποδα καὶ κτήνη τὰ πάντα, ἔτι δὲ ἐσθῆτας καὶ ἄργυρον καὶ χρυσόν· 10.32.16. μετὰ δὲ μεσοῦσαν τὴν ἡμέραν τρέπονται πρὸς θυσίαν. θύουσι δὲ καὶ βοῦς καὶ ἐλάφους οἱ εὐδαιμονέστεροι, ὅσοι δέ εἰσιν ἀποδέοντες πλούτῳ, καὶ χῆνας καὶ ὄρνιθας τὰς μελεαγρίδας· οἰσὶ δὲ ἐς τὴν θυσίαν οὐ νομίζουσιν οὐδὲ ὑσὶ χρῆσθαι καὶ αἰξίν. ὅσοις μὲν δὴ καθαγίσασι τὰ ἱερεῖα ἐς τὸ ἄδυτον ἀποστεῖλαι πεποιημένους ἀρχήν, καθελίξαι δεῖ σφᾶς τὰ ἱερεῖα λίνου τελαμῶσιν ἢ βύσσου· τρόπος δὲ τῆς σκευασίας ἐστὶν ὁ Αἰγύπτιος. 10.32.17. πομπεύει τε δὴ πάντα ὅσα ἔθυσαν καὶ οἱ μὲν ἐς τὸ ἄδυτον τὰ ἱερεῖα ἐσπέμπουσιν, οἱ δὲ ἔμπροσθε τοῦ ἀδύτου καθαγίζουσι τὰς σκηνὰς καὶ ἀποχωροῦσιν αὐτοὶ σπουδῇ. καί φασί ποτε ἄνθρωπον οὐ τῶν καταβαινόντων ἐς τὸ ἄδυτον, βέβηλον δέ, ἡνίκα ἤρχετο ἡ πυρὰ καίεσθαι, τηνικαῦτα ἐσελθεῖν ἐς τὸ ἄδυτον ὑπὸ πολυπραγμοσύνης τε καὶ τόλμης· καί οἱ πάντα ἀνάπλεα εἰδώλων φαίνεσθαι, καὶ ἀναστρέψαι μὲν αὐτὸν ἐς τὴν Τιθορέαν, διηγησάμενον δὲ ἃ ἐθεάσατο ἀφεῖναι τὴν ψυχήν.''. None
1.19.3. There is also the place called Cynosarges, sacred to Heracles; the story of the white dog “Cynosarges” may mean white dog. may be known by reading the oracle. There are altars of Heracles and Hebe, who they think is the daughter of Zeus and wife to Heracles. An altar has been built to Alcmena and to Iolaus, who shared with Heracles most of his labours. The Lyceum has its name from Lycus, the son of Pandion, but it was considered sacred to Apollo from the be ginning down to my time, and here was the god first named Lyceus. There is a legend that the Termilae also, to whom Lycus came when he fled from Aegeus, were called Lycii after him.
1.34.5. My opinion is that Amphiaraus devoted him self most to the exposition of dreams. It is manifest that, when his divinity was established, it was a dream oracle that he set up. One who has come to consult Amphiaraus is wont first to purify himself. The mode of purification is to sacrifice to the god, and they sacrifice not only to him but also to all those whose names are on the altar. And when all these things have been first done, they sacrifice a ram, and, spreading the skin under them, go to sleep and await enlightenment in a dream.
2.10.1. In the gymnasium not far from the market-place is dedicated a stone Heracles made by Scopas. Flourished first half of fourth century B.C. There is also in another place a sanctuary of Heracles. The whole of the enclosure here they name Paedize; in the middle of the enclosure is the sanctuary, and in it is an old wooden figure carved by Laphaes the Phliasian. I will now describe the ritual at the festival. The story is that on coming to the Sicyonian land Phaestus found the people giving offerings to Heracles as to a hero. Phaestus then refused to do anything of the kind, but insisted on sacrificing to him as to a god. Even at the present day the Sicyonians, after slaying a lamb and burning the thighs upon the altar, eat some of the meat as part of a victim given to a god, while the rest they offer as to a hero. The first day of the festival in honor of Heracles they name . . . ; the second they call Heraclea .
2.11.7. There are images also of Alexanor and of Euamerion; to the former they give offerings as to a hero after the setting of the sun; to Euamerion, as being a god, they give burnt sacrifices. If I conjecture aright, the Pergamenes, in accordance with an oracle, call this Euamerion Telesphorus (Accomplisher) while the Epidaurians call him Acesis (Cure). There is also a wooden image of Coronis, but it has no fixed position anywhere in the temple. While to the god are being sacrificed a bull, a lamb, and a pig, they remove Coronis to the sanctuary of Athena and honor her there. The parts of the victims which they offer as a burnt sacrifice, and they are not content with cutting out the thighs, they burn on the ground, except the birds, which they burn on the altar.
2.26.9. From the one at Pergamus has been built in our own day the sanctuary of Asclepius by the sea at Smyrna . Further, at Balagrae of the Cyreneans there is an Asclepius called Healer, who like the others came from Epidaurus . From the one at Cyrene was founded the sanctuary of Asclepius at Lebene, in Crete . There is this difference between the Cyreneans and the Epidaurians, that whereas the former sacrifice goats, it is against the custom of the Epidaurians to do so.
3.14.6. The Lacedaemonians give the name Running Course to the place where it is the custom for the young men even down to the present day to practise running. As you go to this Course from the grave of the Agiadae, you see on the left the tomb of Eumedes—this Eumedes was one of the children of Hippocoon—and also an old image of Heracles, to whom sacrifice is paid by the Sphaereis. These are those who are just passing from youth to manhood. In the Course are two gymnastic schools, one being a votive gift of Eurycles, a Spartan. Outside the Course, over against the image of Heracles, there is a house belonging now to a private individual, but in olden times to Menelaus. Farther away from the Course are sanctuaries of the Dioscuri, of the Graces, of Eileithyia, of Apollo Carneus, and of Artemis Leader.
3.15.9. The Lacedaemonians are the only Greeks who surname Hera Goat-eater, and sacrifice goats to the goddess. They say that Heracles founded the sanctuary and was the first to sacrifice goats, because in his fight against Hippocoon and his children he met with no hindrance from Hera, although in his other adventures he thought that the goddess opposed him. He sacrificed goats, they say, because he lacked other kinds of victims.
5.13.2. The entrance is on the west. The sanctuary is said to have been set apart to Pelops by Heracles the son of Amphitryon. Heracles too was a great-grandson of Pelops, and he is also said to have sacrificed to him into the pit. Right down to the present day the magistrates of the year sacrifice to him, and the victim is a black ram. No portion of this sacrifice goes to the sooth-sayer, only the neck of the ram it is usual to give to the “woodman,” as he is called. 5.13.3. The woodman is one of the servants of Zeus, and the task assigned to him is to supply cities and private individuals with wood for sacrifices at a fixed rate, wood of the white poplar, but of no other tree, being allowed. If anybody, whether Elean or stranger, eat of the meat of the victim sacrificed to Pelops, he may not enter the temple of Zeus. The same rule applies to those who sacrifice to Telephus at Pergamus on the river Caicus ; these too may not go up to the temple of Asclepius before they have bathed.
5.15.10. Each month the Eleans sacrifice once on all the altars I have enumerated. They sacrifice in an ancient manner; for they burn on the altars incense with wheat which has been kneaded with honey, placing also on the altars twigs of olive, and using wine for a libation. Only to the Nymphs and the Mistresses are they not wont to pour wine in libation, nor do they pour it on the altar common to all the gods. The care of the sacrifices is given to a priest, holding office for one month, to soothsayers and libation-bearers, and also to a guide, a flute-player and the woodman.' "
5.24.9. But the Zeus in the Council Chamber is of all the images of Zeus the one most likely to strike terror into the hearts of sinners. He is surnamed Oath-god, and in each hand he holds a thunderbolt. Beside this image it is the custom for athletes, their fathers and their brothers, as well as their trainers, to swear an oath upon slices of boar's flesh that in nothing will they sin against the Olympic games. The athletes take this further oath also, that for ten successive months they have strictly followed the regulations for training." '5.24.10. An oath is also taken by those who examine the boys, or the foals entering for races, that they will decide fairly and without taking bribes, and that they will keep secret what they learn about a candidate, whether accepted or not. I forgot to inquire what it is customary to do with the boar after the oath of the athletes, though the ancient custom about victims was that no human being might eat of that on which an oath had been sworn.' "5.24.11. Homer proves this point clearly. For the boar, on the slices of which Agamemnon swore that verily Briseis had not lain with him, Homer says was thrown by the herald into the sea. He spake, and cut the boar's throat with ruthless bronze; And the boar Talthybius swung and cast into the great depth of the grey sea, to feed the fishes. Hom. Il. 19.266-268 Such was the ancient custom. Before the feet of the Oath-god is a bronze plate, with elegiac verses inscribed upon it, the object of which is to strike fear into those who forswear themselves. " '
9.3.7. Bringing the image to the Asopus, and setting it upon a wagon, they place a bridesmaid also on the wagon. They again cast lots for the position they are to hold in the procession. After this they drive the wagons from the river to the summit of Cithaeron. On the peak of the mountain an altar has been prepared, which they make after the following way. They fit together quadrangular pieces of wood, putting them together just as if they were making a stone building, and having raised it to a height they place brushwood upon the altar. 9.3.8. The cities with their magistrates sacrifice severally a cow to Hera and a bull to Zeus, burning on the altar the victims, full of wine and incense, along with the daedala. Rich people, as individuals, sacrifice what they wish; but the less wealthy sacrifice the smaller cattle; all the victims alike are burned. The fire seizes the altar and the victims as well, and consumes them all together. I know of no blaze that is so high, or seen so far as this.
10.4.10. In the territory of Daulis is a place called Tronis. Here has been built a shrine of the Founder hero. This founder is said by some to have been Xanthippus, a distinguished soldier; others say that he was Phocus, son of Ornytion, son of Sisyphus. At any rate, he is worshipped every day, and the Phocians bring victims and pour the blood into the grave through a hole, but the flesh they are wont to consume on the spot.
10.32.14. In the country of the Tithoreans a festival in honor of Isis is held twice each year, one in spring and the other in autumn. On the third day before each of the feasts those who have permission to enter cleanse the shrine in a certain secret way, and also take and bury, always in the same spot, whatever remts they may find of the victims thrown in at the previous festival. We estimated that the distance from the shrine to this place was two stades. 10.32.15. So on this day they perform these acts about the sanctuary, and on the next day the small traders make themselves booths of reeds or other improvised material. On the last of the three days they hold a fair, selling slaves, cattle of all kinds, clothes, silver and gold. 10.32.16. After mid-day they turn to sacrificing. The more wealthy sacrifice oxen and deer, the poorer people geese and guinea fowl. But it is not the custom to use for the sacrifice sheep, pigs or goats. Those whose business it is to burn the victims This scarcely makes sense, and the emendation of Kayser is ingenious: “Those whom Isis has invited to send the victims.” and send them into the shrine...having made a beginning must wrap the victims in bandages of coarse or fine linen; the mode of preparing is the Egyptian. 10.32.17. All that they have devoted to sacrifice are led in procession; some send the victims into the shrine,while others burn the booths before the shrine and themselves go away in haste. They say that once a profane man, who was not one of those descending into the shrine, when the pyre began to burn, entered the shrine to satisfy his rash inquisitiveness. It is said that everywhere he saw ghosts, and on returning to Tithorea and telling what he had seen he departed this life.''. None
114. Tertullian, Apology, 12, 16 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals • Types of Animals Sacrificed, Worship of an Ass

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 520, 521; Binder (2012) 66

12. But I pass from these remarks, for I know and I am going to show what your gods are not, by showing what they are. In reference, then, to these, I see only names of dead men of ancient times; I hear fabulous stories; I recognize sacred rites founded on mere myths. As to the actual images, I regard them as simply pieces of matter akin to the vessels and utensils in common use among us, or even undergoing in their consecration a hapless change from these useful articles at the hands of reckless art, which in the transforming process treats them with utter contempt, nay, in the very act commits sacrilege; so that it might be no slight solace to us in all our punishments, suffering as we do because of these same gods, that in their making they suffer as we do themselves. You put Christians on crosses and stakes: what image is not formed from the clay in the first instance, set on cross and stake? The body of your god is first consecrated on the gibbet. You tear the sides of Christians with your claws; but in the case of your own gods, axes, and planes, and rasps are put to work more vigorously on every member of the body. We lay our heads upon the block; before the lead, and the glue, and the nails are put in requisition, your deities are headless. We are cast to the wild beasts, while you attach them to Bacchus, and Cybele, and C lestis. We are burned in the flames; so, too, are they in their original lump. We are condemned to the mines; from these your gods originate. We are banished to islands; in islands it is a common thing for your gods to have their birth or die. If it is in this way a deity is made, it will follow that as many as are punished are deified, and tortures will have to be declared divinities. But plain it is these objects of your worship have no sense of the injuries and disgraces of their consecrating, as they are equally unconscious of the honours paid to them. O impious words! O blasphemous reproaches! Gnash your teeth upon us - foam with maddened rage against us - you are the persons, no doubt, who censured a certain Seneca speaking of your superstition at much greater length and far more sharply! In a word, if we refuse our homage to statues and frigid images, the very counterpart of their dead originals, with which hawks, and mice, and spiders are so well acquainted, does it not merit praise instead of penalty, that we have rejected what we have come to see is error? We cannot surely be made out to injure those who we are certain are nonentities. What does not exist, is in its nonexistence secure from suffering. '
16. For, like some others, you are under the delusion that our god is an ass's head. Cornelius Tacitus first put this notion into people's minds. In the fifth book of his histories, beginning the (narrative of the) Jewish war with an account of the origin of the nation; and theorizing at his pleasure about the origin, as well as the name and the religion of the Jews, he states that having been delivered, or rather, in his opinion, expelled from Egypt, in crossing the vast plains of Arabia, where water is so scanty, they were in extremity from thirst; but taking the guidance of the wild asses, which it was thought might be seeking water after feeding, they discovered a fountain, and thereupon in their gratitude they consecrated a head of this species of animal. And as Christianity is nearly allied to Judaism, from this, I suppose, it was taken for granted that we too are devoted to the worship of the same image. But the said Cornelius Tacitus (the very opposite of tacit in telling lies) informs us in the work already mentioned, that when Cneius Pompeius captured Jerusalem, he entered the temple to see the arcana of the Jewish religion, but found no image there. Yet surely if worship was rendered to any visible object, the very place for its exhibition would be the shrine; and that all the more that the worship, however unreasonable, had no need there to fear outside beholders. For entrance to the holy place was permitted to the priests alone, while all vision was forbidden to others by an outspread curtain. You will not, however, deny that all beasts of burden, and not parts of them, but the animals entire, are with their goddess Epona objects of worship with you. It is this, perhaps, which displeases you in us, that while your worship here is universal, we do homage only to the ass. Then, if any of you think we render superstitious adoration to the cross, in that adoration he is sharer with us. If you offer homage to a piece of wood at all, it matters little what it is like when the substance is the same: it is of no consequence the form, if you have the very body of the god. And yet how far does the Athenian Pallas differ from the stock of the cross, or the Pharian Ceres as she is put up uncarved to sale, a mere rough stake and piece of shapeless wood? Every stake fixed in an upright position is a portion of the cross; we render our adoration, if you will have it so, to a god entire and complete. We have shown before that your deities are derived from shapes modelled from the cross. But you also worship victories, for in your trophies the cross is the heart of the trophy. The camp religion of the Romans is all through a worship of the standards, a setting the standards above all gods. Well, as those images decking out the standards are ornaments of crosses. All those hangings of your standards and banners are robes of crosses. I praise your zeal: you would not consecrate crosses unclothed and unadorned. Others, again, certainly with more information and greater verisimilitude, believe that the sun is our god. We shall be counted Persians perhaps, though we do not worship the orb of day painted on a piece of linen cloth, having himself everywhere in his own disk. The idea no doubt has originated from our being known to turn to the east in prayer. But you, many of you, also under pretence sometimes of worshipping the heavenly bodies, move your lips in the direction of the sunrise. In the same way, if we devote Sun-day to rejoicing, from a far different reason than Sun-worship, we have some resemblance to those of you who devote the day of Saturn to ease and luxury, though they too go far away from Jewish ways, of which indeed they are ignorant. But lately a new edition of our god has been given to the world in that great city: it originated with a certain vile man who was wont to hire himself out to cheat the wild beasts, and who exhibited a picture with this inscription: The God of the Christians, born of an ass. He had the ears of an ass, was hoofed in one foot, carried a book, and wore a toga. Both the name and the figure gave us amusement. But our opponents ought straightway to have done homage to this biformed divinity, for they have acknowledged gods dog-headed and lion-headed, with horn of buck and ram, with goat-like loins, with serpent legs, with wings sprouting from back or foot. These things we have discussed ex abundanti, that we might not seem willingly to pass by any rumor against us unrefuted. Having thoroughly cleared ourselves, we turn now to an exhibition of what our religion really is. " '". None
115. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal form, disappears • Animals • Animals, rejoicing, behaving like men • Apuleius, human and animal food • Ass, as Sethian animal • Ostraca, Egyptian, figuring animals • animals

 Found in books: Griffiths (1975) 27, 235, 351; König (2012) 281; Lateiner and Spatharas (2016) 216, 219, 222; Seim and Okland (2009) 222

116. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aelianus, On Animals • Animals, place of • Asklepios, as healer of animals • Dreams (in Greek and Latin literature), Aelian, On the Nature of Animals • Podalirios, heroon at Mt. Drion, healing of domestic animals • Religion (Egyptian and Greco-Egyptian), healing of domestic animals • Sarapis, tales of curing animals • providence, animals included

 Found in books: Alvar Ezquerra (2008) 110; Pinheiro et al (2015) 39; Renberg (2017) 306, 341

117. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals, Their emotions • Impulse (hormē), Non-rational kind in animals and children • Posidonius, Stoic, Hence the natural aggression in animals and children • Posidonius, Stoic, Nonrational impulse in animals and children • Seneca, the Younger, Stoic, Posidonius' animals also lack genuine emotion, since they are capable of appearance but not of judgement • animals, complex behavior in • animals, corrupted • animals, impressions of • impressions, of animals

 Found in books: Graver (2007) 240, 247; Sorabji (2000) 125, 126, 127, 129

118. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animals, skins • animals, • animals, Egyptian iconography and • animals, Olympians as humiliated by assuming animal forms • animals, horses • sacrifice, animal • sacrifice, animal, description of • sacrifice, animal, in Greek religion v, vi • sacrifice, animal, prominence of • sacrifice,non-animal • transformations, into animals

 Found in books: Bickerman and Tropper (2007) 366; Johnson (2008) 60, 61; Petropoulou (2012) 40; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 281; Waldner et al (2016) 74; Wilson (2010) 308

119. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • animals, speaking,

 Found in books: Huttner (2013) 357; Ramelli (2013) 85

120. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal bones, thigh-bones • animal species, ewe • animal species, goat • animal species, lamb • animal species, ox • animal species, puppies • animal victim, parts of,feet • animal victim, parts of,stomach • animal victim, treatment of burning of a ninth of the meat • animal victim, treatment of burning of a part or parts of the victim • animal victim, treatment of burning of divinity's portion • animal victim, treatment of burning of entire victim • colour of animal victim, black • colour of animal victim, white • destruction of animal victim by fire • destruction sacrifice, partial destruction of animal victim • destruction sacrifice, total destruction of animal victim • sacrifice, animal, Olympian • sacrifice, animal, chthonian • sacrifice, animal, in Greek religion v, vi

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 69, 70, 99, 101, 103, 222; Petropoulou (2012) 34

121. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sacrificial animals, mutilation of • animal victim, parts of, intestines • animal victim, parts of,testicles • animal victim, treatment of burning of a part or parts of the victim • animal victim, treatment of, throat cut, slit or pierced • destruction of animal victim by fire • destruction sacrifice, partial destruction of animal victim • destruction sacrifice, total destruction of animal victim

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 252; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 194

122. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • slaughter, of animals

 Found in books: Rosenblum (2016) 109; Waldner et al (2016) 168

17a. בפמליא של מעלה ובפמליא של מטה ובין התלמידים העוסקים בתורתך בין עוסקין לשמה בין עוסקין שלא לשמה וכל העוסקין שלא לשמה יהי רצון שיהו עוסקין לשמה.,ר\' אלכסנדרי בתר צלותיה אמר הכי יהי רצון מלפניך ה\' אלהינו שתעמידנו בקרן אורה ואל תעמידנו בקרן חשכה ואל ידוה לבנו ואל יחשכו עינינו איכא דאמרי הא רב המנונא מצלי לה ור\' אלכסנדרי בתר דמצלי אמר הכי רבון העולמים גלוי וידוע לפניך שרצוננו לעשות רצונך ומי מעכב שאור שבעיסה ושעבוד מלכיות יהי רצון מלפניך שתצילנו מידם ונשוב לעשות חוקי רצונך בלבב שלם.,רבא בתר צלותיה אמר הכי אלהי עד שלא נוצרתי איני כדאי ועכשיו שנוצרתי כאלו לא נוצרתי עפר אני בחיי ק"ו במיתתי הרי אני לפניך ככלי מלא בושה וכלימה יהי רצון מלפניך ה\' אלהי שלא אחטא עוד ומה שחטאתי לפניך מרק ברחמיך הרבים אבל לא ע"י יסורין וחלאים רעים והיינו וידוי דרב המנונא זוטי ביומא דכפורי.,מר בריה דרבינא כי הוה מסיים צלותיה אמר הכי אלהי נצור לשוני מרע ושפתותי מדבר מרמה ולמקללי נפשי תדום ונפשי כעפר לכל תהיה פתח לבי בתורתך ובמצותיך תרדוף נפשי ותצילני מפגע רע מיצר הרע ומאשה רעה ומכל רעות המתרגשות לבא בעולם וכל החושבים עלי רעה מהרה הפר עצתם וקלקל מחשבותם יהיו לרצון אמרי פי והגיון לבי לפניך ה\' צורי וגואלי.,רב ששת כי הוה יתיב בתעניתא בתר דמצלי אמר הכי רבון העולמים גלוי לפניך בזמן שבית המקדש קיים אדם חוטא ומקריב קרבן ואין מקריבין ממנו אלא חלבו ודמו ומתכפר לו ועכשיו ישבתי בתענית ונתמעט חלבי ודמי יהי רצון מלפניך שיהא חלבי ודמי שנתמעט כאילו הקרבתיו לפניך על גבי המזבח ותרצני.,ר\' יוחנן כי הוה מסיים ספרא דאיוב אמר הכי סוף אדם למות וסוף בהמה לשחיטה והכל למיתה הם עומדים אשרי מי שגדל בתורה ועמלו בתורה ועושה נחת רוח ליוצרו וגדל בשם טוב ונפטר בשם טוב מן העולם ועליו אמר שלמה (קהלת ז, א) טוב שם משמן טוב ויום המות מיום הולדו.,מרגלא בפומיה דר"מ גמור בכל לבבך ובכל נפשך לדעת את דרכי ולשקוד על דלתי תורתי נצור תורתי בלבך ונגד עיניך תהיה יראתי שמור פיך מכל חטא וטהר וקדש עצמך מכל אשמה ועון ואני אהיה עמך בכל מקום.,מרגלא בפומייהו דרבנן דיבנה אני בריה וחברי בריה אני מלאכתי בעיר והוא מלאכתו בשדה אני משכים למלאכתי והוא משכים למלאכתו כשם שהוא אינו מתגדר במלאכתי כך אני איני מתגדר במלאכתו ושמא תאמר אני מרבה והוא ממעיט שנינו אחד המרבה ואחד הממעיט ובלבד שיכוין לבו לשמים.,מרגלא בפומיה דאביי לעולם יהא אדם ערום ביראה (משלי טו, א) מענה רך משיב חמה ומרבה שלום עם אחיו ועם קרוביו ועם כל אדם ואפילו עם נכרי בשוק כדי שיהא אהוב למעלה ונחמד למטה ויהא מקובל על הבריות,אמרו עליו על רבן יוחנן בן זכאי שלא הקדימו אדם שלום מעולם ואפילו נכרי בשוק.,מרגלא בפומיה דרבא תכלית חכמה תשובה ומעשים טובים שלא יהא אדם קורא ושונה ובועט באביו ובאמו וברבו ובמי שהוא גדול ממנו בחכמה ובמנין שנאמר (תהלים קיא, י) ראשית חכמה יראת ה\' שכל טוב לכל עושיהם לעושים לא נאמר אלא לעושיהם לעושים לשמה ולא לעושים שלא לשמה וכל העושה שלא לשמה נוח לו שלא נברא.,מרגלא בפומיה דרב לא כעולם הזה העולם הבא העולם הבא אין בו לא אכילה ולא שתיה ולא פריה ורביה ולא משא ומתן ולא קנאה ולא שנאה ולא תחרות אלא צדיקים יושבין ועטרותיהם בראשיהם ונהנים מזיו השכינה שנאמר (שמות כד, יא) ויחזו את האלהים ויאכלו וישתו:,גדולה הבטחה שהבטיחן הקב"ה לנשים יותר מן האנשים שנא\' (ישעיהו לב, ט) נשים שאננות קומנה שמענה קולי בנות בוטחות האזנה אמרתי,א"ל רב לר\' חייא נשים במאי זכיין באקרויי בנייהו לבי כנישתא ובאתנויי גברייהו בי רבנן ונטרין לגברייהו עד דאתו מבי רבנן.,כי הוו מפטרי רבנן מבי ר\' אמי ואמרי לה מבי ר\' חנינא אמרי ליה הכי עולמך תראה בחייך ואחריתך לחיי העולם הבא ותקותך לדור דורים לבך יהגה תבונה פיך ידבר חכמות ולשונך ירחיש רננות עפעפיך יישירו נגדך עיניך יאירו במאור תורה ופניך יזהירו כזוהר הרקיע שפתותיך יביעו דעת וכליותיך תעלוזנה מישרים ופעמיך ירוצו לשמוע דברי עתיק יומין.,כי הוו מפטרי רבנן מבי רב חסדא ואמרי לה מבי ר\' שמואל בר נחמני אמרו ליה הכי (תהלים קמד, יד) אלופינו מסובלים וגו\',אלופינו מסובלים רב ושמואל ואמרי לה רבי יוחנן ור\' אלעזר חד אמר אלופינו בתורה ומסובלים במצות וחד אמר אלופינו בתורה ובמצות ומסובלים ביסורים''. None
17a. in the heavenly entourage pamalia of angels each of whom ministers to a specific nation (see Daniel 10), and whose infighting causes war on earth; rand in the earthly entourage, the Sages, rand among the disciples engaged in the study of Your Torah, rwhether they engage in its study for its own sake or not for its own sake. rAnd all those engaged in Torah study not for its own sake, rmay it be Your will that they will come to engage in its study for its own sake.,After his prayer, Rabbi Alexandri said the following: rMay it be Your will, Lord our God, rthat You station us in a lighted corner and not in a darkened corner, rand do not let our hearts become faint nor our eyes dim. rSome say that this was the prayer that Rav Hamnuna would recite, and that after Rabbi Alexandri prayed, he would say the following: rMaster of the Universe, it is revealed and known before You rthat our will is to perform Your will, and what prevents us? rOn the one hand, the yeast in the dough, the evil inclination that is within every person; rand the subjugation to the kingdoms on the other. rMay it be Your will rthat You will deliver us from their hands, of both the evil inclination and the foreign kingdoms, rso that we may return to perform the edicts of Your will with a perfect heart.,After his prayer, Rava said the following: rMy God, before I was created I was worthless, rand now that I have been created it is as if I had not been created, I am no more significant. rI am dust in life, all the more so in my death. rI am before You as a vessel filled with shame and humiliation. rTherefore, may it be Your will, Lord my God, that I will sin no more, rand that those transgressions that I have committed, rcleanse in Your abundant mercy; rbut may this cleansing not be by means of suffering and serious illness, but rather in a manner I will be able to easily endure. rAnd this is the confession of Rav Hamnuna Zuti on Yom Kippur.,When Mar, son of Ravina, would conclude his prayer, he said the following: rMy God, guard my tongue from evil and my lips from speaking deceit. rTo those who curse me let my soul be silent rand may my soul be like dust to all. rOpen my heart to Your Torah, rand may my soul pursue your mitzvot. rAnd save me from a bad mishap, from the evil inclination, rfrom a bad woman, and from all evils that suddenly come upon the world. rAnd all who plan evil against me, rswiftly thwart their counsel, and frustrate their plans. rMay the words of my mouth and the meditation of my heart find favor before You, rLord, my Rock and my Redeemer.,The Gemara recounts that when Rav Sheshet would sit in observance of a fast, after he prayed he said as follows: rMaster of the Universe, it is revealed before You rthat when the Temple is standing, one sins and offers a sacrifice. rAnd although only its fat and blood were offered from that sacrifice on the altar, his transgression is atoned for him. rAnd now, I sat in observance of a fast and my fat and blood diminished. rMay it be Your will that my fat and blood that diminished be considered as if I offered a sacrifice before You on the altar, rand may I find favor in Your eyes.rHaving cited statements that various Sages would recite after their prayers, the Gemara cites additional passages recited by the Sages on different occasions.,When Rabbi Yoḥa would conclude study of the book of Job, he said the following: rA person will ultimately die and an animal will ultimately be slaughtered, and all are destined for death. Therefore, death itself is not a cause for great anguish. rRather, happy is he who grew up in Torah, whose labor is in Torah, rwho gives pleasure to his Creator, rwho grew up with a good name and who took leave of the world with a good name. rSuch a person lived his life fully, and about him, Solomon said: r“A good name is better than fine oil, and the day of death than the day of one’s birth” (Ecclesiastes 7:1); one who was faultless in life reaches the day of his death on a higher level than he was at the outset.,Rabbi Meir was wont to say the following idiom: rStudy with all your heart and with all your soul to know My ways rand to be diligent at the doors of My Torah. rKeep My Torah in your heart, rand fear of Me should be before your eyes. rGuard your mouth from all transgression, rand purify and sanctify yourself from all fault and iniquity. rAnd if you do so, I, God, will be with you everywhere.,The Sages in Yavne were wont to say: rI who learn Torah am God’s creature and my counterpart who engages in other labor is God’s creature. rMy work is in the city and his work is in the field. rI rise early for my work and he rises early for his work. rAnd just as he does not presume to perform my work, so I do not presume to perform his work. rLest you say: I engage in Torah study a lot, while he only engages in Torah study a little, so I am better than he, rit has already been taught: rOne who brings a substantial sacrifice and one who brings a meager sacrifice have equal merit, ras long as he directs his heart towards Heaven (Rav Hai Gaon, Arukh).,Abaye was wont to say: rOne must always be shrewd and utilize every strategy in order to achieve fear of Heaven and performance of mitzvot. rOne must fulfill the verse: “A soft answer turns away wrath” (Proverbs 15:1) rand take steps to increase peace with one’s brethren and with one’s relatives, rand with all people, even with a non-Jew in the marketplace, despite the fact that he is of no importance to him and does not know him at all (Me’iri), rso that he will be loved above in God’s eyes, rpleasant below in the eyes of the people, rand acceptable to all of God’s creatures.,Tangentially, the Gemara mentions that they said about Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai that no one ever preceded him in issuing a greeting, not even a non-Jew in the marketplace, as Rabban Yoḥa would always greet him first.,Rava was wont to say: rThe objective of Torah wisdom is to achieve repentance and good deeds; rthat one should not read the Torah and study mishna and become arrogant rand spurn his father and his mother and his teacher rand one who is greater than he in wisdom or in the number of students who study before him, ras it is stated: “The beginning of wisdom is fear of the Lord, a good understanding have all who fulfill them” (Psalms 111:10). rIt is not stated simply: All who fulfill, but rather: All who fulfill them, those who perform these actions as they ought to be performed, meaning those who do such deeds for their own sake, for the sake of the deeds themselves, not those who do them not for their own sake. rRava continued: One who does them not for their own sake, it would have been preferable for him had he not been created.,Rav was wont to say: rThe World-to-Come is not like this world. rIn the World-to-Come there is no eating, no drinking, rno procreation, no business negotiations, rno jealousy, no hatred, and no competition. rRather, the righteous sit with their crowns upon their heads, enjoying the splendor of the Divine Presence, as it is stated: r“And they beheld God, and they ate and drank” (Exodus 24:11), meaning that beholding God’s countece is tantamount to eating and drinking.,The Gemara states: Greater is the promise for the future made by the Holy One, Blessed be He, to women than to men, as it is stated: “Rise up, women at ease; hear My voice, confident daughters, listen to what I say” (Isaiah 32:9). This promise of ease and confidence is not given to men.,Rav said to Rabbi Ḥiyya: By what virtue do women merit to receive this reward? Rabbi Ḥiyya answered: They merit this reward for bringing their children to read the Torah in the synagogue, and for sending their husbands to study mishna in the study hall, and for waiting for their husbands until they return from the study hall.,When the Sages who had been studying there took leave of the study hall of Rabbi Ami, and some say it was the study hall of Rabbi Ḥanina, they would say to him the following blessing: rMay you see your world, may you benefit from all of the good in the world, in your lifetime, rand may your end be to life in the World-to-Come, rand may your hope be sustained for many generations. rMay your heart meditate understanding, ryour mouth speak wisdom, and your tongue whisper with praise. rMay your eyelids look directly before you, ryour eyes shine in the light of Torah, rand your face radiate like the brightness of the firmament. rMay your lips express knowledge, ryour kidneys rejoice in the upright, rand your feet run to hear the words of the Ancient of Days, God (see Daniel 7).,When the Sages took leave of the study hall of Rav Ḥisda, and some say it was the study hall of Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani, they would say to him the following, in accordance with the verse: “Our leaders are laden, there is no breach and no going forth and no outcry in our open places” (Psalms 144:14).,Our leaders are laden. Rav and Shmuel, and some say Rabbi Yoḥa and Rabbi Elazar, disputed the proper understanding of this verse. One said: Our leaders in Torah are laden with mitzvot. And one said: Our leaders in Torah and mitzvot are laden with suffering.''. None
123. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 5.49, 6.22, 7.85-7.86, 8.23 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Aristotle, History of Animals • Lucretius, animals in • animal life • animal, psycho-physical composite • animals • animals, • animals, Cynic imitation of • animals, corrupted • animals, in Lucretius • oikeiōsis = Lat. commendatio or conciliatio, of animals

 Found in books: Fortenbaugh (2006) 183; Gale (2000) 90; Graver (2007) 247; Huffman (2019) 55; King (2006) 216; Long (2006) 352; Tsouni (2019) 190; Wilson (2010) 278; Wolfsdorf (2020) 653

5.49. Epitomes of Aristotle's work on Animals, six books.Two books of Refutative Arguments.Theses, three books.of Kingship, two books.of Causes, one book.On Democritus, one book.of Calumny, one book.of Becoming, one book.of the Intelligence and Character of Animals, one book.On Motion, two books.On Vision, four books.Relating to Definitions, two books.On Data, one book.On Greater and Less, one book.On the Musicians, one book.of the Happiness of the Gods, one book.A Reply to the Academics, one book.Exhortation to Philosophy, one book.How States can best be governed, one book.Lecture-Notes, one book.On the Eruption in Sicily, one book.On Things generally admitted, one book.On Problems in Physics, one book.What are the methods of attaining Knowledge, one book.On the Fallacy known as the Liar, three books." '
6.22. Through watching a mouse running about, says Theophrastus in the Megarian dialogue, not looking for a place to lie down in, not afraid of the dark, not seeking any of the things which are considered to be dainties, he discovered the means of adapting himself to circumstances. He was the first, say some, to fold his cloak because he was obliged to sleep in it as well, and he carried a wallet to hold his victuals, and he used any place for any purpose, for breakfasting, sleeping, or conversing. And then he would say, pointing to the Stoa of Zeus and the Pompeion, that the Athenians had provided him with places to live in.' "
7.85. An animal's first impulse, say the Stoics, is to self-preservation, because nature from the outset endears it to itself, as Chrysippus affirms in the first book of his work On Ends: his words are, The dearest thing to every animal is its own constitution and its consciousness thereof; for it was not likely that nature should estrange the living thing from itself or that she should leave the creature she has made without either estrangement from or affection for its own constitution. We are forced then to conclude that nature in constituting the animal made it near and dear to itself; for so it comes to repel all that is injurious and give free access to all that is serviceable or akin to it." "7.86. As for the assertion made by some people that pleasure is the object to which the first impulse of animals is directed, it is shown by the Stoics to be false. For pleasure, if it is really felt, they declare to be a by-product, which never comes until nature by itself has sought and found the means suitable to the animal's existence or constitution; it is an aftermath comparable to the condition of animals thriving and plants in full bloom. And nature, they say, made no difference originally between plants and animals, for she regulates the life of plants too, in their case without impulse and sensation, just as also certain processes go on of a vegetative kind in us. But when in the case of animals impulse has been superadded, whereby they are enabled to go in quest of their proper aliment, for them, say the Stoics, Nature's rule is to follow the direction of impulse. But when reason by way of a more perfect leadership has been bestowed on the beings we call rational, for them life according to reason rightly becomes the natural life. For reason supervenes to shape impulse scientifically." '
8.23. And he further bade them to honour gods before demi-gods, heroes before men, and first among men their parents; and so to behave one to another as not to make friends into enemies, but to turn enemies into friends. To deem nothing their own. To support the law, to wage war on lawlessness. Never to kill or injure trees that are not wild, nor even any animal that does not injure man. That it is seemly and advisable neither to give way to unbridled laughter nor to wear sullen looks. To avoid excess of flesh, on a journey to let exertion and slackening alternate, to train the memory, in wrath to restrain hand and tongue,'". None
124. Iamblichus, Life of Pythagoras, 24.108 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • animals, sacrificial

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 103; Wilson (2012) 146

24.108. Since, however, nutriment greatly contributes to the best discipline, when it is properly used, and in an orderly manner, let us consider what Pythagoras also instituted as a law about this. Universally, therefore, he rejected all such food as is flatulent, and the cause of perturbation, but he approved 78of the nutriment contrary to this, and ordered it to be used, viz. such food as composes and compresses the habit of the body. Hence, likewise, he thought that millet was a plant adapted to nutrition. But he altogether rejected such food as is foreign to the Gods; because it withdraws us from familiarity with the Gods. Again, according to another mode also, he ordered his disciples to abstain from such food as is reckoned sacred, as being worthy of honor, and not to be appropriated to common and human utility. He likewise exhorted them to abstain from such things as are an impediment to prophesy, or to the purity and chastity of the soul, or to the habit of temperance, or of virtue. And lastly, he rejected all such things as are adverse to sanctity, and which obscure and disturb the other purities of the soul, and the phantasms which occur in sleep. These things therefore he instituted as laws in common about nutriment.Separately, however, he forbade the most contemplative of philosophers, and who have arrived at the summit of philosophic attainments, the use of superfluous and unjust food, and ordered them never to eat any thing animated, nor in short, to drink wine, nor to sacrifice animals to the Gods, nor by any means to injure animals, but to preserve most solicitously justice towards them. And he himself lived after this manner, abstaining from animal food, and adoring altars undefiled with blood. He was likewise careful in preventing 79others from destroying animals that are of a kindred nature with us, and rather corrected and instructed savage animals through words and deeds, than injured them through punishment. And farther still, he also injoined those politicians that were legislators to abstain from animals. For as they wished to act in the highest degree justly, it is certainly necessary that they should not injure any kindred animal. Since, how could they persuade others to act justly, if they themselves were detected in indulging an insatiable avidity by partaking of animals that are allied to us? For through the communion of life and the same elements, and the mixture subsisting from these, they are as it were conjoined to us by a fraternal alliance. He permitted, however, others whose life was not entirely purified, sacred and philosophic, to eat of certain animals; and for these he appointed a definite time of abstinence. These therefore, he ordered not to eat the heart, nor the brain; and from the eating of these he entirely prohibited all the Pythagoreans. For these parts are of a ruling nature, and are as it were certain ladders and seats of wisdom and life. But other25 things were considered by him as sacred on account of the nature of a divine reason. Thus he exhorted his disciples to abstain from mallows, because this plant is the first messenger 80and signal of the sympathy of celestial with terrestrial natures. Thus, too, he ordered them to abstain from the fish melanurus; for it is sacred to the terrestrial Gods. And also not to receive the fish erythinus, through other such like causes. He likewise exhorted them to abstain from beans, on account of many sacred and physical causes, and also such causes as pertain to the soul. And he established as laws other precepts similar to these, beginning through nutriment to lead men to virtue.''. None
125. Origen, Against Celsus, 4.32, 4.83, 8.62 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Celsus, against the superiority of humans over animals • Transmigration (μετενσωμάτωσις), humans to animals • sacrifice, animal

 Found in books: Brouwer and Vimercati (2020) 280; Janowitz (2002) 53; Janowitz (2002b) 98; Joosse (2021) 231

4.32. But since nothing belonging to human nature is permanent, this polity also must gradually be corrupted and changed. And Providence, having remodelled their venerable system where it needed to be changed, so as to adapt it to men of all countries, gave to believers of all nations, in place of the Jews, the venerable religion of Jesus, who, being adorned not only with understanding, but also with a share of divinity, and having overthrown the doctrine regarding earthly demons, who delight in frankincense, and blood, and in the exhalations of sacrificial odours, and who, like the fabled Titans or Giants, drag down men from thoughts of God; and having Himself disregarded their plots, directed chiefly against the better class of men, enacted laws which ensure happiness to those who live according to them, and who do not flatter the demons by means of sacrifices, but altogether despise them, through help of the word of God, which aids those who look upwards to Him. And as it was the will of God that the doctrine of Jesus should prevail among men, the demons could effect nothing, although straining every nerve to accomplish the destruction of Christians; for they stirred up both princes, and senates, and rulers in every place - nay, even nations themselves, who did not perceive the irrational and wicked procedure of the demons - against the word, and those who believed in it; yet, notwithstanding, the word of God, which is more powerful than all other things, even when meeting with opposition, deriving from the opposition, as it were, a means of increase, advanced onwards, and won many souls, such being the will of God. And we have offered these remarks by way of a necessary digression. For we wished to answer the assertion of Celsus concerning the Jews, that they were fugitives from Egypt, and that these men, beloved by God, never accomplished anything worthy of note. And further, in answer to the statement that they were never held in any reputation or account, we say, that living apart as a chosen nation and a royal priesthood, and shunning intercourse with the many nations around them, in order that their morals might escape corruption, they enjoyed the protection of the divine power, neither coveting like the most of mankind the acquisition of other kingdoms, nor yet being abandoned so as to become, on account of their smallness, an easy object of attack to others, and thus be altogether destroyed; and this lasted so long as they were worthy of the divine protection. But when it became necessary for them, as a nation wholly given to sin, to be brought back by their sufferings to their God, they were abandoned (by Him), sometimes for a longer, sometimes for a shorter period, until in the time of the Romans, having committed the greatest of sins in putting Jesus to death, they were completely deserted.
4.83. After Celsus has finished speaking of the bees, in order to depreciate (as far as he can) the cities, and constitutions, and governments, and sovereignties not only of us Christians, but of all mankind, as well as the wars which men undertake on behalf of their native countries, he proceeds, by way of digression, to pass a eulogy upon the ants, in order that, while praising them, he may compare the measures which men take to secure their subsistence with those adopted by these insects, and so evince his contempt for the forethought which makes provision for winter, as being nothing higher than the irrational providence of the ants, as he regards it. Now might not some of the more simple-minded, and such as know not how to look into the nature of all things, be turned away (so far, at least, as Celsus could accomplish it) from helping those who are weighed down with the burdens (of life), and from sharing their toils, when he says of the ants, that they help one another with their loads, when they see one of their number toiling under them? For he who needs to be disciplined by the word, but who does not at all understand its voice, will say: Since, then, there is no difference between us and the ants, even when we help those who are weary with bearing their heavy burdens, why should we continue to do so to no purpose? And would not the ants, as being irrational creature, be greatly puffed up, and think highly of themselves, because their works were compared to those of men? While men, on the other hand, who by means of their reason are enabled to hear how their philanthropy towards others is contemned, would be injured, so far as could be effected by Celsus and his arguments: for he does not perceive that, while he wishes to turn away from Christianity those who read his treatise, he turns away also the sympathy of those who are not Christians from those who bear the heaviest burdens (of life). Whereas, had he been a philosopher, who was capable of perceiving the good which men may do each other, he ought, in addition to not removing along with Christianity the blessings which are found among men, to have lent his aid to co-operate (if he had it in his power) with those principles of excellence which are common to Christianity and the rest of mankind. Moreover, even if the ants set apart in a place by themselves those grains which sprout forth, that they may not swell into bud, but may continue throughout the year as their food, this is not to be deemed as evidence of the existence of reason among ants, but as the work of the universal mother, Nature, which adorned even irrational animals, so that even the most insignificant is not omitted, but bears traces of the reason implanted in it by nature. Unless, indeed, by these assertions Celsus means obscurely to intimate (for in many instances he would like to adopt Platonic ideas) that all souls are of the same species, and that there is no difference between that of a man and those of ants and bees, which is the act of one who would bring down the soul from the vault of heaven, and cause it to enter not only a human body, but that of an animal. Christians, however, will not yield their assent to such opinions: for they have been instructed before now that the human soul was created in the image of God; and they see that it is impossible for a nature fashioned in the divine image to have its (original) features altogether obliterated, and to assume others, formed after I know not what likeness of irrational animals.
8.62. In a former passage, Celsus had spoken at length on the subject of oracles, and had referred us to their answers as being the voice of the gods; but now he makes amends, and confesses that those who foretell the fortunes of men and cities, and concern themselves about mortal affairs, are earth-spirits, who are given up to fleshly lust, blood, odours, sweet sounds, and other such things, and who are unable to rise above these sensual objects. Perhaps, when we opposed the theological teaching of Celsus in regard to oracles, and the honour done to those called gods, some one might suspect us of impiety when we alleged that these were stratagems of demoniacal powers, to draw men away to carnal indulgence. But any who entertained this suspicion against us, may now believe that the statements put forth by Christians were well-founded, when they see the above passage from the writings of one who is a professed adversary of Christianity, but who now at length writes as one who has been overcome by the spirit of truth. Although, therefore, Celsus says that we must offer sacrifices to them, in so far as they are profitable to us, for to offer them indiscriminately is not allowed by reason, yet we are not to offer sacrifices to demons addicted to blood and odours; nor is the Divine Being to be profaned in our minds, by being brought down to the level of wicked demons. If Celsus had carefully weighed the meaning of the word profitable, and had considered that the truest profit lies in virtue and in virtuous action, he would not have applied the phrase as far as it is profitable to the service of such demons, as he has acknowledged them to be. If, then, health of body and success in life were to come to us on condition of our serving such demons, we should prefer sickness and misfortune accompanied with the consciousness of our being truly devoted to the will of God. For this is preferable to being mortally diseased in mind, and wretched through being separate and outcasts from God, though healthy in body and abounding in earthly prosperity. And we would rather go for help to one who seeks nothing whatever but the well-being of men and of all rational creatures, than to those who delight in blood and sacrificial odours. ''. None
126. Origen, On First Principles, 3.1.2-3.1.3 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal(s), • animals, complex behavior in • animals, impressions of • animals, in wise person • impressions, of animals

 Found in books: Graver (2007) 226, 240; Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021) 123

3.1.2. But since the apostle in one place does not pretend that the becoming of a vessel unto honour or dishonour depends upon God, but refers back the whole to ourselves, saying, If, then, a man purge himself, he will be a vessel unto honour, sanctified, meet for the Master's use, and prepared unto every good work; and elsewhere does not even pretend that it is dependent upon ourselves, but appears to attribute the whole to God, saying, The potter has power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour and another to dishonour; and as his statements are not contradictory, we must reconcile them, and extract one complete statement from both. Neither does our own power, apart from the knowledge of God, compel us to make progress; nor does the knowledge of God (do so), unless we ourselves also contribute something to the good result; nor does our own power, apart from the knowledge of God, and the use of the power that worthily belongs to us, make a man become (a vessel) unto honour or dishonour; nor does the will of God alone form a man to honour or to dishonour, unless He hold our will to be a kind of matter that admits of variation, and that inclines to a better or worse course of conduct. And these observations are sufficient to have been made by us on the subject of free-will." '
3.1.2. But since the words of the apostle, in what he says regarding vessels of honour or dishonour, that if a man therefore purge himself, he will be a vessel unto honour, sanctified and meet for the Master's service, and prepared unto every good work, appear to place nothing in the power of God, but all in ourselves; while in those in which he declares that the potter has power over the clay, to make of the same lump one vessel to honour, another to dishonour, he seems to refer the whole to God — it is not to be understood that those statements are contradictory, but the two meanings are to be reduced to agreement, and one signification must be drawn from both, viz., that we are not to suppose either that those things which are in our own power can be done without the help of God, or that those which are in God's hand can be brought to completion without the intervention of our acts, and desires, and intention; because we have it not in our own power so to will or do anything, as not to know that this very faculty, by which we are able to will or to do, was bestowed on us by God, according to the distinction which we indicated above. Or again, when God forms vessels, some to honour and others to dishonour, we are to suppose that He does not regard either our wills, or our purposes, or our deserts, to be the causes of the honour or dishonour, as if they were a sort of matter from which He may form the vessel of each one of us either to honour or to dishonour; whereas the very movement of the soul itself, or the purpose of the understanding, may of itself suggest to him, who is not unaware of his heart and the thoughts of his mind, whether his vessel ought to be formed to honour or to dishonour. But let these points suffice, which we have discussed as we best could, regarding the questions connected with the freedom of the will." '
3.1.2. But with respect to the declaration of the apostle, Therefore has He mercy on whom He will have mercy, and whom He will He hardens. You will say then unto me, Why does He yet find fault? For who has resisted His will? Nay but, O man, who are you that replies against God? Shall the thing formed say to him that formed it, Why have you made me thus? Hath not the potter power over the clay, of the same lump to make one vessel unto honour, and another unto dishonour? Some one will perhaps say, that as the potter out of the same lump makes some vessels to honour, and others to dishonour, so God creates some men for perdition, and others for salvation; and that it is not therefore in our own power either to be saved or to perish; by which reasoning we appear not to be possessed of free-will. We must answer those who are of this opinion with the question, Whether it is possible for the apostle to contradict himself? And if this cannot be imagined of an apostle, how shall he appear, according to them, to be just in blaming those who committed fornication in Corinth, or those who sinned, and did not repent of their unchastity, and fornication, and uncleanness, which they had committed? How, also, does he greatly praise those who acted rightly, like the house of Onesiphorus, saying, The Lord give mercy to the house of Onesiphorus; for he oft refreshed me, and was not ashamed of my chain: but, when he had come to Rome, he sought me out very diligently, and found me. The Lord grant unto him that he may find mercy of the Lord in that day. Now it is not consistent with apostolic gravity to blame him who is worthy of blame, i.e., who has sinned, and greatly to praise him who is deserving of praise for his good works; and again, as if it were in no one's power to do any good or evil, to say that it was the Creator's doing that every one should act virtuously or wickedly, seeing He makes one vessel to honour, and another to dishonour. And how can he add that statement, We must all stand before the judgment-seat of Christ, that every one of us may receive in his body, according to what he has done, whether it be good or bad? For what reward of good will be conferred on him who could not commit evil, being formed by the Creator to that very end? Or what punishment will deservedly be inflicted on him who was unable to do good in consequence of the creative act of his Maker? Then, again, how is not this opposed to that other declaration elsewhere, that in a great house there are not only vessels of gold and silver, but also of wood and of earth, and some to honour, and some to dishonour. If a man therefore purge himself from these, he shall be a vessel unto honour, sanctified, and meet for the Master's use, prepared unto every good work. He, accordingly, who purges himself, is made a vessel unto honour, while he who has disdained to cleanse himself from his impurity is made a vessel unto dishonour. From such declarations, in my opinion, the cause of our actions can in no degree be referred to the Creator. For God the Creator makes a certain vessel unto honour, and other vessels to dishonour; but that vessel which has cleansed itself from all impurity He makes a vessel unto honour, while that which has stained itself with the filth of vice He makes a vessel unto dishonour. The conclusion from which, accordingly, is this, that the cause of each one's actions is a pre-existing one; and then every one, according to his deserts, is made by God either a vessel unto honour or dishonour. Therefore every individual vessel has furnished to its Creator out of itself the causes and occasions of its being formed by Him to be either a vessel unto honour or one unto dishonour. And if the assertion appear correct, as it certainly is, and in harmony with all piety, that it is due to previous causes that every vessel be prepared by God either to honour or to dishonour, it does not appear absurd that, in discussing remoter causes in the same order, and in the same method, we should come to the same conclusion respecting the nature of souls, and (believe) that this was the reason why Jacob was beloved before he was born into this world, and Esau hated, while he still was contained in the womb of his mother." '
3.1.2. Nay, that very declaration, that from the same lump a vessel is formed both to honour and to dishonour, will not push us hard; for we assert that the nature of all rational souls is the same, as one lump of clay is described as being under the treatment of the potter. Seeing, then, the nature of rational creatures is one, God, according to the previous grounds of merit, created and formed out of it, as the potter out of the one lump, some persons to honour and others to dishonour. Now, as regards the language of the apostle, which he utters as if in a tone of censure, Nay but, O man, who are you that replies against God? he means, I think, to point out that such a censure does not refer to any believer who lives rightly and justly, and who has confidence in God, i.e., to such an one as Moses was, of whom Scripture says that Moses spoke, and God answered him by a voice; and as God answered Moses, so also does every saint answer God. But he who is an unbeliever, and loses confidence in answering before God owing to the unworthiness of his life and conversation, and who, in relation to these matters, does not seek to learn and make progress, but to oppose and resist, and who, to speak more plainly, is such an one as to be able to say those words which the apostle indicates, when he says, Why, then, does He yet find fault? For who will resist His will?— to such an one may the censure of the apostle rightly be directed, Nay but, O man, who are you that replies against God? This censure accordingly applies not to believers and saints, but to unbelievers and wicked men.' "
3.1.2. of all things which move, some have the cause of their motion within themselves, others receive it from without: and all those things only are moved from without which are without life, as stones, and pieces of wood, and whatever things are of such a nature as to be held together by the constitution of their matter alone, or of their bodily substance. That view must indeed be dismissed which would regard the dissolution of bodies by corruption as motion, for it has no bearing upon our present purpose. Others, again, have the cause of motion in themselves, as animals, or trees, and all things which are held together by natural life or soul; among which some think ought to be classed the veins of metals. Fire, also, is supposed to be the cause of its own motion, and perhaps also springs of water. And of those things which have the causes of their motion in themselves, some are said to be moved out of themselves, others by themselves. And they so distinguish them, because those things are moved out of themselves which are alive indeed, but have no soul; whereas those things which have a soul are moved by themselves, when a phantasy, i.e., a desire or incitement, is presented to them, which excites them to move towards something. Finally, in certain things endowed with a soul, there is such a phantasy, i.e., a will or feeling, as by a kind of natural instinct calls them forth, and arouses them to orderly and regular motion; as we see to be the case with spiders, which are stirred up in a most orderly manner by a phantasy, i.e., a sort of wish and desire for weaving, to undertake the production of a web, some natural movement undoubtedly calling forth the effort to work of this kind. Nor is this very insect found to possess any other feeling than the natural desire of weaving; as in like manner bees also exhibit a desire to form honeycombs, and to collect, as they say, aerial honey.' "
3.1.2. of things that move, some have the cause of their motion within themselves; others, again, are moved only from without. Now only portable things are moved from without, such as pieces of wood, and stones, and all matter that is held together by their constitution alone. And let that view be removed from consideration which calls the flux of bodies motion, since it is not needed for our present purpose. But animals and plants have the cause of their motion within themselves, and in general whatever is held together by nature and a soul, to which class of things they say that metals also belong. And besides these, fire too is self-moved, and perhaps also fountains of water. Now, of those things which have the cause of their movement within themselves, some, they say, are moved out of themselves, others from themselves: things without life, out of themselves; animate things, from themselves. For animate things are moved from themselves, a phantasy springing up in them which incites to effort. And again, in certain animals phantasies are formed which call forth an effort, the nature of the phantasy stirring up the effort in an orderly manner, as in the spider is formed the phantasy of weaving; and the attempt to weave follows, the nature of its phantasy inciting the insect in an orderly manner to this alone. And besides its phantasial nature, nothing else is believed to belong to the insect. And in the bee there is formed the phantasy to produce wax.' "3.1.3. But since a rational animal not only has within itself these natural movements, but has moreover, to a greater extent than other animals, the power of reason, by which it can judge and determine regarding natural movements, and disapprove and reject some, while approving and adopting others, so by the judgment of this reason may the movements of men be governed and directed towards a commendable life. And from this it follows that, since the nature of this reason which is in man has within itself the power of distinguishing between good and evil, and while distinguishing possesses the faculty of selecting what it has approved, it may justly be deemed worthy of praise in choosing what is good, and deserving of censure in following that which is base or wicked. This indeed must by no means escape our notice, that in some dumb animals there is found a more regular movement than in others, as in hunting-dogs or war-horses, so that they may appear to some to be moved by a kind of rational sense. But we must believe this to be the result not so much of reason as of some natural instinct, largely bestowed for purposes of that kind. Now, as we had begun to remark, seeing that such is the nature of a rational animal, some things may happen to us human beings from without; and these, coming in contact with our sense of sight, or hearing, or any other of our senses, may incite and arouse us to good movements, or the contrary; and seeing they come to us from an external source, it is not within our own power to prevent their coming. But to determine and approve what use we ought to make of those things which thus happen, is the duty of no other than of that reason within us, i.e., of our own judgment; by the decision of which reason we use the incitement, which comes to us from without for that purpose, which reason approves, our natural movements being determined by its authority either to good actions or the reverse. 3.1.3. The rational animal, however, has, in addition to its phantasial nature, also reason, which judges the phantasies, and disapproves of some and accepts others, in order that the animal may be led according to them. Therefore, since there are in the nature of reason aids towards the contemplation of virtue and vice, by following which, after beholding good and evil, we select the one and avoid the other, we are deserving of praise when we give ourselves to the practice of virtue, and censurable when we do the reverse. We must not, however, be ignorant that the greater part of the nature assigned to all things is a varying quantity among animals, both in a greater and a less degree; so that the instinct in hunting-dogs and in war-horses approaches somehow, so to speak, to the faculty of reason. Now, to fall under some one of those external causes which stir up within us this phantasy or that, is confessedly not one of those things that are dependent upon ourselves; but to determine that we shall use the occurrence in this way or differently, is the prerogative of nothing else than of the reason within us, which, as occasion offers, arouses us towards efforts inciting to what is virtuous and becoming, or turns us aside to what is the reverse.''. None
127. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 1.38.2, 2.9, 2.19-2.20, 2.34.2, 2.37.1, 2.54-2.55, 3.2.2, 3.2.4, 3.7.1-3.7.2, 3.8.7-3.8.8, 3.9.3-3.9.5, 3.10.5, 3.11.1, 3.14.1, 3.15.1, 3.19.3, 3.22.7, 3.25.3, 3.26, 3.26.1, 3.26.9, 3.26.12, 3.27.2, 4.20.3-4.20.4 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Abstinence, from eating animals • Animals, Cruelty to them leads to cruelty to humans • Animals, as sacrifices • Animals, as virtuous • Artemis, animals, association with • Porphyry, Philosophia ex Oraculis, animal sacrifice • Porphyry, rejection of animal sacrifice • Theophrastus, On the Wisdom and Character of Animals • animal sacrifice, epistemology • animal sacrifice, reason in animals • animal(s), • animals • animals, • animals, Artemis as “Mistress of Beasts,” • animals, sacrificial • domestic, ass as a domestic animal • medieval art, animal conflicts, ancient depictions of • oikeiōsis = Lat. commendatio or conciliatio, of animals • pollution, miasma from animal sacrifice • sacrifice (thysia), animal slaughter • sacrifice, animal • sacrifice, animal, in Heraclitus • sacrifice, animal, in Pythagoras • sacrifice, animal, rejection of, Porphyry • skin, animal

 Found in books: Bernabe et al (2013) 47; Eidinow and Kindt (2015) 424, 471; Gale (2000) 103; Hitch (2017) 257; Janowitz (2002b) 98; Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 64, 75; Schultz and Wilberding (2022) 148, 149, 151, 153, 154, 156, 157, 161, 162, 165; Simmons(1995) 149, 152, 305, 306, 311; Simon (2021) 190; Sorabji (2000) 286; Tsouni (2019) 189; Wilson (2010) 338; Wilson (2012) 149; Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021) 177, 178, 179, 180, 183, 184, 185, 186, 187, 188, 190, 191

1.38.2. 38.Hence, as long as any one is discordant about food, and contends that this or that thing should be eaten, but does not conceive that, if it |32 were possible, we should abstain from all food, assenting by this contention to his passions, such a one forms a vain opinion, as if the subjects of his dissension were things of no consequence. He, therefore, who philosophizes, will not separate himself from his terrestrial bonds by violence; for he who is compelled to do this, nevertheless remains there from whence he was forced to depart. Nor must it be thought, that he who strengthens these bonds, effects a thing of small importance. So that only granting to nature what is necessary, and this of a light quality, and through more slender food, he will reject whatever exceeds this, as only contributing to pleasure. For he will be persuaded of the truth of what Plato says, that sense is a nail by which the soul is fastened to bodies 17, through the agglutination of the passions, and the enjoyment of corporeal delight. For if sensible perceptions were no impediment to the pure energy of the soul, why would it be a thing of a dire nature to be in body, while at the same time the soul remained impassive to the motions of the body? 2.9. 9.The sacrifice, therefore, through animals is posterior and most recent, and originated from a cause which is not of a pleasing nature, like that of the sacrifice from fruits, but received its commencement either from famine, or some other unfortunate circumstance. The causes, indeed, of the peculiar mactations among the Athenians, had their beginning, either in ignorance, or anger, or fear. For the slaughter of swine is attributed to an involuntary error of Clymene, who, by unintentionally striking, slew the animal. Hence her husband, being terrified as if he had perpetrated an illegal deed, consulted the oracle of the Pythian God about it. But as the God did not condemn what had happened, the slaughter of animals was afterwards considered as a thing of an indifferent nature. The inspector, however, of sacred rites, who was the offspring of prophets, wishing to make an offering of first-fruits from sheep, was permitted to do so, it is said, by an oracle, but with much caution and fear. For the oracle was as follows:--- "offspring of prophets, sheep by force to slay, The Gods permit not thee: but with wash'd hands For thee 'tis lawful any sheep to kill, That dies a voluntary death." 2.19. 19.But those who have written concerning sacred operations and sacrifices, admonish us to be accurate in preserving what pertains to the popana, because these are more acceptable to the Gods than the sacrifice which is performed through the mactation of animals. Sophocles also, in describing a sacrifice which is pleasing to divinity, says in his Polyidus: The skins of sheep in sacrifice were used, Libations too of wine, grapes well preserved, And fruits collected in a heap of every kind; The olive's pinguid juice, and waxen work Most variegated, of the yellow bee. Formerly, also, there were venerable monuments in Delos of those who came from the Hyperboreans, bearing handfuls of fruits. It is necessary, therefore, that, being purified in our manners, we should make oblations, offering to the Gods those sacrifices which are pleasing to them, and not such as are attended with great expense. Now, however, if a man's body is not pure and invested with a splendid garment, he does not think it is qualified for the sanctity of sacrifice. But when he has rendered his body splendid, together with his garment, though his soul at the same time is not, purified from vice, yet he betakes himself to sacrifice, and thinks that it is a thing of no consequence; as if divinity did not especially rejoice in that which is most divine in our nature, when it is in a pure condition, as being allied to his essence. In Epidaurus, therefore, there was the following inscription on the doors of the temple: Into an odorous temple, he who goes Should pure and holy be; but to be wise In what to sanctity pertains, is to be pure. 2.34.2. 34.Let us therefore also sacrifice, but let us sacrifice in such a manner as is fit, offering different sacrifices to different powers;14 to the God indeed who is above all things, as a certain wise man said, neither sacrificing with incense, nor consecrating any thing sensible. For there is nothing material, which is not immediately impure to an immaterial nature. Hence, neither is vocal language, nor internal speech, adapted to the highest God, when it is defiled by any passion of the soul; but we should venerate him in profound silence with a pure soul, and with pure conceptions about him. It is necessary, therefore, that being conjoined with and assimilated to him, we should offer to him, as a sacred sacrifice, the elevation of our intellect, which offering will be both a hymn and our salvation. In an impassive contemplation, therefore, of this divinity by the soul, the sacrifice to him is effected in perfection; |65 but to his progeny, the intelligible Gods, hymns, orally enunciated, are to be offered. For to each of the divinities, a sacrifice is to be made of the first-fruits of the things which he bestows, and through which he nourishes and preserves us. As therefore, the husbandman offers handfuls of the fruits and berries which the season first produces; thus also we should offer to the divinities the first-fruits of our conceptions of their transcendent excellence, giving them thanks for the contemplation which they impart to us, and for truly nourishing us through the vision of themselves, which they afford us, associating with, appearing to, and shining upon us, for our salvation. 2.37.1. 37.The first God being incorporeal, immoveable, and impartible, and neither subsisting in any thing, nor restrained in his energies, is not, as has been before observed, in want of any thing external to himself, as neither is the soul of the world; but this latter, containing in itself the principle of that which is triply divisible, and being naturally self-motive, is adapted to be moved in a beautiful and orderly manner, and also to move the body of the world, according to the most excellent reasons i.e. productive principles or powers. It is, however, connected with and comprehends body, though it is itself incorporeal, and liberated from the participation of any passion. To the remaining Gods, therefore, to the world, to the inerratic and erratic stars, who are visible Gods, consisting of soul and body, thanks are to be returned after the above-mentioned manner, through sacrifices from iimate natures. The multitude, therefore, of those invisible beings remains for us, whom Plato indiscriminately calls daemons 17; but of these, some being denominated by men, obtain from them honours, and other religious observances, similar to those which are paid to the Gods; but others, who for the most part are not explicitly denominated, receive an occult religious reverence and appellation from certain persons in villages and certain cities; and the remaining multitude is called in common by the |67 name of daemons. The general persuasion, however, respecting all these invisible beings, is this, that if they become angry through being neglected, and deprived of the religious reverence which is due to them, they are noxious to those by whom they are thus neglected, and that they again become beneficent, if they are appeased by prayers, supplications, and sacrifices, and other similar rites. 2.54. 54.And that we do not carelessly assert these things, but that what we have said is abundantly confirmed by history, the following narrations sufficiently testify. For in Rhodes, on the sixth day of June, a man was sacrificed to Saturn; which custom having prevailed for a long time, was afterwards changed into a more human mode of sacrificing. For one of those men who, by the public decision, had been sentenced to death, was kept in prison till the Saturnalia commenced; but as soon as this festival began, they brought the man out of the gates of the city, opposite to the temple of Aristobulus, and giving him wine to drink, they cut his throat. But in the island which is now called Salamis, but was formerly denominated Coronis, in the month according to the Cyprians Aphrodisius, a man was sacrificed to Agraule, the daughter of Cecrops, and the nymph Agraulis. And this custom continued till the time of Diomed. Afterwards it was changed, so that a man was sacrificed to Diomed. But the temples of Minerva, of Agraule, and Diomed, were contained in one and the same enclosure. The man who was also about to be slain, was first led by young men thrice round the altar, afterwards the priest pierced him with a lance in the stomach, and thus being thrown on the pyre, he was entirely consumed. 3.2.2. 2.Since, however, with respect to reason, one kind, according to the doctrine of the Stoics, is internal, but the other external 1, and again, one kind being right, but the other erroneous, it is requisite to explain of which of these two, animals, according to them, are deprived. Are they therefore deprived of right reason alone? or are they entirely destitute both of internal and externally proceeding reason? They appear, indeed, to ascribe to brutes an entire privation of reason, and not a privation of right reason alone. For if they merely denied that brutes possess right reason, animals would not be irrational, but rational beings, in the same manner as nearly all men are according to them. For, according to their opinion, one or two wise men may be found in whom alone right reason prevails, but all the rest of mankind are depraved; though some |82of these make a certain proficiency, but others are profoundly depraved, and yet, at the same time, all of them are similarly rational. Through the influence, therefore, of self-love, they say, that all other animals are irrational; wishing to indicate by irrationality, an entire privation of reason. If, however, it be requisite to speak the truth, not only reason may plainly be perceived in all animals, but in many of them it is so great as to approximate to perfection. 3.7.1. 7.But it is now requisite to show that brutes have internal reason. The difference, indeed, between our reason and theirs, appears to consist, as Aristotle somewhere says, not in essence, but in the more and the less; just as many are of opinion, that the difference between the Gods and us is not essential, but consists in this, that in them there is a greater, |87 and in us a less accuracy, of the reasoning power 5. And, indeed, so far as pertains to sense and the remaining organization, according to the sensoria and the flesh, every one nearly will grant that these are similarly disposed in us, as they are in brutes. For they not only similarly participate with us of natural passions, and the motions produced through these, but we may also survey in them such affections as are preternatural and morbid. No one, however, of a sound mind, will say that brutes are unreceptive of the reasoning power, on account of the difference between their habit of body and ours, when he sees that there is a great variety of habit in men, according to their race, and the nations to which they belong and yet, at the same time, it is granted that all of them are rational. An ass, therefore, is afflicted with a catarrh, and if the disease flows to his lungs, he dies in the same manner as a man. A horse, too, is subject to purulence, and wastes away through it, like a man. He is likewise attacked with rigour, the gout, fever, and fury, in which case he is also said to have a depressed countece. A mare, when pregt, if she happens to smell a lamp when it is just extinguished, becomes abortive, in the same manner as a woman. An ox, and likewise a camel, are subject to fever and insanity; a raven becomes scabby, and has the leprosy; and also a dog, who, besides this, is afflicted with the gout, and madness: but a hog is subject to hoarseness, and in a still greater degree a dog; whence this disease in a man is denominated from the dog, cyche. And these things are known to us, because we are familiar with these animals; but of the diseases of other animals, we are ignorant, because we do not associate with them. Castrated animals also became more effeminate. Hence cocks, when they are castrated, no longer crow; but their voice becomes effeminate, like that of men who lose their testicles. It is not possible, likewise, to distinguish the bellowing and horns of a bull, when he is castrated, from those of a cow. But stags, when they are castrated, no longer cast off their horns, but retain them in the same manner as eunuchs do their hairs; and if, when they are castrated, they are without horns, they do not afterwards produce them, just as it happens to those who, before they have a beard, are made eunuchs. So that nearly the bodies of all animals are similarly affected with ours, with respect to the bodily calamities to which they are subject. |88 3.8.7. 8.See, however, whether all the passions of the soul in brutes, are not similar to ours; for it is not the province of man alone to apprehend juices by the taste, colours by the sight, odours by the smell, sounds by the hearing, cold or heat, or other tangible objects, by the touch; but the senses of brutes are capable of the same perceptions. Nor are brutes deprived of sense because they are not men, as neither are we to be deprived of reason, because the Gods, if they possess it, are rational beings. With respect to the senses, however, other animals appear greatly to surpass us; for what man can see so acutely as a dragon? (for this is not the fabulous Lynceus). And hence the poets denominate to see &
3.9.3. 9.It must be demonstrated, therefore, that there is a rational power in animals, and that they are not deprived of prudence. And in the first place, indeed, each of them knows whether it is imbecile or strong, and, in consequence of this, it defends some parts of itself, but attacks with others. Thus the panther uses its teeth, the lion its nails and teeth, the horse its hoofs, the ox its horns, the cock its spurs, and the scorpion its sting; but the serpents in Egypt use their spittle (whence also they are called ptuades, i.e. spitters,) and with this they blind the eyes of those that approach them: and thus a different animal uses a different part of itself for attack, in order to save itself. Again, some animals, viz. such as are robust, feed and live remote from men; but others, who are of an ignoble nature, live remote from stronger animals, and, on the contrary, dwell nearer men. And of these, some dwell at a greater distance from more robust animals, as sparrows and swallows, who build their nests in the roofs of houses; but others associate with men, as, for instance, dogs. They likewise change their places of abode at certain times, and know every thing which contributes to their advantage. In a similar manner, in fishes and in birds, a reasoning energy of this kind may be perceived; all which particulars are abundantly collected by the ancients, in their writings concerning the prudence of animals; and they are copiously discussed by Aristotle, who says, that by all animals an habitation subservient to their subsistence and their safety, is most exquisitely contrived. 3.10.5. 10.But he who says that these things are naturally present with animals, is ignorant in asserting this, that they are by nature rational; or if this is not admitted, neither does reason subsist in us naturally, nor with the |90 perfection of it receive an increase, so far as we are naturally adapted to receive it. A divine nature, indeed, does not become rational 7 through learning, for there never was a time in which he was irrational; but rationality is consubsistent with his existence, and he is not prevented from being rational, because he did not receive reason through discipline: though, with respect to other animals, in the same manner as with respect to men, many things are taught them by nature, and some things are imparted by discipline. Brutes, however, learn some things from each other, but are taught others, as we have said, by men. They also have memory, which is a most principal thing in the resumption of reasoning and prudence. They likewise have vices, and are envious; though their bad qualities are not so widely extended as in men: for their vices are of a lighter nature than those of men: This, indeed, is evident; for the builder of a house will never be able to lay the foundation of it, unless he is sober; nor can a shipwright properly place the keel of a ship, unless he is in health; nor a husbandman plant a vine, unless he applies his mind to it; yet nearly all men, when they are intoxicated, can beget children. This, however, is not the case with other animals; for they propagate for the sake of offspring, and for the most part, when the males have made the female pregt, they no longer attempt to be connected with her; nor, if they should attempt it, would the female permit them. But the magnitude of the lascivious insolence and intemperance of men in these things, is evident. In other animals, however, the male is conscious of the parturient throes of the female, and, for the most part, partakes of the same pains; as is evident in cocks. But others incubate together with the females; as the males of doves. They likewise provide a proper place for the delivery of their offspring; and after they have brought forth their offspring, they both purify them and themselves. And he who properly observes, will see that every thing proceeds with them in an orderly manner; that they fawn on him who nourishes them, and that they know their master, and give indications of him who acts insidiously. 3.11.1. 11.Who likewise is ignorant how much gregarious animals preserve justice towards each other? for this is preserved by ants, by bees, and by |91 other animals of the like kind. And who is ignorant of the chastity of female ringdoves towards the males with whom they associate? for they destroy those who are found by them to have committed adultery. Or who has not heard of the justice of storks towards their parents? For in the several species of animals, a peculiar virtue is eminent, to which each species is naturally adapted; nor because this virtue is natural and stable, is it fit to deny that they are rational? For it might be requisite to deprive them of rationality, if their works were not the proper effects of virtue and rational sagacity; but if we do not understand how these works are effected, because we are unable to penetrate into the reasoning which they use, we are not on this account to accuse them of irrationality; for neither is any one able to penetrate into the intellect of that divinity the sun, but from his works we assent to those who demonstrate him to be an intellectual and rational essence. 3.14.1. 14.Indeed, the operations of brutes are attended with so much consideration,8 that they frequently perceive, that the food which is placed for them is nothing else than a snare, though, either through intemperance or hunger, they approach to it. And some of them, indeed, do not approach to it immediately, but others slowly accede to it. They also try whether it is possible to take the food without falling into danger, and frequently in consequence of rationality vanquishing passion, they depart without being injured. Some of them too revile at, and discharge their urine on the stratagem of men; but others, through voracity, though they know that they shall be captured, yet no less than the associates of Ulysses, suffer themselves to die rather than not eat. |93 Some persons, likewise, have not badly endeavoured to show from the places which animals are allotted, that they are far more prudent than we are. For as those beings that dwell in aether are rational, so also, say they, are the animals which occupy the region proximate to aether, viz. the air; afterwards aquatic animals differ from these, and in the last place, the terrestrial differ from the aquatic in degrees of rationality. And we belong to the class of terrene animals dwelling in the sediment of the universe. For in the Gods, we must not infer that they possess a greater degree of excellence from the places which they illuminate, though in mortal natures this may be admitted. 3.15.1. 15.Since, also, brutes acquire a knowledge of the arts, and these such as are human, and learn to dance, to drive a chariot, to fight a duel, to walk on ropes, to write and read, to play on the pipe and the harp, to discharge arrows, and to ride, - this being the case, can you any longer doubt whether they possess that power which is receptive of art, since the recipient of these arts may be seen to exist in them? For where will they receive them, unless reason is inherent in them in which the arts subsist? For they do not hear our voice as if it was a mere sound only, but they also perceive the difference in the meaning of the words, which is the effect of rational intelligence. But our opponents say, that animals perform badly what is done by men. To this we reply, that neither do men perform all things well. For if this be not admitted, some men would be in vain victors in a contest, and others vanquished. They add, that brutes do not consult, nor form assemblies, nor act in a judicial capacity. But tell me whether all men do this? Do not actions in the multitude precede consultation? And whence can anyone demonstrate that brutes do not consult? For no one can adduce an argument sufficient to prove that they do not. For those show the contrary to this, who have written minutely about animals. As to other objections, which are adduced by our adversaries in a declamatory way, they are perfectly frivolous; such, for instance, as that brutes have no cities of their own. For neither have the Scythians, who live in carts, nor the Gods. Our opponents add, that neither have brutes any written laws. To this we reply, that neither had men while they were happy. For Apis is said to have been the first that promulgated laws for the Greeks, when they were in want of them. 3.19.3. 19.But with respect to him who thinks that we should not use an ox for food, nor destroying and corrupting spirit and life, place things on the table which are only the allurements and elegances of satiety, of what does he deprive our life, which is either necessary to our safety, or subservient to virtue? To compare plants, however, with animals, is doing violence to the order of things. For the latter are naturally sensitive, and adapted to feel pain, to be terrified and hurt; on which account also they may be injured. But the former are entirely destitute of sensation, and in consequence of this, nothing foreign, or evil, or hurtful, or injurious, can befall them. For sensation is the principle of all alliance, and of every thing of a foreign nature. But Zeno and his followers assert, that alliance is the principle of justice. And is it not absurd, since we see that many of our own species live from sense alone, but do not possess intellect and reason, and since we also see, that many of them surpass the most terrible of wild beasts in cruelty, anger, and rapine, being murderous of their children and their parents, and also being tyrants, and the tools of kings is it not, I say, absurd, to fancy that we ought to act justly towards these, but that no justice is due from us to the ox that ploughs, the dog that is fed with us, and the animals that nourish us with their milk, and adorn our bodies with their wool? Is it not such an opinion most irrational and absurd? |97 3.22.7. 22.Let us, however, admit that sense does not require intellect for the accomplishment of its proper work, yet, when energizing about what is appropriate and what is foreign, it discerns the difference between the two, it must then exercise the power of memory, and must dread that which will produce pain, desire that which will be beneficial, and contrive, if it is absent, how it may be present, and will procure methods of pursuing and investigating what is advantageous, and of avoiding and flying from hostile occurrences. Indeed, our opponents, in their Introductions, as they call them, every where inculcate these things with a tedious prolixity, defining design to be an indication of perfection; the tendency of intellect to the object of its perception, an impulse prior to impulse; preparation, an action prior to action; and memory, the comprehension of some past thing,15 the perception of which, when present, was obtained through sense. For there is not any one of these which is not rational, and all of them are present with all animals. Thus, too, with respect to intellections, those which are reposited in the mind, are called by them &
3.25.3. 25.But Theophrastus employs the following reasoning:- those that are generated from the same sources, I mean from the same father and mother, are said by us to be naturally allied to each other. And moreover, we likewise conceive that those who derive their origin from the same ancestors that we do, are allied to us, and also that this is the case with our fellow-citizens, because they participate with us of the same land, and are united to us by the bonds of association. For we do not think that the latter are allied to each other, and to us, through deriving their origin from the same ancestors, unless it should so happen that the first progenitors of these were the sources of our race, or were derived from the same ancestors. Hence, I think we should say, that Greek is allied and has an affinity to Greek, and Barbarian to Barbarian, and all men to each other; for one of these two reasons, either because they originate from the same ancestors, or because they participate of the same food, manners and genus. Thus also we must admit that all men have an affinity, and are allied to each other. And, moreover, the principles of the bodies of all animals are naturally the same. I do not say this with reference to the first elements of their bodies; for plants also consist of these; but I mean the seed, the flesh, and the conascent genus of humours which is inherent in animals. But animals are much more allied to each other, through naturally possessing souls, which are not different from each other, I mean in desire and anger; and besides |105 these, in the reasoning faculty, and, above all, in the senses. But as with respect to bodies, so likewise with respect to souls, some animals have them more, but others less perfect, yet all of them have naturally the same principles. And this is evident from the affinity of their passions. If, however, what we have said is true, viz. that such is the generation of the manners of animals, all the tribes of them are indeed intellective, but they differ in their modes of living, and in the temperature of the first elements of which they consist. And if this be admitted, the genus of other animals has an affinity, and is allied to us. For, as Euripides says, they have all of them the same food and the same spirit, the same purple streams; and they likewise demonstrate that the common parents of all of them are Heaven and Earth. 26. Hence, since animals are allied to us, if it should appear, according to Pythagoras, that they are allotted the same soul that we are, he may justly be considered as impious who does not abstain from acting unjustly towards his kindred. Nor because some animals are savage, is their alliance to us to be on this account abscinded. For some men may be found who are no less, and even more malefic than savage animals to their neighbours, and who are impelled to injure any one they may meet with, as if they were driven by a certain blast of their own nature and depravity. Hence, also, we destroy such men; yet we do not cut them off from an alliance to animals of a mild nature. Thus, therefore, if likewise some animals are savage, these, as such, are to be destroyed, in the same manner as men that are savage; but our habitude or alliance to other and wilder animals is not on this account to be abandoned. But neither tame nor savage animals are to be eaten; as neither are unjust men. Now, however, we act most unjustly, destroying, indeed tame animals, because some brutes are savage and unjust, and feeding on such as are tame. With respect to tame animals, however, we act with a twofold injustice, because though they are tame, we slay them, and also, because we eat them. And, in short, the death of these has a reference to the assumption of them for food. To these, also, such arguments as the following may be added. For he who says that the man who extends the just as far as to brutes, corrupts the just, is ignorant that he does not himself preserve justice, but increases pleasure, which is hostile to justice. By admitting, therefore, that pleasure is the end of our actions justice is evidently destroyed. For to whom is it not manifest that justice is increased through abstinence? For he who abstains from every thing animated, though he may abstain from such animals as do not contribute to the benefit of society, will be much more careful not to injure those of his own |106 species. For he who loves the genus, will not hate any species of animals; and by how much the greater his love of the genus is,* by so much the more will he preserve justice towards a part of the genus, and that to which he is allied. He, therefore, who admits that he is allied to all animals, will not injure any animal. But he who confines justice to man alone, is prepared, like one enclosed in a narrow space, to hurl from him the prohibition of injustice. So that the Pythagorean is more pleasing than the Socratic banquet. For Socrates said, that hunger is the sauce of food; but Pythagoras said, that to injure no one, and to be exhilarated with justice, is the sweetest sauce; as the avoidance of animal food, will also be the avoidance of unjust conduct with respect to food. For God has not so constituted things, that we cannot preserve ourselves without injuring others; since, if this were the case, he would have connected us with a nature which is the principal of injustice. Do not they, however, appear to be ignorant of the peculiarity of justice, who think that it was introduced from the alliance of men to each other? For this will be nothing more than a certain philanthropy; but justice consists in abstaining from injuring any thing which is not noxious. And our conception of the just man must be formed according to the latter, and not according to the former mode. Hence, therefore, since justice consists in not injuring any thing, it must be extended as far as to every animated nature. On this account, also, the essence of justice consists in the rational ruling over the irrational, and in the irrational being obedient to the rational part. For when reason governs, and the irrational part is obedient to its mandates, it follows, by the greatest necessity, that man will be innoxious towards every thing. For the passions being restrained, and desire and anger wasting away, but reason possessing its proper empire, a similitude to a more excellent nature and to deity immediately follows. But the more excellent nature in the universe is entirely innoxious, and, through possessing a power which preserves and benefits all things, is itself not in want of any thing. We, however, through justice when we exercise it, are innoxious towards all things, but, through being connected with mortality, are indigent of things of a necessary nature. But the assumption of what is necessary, does not injure even plants, when we take what they cast off; nor fruits, when we use such of them as are dead; nor sheep, when through |107 shearing we rather benefit than injure them, and by partaking of their milk, we in return afford them every proper attention. Hence, the just man appears to be one who deprives himself of things pertaining to the body; yet he does not in reality injure himself. For, by this management of his body, and continence, he increases his inward good, i.e., his similitude to God. 3.26. 26.By making pleasure, therefore, the end of life, that which is truly justice cannot be preserved; since neither such things as are primarily useful according to nature, nor all such as are easily attainable, give completion to felicity. For, in many instances, the motions of the irrational nature, and utility and indigence, have been, and still are the sources of injustice. For men became indigent as they pretended of animal food, in order that they might preserve, as they said, the corporeal frame free from molestation, and without being in want of those things after which the animal nature aspires. But if an assimilation to divinity is the end of life, an innoxious conduct towards all things will be in the most eminent degree preserved. As, therefore, he who is led by his passions is innoxious only towards his children and his wife, but despises and acts fraudulently towards other persons, since in consequence of the irrational part predominating in him, he is excited to, and astonished about mortal concerns; but he who is led by reason, preserves an innoxious conduct towards his fellow-citizens, and still more so towards strangers, and towards all men, through having the irrational part in subjection, and is therefore more rational and divine than the former character; - thus also, he who does not confine harmless conduct to men alone, but extends it to other animals, is more similar to divinity; and if it was possible to extend it even to plants, he would preserve this image in a still greater degree. As, however, this is not possible, we may in this respect lament, with the ancients 18, the defect of our nature, that we consist of such adverse and discordant principles, so that we are unable to preserve our divine part incorruptible, and in all respects innoxious. For we are not unindigent in all things: the cause of which is generation, and our becoming needy through the abundant corporeal efflux which we sustain. But want procures safety and ornament from things of a foreign nature, which are necessary to the existence of our mortal part. He, therefore, who is indigent of a greater number of externals, is in a greater degree agglutinated to penury; and by how much his wants increase, by so much is he destitute of divinity, |108 and an associate of penury. For that which is similar to deity, through this assimilation immediately possesses true wealth. But no one who is truly rich and perfectly unindigent injures any thing. For as long as any one injures another, though he should possess the greatest wealth, and all the acres of land which the earth contains, he is still poor, and has want for his intimate associate. On this account, also, he is unjust, without God, and impious, and enslaved to every kind of depravity, which is produced by the lapse of the soul into matter, through the privation of good. Every thing, therefore, is nugatory to any one, as long as he wanders from the principle of the universe; and he is indigent of all things, while he does not direct his attention to Porus or the source of true abundance. He likewise yields to the mortal part of his nature, while he remains ignorant of his real self. But Injustice is powerful in persuading and corrupting those that belong to her empire, because she associates with her votaries in conjunction with Pleasure. As, however, in the choice of lives, he is the more accurate judge who has obtained an experience of both the better and the worse kind of life, than he who has only experienced one of them; thus also, in the choice and avoidance of what is proper, he is a safer judge who, from that which is more, judges of that which is less excellent, than he who from the less, judges of the more excellent. Hence, he who lives according to intellect, will more accurately define what is eligible and what is not, than he who lives under the dominion of irrationality. For the former has passed through the irrational life, as having from the first associated with it; but the latter, having had no experience of an intellectual life, persuades those that resemble himself, and acts with nugacity, like a child among children. If, however, say our opponents, all men were persuaded by these arguments, what would become of us? Is it not evident that we should be happy, injustice, indeed, being exterminated from men, and justice being conversant with us, in the same manner as it is in the heavens? But now this question is just the same as if men should be dubious what the life of the Danaids would be, if they were liberated from the employment of drawing water in a sieve, and attempting to fill a perforated vessel. For they are dubious what would be the consequence if we should cease to replenish our passions and desires, the whole of which replenishing continually flows away through the want of real good; since this fills up the ruinous clefts of the soul more than the greatest of external necessaries. Do you therefore ask, O man, what we should do? We should imitate those that lived in the golden age, we should imitate those of that period who were truly free. For with them modesty, Nemesis, and Justice associated, because they were satisfied with the fruits of the earth. |109 The fertile earth for them spontaneous yields Abundantly her fruits 19. But those who are liberated from slavery, obtain for themselves what they before procured for their masters. In like manner, also, do you, when liberated from the servitude of the body, and a slavish attention to the passions produced through the body, as, prior to this, you nourished them in an all-various manner with externals, so now nourish yourself all-variously with internal good, justly assuming things which are properly your own, and no longer by violence taking away things which are foreign to your true nature and real good. Footnotes moved to the end and numbered 1.* This external reason (&
4.20.3. 20.For holy men were of opinion that purity consisted in a thing not being mingled with its contrary, and that mixture is defilement. Hence, they thought that nutriment should be assumed from fruits, and not from dead bodies, and that we should not, by introducing that which is animated to our nature, defile what is administered by nature. But they conceived, that the slaughter of animals, as they are sensitive, and the depriving them of their souls, is a defilement to the living; and that the pollution is much greater, to mingle a body which was once sensitive, but is now deprived of sense, with a sensitive and living being. Hence, universally, the purity pertaining to piety consists in rejecting and abstaining from many things, and in an abandonment of such as are of a contrary nature, and the assumption of such as are appropriate and concordant. On this account, venereal connexions are attended with defilement. For in these, a conjunction takes place of the female with the male; and the seed, when retained by the woman, and causing her to be pregt, defiles the soul, through its association with the body; but when it does not produce conception, it pollutes, in consequence of becoming a lifeless mass. The connexion also of males with males defiles, because it is an emission of seed as it were into a dead body, and because it is contrary to nature. And, in short, all venery, and emissions of the seed in sleep, pollute, because the soul becomes mingled with the body, and is drawn down to pleasure. The passions of the soul likewise defile, through the complication of the irrational and effeminate part with reason, the internal masculine part. For, in a certain respect, defilement and pollution manifest the mixture of things of an heterogeneous nature, and especially when the abstersion of this mixture is attended with difficulty. Whence, also, in tinctures which are produced through mixture, one species being complicated with another, this mixture is denominated a defilement. As when some woman with a lively red Stains the pure iv'ry --- says Homer 22. And again painters call the mixtures of colours, |134 corruptions. It is usual, likewise to denominate that which is unmingled and pure, incorruptible, and to call that which is genuine, unpolluted. For water, when mingled with earth, is corrupted, and is not genuine. But water, which is diffluent, and runs with tumultuous rapidity, leaves behind in its course the earth which it carries in its stream. When from a limpid and perennial fount It defluous runs --- as Hesiod says 23. For such water is salubrious, because it is uncorrupted and unmixed. The female, likewise, that does not receive into herself the exhalation of seed, is said to be uncorrupted. So that the mixture of contraries is corruption and defilement. For the mixture of dead with living bodies, and the insertion of beings that were once living and sentient into animals, and of dead into living flesh, may be reasonably supposed to introduce defilement and stains to our nature; just, again, as the soul is polluted when it is invested with the body. Hence, he who is born, is polluted by the mixture of his soul with body; and he who dies, defiles his body, through leaving it a corpse, different and foreign from that which possesses life. The soul, likewise, is polluted by anger and desire, and the multitude of passions of which in a certain respect diet is a co-operating cause. But as water which flows through a rock is more uncorrupted than that which runs through marshes, because it does not bring with it much mud; thus, also, the soul which administers its own affairs in a body that is dry, and is not moistened by the juices of foreign flesh, is in a more excellent condition, is more uncorrupted, and is more prompt for intellectual energy. Thus too, it is said, that the thyme which is the driest and the sharpest to the taste, affords the best honey to bees. The dianoetic, therefore, or discursive power of the soul, is polluted; or rather, he who energizes dianoetically, when this energy is mingled with the energies of either the imaginative or doxastic power. But purification consists in a separation from all these, and the wisdom which is adapted to divine concerns, is a desertion of every thing of this kind. The proper nutriment likewise, of each thing, is that which essentially preserves it. Thus you may say, that the nutriment of a stone is the cause of its continuing to be a stone, and of firmly remaining in a lapideous form; but the nutriment of a plant is that which preserves it in increase and fructification; and of an animated body, that which preserves its composition. It is one thing, however, |135 to nourish, and another to fatten; and one thing to impart what is necessary, and another to procure what is luxurious. Various, therefore, are the kinds of nutriment, and various also is the nature of the things that are nourished. And it is necessary, indeed, that all things should be nourished, but we should earnestly endeavour to fatten our most principal parts. Hence, the nutriment of the rational soul is that which preserves it in a rational state. But this is intellect; so that it is to be nourished by intellect; and we should earnestly endeavour that it may be fattened through this, rather than that the flesh may become pinguid through esculent substances. For intellect preserves for us eternal life, but the body when fattened causes the soul to be famished, through its hunger after a blessed life not being satisfied, increases our mortal part, since it is of itself insane, and impedes our attainment of an immortal condition of being. It likewise defiles by corporifying the soul, and drawing her down to that which is foreign to her nature. And the magnet, indeed, imparts, as it were, a soul to the iron which is placed near it; and the iron, though most heavy, is elevated, and runs to the spirit of the stone. Should he, therefore, who is suspended from incorporeal and intellectual deity, be anxiously busied in procuring food which fattens the body, that is an impediment to intellectual perception? Ought he not rather, by contracting hat is necessary to the flesh into that which is little and easily procured, he himself nourished, by adhering to God more closely than the iron to the magnet? I wish, indeed, that our nature was not so corruptible, and that it were possible we could live free from molestation, even without the nutriment derived from fruits. O that, as Homer 24 says, we were not in want either of meat or drink, that we might be truly immortal! --- the poet in thus speaking beautifully signifying, that food is the auxiliary not only of life, but also of death. If therefore, we were not in want even of vegetable aliment, we should be by so much the more blessed, in proportion as we should be more immortal. But now, being in a mortal condition, we render ourselves, if it be proper so to speak, still more mortal, through becoming ignorant that, by the addition of this mortality, the soul, as Theophrastus says, does not only confer a great benefit on the body by being its inhabitant, but gives herself wholly to it. 25 Hence, it is much |136 to be wished that we could easily obtain the life celebrated in fables, in which hunger and thirst are unknown; so that, by stopping the everyway-flowing river of the body, we might in a very little time be present with the most excellent natures, to which he who accedes, since deity is there, is himself a God. But how is it possible not to lament the condition of the generality of mankind, who are so involved in darkness as to cherish their own evil, and who, in the first place, hate themselves, and him who truly begot them, and afterwards, those who admonish them, and call on them to return from ebriety to a sober condition of being? Hence, dismissing things of this kind, will it not be requisite to pass on to what remains to be discussed?
128. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Oath-rituals, sacrificial animals • Sacrificial animals • animals,

 Found in books: Stavrianopoulou (2006) 187; Wilson (2010) 309

129. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Animal • animals, impressions of • animals, in wise person

 Found in books: Graver (2007) 226; Inwood and Warren (2020) 115

130. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal worship, Egyptians and • animals, sacred

 Found in books: Gruen (2011) 328; Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 221

131. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal(s), • sacrifice, animal, in Heraclitus • sacrifice, animal, in Iamblichus

 Found in books: Petrovic and Petrovic (2016) 71; Xenophontos and Marmodoro (2021) 22

132. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Sacred animals (Egyptian), periodic opening of necropolises to worshipers • Sacred animals (Egyptian), sacred animal necropolises and incubation • Sacred animals (Egyptian), sacred fish of Neith • Saqqâra (individual structures and complexes), Sacred Animal Necropolis • acquatic animals and crustaceans • animal material • animals in love with people, statues, pictures • sacrifice, animal • sacrifices, animal,

 Found in books: Bortolani et al (2019) 118, 120, 145, 146, 161, 204; Janowitz (2002b) 96; Luck (2006) 483; Renberg (2017) 434, 743; Stephens and Winkler (1995) 178

133. Augustine, The City of God, 10.16 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • animal sacrifice, silent thoughts doctrine • miracles, humans transformed into animals

 Found in books: Simmons(1995) 295; Wiebe (2021) 129

10.16. What angels, then, are we to believe in this matter of blessed and eternal life?- those who wish to be worshipped with religious rites and observances, and require that men sacrifice to them; or those who say that all this worship is due to one God, the Creator, and teach us to render it with true piety to Him, by the vision of whom they are themselves already blessed, and in whom they promise that we shall be so? For that vision of God is the beauty of a vision so great, and is so infinitely desirable, that Plotinus does not hesitate to say that he who enjoys all other blessings in abundance, and has not this, is supremely miserable. Since, therefore, miracles are wrought by some angels to induce us to worship this God, by others, to induce us to worship themselves; and since the former forbid us to worship these, while the latter dare not forbid us to worship God, which are we to listen to? Let the Platonists reply, or any philosophers, or the theurgists, or rather, periurgists, - for this name is good enough for those who practise such arts. In short, let all men answer - if, at least, there survives in them any spark of that natural perception which, as rational beings, they possess when created, - let them, I say, tell us whether we should sacrifice to the gods or angels who order us to sacrifice to them, or to that One to whom we are ordered to sacrifice by those who forbid us to worship either themselves or these others. If neither the one party nor the other had wrought miracles, but had merely uttered commands, the one to sacrifice to themselves, the other forbidding that, and ordering us to sacrifice to God, a godly mind would have been at no loss to discern which command proceeded from proud arrogance, and which from true religion. I will say more. If miracles had been wrought only by those who demand sacrifice for themselves, while those who forbade this, and enjoined sacrificing to the one God only, thought fit entirely to forego the use of visible miracles, the authority of the latter was to be preferred by all who would use, not their eyes only, but their reason. But since God, for the sake of commending to us the oracles of His truth, has, by means of these immortal messengers, who proclaim His majesty and not their own pride, wrought miracles of surpassing grandeur, certainty, and distinctness, in order that the weak among the godly might not be drawn away to false religion by those who require us to sacrifice to them and endeavor to convince us by stupendous appeals to our senses, who is so utterly unreasonable as not to choose and follow the truth, when he finds that it is heralded by even more striking evidences than falsehood? As for those miracles which history ascribes to the gods of the heathen - I do not refer to those prodigies which at intervals happen from some unknown physical causes, and which are arranged and appointed by Divine Providence, such as monstrous births, and unusual meteorological phenomena, whether startling only, or also injurious, and which are said to be brought about and removed by communication with demons, and by their most deceitful craft - but I refer to these prodigies which manifestly enough are wrought by their power and force, as, that the household gods which Æneas carried from Troy in his flight moved from place to place; that Tarquin cut a whetstone with a razor; that the Epidaurian serpent attached himself as a companion to Æsculapius on his voyage to Rome; that the ship in which the image of the Phrygian mother stood, and which could not be moved by a host of men and oxen, was moved by one weak woman, who attached her girdle to the vessel and drew it, as proof of her chastity; that a vestal, whose virginity was questioned, removed the suspicion by carrying from the Tiber a sieve full of water without any of it dropping: these, then, and the like, are by no means to be compared for greatness and virtue to those which, we read, were wrought among God's people. How much less can we compare those marvels, which even the laws of heathen nations prohibit and punish - I mean the magical and theurgic marvels, of which the great part are merely illusions practised upon the senses, as the drawing down of the moon, that, as Lucan says, it may shed a stronger influence on the plants? And if some of these do seem to equal those which are wrought by the godly, the end for which they are wrought distinguishes the two, and shows that ours are incomparably the more excellent. For those miracles commend the worship of a plurality of gods, who deserve worship the less the more they demand it; but these of ours commend the worship of the one God, who, both by the testimony of His own Scriptures, and by the eventual abolition of sacrifices, proves that He needs no such offerings. If, therefore, any angels demand sacrifice for themselves, we must prefer those who demand it, not for themselves, but for God, the Creator of all, whom they serve. For thus they prove how sincerely they love us, since they wish by sacrifice to subject us, not to themselves, but to Him by the contemplation of whom they themselves are blessed, and to bring us to Him from whom they themselves have never strayed. If, on the other hand, any angels wish us to sacrifice, not to one, but to many, not, indeed, to themselves, but to the gods whose angels they are, we must in this case also prefer those who are the angels of the one God of gods, and who so bid us to worship Him as to preclude our worshipping any other. But, further, if it be the case, as their pride and deceitfulness rather indicate, that they are neither good angels nor the angels of good gods, but wicked demons, who wish sacrifice to be paid, not to the one only and supreme God, but to themselves, what better protection against them can we choose than that of the one God whom the good angels serve, the angels who bid us sacrifice, not to themselves, but to Him whose sacrifice we ourselves ought to be? "". None
134. Demosthenes, Orations, 23.68, 59.6
 Tagged with subjects: • Destruction, of animals/objects • Sacrificial animals • Sacrificial animals, mutilation of • animals as oath sacrifices, burning of • triad of sacrificial animals

 Found in books: Sommerstein and Torrance (2014) 139, 140; Stavrianopoulou (2006) 194, 204, 207

23.68. econdly, that he must not treat this oath as an ordinary oath, but as one which no man swears for any other purpose; for he stands over the entrails of a boar, a ram, and a bull, and they must have been slaughtered by the necessary officers and on the days appointed, so that in respect both of the time and of the functionaries every requirement of solemnity has been satisfied. Even then the person who has sworn this tremendous oath does not gain immediate credence; and if any falsehood is brought home to him, he will carry away with him to his children and his kindred the stain of perjury,—but gain nothing.
59.6. This fellow Stephanus indicted the decree as illegal, and came before a court. He produced false witnesses to substantiate the calumnious charge that Apollodorus had been a debtor to the treasury for twenty-five years, and by making all sorts of accusations that were foreign to the indictment won a verdict against the decree. So far as this is concerned, if he saw fit to follow this course, we do not take it ill; but when the jurors were casting their votes to fix the penalty, although we begged him to make concessions, he would not listen to us, but fixed the fine at fifteen talents in order to deprive Apollodorus and his children of their civic rights, and to bring my sister and all of us into extremest distress and utter destitution.''. None
135. Epigraphy, Ig Ii2, 1356
 Tagged with subjects: • animal species, cow • animal species, piglet • animals, sacrificial • pregnant animal victims

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 138; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 186

1356. . . . . . . for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for a cup (kotulēs) of honey, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for firewood (phruganōn), 2 ob.; on the table, a thigh, a haunch-flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. (5) For the priestess of the Heroine, priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr.; the skins of the all the victims for the Heroine (hērōiniōn); for a singed full-grown victim, 3 dr.; a share of the meat; for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for a cup of honey, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob.; on the table, a thigh, a haunch- flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. For the priestess of Dionysos Anthios, (10) priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr.; the skin of the billy-goat (trago); on the table, a thigh, a haunch-flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. For the priestess of Hera, priestly dues (hierōsuna), 5 dr.; the skin of the ewe (oios); for a singed full-grown victim, 3 dr.; a share of the meat; for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for a cup of honey, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob.; on (15) the table, a thigh, a haunch-flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. For the priestess of Demeter Chloe, priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr.; a share of the meat; for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for a cup of honey, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob.; on the table, a thigh, a haunch-flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. For the priestess of -, (20) priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr.; the skin of the ewe (oios); a share of the meat; for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for a cup of honey, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob.; on the table, a thigh, a haunch-flank, half a head of tripe or sausage. For the priestess of the Chaste Goddess (Hagnēs Theo), priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr.; for a third (triteōs) of barley, 1 dr.; for a sixth (hekteōs) of wheat, (25) 1 dr.; for two cups of honey, 1 dr.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for a chous of wine, 2½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob.; for logs (xulōn), 3 dr. For the priest of the Chaste Goddess, the same as for the priestess, and the skins of the animals sacrificed for both, and 20 dr. For the priest of Paralos, priestly dues (hiereōsuna), 5 dr., and 10 dr.; the skin of the wether (oios); for a sixth (hekteōs) of wheat, 1 dr.; for two cups of honey, 1 dr.; (30) for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for a fourth of barley, 4½ ob.; for two choes (chooin) of wine, 5 ob.; for firewood, 2 ob. For the priest of the Archegetes and of the other heroes, priestly dues, 5 dr.; the skins of whatever victims he consecrates for sacrifice (katarxētai); on the sacrificial hearth (escharan); for a half-sixth (hēmiekteō) of wheat, 3 ob.; for three cups of olive oil, 1½ ob.; for a cup of honey, 3 ob.; whenever (he prepares) the table, (35) for two choinikes (choinikoin) of barley, 1½ ob.; for two cups of olive oil, 1 ob.; for half a cup (hēmikotulio) of honey, 1½ ob.; for firewood, 2 ob. And whenever one of the Fifties (pentēkostuōn) sacrifices anywhere at the hero-shrines, they shall provide on the table two choinikes (choinike) of wheat, two cups of oil, half a cup (hēmikotulion) of honey. text from Attic Inscriptions Online, IG II2
1356 - Provisions for priests and priestesses (in Aixone?)
''. None
136. Strabo, Geography, 6.3.9, 16.2.35
 Tagged with subjects: • Podalirios, heroon at Mt. Drion, healing of domestic animals • animal species, goat • animal species, lamb • animal species, ox • animal victim, parts of,feet • animal victim, parts of,skin • animal victim, treatment of burning of divinity's portion • animals • animals, sacred • colour of animal victim, black

 Found in books: Ekroth (2013) 103, 265; Lidonnici and Lieber (2007) 220; Novenson (2020) 48; Renberg (2017) 305

6.3.9. From Barium to the Aufidus River, on which is the Emporium of the Canusitae is four hundred stadia and the voyage inland to Emporium is ninety. Near by is also Salapia, the seaport of the Argyrippini. For not far above the sea (in the plain, at all events) are situated two cities, Canusium and Argyrippa, which in earlier times were the largest of the Italiote cities, as is clear from the circuits of their walls. Now, however, Argyrippa is smaller; it was called Argos Hippium at first, then Argyrippa, and then by the present name Arpi. Both are said to have been founded by Diomedes. And as signs of the dominion of Diomedes in these regions are to be seen the Plain of Diomedes and many other things, among which are the old votive offerings in the sanctuary of Athene at Luceria — a place which likewise was in ancient times a city of the Daunii, but is now reduced — and, in the sea near by, two islands that are called the Islands of Diomedes, of which one is inhabited, while the other, it is said, is desert; on the latter, according to certain narrators of myths, Diomedes was caused to disappear, and his companions were changed to birds, and to this day, in fact, remain tame and live a sort of human life, not only in their orderly ways but also in their tameness towards honorable men and in their flight from wicked and knavish men. But I have already mentioned the stories constantly told among the Heneti about this hero and the rites which are observed in his honor. It is thought that Sipus also was founded by Diomedes, which is about one hundred and forty stadia distant from Salapia; at any rate it was named Sepius in Greek after the sepia that are cast ashore by the waves. Between Salapia and Sipus is a navigable river, and also a large lake that opens into the sea; and the merchandise from Sipus, particularly grain, is brought down on both. In Daunia, on a hill by the name of Drium, are to be seen two hero-temples: one, to Calchas, on the very summit, where those who consult the oracle sacrifice to his shade a black ram and sleep in the hide, and the other, to Podaleirius, down near the base of the hill, this sanctuary being about one hundred stadia distant from the sea; and from it flows a stream which is a cure-all for diseases of animals. In front of this gulf is a promontory, Garganum, which extends towards the east for a distance of three hundred stadia into the high sea; doubling the headland, one comes to a small town, Urium, and off the headland are to be seen the Islands of Diomedes. This whole country produces everything in great quantity, and is excellent for horses and sheep; but though the wool is softer than the Tarantine, it is not so glossy. And the country is well sheltered, because the plains lie in hollows. According to some, Diomedes even tried to cut a canal as far as the sea, but left behind both this and the rest of his undertakings only half-finished, because he was summoned home and there ended his life. This is one account of him; but there is also a second, that he stayed here till the end of his life; and a third, the aforesaid mythical account, which tells of his disappearance in the island; and as a fourth one might set down the account of the Heneti, for they too tell a mythical story of how he in some way came to his end in their country, and they call it his apotheosis.
16.2.35. An Egyptian priest named Moses, who possessed a portion of the country called the Lower Egypt * * * *, being dissatisfied with the established institutions there, left it and came to Judaea with a large body of people who worshipped the Divinity. He declared and taught that the Egyptians and Africans entertained erroneous sentiments, in representing the Divinity under the likeness of wild beasts and cattle of the field; that the Greeks also were in error in making images of their gods after the human form. For God said he may be this one thing which encompasses us all, land and sea, which we call heaven, or the universe, or the nature of things. Who then of any understanding would venture to form an image of this Deity, resembling anything with which we are conversant? on the contrary, we ought not to carve any images, but to set apart some sacred ground and a shrine worthy of the Deity, and to worship Him without any similitude. He taught that those who made fortunate dreams were to be permitted to sleep in the temple, where they might dream both for themselves and others; that those who practised temperance and justice, and none else, might expect good, or some gift or sign from the God, from time to time.''. None
137. Vergil, Aeneis, 1.305
 Tagged with subjects: • insomnia, animal

 Found in books: Augoustakis (2014) 14; Verhagen (2022) 14

1.305. At pius Aeneas, per noctem plurima volvens,''. None
1.305. near him, her radiant eyes all dim with tears, ''. None
138. Vergil, Eclogues, 4.22, 4.24, 4.60, 5.60-5.61
 Tagged with subjects: • animals • animals, fastidium ascribed to • animals, sacrificial • objects, animate • peace, among animals,

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 46, 225, 226; Huttner (2013) 228; Kaster(2005) 189; Mackey (2022) 249

4.22. reign o'er a world at peace. For thee, O boy," '
4.24. her childish gifts, the gadding ivy-spray' "
4.60. by Destiny's unalterable decree." "
5.60. in summer's heat. Nor on the reeds alone," '5.61. but with thy voice art thou, thrice happy boy,'". None
139. Vergil, Georgics, 1.35, 2.146-2.148, 2.532-2.537, 3.34, 3.82, 3.215, 3.232, 3.515-3.517, 4.294-4.314, 4.511-4.515, 4.538-4.558
 Tagged with subjects: • Lucretius, animals in • animal imagery, animalization caused by disease • animal imagery, humans and animals • animal material • animal sacrifice • animal, empathy • animal, experience • animal, gaze • animal, relating • animal, subjectivity • animals • animals, color descriptions and uses of, horses • animals, in Lucretius • animals, sacrificial • objects, animate

 Found in books: Bortolani et al (2019) 118; Gale (2000) 19, 45, 46, 47, 48, 51, 52, 56, 76, 77, 94, 96, 98, 99, 107, 108, 110, 111, 135, 136, 137, 138, 139, 173, 176, 178, 179, 184, 190, 193, 216, 248, 251, 263; Goldman (2013) 15; Kazantzidis (2021) 81; Keane (2015) 162; Mackay (2022) 41, 43, 77; Mackey (2022) 13, 90; Williams and Vol (2022) 177, 178

1.35. Scorpius et caeli iusta plus parte reliquit—
2.146. hinc albi, Clitumne, greges et maxima taurus 2.147. victima, saepe tuo perfusi flumine sacro, 2.148. Romanos ad templa deum duxere triumphos.
2.532. Hanc olim veteres vitam coluere Sabini, 2.533. hanc Remus et frater, sic fortis Etruria crevit 2.534. scilicet et rerum facta est pulcherrima Roma, 2.535. septemque una sibi muro circumdedit arces. 2.536. Ante etiam sceptrum Dictaei regis et ante 2.537. inpia quam caesis gens est epulata iuvencis,
3.34. Stabunt et Parii lapides, spirantia signa,
3.82. spadices glaucique, color deterrimus albis
3.215. Carpit enim viris paulatim uritque videndo
3.232. et temptat sese atque irasci in cornua discit
3.515. Ecce autem duro fumans sub vomere taurus 3.516. concidit et mixtum spumis vomit ore cruorem 3.517. extremosque ciet gemitus. It tristis arator
4.294. omnis in hac certam regio iacit arte salutem. 4.295. Exiguus primum atque ipsos contractus in usus 4.296. eligitur locus; hunc angustique imbrice tecti 4.297. parietibusque premunt artis et quattuor addunt, 4.298. quattuor a ventis obliqua luce fenestras. 4.299. Tum vitulus bima curvans iam cornua fronte 4.300. quaeritur; huic geminae nares et spiritus oris 4.301. multa reluctanti obstruitur, plagisque perempto 4.302. tunsa per integram solvuntur viscera pellem. 4.303. Sic positum in clauso linquunt et ramea costis 4.304. subiciunt fragmenta, thymum casiasque recentes. 4.305. Hoc geritur Zephyris primum impellentibus undas, 4.306. ante novis rubeant quam prata coloribus, ante 4.307. garrula quam tignis nidum suspendat hirundo. 4.308. Interea teneris tepefactus in ossibus umor 4.309. aestuat et visenda modis animalia miris, 4.310. trunca pedum primo, mox et stridentia pennis, 4.311. miscentur tenuemque magis magis aera carpunt, 4.312. donec, ut aestivis effusus nubibus imber, 4.313. erupere aut ut nervo pulsante sagittae, 4.314. prima leves ineunt si quando proelia Parthi.
4.511. qualis populea maerens philomela sub umbra 4.512. amissos queritur fetus, quos durus arator 4.513. observans nido implumes detraxit; at illa 4.514. flet noctem ramoque sedens miserabile carmen 4.515. integrat et maestis late loca questibus implet.
4.538. Quattuor eximios praestanti corpore tauros, 4.539. qui tibi nunc viridis depascunt summa Lycaei, 4.540. delige et intacta totidem cervice iuvencas. 4.541. Quattuor his aras alta ad delubra dearum 4.542. constitue et sacrum iugulis demitte cruorem, 4.543. corporaque ipsa boum frondoso desere luco. 4.544. Post, ubi nona suos Aurora ostenderit ortus, 4.545. inferias Orphei Lethaea papavera mittes 4.546. et nigram mactabis ovem lucumque revises: 4.547. placatam Eurydicen vitula venerabere caesa.” 4.548. Haud mora; continuo matris praecepta facessit; 4.549. ad delubra venit, monstratas excitat aras, 4.550. quattuor eximios praestanti corpore tauros 4.551. ducit et intacta totidem cervice iuvencas. 4.552. Post, ubi nona suos Aurora induxerat ortus, 4.553. inferias Orphei mittit lucumque revisit. 4.554. Hic vero subitum ac dictu mirabile monstrum 4.555. adspiciunt, liquefacta boum per viscera toto 4.556. stridere apes utero et ruptis effervere costis, 4.557. immensasque trahi nubes, iamque arbore summa 4.558. confluere et lentis uvam demittere ramis.''. None
1.35. That so the mighty world may welcome thee
2.146. The barren mountain-ashes; on the shore 2.147. Myrtles throng gayest; Bacchus, lastly, love' "2.148. The bare hillside, and yews the north wind's chill." '
2.532. Apples, moreover, soon as first they feel 2.533. Their stems wax lusty, and have found their strength, 2.534. To heaven climb swiftly, self-impelled, nor crave 2.535. Our succour. All the grove meanwhile no le 2.536. With fruit is swelling, and the wild haunts of bird 2.537. Blush with their blood-red berries. Cytisu
3.34. of gold and massive ivory on the door
3.82. To speed thy herds of cattle to their loves,
3.215. But corn-ears with thy hand pluck from the crops.
3.232. Weak, tottering-limbed, and ignorant of life.
3.515. With showers of Spring and rainy south-winds earth 3.516. Is moistened, lo! he haunts the pools, and here 3.517. Housed in the banks, with fish and chattering frog
4.294. Find place: but, each into his starry rank, 4.295. Alive they soar, and mount the heights of heaven. 4.296. If now their narrow home thou wouldst unseal, 4.297. And broach the treasures of the honey-house, 4.298. With draught of water first toment thy lips, 4.299. And spread before thee fumes of trailing smoke. 4.300. Twice is the teeming produce gathered in, 4.301. Twofold their time of harvest year by year, 4.302. Once when Taygete the Pleiad uplift 4.303. Her comely forehead for the earth to see, 4.304. With foot of scorn spurning the ocean-streams, 4.305. Once when in gloom she flies the watery Fish, 4.306. And dips from heaven into the wintry wave. 4.307. Unbounded then their wrath; if hurt, they breathe 4.308. Venom into their bite, cleave to the vein 4.309. And let the sting lie buried, and leave their live 4.310. Behind them in the wound. But if you dread 4.311. Too rigorous a winter, and would fain 4.312. Temper the coming time, and their bruised heart 4.313.