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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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72 results for "ancient"
1. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.1, 12.20 (th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 8, 44
1.1. The book of the acts of Tobit the son of Tobiel, son of Aiel, son of Aduel, son of Gabael, of the descendants of Asiel and the tribe of Naphtali, 12.20. And now give thanks to God, for I am ascending to him who sent me. Write in a book everything that has happened."
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.12, 4.33, 5.23-5.26, 17.6, 19.15, 28.58 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •philosophy, and ancient judaism •judaism, ancient •judaism, ancient, palestinian Found in books: Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 174; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 65, 133, 141
4.12. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֲלֵיכֶם מִתּוֹךְ הָאֵשׁ קוֹל דְּבָרִים אַתֶּם שֹׁמְעִים וּתְמוּנָה אֵינְכֶם רֹאִים זוּלָתִי קוֹל׃", 4.33. "הֲשָׁמַע עָם קוֹל אֱלֹהִים מְדַבֵּר מִתּוֹךְ־הָאֵשׁ כַּאֲשֶׁר־שָׁמַעְתָּ אַתָּה וַיֶּחִי׃", 5.23. "כִּי מִי כָל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַע קוֹל אֱלֹהִים חַיִּים מְדַבֵּר מִתּוֹךְ־הָאֵשׁ כָּמֹנוּ וַיֶּחִי׃", 5.24. "קְרַב אַתָּה וּשֲׁמָע אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר יֹאמַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ וְאַתְּ תְּדַבֵּר אֵלֵינוּ אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר יְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵינוּ אֵלֶיךָ וְשָׁמַעְנוּ וְעָשִׂינוּ׃", 5.25. "וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֶת־קוֹל דִּבְרֵיכֶם בְּדַבֶּרְכֶם אֵלָי וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלַי שָׁמַעְתִּי אֶת־קוֹל דִּבְרֵי הָעָם הַזֶּה אֲשֶׁר דִּבְּרוּ אֵלֶיךָ הֵיטִיבוּ כָּל־אֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּרוּ׃", 5.26. "מִי־יִתֵּן וְהָיָה לְבָבָם זֶה לָהֶם לְיִרְאָה אֹתִי וְלִשְׁמֹר אֶת־כָּל־מִצְוֺתַי כָּל־הַיָּמִים לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָהֶם וְלִבְנֵיהֶם לְעֹלָם׃", 17.6. "עַל־פִּי שְׁנַיִם עֵדִים אוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה עֵדִים יוּמַת הַמֵּת לֹא יוּמַת עַל־פִּי עֵד אֶחָד׃", 19.15. "לֹא־יָקוּם עֵד אֶחָד בְּאִישׁ לְכָל־עָוֺן וּלְכָל־חַטָּאת בְּכָל־חֵטְא אֲשֶׁר יֶחֱטָא עַל־פִּי שְׁנֵי עֵדִים אוֹ עַל־פִּי שְׁלֹשָׁה־עֵדִים יָקוּם דָּבָר׃", 28.58. "אִם־לֹא תִשְׁמֹר לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־כָּל־דִּבְרֵי הַתּוֹרָה הַזֹּאת הַכְּתוּבִים בַּסֵּפֶר הַזֶּה לְיִרְאָה אֶת־הַשֵּׁם הַנִּכְבָּד וְהַנּוֹרָא הַזֶּה אֵת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃", 4.12. "And the LORD spoke unto you out of the midst of the fire; ye heard the voice of words, but ye saw no form; only a voice.", 4.33. "Did ever a people hear the voice of God speaking out of the midst of the fire, as thou hast heard, and live?", 5.23. "For who is there of all flesh, that hath heard the voice of the living God speaking out of the midst of the fire, as we have, and lived?", 5.24. "Go thou near, and hear all that the LORD our God may say; and thou shalt speak unto us all that the LORD our God may speak unto thee; and we will hear it and do it.’", 5.25. "And the LORD heard the voice of your words, when ye spoke unto me; and the LORD said unto me: ‘I have heard the voice of the words of this people, which they have spoken unto thee; they have well said all that they have spoken.", 5.26. "Oh that they had such a heart as this alway, to fear Me, and keep all My commandments, that it might be well with them, and with their children for ever!", 17.6. "At the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses, shall he that is to die be put to death; at the mouth of one witness he shall not be put to death.", 19.15. "One witness shall not rise up against a man for any iniquity, or for any sin, in any sin that he sinneth; at the mouth of two witnesses, or at the mouth of three witnesses, shall a matter be establishment", 28.58. "If thou wilt not observe to do all the words of this law that are written in this book, that thou mayest fear this glorious and awful Name, the LORD thy God;",
3. Hebrew Bible, Esther, 9.27 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaism, ancient Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 65
9.27. "קִיְּמוּ וקבל [וְקִבְּלוּ] הַיְּהוּדִים עֲלֵיהֶם וְעַל־זַרְעָם וְעַל כָּל־הַנִּלְוִים עֲלֵיהֶם וְלֹא יַעֲבוֹר לִהְיוֹת עֹשִׂים אֵת שְׁנֵי הַיָּמִים הָאֵלֶּה כִּכְתָבָם וְכִזְמַנָּם בְּכָל־שָׁנָה וְשָׁנָה׃", 9.27. "the Jews ordained, and took upon them, and upon their seed, and upon all such as joined themselves unto them, so as it should not fail, that they would keep these two days according to the writing thereof, and according to the appointed time thereof, every year;",
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 36.4, 36.10, 36.13, 36.17, 46.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaism, ancient Found in books: Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 44
36.4. "וַתֵּלֶד עָדָה לְעֵשָׂו אֶת־אֱלִיפָז וּבָשְׂמַת יָלְדָה אֶת־רְעוּאֵל׃", 36.4. "וְאֵלֶּה שְׁמוֹת אַלּוּפֵי עֵשָׂו לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לִמְקֹמֹתָם בִּשְׁמֹתָם אַלּוּף תִּמְנָע אַלּוּף עַלְוָה אַלּוּף יְתֵת׃", 36.13. "וְאֵלֶּה בְּנֵי רְעוּאֵל נַחַת וָזֶרַח שַׁמָּה וּמִזָּה אֵלֶּה הָיוּ בְּנֵי בָשְׂמַת אֵשֶׁת עֵשָׂו׃", 36.17. "וְאֵלֶּה בְּנֵי רְעוּאֵל בֶּן־עֵשָׂו אַלּוּף נַחַת אַלּוּף זֶרַח אַלּוּף שַׁמָּה אַלּוּף מִזָּה אֵלֶּה אַלּוּפֵי רְעוּאֵל בְּאֶרֶץ אֱדוֹם אֵלֶּה בְּנֵי בָשְׂמַת אֵשֶׁת עֵשָׂו׃", 46.24. "וּבְנֵי נַפְתָּלִי יַחְצְאֵל וְגוּנִי וְיֵצֶר וְשִׁלֵּם׃", 36.4. "And Adah bore to Esau Eliphaz; and Basemath bore Reuel;", 36.10. "These are the names of Esau’s sons: Eliphaz the son of Adah the wife of Esau, Reuel the son of Basemath the wife of Esau.", 36.13. "And these are the sons of Reuel: Nahath, and Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah. These were the sons of Basemath Esau’s wife.", 36.17. "And these are the sons of Reuel Esau’s son: the chief of Nahath, the chief of Zerah, the chief of Shammah, the chief of Mizzah. These are the chiefs that came of Reuel in the land of Edom. These are the sons of Basemath Esau’s wife.", 46.24. "And the sons of Naphtali: Jahzeel, and Guni, and Jezer, and Shillem.",
5. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 11.1-11.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •adoption metaphor in ancient judaism Found in books: Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 103
11.1. "אַחֲרֵי יְהוָה יֵלְכוּ כְּאַרְיֵה יִשְׁאָג כִּי־הוּא יִשְׁאַג וְיֶחֶרְדוּ בָנִים מִיָּם׃", 11.1. "כִּי נַעַר יִשְׂרָאֵל וָאֹהֲבֵהוּ וּמִמִּצְרַיִם קָרָאתִי לִבְנִי׃", 11.2. "קָרְאוּ לָהֶם כֵּן הָלְכוּ מִפְּנֵיהֶם לַבְּעָלִים יְזַבֵּחוּ וְלַפְּסִלִים יְקַטֵּרוּן׃", 11.3. "וְאָנֹכִי תִרְגַּלְתִּי לְאֶפְרַיִם קָחָם עַל־זְרוֹעֹתָיו וְלֹא יָדְעוּ כִּי רְפָאתִים׃", 11.4. "בְּחַבְלֵי אָדָם אֶמְשְׁכֵם בַּעֲבֹתוֹת אַהֲבָה וָאֶהְיֶה לָהֶם כִּמְרִימֵי עֹל עַל לְחֵיהֶם וְאַט אֵלָיו אוֹכִיל׃", 11.1. "When Israel was a child, then I loved him, And out of Egypt I called My son.", 11.2. "The more they called them, the more they went from them; They sacrificed unto the Baalim, And offered to graven images.", 11.3. "And I, I taught Ephraim to walk, Taking them by their arms; But they knew not that I healed them.", 11.4. "I drew them with cords of a man, With bands of love; And I was to them as they that take off the yoke on their jaws, And I fed them gently.",
6. Hebrew Bible, Job, None (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 81
7. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 4.22-4.23, 20.18 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •adoption metaphor in ancient judaism •philosophy, and ancient judaism Found in books: Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 174; Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 103
4.22. "וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־פַּרְעֹה כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה בְּנִי בְכֹרִי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 4.23. "וָאֹמַר אֵלֶיךָ שַׁלַּח אֶת־בְּנִי וְיַעַבְדֵנִי וַתְּמָאֵן לְשַׁלְּחוֹ הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי הֹרֵג אֶת־בִּנְךָ בְּכֹרֶךָ׃", 20.18. "וַיַּעֲמֹד הָעָם מֵרָחֹק וּמֹשֶׁה נִגַּשׁ אֶל־הָעֲרָפֶל אֲשֶׁר־שָׁם הָאֱלֹהִים׃", 4.22. "And thou shalt say unto Pharaoh: Thus saith the LORD: Israel is My son, My first-born.", 4.23. "And I have said unto thee: Let My son go, that he may serve Me; and thou hast refused to let him go. ‘Behold, I will slay thy first-born.’", 20.18. "And the people stood afar off; but Moses drew near unto the thick darkness where God was.",
8. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 5.8, 11.25, 16.15, 26.48, 35.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaism, ancient •philosophy, and ancient judaism Found in books: Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 170; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 65; Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 44
5.8. "וְאִם־אֵין לָאִישׁ גֹּאֵל לְהָשִׁיב הָאָשָׁם אֵלָיו הָאָשָׁם הַמּוּשָׁב לַיהוָה לַכֹּהֵן מִלְּבַד אֵיל הַכִּפֻּרִים אֲשֶׁר יְכַפֶּר־בּוֹ עָלָיו׃", 11.25. "וַיֵּרֶד יְהוָה בֶּעָנָן וַיְדַבֵּר אֵלָיו וַיָּאצֶל מִן־הָרוּחַ אֲשֶׁר עָלָיו וַיִּתֵּן עַל־שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ הַזְּקֵנִים וַיְהִי כְּנוֹחַ עֲלֵיהֶם הָרוּחַ וַיִּתְנַבְּאוּ וְלֹא יָסָפוּ׃", 16.15. "וַיִּחַר לְמֹשֶׁה מְאֹד וַיֹּאמֶר אֶל־יְהוָה אַל־תֵּפֶן אֶל־מִנְחָתָם לֹא חֲמוֹר אֶחָד מֵהֶם נָשָׂאתִי וְלֹא הֲרֵעֹתִי אֶת־אַחַד מֵהֶם׃", 26.48. "בְּנֵי נַפְתָּלִי לְמִשְׁפְּחֹתָם לְיַחְצְאֵל מִשְׁפַּחַת הַיַּחְצְאֵלִי לְגוּנִי מִשְׁפַּחַת הַגּוּנִי׃", 5.8. "But if the man have no kinsman to whom restitution may be made for the guilt, the restitution for guilt which is made shall be the LORD’S, even the priest’s; besides the ram of the atonement, whereby atonement shall be made for him.", 11.25. "And the LORD came down in the cloud, and spoke unto him, and took of the spirit that was upon him, and put it upon the seventy elders; and it came to pass, that, when the spirit rested upon them, they prophesied, but they did so no more.", 16.15. "And Moses was very wroth, and said unto the LORD: ‘Respect not thou their offering; I have not taken one ass from them, neither have I hurt one of them.’", 26.48. "The sons of Naphtali after their families: of Jahzeel, the family of the Jahzeelites; of Guni, the family of the Gunites;", 35.30. "Whoso killeth any person, the murderer shall be slain at the mouth of witnesses; but one witness shall not testify against any person that he die.",
9. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 8.22-8.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •philosophy, and ancient judaism Found in books: Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 173
8.22. "יְהוָה קָנָנִי רֵאשִׁית דַּרְכּוֹ קֶדֶם מִפְעָלָיו מֵאָז׃", 8.23. "מֵעוֹלָם נִסַּכְתִּי מֵרֹאשׁ מִקַּדְמֵי־אָרֶץ׃", 8.22. "The LORD made me as the beginning of His way, The first of His works of old.", 8.23. "I was set up from everlasting, from the beginning, Or ever the earth was.",
10. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 2.7, 89.19-89.37 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •adoption metaphor in ancient judaism Found in books: Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 105, 106
2.7. "אֲסַפְּרָה אֶל חֹק יְהוָה אָמַר אֵלַי בְּנִי אַתָּה אֲנִי הַיּוֹם יְלִדְתִּיךָ׃", 89.19. "כִּי לַיהוָה מָגִנֵּנוּ וְלִקְדוֹשׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל מַלְכֵּנוּ׃", 89.21. "מָצָאתִי דָּוִד עַבְדִּי בְּשֶׁמֶן קָדְשִׁי מְשַׁחְתִּיו׃", 89.22. "אֲשֶׁר יָדִי תִּכּוֹן עִמּוֹ אַף־זְרוֹעִי תְאַמְּצֶנּוּ׃", 89.23. "לֹא־יַשִּׁא אוֹיֵב בּוֹ וּבֶן־עַוְלָה לֹא יְעַנֶּנּוּ׃", 89.24. "וְכַתּוֹתִי מִפָּנָיו צָרָיו וּמְשַׂנְאָיו אֶגּוֹף׃", 89.25. "וֶאֶמוּנָתִי וְחַסְדִּי עִמּוֹ וּבִשְׁמִי תָּרוּם קַרְנוֹ׃", 89.26. "וְשַׂמְתִּי בַיָּם יָדוֹ וּבַנְּהָרוֹת יְמִינוֹ׃", 89.27. "הוּא יִקְרָאֵנִי אָבִי אָתָּה אֵלִי וְצוּר יְשׁוּעָתִי׃", 89.28. "אַף־אָנִי בְּכוֹר אֶתְּנֵהוּ עֶלְיוֹן לְמַלְכֵי־אָרֶץ׃", 89.29. "לְעוֹלָם אשמור־[אֶשְׁמָר־] לוֹ חַסְדִּי וּבְרִיתִי נֶאֱמֶנֶת לוֹ׃", 89.31. "אִם־יַעַזְבוּ בָנָיו תּוֹרָתִי וּבְמִשְׁפָּטַי לֹא יֵלֵכוּן׃", 89.32. "אִם־חֻקֹּתַי יְחַלֵּלוּ וּמִצְוֺתַי לֹא יִשְׁמֹרוּ׃", 89.33. "וּפָקַדְתִּי בְשֵׁבֶט פִּשְׁעָם וּבִנְגָעִים עֲוֺנָם׃", 89.34. "וְחַסְדִּי לֹא־אָפִיר מֵעִמּוֹ וְלֹא־אֲשַׁקֵּר בֶּאֱמוּנָתִי׃", 89.35. "לֹא־אֲחַלֵּל בְּרִיתִי וּמוֹצָא שְׂפָתַי לֹא אֲשַׁנֶּה׃", 89.36. "אַחַת נִשְׁבַּעְתִּי בְקָדְשִׁי אִם־לְדָוִד אֲכַזֵּב׃", 89.37. "זַרְעוֹ לְעוֹלָם יִהְיֶה וְכִסְאוֹ כַשֶּׁמֶשׁ נֶגְדִּי׃", 2.7. "I will tell of the decree: The LORD said unto me: 'Thou art My son, this day have I begotten thee.", 89.19. "For of the LORD is our shield; And the Holy One of Israel is our king.", 89.20. "Then Thou spokest in vision to Thy godly ones, And saidst: 'I have laid help upon one that is mighty; I have exalted one chosen out of the people.", 89.21. "I have found David My servant; With My holy oil have I anointed him;", 89.22. "With whom My hand shall be established; Mine arm also shall strengthen him.", 89.23. "The enemy shall not exact from him; Nor the son of wickedness afflict him.", 89.24. "And I will beat to pieces his adversaries before him, And smite them that hate him.", 89.25. "But My faithfulness and My mercy shall be with him; And through My name shall his horn be exalted.", 89.26. "I will set his hand also on the sea, And his right hand on the rivers.", 89.27. "He shall call unto Me: Thou art my Father, My God, and the rock of my salvation. .", 89.28. "I also will appoint him first-born, The highest of the kings of the earth.", 89.29. "For ever will I keep for him My mercy, And My covet shall stand fast with him.", 89.30. "His seed also will I make to endure for ever, And his throne as the days of heaven.", 89.31. "If his children forsake My law, And walk not in Mine ordices; :", 89.32. "If they profane My statutes, And keep not My commandments;", 89.33. "Then will I visit their transgression with the rod, And their iniquity with strokes.", 89.34. "But My mercy will I not break off from him, Nor will I be false to My faithfulness.", 89.35. "My covet will I not profane, Nor alter that which is gone out of My lips.", 89.36. "Once have I sworn by My holiness: Surely I will not be false unto David;", 89.37. "His seed shall endure for ever, And his throne as the sun before Me.",
11. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 21.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaism, ancient, history of Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 204
21.8. "וְקִדַּשְׁתּוֹ כִּי־אֶת־לֶחֶם אֱלֹהֶיךָ הוּא מַקְרִיב קָדֹשׁ יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ כִּי קָדוֹשׁ אֲנִי יְהוָה מְקַדִּשְׁכֶם׃", 21.8. "Thou shalt sanctify him therefore; for he offereth the bread of thy God; he shall be holy unto thee; for I the LORD, who sanctify you, am holy.",
12. Hebrew Bible, Judges, 5.30 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •celibacy and marriage, in ancient judaism •gender, in ancient judaism, considerations of dead sea scrolls •marriage and celibacy, in ancient judaism Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 53
5.30. "Have they not found booty? have they not divided the prey; to every man a damsel or two; to Sisera a booty of divers colours, a plunder of many coloured needlework, dyed double worked garments for the necks of the spoilers.",
13. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 26.19 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaism, ancient Found in books: Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 81
26.19. "וְעַתָּה יִשְׁמַע־נָא אֲדֹנִי הַמֶּלֶךְ אֵת דִּבְרֵי עַבְדּוֹ אִם־יְהוָה הֱסִיתְךָ בִי יָרַח מִנְחָה וְאִם בְּנֵי הָאָדָם אֲרוּרִים הֵם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה כִּי־גֵרְשׁוּנִי הַיּוֹם מֵהִסְתַּפֵּחַ בְּנַחֲלַת יְהוָה לֵאמֹר לֵךְ עֲבֹד אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים׃", 26.19. "Now therefore I pray thee, let my lord the king hear the words of his servant. If the Lord has stirred thee up against me, let him accept an offering: but if they be the children of men, cursed be they before the Lord; for they have driven me out this day from being joined to the inheritance of the Lord, saying, Go, serve other gods.",
14. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 3.19, 28.1, 28.5, 31.7-31.9 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •adoption metaphor in ancient judaism •judaism, ancient Found in books: Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 103; Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 44
3.19. "וְאָנֹכִי אָמַרְתִּי אֵיךְ אֲשִׁיתֵךְ בַּבָּנִים וְאֶתֶּן־לָךְ אֶרֶץ חֶמְדָּה נַחֲלַת צְבִי צִבְאוֹת גּוֹיִם וָאֹמַר אָבִי תקראו־[תִּקְרְאִי־] לִי וּמֵאַחֲרַי לֹא תשובו [תָשׁוּבִי׃]", 28.1. "וַיְהִי בַּשָּׁנָה הַהִיא בְּרֵאשִׁית מַמְלֶכֶת צִדְקִיָּה מֶלֶךְ־יְהוּדָה בשנת [בַּשָּׁנָה] הָרְבִעִית בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַחֲמִישִׁי אָמַר אֵלַי חֲנַנְיָה בֶן־עַזּוּר הַנָּבִיא אֲשֶׁר מִגִּבְעוֹן בְּבֵית יְהוָה לְעֵינֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים וְכָל־הָעָם לֵאמֹר׃", 28.1. "וַיִּקַּח חֲנַנְיָה הַנָּבִיא אֶת־הַמּוֹטָה מֵעַל צַוַּאר יִרְמְיָה הַנָּבִיא וַיִּשְׁבְּרֵהוּ׃", 28.5. "וַיֹּאמֶר יִרְמְיָה הַנָּבִיא אֶל־חֲנַנְיָה הַנָּבִיא לְעֵינֵי הַכֹּהֲנִים וּלְעֵינֵי כָל־הָעָם הָעֹמְדִים בְּבֵית יְהוָה׃", 31.7. "כִּי־כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה רָנּוּ לְיַעֲקֹב שִׂמְחָה וְצַהֲלוּ בְּרֹאשׁ הַגּוֹיִם הַשְׁמִיעוּ הַלְלוּ וְאִמְרוּ הוֹשַׁע יְהוָה אֶת־עַמְּךָ אֵת שְׁאֵרִית יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 31.8. "הִנְנִי מֵבִיא אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ צָפוֹן וְקִבַּצְתִּים מִיַּרְכְּתֵי־אָרֶץ בָּם עִוֵּר וּפִסֵּחַ הָרָה וְיֹלֶדֶת יַחְדָּו קָהָל גָּדוֹל יָשׁוּבוּ הֵנָּה׃", 31.9. "בִּבְכִי יָבֹאוּ וּבְתַחֲנוּנִים אוֹבִילֵם אוֹלִיכֵם אֶל־נַחֲלֵי מַיִם בְּדֶרֶךְ יָשָׁר לֹא יִכָּשְׁלוּ בָּהּ כִּי־הָיִיתִי לְיִשְׂרָאֵל לְאָב וְאֶפְרַיִם בְּכֹרִי הוּא׃", 3.19. "But I said: ‘How would I put thee among the sons, And give thee a pleasant land, The goodliest heritage of the nations! ’ And I said: ‘Thou shalt call Me, My father; And shalt not turn away from following Me.’", 28.1. "And it came to pass the same year, in the beginning of the reign of Zedekiah king of Judah, in the fourth year, in the fifth month, that Haiah the son of Azzur the prophet, who was of Gibeon, spoke unto me in the house of the LORD, in the presence of the priests and of all the people, saying:", 28.5. "Then the prophet Jeremiah said unto the prophet Haiah in the presence of the priests, and in the presence of all the people that stood in the house of the LORD,", 31.7. "For thus saith the LORD: Sing with gladness for Jacob, And shout at the head of the nations; Announce ye, praise ye, and say: ‘O LORD, save Thy people, The remt of Israel.’", 31.8. "Behold, I will bring them from the north country, And gather them from the uttermost parts of the earth, And with them the blind and the lame, The woman with child and her that travaileth with child together; A great company shall they return hither.", 31.9. "They shall come with weeping, And with supplications will I lead them; I will cause them to walk by rivers of waters, In a straight way wherein they shall not stumble; For I am become a father to Israel, And Ephraim is My first-born.",
15. Hesiod, Works And Days, 738-741, 737 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 290
737. The chance to sail. When first some leaves are seen
16. Homer, Iliad, 8.69, 22.209, 24.527-24.533 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •philosophy, and ancient judaism Found in books: Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 251
8.69. / of the slayers and the slain, and the earth flowed with blood. Now as long as it was morn and the sacred day was waxing, so long the missiles of either side struck home, and the folk kept falling. But when the sun had reached mid heaven, then verily the Father lifted on high his golden scales, 22.209. / And to his folk goodly Achilles made sign with a nod of his head, and would not suffer them to hurl at Hector their bitter darts, lest another might smite him and win glory, and himself come too late. But when for the fourth time they were come to the springs, lo then the Father lifted on high his golden scales, 24.527. / For on this wise have the gods spun the thread for wretched mortals, that they should live in pain; and themselves are sorrowless. For two urns are set upon the floor of Zeus of gifts that he giveth, the one of ills, the other of blessings. To whomsoever Zeus, that hurleth the thunderbolt, giveth a mingled lot, 24.528. / For on this wise have the gods spun the thread for wretched mortals, that they should live in pain; and themselves are sorrowless. For two urns are set upon the floor of Zeus of gifts that he giveth, the one of ills, the other of blessings. To whomsoever Zeus, that hurleth the thunderbolt, giveth a mingled lot, 24.529. / For on this wise have the gods spun the thread for wretched mortals, that they should live in pain; and themselves are sorrowless. For two urns are set upon the floor of Zeus of gifts that he giveth, the one of ills, the other of blessings. To whomsoever Zeus, that hurleth the thunderbolt, giveth a mingled lot, 24.530. / that man meeteth now with evil, now with good; but to whomsoever he giveth but of the baneful, him he maketh to be reviled of man, and direful madness driveth him over the face of the sacred earth, and he wandereth honoured neither of gods nor mortals. Even so unto Peleus did the gods give glorious gifts 24.531. / that man meeteth now with evil, now with good; but to whomsoever he giveth but of the baneful, him he maketh to be reviled of man, and direful madness driveth him over the face of the sacred earth, and he wandereth honoured neither of gods nor mortals. Even so unto Peleus did the gods give glorious gifts 24.532. / that man meeteth now with evil, now with good; but to whomsoever he giveth but of the baneful, him he maketh to be reviled of man, and direful madness driveth him over the face of the sacred earth, and he wandereth honoured neither of gods nor mortals. Even so unto Peleus did the gods give glorious gifts 24.533. / that man meeteth now with evil, now with good; but to whomsoever he giveth but of the baneful, him he maketh to be reviled of man, and direful madness driveth him over the face of the sacred earth, and he wandereth honoured neither of gods nor mortals. Even so unto Peleus did the gods give glorious gifts
17. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7.5-7.17 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •adoption metaphor in ancient judaism •judaism, ancient Found in books: Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 105; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 65
7.5. "לֵךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ אֶל־עַבְדִּי אֶל־דָּוִד כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה הַאַתָּה תִּבְנֶה־לִּי בַיִת לְשִׁבְתִּי׃", 7.6. "כִּי לֹא יָשַׁבְתִּי בְּבַיִת לְמִיּוֹם הַעֲלֹתִי אֶת־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל מִמִּצְרַיִם וְעַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה וָאֶהְיֶה מִתְהַלֵּךְ בְּאֹהֶל וּבְמִשְׁכָּן׃", 7.7. "בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־הִתְהַלַּכְתִּי בְּכָל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל הֲדָבָר דִּבַּרְתִּי אֶת־אַחַד שִׁבְטֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי לִרְעוֹת אֶת־עַמִּי אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר לָמָּה לֹא־בְנִיתֶם לִי בֵּית אֲרָזִים׃", 7.8. "וְעַתָּה כֹּה־תֹאמַר לְעַבְדִּי לְדָוִד כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֲנִי לְקַחְתִּיךָ מִן־הַנָּוֶה מֵאַחַר הַצֹּאן לִהְיוֹת נָגִיד עַל־עַמִּי עַל־יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 7.9. "וָאֶהְיֶה עִמְּךָ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר הָלַכְתָּ וָאַכְרִתָה אֶת־כָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ מִפָּנֶיךָ וְעָשִׂתִי לְךָ שֵׁם גָּדוֹל כְּשֵׁם הַגְּדֹלִים אֲשֶׁר בָּאָרֶץ׃", 7.11. "וּלְמִן־הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִי שֹׁפְטִים עַל־עַמִּי יִשְׂרָאֵל וַהֲנִיחֹתִי לְךָ מִכָּל־אֹיְבֶיךָ וְהִגִּיד לְךָ יְהוָה כִּי־בַיִת יַעֲשֶׂה־לְּךָ יְהוָה׃", 7.12. "כִּי יִמְלְאוּ יָמֶיךָ וְשָׁכַבְתָּ אֶת־אֲבֹתֶיךָ וַהֲקִימֹתִי אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יֵצֵא מִמֵּעֶיךָ וַהֲכִינֹתִי אֶת־מַמְלַכְתּוֹ׃", 7.13. "הוּא יִבְנֶה־בַּיִת לִשְׁמִי וְכֹנַנְתִּי אֶת־כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ עַד־עוֹלָם׃", 7.14. "אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְאָב וְהוּא יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבֵן אֲשֶׁר בְּהַעֲוֺתוֹ וְהֹכַחְתִּיו בְּשֵׁבֶט אֲנָשִׁים וּבְנִגְעֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם׃", 7.15. "וְחַסְדִּי לֹא־יָסוּר מִמֶּנּוּ כַּאֲשֶׁר הֲסִרֹתִי מֵעִם שָׁאוּל אֲשֶׁר הֲסִרֹתִי מִלְּפָנֶיךָ׃", 7.16. "וְנֶאְמַן בֵּיתְךָ וּמַמְלַכְתְּךָ עַד־עוֹלָם לְפָנֶיךָ כִּסְאֲךָ יִהְיֶה נָכוֹן עַד־עוֹלָם׃", 7.17. "כְּכֹל הַדְּבָרִים הָאֵלֶּה וּכְכֹל הַחִזָּיוֹן הַזֶּה כֵּן דִּבֶּר נָתָן אֶל־דָּוִד׃", 7.5. "Go and tell my servant David, Thus says the Lord, shalt thou build me a house for me to dwell in?", 7.6. "For I have not dwelt in any house since that time that I brought up the children of Yisra᾽el out of Miżrayim, even to this day, but I have walked in a tent and in a tabernacle.", 7.7. "In all the places where I have walked with all the children of Yisra᾽el, did I speak a word with any of the rulers of Yisra᾽el, whom I commanded as shepherds of my people Yisra᾽el, saying, Why do you not build me a house of cedar?", 7.8. "Now therefore so shalt thou say to my servant David, Thus says the Lord of hosts, I took thee from the sheepfold, from following the sheep, to be ruler over my people, over Yisra᾽el:", 7.9. "and I was with thee wherever thou didst go, and have cut off all thy enemies out of thy sight, and have made thee a great name, like the name of the great men that are on the earth.", 7.10. "Moreover I have appointed a place for my people Yisra᾽el, and planted them, that they may dwell in a place of their own, and be troubled no more; neither shall the children of wickedness torment them any more, as at the beginning,", 7.11. "and as since the time that I commanded judges to be over my people Yisra᾽el; but I will give thee rest from all thy enemies, and the Lord tells thee that he will make thee a house.", 7.12. "And when the days are fulfilled, and thou shalt sleep with thy fathers, I will set up thy seed after thee, who shall issue from thy bowels, and I will establish his kingdom.", 7.13. "He shall build a house for my name, and I will make firm the throne of his kingdom for ever.", 7.14. "I will be his father, and he will be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with such plagues as befall the sons of Adam:", 7.15. "but my covet love shall not depart away from him, as I took it from Sha᾽ul, whom I put away before thee.", 7.16. "And thy house and thy kingdom shall be established for ever before thee: thy throne shall be firm for ever.", 7.17. "According to all these words, and according to all this vision, so did Natan speak to David.",
18. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 15.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaism, ancient Found in books: Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 81
15.18. "וַיְהִי בְּבוֹאָהּ וַתְּסִיתֵהוּ לִשְׁאוֹל מֵאֵת־אָבִיהָ שָׂדֶה וַתִּצְנַח מֵעַל הַחֲמוֹר וַיֹּאמֶר־לָהּ כָּלֵב מַה־לָּךְ׃", 15.18. "And it came to pass, when she came unto him, that she persuaded him to ask of her father a field; and she alighted from off her ass; and Caleb said unto her: ‘What wouldest thou?’",
19. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 4.33, 21.25 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •philosophy, and ancient judaism •judaism, ancient Found in books: Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 185; Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 81
21.25. "רַק לֹא־הָיָה כְאַחְאָב אֲשֶׁר הִתְמַכֵּר לַעֲשׂוֹת הָרַע בְּעֵינֵי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר־הֵסַתָּה אֹתוֹ אִיזֶבֶל אִשְׁתּוֹ׃", 21.25. "But there was none like unto Ahab, who did give himself over to do that which was evil in the sight of the LORD, whom Jezebel his wife stirred up.",
20. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 16.10, 16.13, 16.18, 17.3, 26.16 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •celibacy and marriage, in ancient judaism •gender, in ancient judaism, considerations of dead sea scrolls •marriage and celibacy, in ancient judaism Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 53
16.13. "וַתַּעְדִּי זָהָב וָכֶסֶף וּמַלְבּוּשֵׁךְ ששי [שֵׁשׁ] וָמֶשִׁי וְרִקְמָה סֹלֶת וּדְבַשׁ וָשֶׁמֶן אכלתי [אָכָלְתְּ] וַתִּיפִי בִּמְאֹד מְאֹד וַתִּצְלְחִי לִמְלוּכָה׃", 16.18. "וַתִּקְחִי אֶת־בִּגְדֵי רִקְמָתֵךְ וַתְּכַסִּים וְשַׁמְנִי וּקְטָרְתִּי נתתי [נָתַתְּ] לִפְנֵיהֶם׃", 17.3. "וְאָמַרְתָּ כֹּה־אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה הַנֶּשֶׁר הַגָּדוֹל גְּדוֹל הַכְּנָפַיִם אֶרֶךְ הָאֵבֶר מָלֵא הַנּוֹצָה אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ הָרִקְמָה בָּא אֶל־הַלְּבָנוֹן וַיִּקַּח אֶת־צַמֶּרֶת הָאָרֶז׃", 26.16. "וְיָרְדוּ מֵעַל כִּסְאוֹתָם כֹּל נְשִׂיאֵי הַיָּם וְהֵסִירוּ אֶת־מְעִילֵיהֶם וְאֶת־בִּגְדֵי רִקְמָתָם יִפְשֹׁטוּ חֲרָדוֹת יִלְבָּשׁוּ עַל־הָאָרֶץ יֵשֵׁבוּ וְחָרְדוּ לִרְגָעִים וְשָׁמְמוּ עָלָיִךְ׃", 16.10. "I clothed thee also with richly woven work, and shod thee with sealskin, and I wound fine linen about thy head, and covered thee with silk.", 16.13. "Thus wast thou decked with gold and silver; and thy raiment was of fine linen, and silk, and richly woven work; thou didst eat fine flour, and honey, and oil; and thou didst wax exceeding beautiful, and thou wast meet for royal estate.", 16.18. "and thou didst take thy richly woven garments and cover them, and didst set Mine oil and Mine incense before them.", 17.3. "and say: Thus saith the Lord GOD: A great eagle with great wings And long pinions, Full of feathers, which had divers colours, Came unto Lebanon, And took the top of the cedar;", 26.16. "Then all the princes of the sea shall come down from their thrones, and lay away their robes, and strip off their richly woven garments; they shall clothe themselves with trembling; they shall sit upon the ground, and shall tremble every moment, and be appalled at thee. .",
21. Hebrew Bible, Ezra, 10.28 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaism, ancient Found in books: Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 44
10.28. "וּמִבְּנֵי בֵּבָי יְהוֹחָנָן חֲנַנְיָה זַבַּי עַתְלָי׃", 10.28. "And of the sons of Bebai: Jehoha, Haiah, Zabbai, Athlai.",
22. Hebrew Bible, Nehemiah, 7.62 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaism, ancient Found in books: Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 44
7.62. "בְּנֵי־דְלָיָה בְנֵי־טוֹבִיָּה בְּנֵי נְקוֹדָא שֵׁשׁ מֵאוֹת וְאַרְבָּעִים וּשְׁנָיִם׃", 7.62. "the children of Delaiah, the children of Tobiah, the children of Nekoda, six hundred forty and two.",
23. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 6.10, 6.14 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaism, ancient Found in books: Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 44
6.14. "וְהָעֲטָרֹת תִּהְיֶה לְחֵלֶם וּלְטוֹבִיָּה וְלִידַעְיָה וּלְחֵן בֶּן־צְפַנְיָה לְזִכָּרוֹן בְּהֵיכַל יְהוָה׃", 6.10. "’Take of them of the captivity, even of Heldai, of Tobijah, and of Jedaiah, that are come from Babylon; and come thou the same day, and go into the house of Josiah the son of Zephaniah;", 6.14. "And the crowns shall be to Helem, and to Tobijah, and to Jedaiah, and to Hen the son of Zephaniah, as a memorial in the temple of the LORD.",
24. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •philosophy, and ancient judaism Found in books: Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 185
433b. ἀκηκόαμεν καὶ αὐτοὶ πολλάκις εἰρήκαμεν. 433b. is a saying that we have heard from many and have often repeated ourselves. We have. This, then, I said, my friend, if taken in a certain sense appears to be justice, this principle of doing one’s own business. Do you know whence I infer this? No, but tell me, he said. I think that this is the remaining virtue in the state after our consideration of soberness, courage, and intelligence, a quality which made it possible for them all to grow up in the body politic and which when they have sprung up preserves them as long as it is present. And I hardly need to remind you that
25. Hebrew Bible, 1 Chronicles, 1.35, 1.37, 4.35-4.36, 17.11, 21.11, 26.7, 29.2 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaism, ancient •celibacy and marriage, in ancient judaism •gender, in ancient judaism, considerations of dead sea scrolls •marriage and celibacy, in ancient judaism Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 53; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 65; Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 44
1.35. "בְּנֵי עֵשָׂו אֱלִיפַז רְעוּאֵל וִיעוּשׁ וְיַעְלָם וְקֹרַח׃", 1.37. "בְּנֵי רְעוּאֵל נַחַת זֶרַח שַׁמָּה וּמִזָּה׃", 4.35. "וְיוֹאֵל וְיֵהוּא בֶּן־יוֹשִׁבְיָה בֶּן־שְׂרָיָה בֶּן־עֲשִׂיאֵל׃", 4.36. "וְאֶלְיוֹעֵינַי וְיַעֲקֹבָה וִישׁוֹחָיָה וַעֲשָׂיָה וַעֲדִיאֵל וִישִׂימִאֵל וּבְנָיָה׃", 17.11. "וְהָיָה כִּי־מָלְאוּ יָמֶיךָ לָלֶכֶת עִם־אֲבֹתֶיךָ וַהֲקִימוֹתִי אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה מִבָּנֶיךָ וַהֲכִינוֹתִי אֶת־מַלְכוּתוֹ׃", 21.11. "וַיָּבֹא גָד אֶל־דָּוִיד וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ כֹּה־אָמַר יְהוָה קַבֶּל־לָךְ׃", 26.7. "בְּנֵי שְׁמַעְיָה עָתְנִי וּרְפָאֵל וְעוֹבֵד אֶלְזָבָד אֶחָיו בְּנֵי־חָיִל אֱלִיהוּ וּסְמַכְיָהוּ׃", 29.2. "וּכְכָל־כֹּחִי הֲכִינוֹתִי לְבֵית־אֱלֹהַי הַזָּהָב לַזָּהָב וְהַכֶּסֶף לַכֶּסֶף וְהַנְּחֹשֶׁת לַנְּחֹשֶׁת הַבַּרְזֶל לַבַּרְזֶל וְהָעֵצִים לָעֵצִים אַבְנֵי־שֹׁהַם וּמִלּוּאִים אַבְנֵי־פוּךְ וְרִקְמָה וְכֹל אֶבֶן יְקָרָה וְאַבְנֵי־שַׁיִשׁ לָרֹב׃", 29.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר דָּוִיד לְכָל־הַקָּהָל בָּרְכוּ־נָא אֶת־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם וַיְבָרֲכוּ כָל־הַקָּהָל לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵיהֶם וַיִּקְּדוּ וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַיהוָה וְלַמֶּלֶךְ׃", 1.35. "The sons of Esau: Eliphaz, Reuel, and Jeush, and Jalam and Korah.", 1.37. "The sons of Reuel: Nahath, Zerah, Shammah, and Mizzah.", 4.35. "and Joel, and Jehu the son of Joshibiah, the son of Seraiah, the son of Asiel;", 4.36. "and Elioenai, and Jaakobah, and Jeshoaiah, and Asaiah, and Adiel, and Jesimiel, and Benaiah;", 17.11. "And it shall come to pass, when thy days are fulfilled that thou must go to be with thy fathers, that I will set up thy seed after thee, who shall be of thy sons; and I will establish his kingdom.", 21.11. "So Gad came to David, and said unto him: ‘Thus saith the LORD: Take which thou wilt:", 26.7. "The sons of Shemaiah: Othni, and Rephael and Obed and Elzabad his brethren, valiant men; Elihu also, and Semachiah.", 29.2. "Now I have prepared with all my might for the house of my God the gold for the things of gold, and the silver for the things of silver, and the brass for the things of brass, the iron for the things of iron, and wood for the things of wood; onyx stones, and stones to be set, glistering stones, and of divers colours, and all manner of precious stones, and marble stones in abundance.",
26. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 3.1-3.8, 9.1 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •philosophy, and ancient judaism Found in books: Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 251
3.1. "רָאִיתִי אֶת־הָעִנְיָן אֲשֶׁר נָתַן אֱלֹהִים לִבְנֵי הָאָדָם לַעֲנוֹת בּוֹ׃", 3.1. "לַכֹּל זְמָן וְעֵת לְכָל־חֵפֶץ תַּחַת הַשָּׁמָיִם׃", 3.2. "עֵת לָלֶדֶת וְעֵת לָמוּת עֵת לָטַעַת וְעֵת לַעֲקוֹר נָטוּעַ׃", 3.2. "הַכֹּל הוֹלֵךְ אֶל־מָקוֹם אֶחָד הַכֹּל הָיָה מִן־הֶעָפָר וְהַכֹּל שָׁב אֶל־הֶעָפָר׃", 3.3. "עֵת לַהֲרוֹג וְעֵת לִרְפּוֹא עֵת לִפְרוֹץ וְעֵת לִבְנוֹת׃", 3.4. "עֵת לִבְכּוֹת וְעֵת לִשְׂחוֹק עֵת סְפוֹד וְעֵת רְקוֹד׃", 3.5. "עֵת לְהַשְׁלִיךְ אֲבָנִים וְעֵת כְּנוֹס אֲבָנִים עֵת לַחֲבוֹק וְעֵת לִרְחֹק מֵחַבֵּק׃", 3.6. "עֵת לְבַקֵּשׁ וְעֵת לְאַבֵּד עֵת לִשְׁמוֹר וְעֵת לְהַשְׁלִיךְ׃", 3.7. "עֵת לִקְרוֹעַ וְעֵת לִתְפּוֹר עֵת לַחֲשׁוֹת וְעֵת לְדַבֵּר׃", 3.8. "עֵת לֶאֱהֹב וְעֵת לִשְׂנֹא עֵת מִלְחָמָה וְעֵת שָׁלוֹם׃", 9.1. "כֹּל אֲשֶׁר תִּמְצָא יָדְךָ לַעֲשׂוֹת בְּכֹחֲךָ עֲשֵׂה כִּי אֵין מַעֲשֶׂה וְחֶשְׁבּוֹן וְדַעַת וְחָכְמָה בִּשְׁאוֹל אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה הֹלֵךְ שָׁמָּה׃", 9.1. "כִּי אֶת־כָּל־זֶה נָתַתִּי אֶל־לִבִּי וְלָבוּר אֶת־כָּל־זֶה אֲשֶׁר הַצַּדִּיקִים וְהַחֲכָמִים וַעֲבָדֵיהֶם בְּיַד הָאֱלֹהִים גַּם־אַהֲבָה גַם־שִׂנְאָה אֵין יוֹדֵעַ הָאָדָם הַכֹּל לִפְנֵיהֶם׃", 3.1. "To every thing there is a season, and a time to every purpose under the heaven:", 3.2. "A time to be born, and a time to die; A time to plant, and a time to pluck up that which is planted;", 3.3. "A time to kill, and a time to heal; A time to break down, and a time to build up;", 3.4. "A time to weep, and a time to laugh; A time to mourn, and a time to dance;", 3.5. "A time to cast away stones, and a time to gather stones together; A time to embrace, and a time to refrain from embracing;", 3.6. "A time to seek, and a time to lose; A time to keep, and a time to cast away;", 3.7. "A time to rend, and a time to sew; A time to keep silence, and a time to speak;", 3.8. "A time to love, and a time to hate; A time for war, and a time for peace.", 9.1. "For all this I laid to my heart, even to make clear all this: that the righteous, and the wise, and their works, are in the hand of God; whether it be love or hatred, man knoweth it not; all is before them.",
27. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 29.16 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaism, ancient Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 65
29.16. "וַיָּבֹאוּ הַכֹּהֲנִים לִפְנִימָה בֵית־יְהוָה לְטַהֵר וַיּוֹצִיאוּ אֵת כָּל־הַטֻּמְאָה אֲשֶׁר מָצְאוּ בְּהֵיכַל יְהוָה לַחֲצַר בֵּית יְהוָה וַיְקַבְּלוּ הַלְוִיִּם לְהוֹצִיא לְנַחַל־קִדְרוֹן חוּצָה׃", 29.16. "And the priests went in unto the inner part of the house of the LORD, to cleanse it, and brought out all the uncleanness that they found in the temple of the LORD into the court of the house of the LORD. And the Levites took it, to carry it out abroad to the brook Kidron.",
28. Septuagint, Tobit, 1.1, 12.20 (4th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 8, 44
1.1. The book of the acts of Tobit the son of Tobiel, son of Aiel, son of Aduel, son of Gabael, of the descendants of Asiel and the tribe of Naphtali, 12.20. And now give thanks to God, for I am ascending to him who sent me. Write in a book everything that has happened."
29. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 4.19-5.6, 4.20-5.11, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 9.22, 9.23, 10.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.10, 13.11, 13.12, 13.13, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 16.10, 16.11, 16.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 65
30. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q270, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 51, 52
31. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q271, 3.7-3.115 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •celibacy and marriage, in ancient judaism •gender, in ancient judaism, considerations of dead sea scrolls •marriage and celibacy, in ancient judaism Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 51, 52
32. Dead Sea Scrolls, Messianic Rule, 1.11, 1.16, 1.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •celibacy and marriage, in ancient judaism •gender, in ancient judaism, considerations of dead sea scrolls •marriage and celibacy, in ancient judaism Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 52, 53
33. Dead Sea Scrolls, War Scroll, 5.6, 5.9, 5.14, 7.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •celibacy and marriage, in ancient judaism •gender, in ancient judaism, considerations of dead sea scrolls •marriage and celibacy, in ancient judaism Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 53
34. Dead Sea Scrolls, of Discipline, 5.1-6.13, 6.13, 6.14, 6.15, 6.16, 6.17, 6.18, 6.19, 6.20, 6.21, 6.22, 6.23, 6.24-7.25, 6.27-7.2, 8.16-9.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 133, 141
35. Septuagint, 4 Maccabees, 1.1, 1.17-1.18, 1.33-1.34, 2.5-2.6, 2.8-2.13, 2.21-2.23, 5.16-5.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •philosophy, and ancient judaism Found in books: Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 208, 209
1.1. The subject that I am about to discuss is most philosophical, that is, whether devout reason is sovereign over the emotions. So it is right for me to advise you to pay earnest attention to philosophy. 1.17. This, in turn, is education in the law, by which we learn divine matters reverently and human affairs to our advantage. 1.18. Now the kinds of wisdom are rational judgment, justice, courage, and self-control. 1.33. Otherwise how is it that when we are attracted to forbidden foods we abstain from the pleasure to be had from them? Is it not because reason is able to rule over appetites? I for one think so. 1.34. Therefore when we crave seafood and fowl and animals and all sorts of foods that are forbidden to us by the law, we abstain because of domination by reason. 2.5. Thus the law says, "You shall not covet your neighbor's wife...or anything that is your neighbor's." 2.6. In fact, since the law has told us not to covet, I could prove to you all the more that reason is able to control desires. Just so it is with the emotions that hinder one from justice. 2.8. Thus, as soon as a man adopts a way of life in accordance with the law, even though he is a lover of money, he is forced to act contrary to his natural ways and to lend without interest to the needy and to cancel the debt when the seventh year arrives. 2.9. If one is greedy, he is ruled by the law through his reason so that he neither gleans his harvest nor gathers the last grapes from the vineyard. In all other matters we can recognize that reason rules the emotions. 2.10. For the law prevails even over affection for parents, so that virtue is not abandoned for their sakes. 2.11. It is superior to love for one's wife, so that one rebukes her when she breaks the law. 2.12. It takes precedence over love for children, so that one punishes them for misdeeds. 2.13. It is sovereign over the relationship of friends, so that one rebukes friends when they act wickedly. 2.21. Now when God fashioned man, he planted in him emotions and inclinations, 2.22. but at the same time he enthroned the mind among the senses as a sacred governor over them all. 2.23. To the mind he gave the law; and one who lives subject to this will rule a kingdom that is temperate, just, good, and courageous. 5.16. We, O Antiochus, who have been persuaded to govern our lives by the divine law, think that there is no compulsion more powerful than our obedience to the law. 5.17. Therefore we consider that we should not transgress it in any respect. 5.18. Even if, as you suppose, our law were not truly divine and we had wrongly held it to be divine, not even so would it be right for us to invalidate our reputation for piety.
36. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 7.1-7.7, 7.11, 7.17-7.20, 7.27, 8.7, 8.17-8.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 185
7.1. I also am mortal, like all men,a descendant of the first-formed child of earth;and in the womb of a mother I was molded into flesh, 7.2. within the period of ten months, compacted with blood,from the seed of a man and the pleasure of marriage. 7.3. And when I was born, I began to breathe the common air,and fell upon the kindred earth,and my first sound was a cry, like that of all. 7.4. I was nursed with care in swaddling cloths." 7.5. For no king has had a different beginning of existence;" 7.6. there is for all mankind one entrance into life, and a common departure. 7.7. Therefore I prayed, and understanding was given me;I called upon God, and the spirit of wisdom came to me. 7.11. All good things came to me along with her,and in her hands uncounted wealth. 7.17. For it is he who gave me unerring knowledge of what exists,to know the structure of the world and the activity of the elements; 7.18. the beginning and end and middle of times,the alternations of the solstices and the changes of the seasons, 7.19. the cycles of the year and the constellations of the stars, 7.20. the natures of animals and the tempers of wild beasts,the powers of spirits and the reasonings of men,the varieties of plants and the virtues of roots; 7.27. Though she is but one, she can do all things,and while remaining in herself, she renews all things;in every generation she passes into holy souls and makes them friends of God, and prophets; 8.7. And if any one loves righteousness,her labors are virtues;for she teaches self-control and prudence,justice and courage;nothing in life is more profitable for men than these. 8.17. When I considered these things inwardly,and thought upon them in my mind,that in kinship with wisdom there is immortality, 8.18. and in friendship with her, pure delight,and in the labors of her hands, unfailing wealth,and in the experience of her company, understanding,and renown in sharing her words,I went about seeking how to get her for myself.
37. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •philosophy, and ancient judaism Found in books: Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 171
1.10. Those in Jerusalem and those in Judea and the senate and Judas,To Aristobulus, who is of the family of the anointed priests, teacher of Ptolemy the king, and to the Jews in Egypt,Greeting, and good health.'
38. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 19.20, 24.10-24.17, 24.23, 44.1, 45.5, 47.18 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •philosophy, and ancient judaism •judaism, ancient, palestinian Found in books: Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 199; Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 133
24.11. In the beloved city likewise he gave me a resting place,and in Jerusalem was my dominion. 24.12. So I took root in an honored people,in the portion of the Lord, who is their inheritance. 24.13. "I grew tall like a cedar in Lebanon,and like a cypress on the heights of Hermon. 24.14. I grew tall like a palm tree in En-gedi,and like rose plants in Jericho;like a beautiful olive tree in the field,and like a plane tree I grew tall. 24.15. Like cassia and camels thorn I gave forth the aroma of spices,and like choice myrrh I spread a pleasant odor,like galbanum, onycha, and stacte,and like the fragrance of frankincense in the tabernacle. 24.16. Like a terebinth I spread out my branches,and my branches are glorious and graceful. 24.17. Like a vine I caused loveliness to bud,and my blossoms became glorious and abundant fruit. 24.23. All this is the book of the covet of the Most High God,the law which Moses commanded us as an inheritance for the congregations of Jacob. 44.1. Let us now praise famous men,and our fathers in their generations. 44.1. But these were men of mercy,whose righteous deeds have not been forgotten; 45.5. He made him hear his voice,and led him into the thick darkness,and gave him the commandments face to face,the law of life and knowledge,to teach Jacob the covet,and Israel his judgments. 47.18. In the name of the Lord God,who is called the God of Israel,you gathered gold like tin and amassed silver like lead.
39. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 6.24-7.25 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •celibacy and marriage, in ancient judaism •gender, in ancient judaism, considerations of dead sea scrolls •marriage and celibacy, in ancient judaism Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 51
40. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 4.19-5.6, 4.20-5.11, 5.8, 5.9, 5.10, 5.11, 9.22, 9.23, 10.6, 13.7, 13.8, 13.9, 13.10, 13.11, 13.12, 13.13, 13.14, 13.15, 13.16, 13.17, 13.18, 13.19, 16.10, 16.11, 16.12 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 65
41. Plutarch, On Isis And Osiris, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 288
378c. And Harpocrates is not to be regarded as an imperfect and an infant god, nor some deity or other that protects legumes, but as the representative and corrector of unseasoned, imperfect, and inarticulate reasoning about the gods among mankind. For this reason he keeps his finger on his lips in token of restrained speech or silence. In the month of Mesorê they bring to him an offering of legumes and say, "The tongue is luck, the tongue is god." of the plants in Egypt they say that the persea is especially consecrated to the goddess because its fruit resembles a heart and its leaf a tongue. The fact is that nothing of man's usual possessions is more divine than reasoning, especially reasoning about the gods; and nothing has a greater influence toward happiness.
42. New Testament, Matthew, 27.46 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •philosophy, and ancient judaism Found in books: Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 251
27.46. περὶ δὲ τὴν ἐνάτην ὥραν ἐβόησεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς φωνῇ μεγάλῃ λέγων Ἐλωί ἐλωί λεμὰ σαβαχθανεί; τοῦτʼ ἔστιν Θεέ μου θεέ μου, ἵνα τί με ἐγκατέλιπες; 27.46. About the ninth hour Jesus cried with a loud voice, saying, "Eli, Eli, lama sabachthani?" That is, "My God, my God, why have you forsaken me?"
43. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 2.12, 2.123 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •adoption metaphor in ancient judaism Found in books: Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 103
2.12. After which they betook themselves to their sacrifices, as if they had done no mischief; nor did it appear to Archelaus that the multitude could be restrained without bloodshed; so he sent his whole army upon them, the footmen in great multitudes, by the way of the city, and the horsemen by the way of the plain, 2.123. They think that oil is a defilement; and if anyone of them be anointed without his own approbation, it is wiped off his body; for they think to be sweaty is a good thing, as they do also to be clothed in white garments. They also have stewards appointed to take care of their common affairs, who every one of them have no separate business for any, but what is for the use of them all.
44. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •philosophy, and ancient judaism Found in books: Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 252
1.17. οὐ γὰρ ἀπέστειλέν με Χριστὸς βαπτίζειν ἀλλὰ εὐαγγελίζεσθαι, οὐκ ἐν σοφίᾳ λόγου, ἵνα μὴ κενωθῇ ὁ σταυρὸς τοῦ χριστοῦ. 1.17. For Christ sent me not to baptize, but topreach the gospel -- not in wisdom of words, so that the cross ofChrist wouldn't be made void.
45. New Testament, Acts, 10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaism, ancient Found in books: Toloni (2022), The Story of Tobit: A Comparative Literary Analysis, 208
46. New Testament, Romans, 9.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •adoption metaphor in ancient judaism Found in books: Peppard (2011), The Son of God in the Roman World: Divine Sonship in its Social and Political Context, 103
9.4. ὧν ἡ υἱοθεσία καὶ ἡ δόξα καὶ αἱ διαθῆκαι καὶ ἡ νομοθεσία καὶ ἡ λατρεία καὶ αἱ ἐπαγγελίαι, 9.4. who are Israelites; whose is the adoption, the glory, the covets, the giving of the law, the service, and the promises;
47. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ancient judaism Found in books: Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 10
48. Babylonian Talmud, Nedarim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 204
62b. לפתוח ראשון ולברך ראשון וליטול מנה יפה ראשון,אמר רבא שרי ליה לצורבא מרבנן למימר לא יהיבנא אכרגא דכתיב (עזרא ז, כד) מנדה בלו והלך לא שליט למירמא עליהון וא"ר יהודה מנדה זו מנת המלך בלו זו כסף גולגלתא והלך זו ארנונא,ואמר רבא שרי ליה לצורבא מרבנן למימר עבדא דנורא אנא לא יהיבנא אכרגא מ"ט לאברוחי אריא מיניה קאמר,רב אשי הוה ליה ההוא אבא זבניה לבי נורא א"ל רבינא לרב אשי האיכא (ויקרא יט, יד) לפני עור לא תתן מכשול א"ל רוב עצים להסקה ניתנו:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big עד הקציר עד שיתחיל העם לקצור קציר חטין אבל לא קציר שעורין הכל לפי מקום נדרו אם היה בהר בהר ואם היה בבקעה בבקעה,עד הגשמים עד שיהו הגשמים עד שתרד רביעה שניה רשב"ג אומר עד שיגיע זמנה של רביעה עד שיפסקו גשמים עד שיצא ניסן כולו דברי ר' מאיר ר' יהודה אומר עד שיעבור הפסח:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big תניא הנודר עד הקיץ בגליל וירד לעמקים אע"פ שהגיע הקיץ בעמקים אסור עד שיגיע הקיץ בגליל:,עד הגשמים עד שיהו גשמים עד שתרד רביעה שניה רשב"ג אומר וכו': אמר ר' זירא מחלוקת דאמר עד הגשמים אבל אמר עד הגשם עד זמן גשמים קאמר 62b. b To open /b the Torah reading b first, to recite a blessing first, and to take a fine portion first. /b When portions are distributed equally, a priest can choose his share first. The verse with regard to the sons of David proves that the same i halakha /i applies to Torah scholars.,Furthermore, b Rava said: It is permitted for a Torah scholar to say: I will not pay the head tax [ i karga /i ], as it is written /b that the king of Persia wrote to Ezra, with regard to the priests, the Levites, and others who worked in the Temple: b “It shall not be lawful to impose i minda /i , i belo /i , and i halakh /i upon them” /b (Ezra 7:24). b And Rabbi Yehuda said: i Minda /i ; this is the king’s portion. i Belo /i ; this is the money /b of the b head /b tax. b And i halakh /i ; this is i arnona /i , /b a levy on people and their animals to perform physical labor in the service of the ruling authority. Since a Torah scholar is considered equivalent to a priest, as he is also dedicated to a sacred task, this exemption applies to him as well., b And Rava said /b further: b It is permitted for a Torah scholar to say: I am a servant /b of the priests b of fire /b worship and therefore b I will not pay the head tax. /b Rava maintains that a scholar may issue a statement of this kind in a place where the priests of fire-worshippers are exempt from the head tax, because he actually is declaring himself a servant of God, who is referred to as “a devouring fire” (Deuteronomy 4:24). b What is the reason /b that he is allowed to make this statement? He b is saying /b it merely in order b to chase a lion /b away b from him, /b i.e., to avoid suffering a loss.,The Gemara relates that b Rav Ashi had a particular forest, /b and b he sold it /b for its wood b to the temple of fire /b worship. b Ravina said to Rav Ashi: Isn’t there /b the prohibition: b “You shall not put a stumbling block before the blind” /b (Leviticus 19:14), which prohibits assisting others in committing transgressions? And yet you are providing assistance to an idolatrous cult. b He said to him: Most /b of the b wood /b they use b is for kindling, /b not for their ritual service. Consequently, I need not be concerned that the particular wood that I have sold them will be used for idolatry., strong MISHNA: /strong If one takes a vow b until the harvest, /b the vow remains in effect b until people begin to harvest. /b This is referring to b the wheat harvest but not the barley harvest. /b As for the exact date of this event, b all /b is determined b according to the place /b where he took b his vow. If he was on a mountain, /b it is assumed that he referred to the time of the harvest on b the mountain, and if he was in a valley, /b it is assumed that he meant the time of the harvest b in the valley. /b ,If one takes a vow b until the rains, /b or b until there are rains, /b the vow remains in effect b until the second rain /b of the rainy season b falls. Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: Until the time of the /b second b rainfall arrives, /b even if rain does not fall. If one takes a vow b until /b the b rains end, /b the vow remains in effect b until the entire /b month of b Nisan has ended; /b this is b the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yehuda says: Until Passover has passed. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i : With regard to b one who vows until the summer in the Galilee and /b subsequently b descends to the valleys, even if the summer /b season b has /b already b arrived in the valleys, /b the subject of his vow remains b forbidden /b to him b until summer arrives in the Galilee, /b in accordance with the mishna’s ruling that the duration of a vow is in accordance with the place where it was made.,The mishna states that if one takes a vow b until the rains, /b or b until there are rains, /b he means b until the second rain /b of the rainy season. b Rabban Shimon ben Gamliel says: /b Until the time of the second rainfall arrives. The Gemara comments: b Rabbi Zeira said: /b The b dispute /b is in a case b where /b one b said: Until the rains. However, /b if b he says: Until the rain, /b everyone agrees that b he is saying /b that the vow should remain in effect b until the time of the rains, /b but not necessarily until the rain actually falls.
49. Babylonian Talmud, Moed Qatan, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaism, ancient, history of Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 204
28b. big strongמתני׳ /strong /big נשים במועד מענות אבל לא מטפחות ר' ישמעאל אומר הסמוכות למטה מטפחות,בראשי חדשים בחנוכה ובפורים מענות ומטפחות בזה וזה לא מקוננות נקבר המת לא מענות ולא מטפחות,איזהו עינוי שכולן עונות כאחת קינה שאחת מדברת וכולן עונות אחריה שנא' (ירמיהו ט, יט) ולמדנה בנותיכם נהי ואשה רעותה קינה,אבל לעתיד לבא הוא אומר (ישעיהו כה, ח) בלע המות לנצח ומחה ה' אלהים דמעה מעל כל פנים וגו':, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאי אמרן אמר רב ויי לאזלא ויי לחבילא,אמר רבא נשי דשכנציב אמרן הכי ויי לאזלא ויי לחבילא ואמר רבא נשי דשכנציב אמרן גוד גרמא מככא ונמטי מיא לאנטיכי,ואמר רבא נשי דשכנציב אמרן עטוף וכסו טורי דבר רמי ובר רברבי הוא ואמר רבא נשי דשכנציב אמרן שייול אצטלא דמלתא לבר חורין דשלימו זוודיה,ואמר רבא נשי דשכנציב אמרן רהיט ונפיל אמעברא ויזופתא יזיף ואמר רבא נשי דשכנציב אמרן אחנא תגרי אזבזגי מיבדקו ואמר רבא נשי דשכנציב אמרן מותא כי מותא ומרעין חיבוליא,תניא היה ר"מ אומר (קהלת ז, ב) טוב ללכת אל בית אבל וגו' עד והחי יתן אל לבו דברים של מיתה דיספד יספדוניה דיקבר יקברוניה דיטען יטענוניה דידל ידלוניה,ואיכא דאמרי דלא ידל ידלוניה דכתיב (משלי כה, ז) כי טוב אמר לך עלה הנה וגו',ת"ר כשמתו בניו של רבי ישמעאל נכנסו ד' זקנים לנחמו ר' טרפון ור' יוסי הגלילי ור' אלעזר בן עזריה ור"ע אמר להם ר' טרפון דעו שחכם גדול הוא ובקי באגדות אל יכנס אחד מכם לתוך דברי חבירו אמר ר"ע ואני אחרון,פתח רבי ישמעאל ואמר רבו עונותיו תכפוהו אבליו הטריח רבותיו פעם ראשונה ושניה,נענה ר"ט ואמר (ויקרא י, ו) ואחיכם כל בית ישראל יבכו את השריפה והלא דברים ק"ו ומה נדב ואביהוא שלא עשו אלא מצוה אחת דכתיב (ויקרא ט, ט) ויקריבו בני אהרן את הדם אליו כך בניו של ר' ישמעאל על אחת כמה וכמה,נענה ר' יוסי הגלילי ואמר (מלכים א יד, יג) וספדו לו כל ישראל וקברו אותו והלא דברים ק"ו ומה אביה בן ירבעם שלא עשה אלא דבר אחד טוב דכתיב ביה (מלכים א יד, יג) יען נמצא בו דבר טוב כך בניו של ר' ישמעאל על אחת כמה וכמה,מאי דבר טוב ר' זירא ור' חיננא בר פפא חד אמר שביטל משמרתו ועלה לרגל וחד אמר שביטל פרדסאות שהושיב ירבעם אביו על הדרכים שלא יעלו ישראל לרגל,נענה ר' אלעזר בן עזריה ואמר (ירמיהו לד, ה) בשלום תמות ובמשרפות אבותיך המלכים הראשונים [אשר היו לפניך כן] ישרפו לך והלא דברים ק"ו ומה צדקיהו מלך יהודה שלא עשה אלא מצוה אחת שהעלה ירמיה מן הטיט כך בניו של ר' ישמעאל על אחת כמה וכמה,נענה ר"ע ואמר (זכריה יב, יא) ביום ההוא יגדל המספד בירושלם כמספד הדדרימון [בבקעת מגידון] ואמר רב יוסף אלמלא תרגומיה דהאי קרא לא הוה ידענא מאי קאמר,בעידנא ההוא יסגי מספדא בירושלם כמספדא דאחאב בר עמרי דקטל יתיה הדדרימון בר טברימון וכמספד דיאשיה בר אמון דקטל יתיה פרעה חגירא בבקעת מגידו,והלא דברים ק"ו ומה אחאב מלך ישראל שלא עשה אלא דבר אחד טוב דכתיב (מלכים א כב, לה) והמלך היה מעמד במרכבה נכח ארם כך בניו של ר' ישמעאל על אחת כמה וכמה,א"ל רבא לרבה בר מרי כתיב ביה בצדקיהו בשלום תמות וכתיב (ירמיהו לט, ז) ואת עיני צדקיהו עור א"ל הכי א"ר יוחנן שמת נבוכדנאצר בימיו,ואמר רבא לרבה בר מרי כתיב ביה ביאשיהו (מלכים ב כב, כ) לכן הנני אוסיפך על אבותיך ונאספת אל קברותיך בשלום וכתיב (דברי הימים ב לה, כג) ויורו היורים למלך יאשיהו ואמר רב יהודה אמר רב שעשאוהו ככברה,א"ל הכי א"ר יוחנן שלא חרב בית המקדש בימיו,א"ר יוחנן אין מנחמין רשאין לומר דבר עד שיפתח אבל שנאמר (איוב ג, א) אחרי כן פתח איוב את פיהו והדר ויען אליפז התימני,א"ר אבהו מנין לאבל שמיסב בראש שנאמר (איוב כט, כה) אבחר דרכם ואשב ראש ואשכון כמלך בגדוד כאשר אבלים ינחם,ינחם אחריני משמע אמר רב נחמן בר יצחק ינחם כתיב,מר זוטרא אמר מהכא (עמוס ו, ז) וסר מרזח סרוחים מרזח נעשה שר לסרוחים,אמר ר' חמא בר חנינא מנין לחתן שמיסב בראש שנאמר (ישעיהו סא, י) כחתן יכהן פאר מה כהן בראש אף חתן בראש,וכהן גופיה מנלן דתנא דבי ר' ישמעאל (ויקרא כא, ח) וקדשתו לכל דבר שבקדושה לפתוח ראשון ולברך ראשון וליטול מנה יפה ראשון,א"ר חנינא קשה יציאת נשמה מן הגוף 28b. strong MISHNA: /strong b On /b the intermediate days of b a Festival women may wail /b in grief over the deceased, b but they may not clap [ i metapeḥot /i ] /b their hands in mourning. b Rabbi Yishmael says: Those who are close to the bier may clap. /b , b On New Moons, Hanukkah and Purim, /b which are not Festivals by Torah law, the women b may /b both b wail and clap /b their hands in mourning. b On both /b the intermediate days of a Festival b and on /b New Moons, Hanukkah and Purim b they may not lament. /b After b the deceased has been buried they may neither wail nor clap. /b ,The mishna explains: b What is /b considered b wailing? /b This is b when they all wail together /b simultaneously. And what is considered b a lament? /b This is b when one speaks and they all answer after her /b with a repeated refrain, b as it is stated: “And teach your daughters wailing and everyone her neighbor lamentation” /b (Jeremiah 9:19).,In order to conclude on a positive note, the mishna says: b But with regard to the future, /b the verse b states: “He will destroy death forever; and the Lord, God, will wipe away tears from off all faces /b and the reproach of His people He will take away from off all the earth” (Isaiah 25:8)., strong GEMARA: /strong b What do /b the women who wail over the dead b say? Rav said: /b They say: b Woe over him who is /b now b departing; woe over /b him who is now returning b the pledge, /b i.e., his soul, which had been deposited in his hands all the years of his life., b Rava said: The women /b in the city of b Shekhantziv, /b who were known for their wisdom, b would say as follows: Woe over him who is /b now b departing; woe over /b him who is now returning b the pledge. And Rava said: The women of Shekhantziv would say /b about an elderly person: b The bone has been removed from the jaw and the water returns to the kettle. /b , b And Rava said: The women of Shekhantziv would say /b at a time of bereavement: b Wrap and cover the mountains /b in mourning, b as /b the deceased is b the son of the high and distinguished. Rava said: The women of Shekhantziv would say: Lend /b out b a cloak of fine wool /b to serve as a burial shroud b for a free man whose sustece has been depleted. /b In other words, a wealthy person who loses his fortune would rather die than live in poverty., b And Rava said: The women of Shekhantziv would say: /b A person b runs and tumbles at the ford and /b still b he borrows. And Rava said: The women of Shekhantziv would say: Our brothers, the merchants, will be examined at their places /b of business to see if they are honest businessmen. b And Rava said: The women of Shekhantziv would say: Death is like death, /b as everyone must die, b and suffering is like interest. /b , b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i that b Rabbi Meir would say /b with regard to the verse b “It is better to go to the house of mourning /b than to go to the house of feasting, for that is the end of all men; b and the living will lay it to his heart” /b (Ecclesiastes 7:2): What should the living lay to his heart? b Matters relating to death. /b And these matters are as follows: He b that eulogizes will be eulogized /b by others. He b that buries /b others b will be buried /b by others. He b that loads /b many words of praise and tribute into the eulogies that he delivers for others b will be /b similarly b treated /b by others. He b that raises /b his voice in weeping over others b will /b have others b raise /b their voices b over him. /b , b And some say: /b One b who does not raise himself /b with pride, but chooses his place among the lowly, b will be raised /b by others, b as it is written: /b “Do not exalt yourself in the king’s presence, and stand not in the place of great men. b For it is better to be told, step up here, /b than to be degraded in the presence of the great” (Proverbs 25:6–7)., b The Sages taught /b the following i baraita /i : b When the sons of Rabbi Yishmael died, four Elders entered to console him: Rabbi Tarfon, Rabbi Yosei HaGelili, Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya, and Rabbi Akiva. Rabbi Tarfon said to them: Know that /b Rabbi Yishmael b is a great Sage and well versed in i aggadot /i . Let none of you interrupt the words of another, /b but rather each person should say something novel of his own. b Rabbi Akiva said: And I /b shall speak b last. /b , b Rabbi Yishmael, /b the mourner, b opened and said /b about himself: b Many are his sins. /b Due to this, b his bereavements came in /b quick b succession /b and b he troubled his teachers once and /b then b a second time /b to come and console him.,Having been granted permission to speak, b Rabbi Tarfon answered and said: /b With regard to the death of Aaron’s sons it says: b “But let your brethren, the whole house of Israel, bewail the burning that the Lord has kindled” /b (Leviticus 10:6). b Are /b these b matters not /b inferred b i a fortiori /i : If, with regard to Nadav and Avihu, who had performed only one mitzva /b that is explicitly mentioned in the Bible, b as it is written: “And the sons of Aaron brought the blood to him” /b (Leviticus 9:9), b this /b was nevertheless stated about them, then with regard to b the sons of Rabbi Yishmael, /b who were well known for their performance of many mitzvot, b all the more so /b should the entire Jewish people bewail their death., b Rabbi Yosei HaGelili answered and said: /b With regard to Abijah, son of King Jeroboam, the verse states: b “And all Israel shall mourn for him, and bury him” /b (I Kings 14:13). b Are /b these b matters not /b inferred b i a fortiori /i : If, with regard to Abijah, son of Jeroboam, who did only one good thing, as it is written: “Because in him there is found some good thing /b toward the Lord God of Israel” (I Kings 14:13), i.e., he did only one good thing, and b this /b was his reward, then with regard to b the sons of Rabbi Yishmael all the more so /b should they be rewarded by having the entire Jewish people mourn for them and bury them.,The Gemara asks: b What /b was this b one /b good b thing /b that Abijah did? b Rabbi Zeira and Rabbi Ḥina bar Pappa /b disagreed about this issue. b One said: He abandoned his guard post. /b His father, Jeroboam, had assigned him to serve as one of the guards whose mission it was to prevent people from going up to Jerusalem on the pilgrimage Festivals. b And he /b himself b went up /b to Jerusalem b for the pilgrimage Festival. And one said: He removed the guards [ i pardesaot /i ] that his father, Jeroboam, had placed along the roads so that /b the people of b Israel would not go up /b to Jerusalem b for the pilgrimage Festivals. /b ,The i baraita /i continues: b Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya answered and said: /b With regard to King Zedekiah, the verse states: b “But you shall die in peace; and with the burnings of your fathers, the former kings that were before you, so shall they make a burning for you” /b (Jeremiah 34:5). b Are /b these b matters not /b inferred b i a fortiori /i : If, with regard to Zedekiah, king of Judea, who had performed /b only b one mitzva /b that is explicitly mentioned in the Bible, b for he had Jeremiah lifted out of the mire /b (Jeremiah 38:10), b this /b was nevertheless stated about him, then with regard to b the sons of Rabbi Yishmael all the more so /b should they be rewarded by dying in peace., b Rabbi Akiva answered and said: /b The verse states: b “On that day shall there be a great mourning in Jerusalem, like the mourning of Hadadrimmon in the valley of Megiddon” /b (Zechariah 12:11). The Gemara comments: With regard to this verse, b Rav Yosef said: Had it not been for the /b Aramaic b translation of this verse, we would not have known what it is saying, /b as nowhere in the Bible do we find this incident involving Hadadrimmon.,The Aramaic translation reads as follows: b At that time the mourning in Jerusalem will be as great as the mourning over Ahab, son of Omri, who was slain by Hadadrimmon, son of Tabrimmon, and like the mourning over Josiah, son of Amon, who was slain by Pharaoh the lame in the valley of Megiddon. /b ,The i baraita /i continues: b Are /b these b matters not /b inferred b i a fortiori /i : If, with regard to Ahab, king of Israel, who did /b only b one good thing /b that is explicitly mentioned in the Bible, b as it is written: “And the king was propped up in his chariot facing Aram” /b (I Kings 22:35), as he did not want the Jewish people to see that he was mortally wounded and flee, and b this, /b that he was greatly mourned, was nevertheless stated about him, then b all the more so /b will b the sons of Rabbi Yishmael /b be greatly mourned.,The Gemara discusses issues in the aforementioned verses: b Rava said to Rabba bar Mari: It is written with regard to Zedekiah: “You shall die in peace,” but /b elsewhere b it is written: “And he put out Zedekiah’s eyes” /b (Jeremiah 39:7). Rabba bar Mari b said to him: Rabbi Yoḥa said as follows: /b The first verse: “You shall die in peace,” means b that Nebuchadnezzar died in /b Zedekiah’s b lifetime /b and consequently the latter died in peace, having seen the death of the wicked., b And Rava /b further b said to Rabba bar Mari: It is written with regard to Josiah: “Behold, therefore I will gather you unto your fathers, and you shall be gathered into your grave in peace” /b (II Kings 22:20), b and /b elsewhere b it is written: “And the archers shot at King Josiah; /b and the king said to his servants, Get me away; for I am grievously wounded” (II Chronicles 35:23). b And /b with regard to this verse b Rabbi Yehuda said /b that b Rav said: /b With their many arrows, b they made /b his body b like a sieve. /b ,Rabba bar Mari b said to him: Rabbi Yoḥa said as follows: /b The words “in peace” stated with regard to King Josiah refer to the fact b that the Temple was not destroyed in his lifetime, /b as the verse itself continues: “And your eyes shall not see all the evil that I will bring upon this place” (II Kings 22:20).,The Gemara returns to examining the i halakhot /i of consolation. b Rabbi Yoḥa said: The consolers are not permitted to speak words /b of consolation b until the mourner opens /b and speaks first. b As it is stated: /b “And they sat down with him upon the ground for seven days and seven nights, and none spoke a word to him; for they saw that his suffering was very great. b After this Job opened his mouth” /b (Job 2:13–3:1). b And afterward: “And Eliphaz the Temanite answered /b and said” (Job 4:1)., b Rabbi Abbahu said: From where /b is it derived that b the mourner reclines at the head [ i rosh /i ] /b of the table? b As it is stated: “I chose out their way, and sat as chief [ i rosh /i ], and dwelt as a king in the army, as one that comforts [ i yenaḥem /i ] the mourners” /b (Job 29:25). This indicates that the mourner sits at the head of the table, as the chief.,The Gemara raises an objection: But the word b i yenaḥem /i means that he comforts others, /b thereby implying that one who comforts the mourners sits at the head of the table. b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak said: /b The word b is written /b as b i yinaḥem /i , /b meaning: Will be comforted, and therefore can be understood as referring to the mourner., b Mar Zutra said: /b A proof may be derived b from here: /b The verse b “And the revelry [ i mirzaḥ /i ] of those who stretched themselves out shall pass away [ i sar /i ]” /b (Amos 6:7) means that b i mirzaḥ /i , /b he who is bitter [ i mar /i ] and whose mind is overwrought b [ /b i zaḥ /i b ] /b due to grief, b is made a prince [ i sar /i ] over those who /b sit beside him b stretched out /b below him to comfort him., b Rabbi Ḥama bar Ḥanina said: From where /b is it derived b that a groom reclines at the head /b of the table? b As it is stated: “As a bridegroom decks himself [ i yekhahen /i ] with a garland” /b (Isaiah 61:10). b Just as a priest [ i kohen /i ] /b is b at the head /b of the table, b so too, a bridegroom /b is b at the head /b of the table.,The Gemara asks: b From where do we /b derive that b the priest himself /b sits at the head? The Gemara answers: b As the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: /b With regard to a priest it says: b “You shall sanctify him, /b for he offers the bread of your God” (Leviticus 21:8), meaning that you are to sanctify him b with regard to all matters of sanctity: To be first to begin /b reading the Torah, b to be first to recite the Grace /b after Meals, b and to be first to take a portion /b during a meal.,§ The Gemara returns to its discussion of death: b Rabbi Ḥanina said: The soul’s departure from the body is as difficult /b
50. Babylonian Talmud, Hulin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaism, ancient, history of Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 204
87a. הכי השתא התם משתא וברוכי בהדי הדדי לא אפשר הכא אפשר דשחיט בחדא ומכסי בחדא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big שחט ולא כסה וראהו אחר חייב לכסות כסהו ונתגלה פטור מלכסות כסהו הרוח חייב לכסות:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ת"ר (ויקרא יז, יג) ושפך וכסה מי ששפך יכסה שחט ולא כסה וראהו אחר מנין שחייב לכסות שנאמר (ויקרא יז, יד) ואומר לבני ישראל אזהרה לכל בני ישראל,תניא אידך ושפך וכסה במה ששפך בו יכסה שלא יכסנו ברגל שלא יהיו מצות בזויות עליו תניא אידך ושפך וכסה מי ששפך הוא יכסנו מעשה באחד ששחט וקדם חבירו וכסה וחייבו רבן גמליאל ליתן לו י' זהובים,איבעיא להו שכר מצוה או שכר ברכה למאי נפקא מינה לברכת המזון אי אמרת שכר מצוה אחת היא ואי אמרת שכר ברכה הויין ארבעים מאי,תא שמע דא"ל ההוא צדוקי לרבי מי שיצר הרים לא ברא רוח ומי שברא רוח לא יצר הרים דכתיב (עמוס ד, יג) כי הנה יוצר הרים ובורא רוח אמר ליה שוטה שפיל לסיפיה דקרא ה' צבאות שמו,אמר ליה נקוט לי זימנא תלתא יומי ומהדרנא לך תיובתא יתיב רבי תלת תעניתא כי הוה קא בעי מיברך אמרו ליה צדוקי קאי אבבא אמר (תהלים סט, כב) ויתנו בברותי רוש וגו',א"ל רבי מבשר טובות אני לך לא מצא תשובה אויבך ונפל מן הגג ומת אמר לו רצונך שתסעוד אצלי אמר לו הן לאחר שאכלו ושתו א"ל כוס של ברכה אתה שותה או ארבעים זהובים אתה נוטל אמר לו כוס של ברכה אני שותה יצתה בת קול ואמרה כוס של ברכה ישוה ארבעים זהובים,אמר רבי יצחק עדיין שנה לאותה משפחה בין גדולי רומי וקוראין אותה משפחת בר לויאנוס:,כסהו ונתגלה: אמר ליה רב אחא בריה דרבא לרב אשי מאי שנא מהשבת אבדה דאמר מר (דברים כב, א) השב אפילו מאה פעמים,אמר ליה התם לא כתיב מיעוטא הכא כתיב מיעוטא וכסהו:,כסהו הרוח: אמר רבה בר בר חנה אמר רבי יוחנן לא שנו אלא שחזר ונתגלה אבל לא חזר ונתגלה פטור מלכסות וכי חזר ונתגלה מאי הוי הא אידחי ליה אמר רב פפא זאת אומרת אין דיחוי אצל מצות,ומאי שנא מהא דתניא השוחט ונבלע דם בקרקע חייב לכסות התם כשרשומו ניכר:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big דם שנתערב במים אם יש בו מראית דם חייב לכסות נתערב ביין רואין אותו כאילו הוא מים נתערב בדם הבהמה 87a. The Gemara rejects this: b How can /b these cases b be compared? There, /b in the incident involving the students of Rav, it is b impossible to drink and recite a blessing simultaneously. /b Accordingly, by requesting a cup over which to recite the blessing of Grace after Meals, they demonstrated their desire to cease drinking. b Here, /b when one covers the blood of the undomesticated animal before slaughtering the bird, it is b possible to slaughter /b the bird b with the one /b hand b and cover /b the blood of the undomesticated animal b with the /b other b one. /b Accordingly, the act of covering the blood of the undomesticated animal is not considered an interruption of the acts of slaughter, since they could have been performed simultaneously., strong MISHNA: /strong If one b slaughtered /b an undomesticated animal or bird b and did not cover /b the blood, b and another /b person b saw /b the uncovered blood, the second person is b obligated to cover /b the blood. If one b covered /b the blood b and it was /b then b uncovered, /b he is b exempt from covering it /b again. If b the wind /b blew earth on the blood and b covered it, /b and it was consequently uncovered, he is b obligated to cover /b the blood., strong GEMARA: /strong b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : The verse states: b “And he shall pour out /b its blood b and cover /b it with earth” (Leviticus 17:13), indicating that b the one who poured out /b its blood, i.e., slaughtered the animal, b shall cover it. /b If one b slaughtered /b the animal or bird b and did not cover /b the blood, b and another person saw /b the uncovered blood, b from where /b is it derived b that /b the person who saw the blood b is obligated to cover /b it? It is derived from the following verse, b as it is stated: “Therefore I said to the children of Israel” /b (Leviticus 17:12), which is b a warning to all the children of Israel /b to fulfill the mitzva of covering the blood., b It is taught /b in b another /b i baraita /i : The verse states: b “And he shall pour out /b its blood b and cover /b it with earth,” indicating that b with that which he poured out /b the blood b he shall cover it, /b i.e., he must use his hand, and b he /b may b not cover it with /b his b foot, so that mitzvot will not be contemptible to him. It is taught /b in b another /b i baraita /i : The verse states: b “And he shall pour out /b its blood b and cover /b it with earth,” indicating that b the one who poured out /b the blood b shall cover it. An incident /b occurred b involving one who slaughtered /b an undomesticated animal or bird b and another /b individual b preempted /b him b and covered /b the blood, b and Rabban Gamliel deemed him obligated to give ten gold coins to /b the one who performed the act of slaughter., b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: Are these ten gold coins b compensation /b for the stolen b mitzva or /b are they b compensation /b for the stolen b blessing /b recited over the mitzva? The Gemara elaborates: b What is the /b practical b difference? /b The difference is b with regard to /b a similar case involving b Grace after Meals. If you say /b the coins are b compensation for the mitzva, /b then with regard to Grace after Meals, since all its blessings constitute b one /b mitzva, one would be obligated to give only ten gold coins. b But if you say /b they are b compensation for the /b lost b blessing, /b then with regard to Grace after Meals the compensation b is forty /b gold coins, since Grace after Meals comprises four blessings. b What /b is the conclusion?,The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b a proof from an incident in b which a certain heretic said to Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi: b He who created mountains did not create wind, and he who created wind did not create mountains; /b rather, each was created by a separate deity, b as it is written: “For behold, He Who forms the mountains and He Who creates the wind” /b (Amos 4:13), indicating that there are two deities: One who forms the mountains and one who creates the wind. Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to him: Imbecile, go to the end of the verse, /b which states: b “The Lord, the God of hosts, is His name.” /b The verse emphasizes that God is the One Who both forms and creates.,The heretic b said to /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: b Give me three days’ time and I will respond to you /b with b a rebuttal /b of your claim. b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b sat /b and fasted b three /b days of b fasting /b while awaiting the heretic, in order that he would not find a rebuttal. b When /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b wanted to have a meal /b at the conclusion of those three days, b they said to him: /b That b heretic is standing at the doorway. /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b recited /b the following verse about himself: b “They put gall into my food, /b and for my thirst they gave me vinegar to drink” (Psalms 69:22), i.e., my meal is embittered with the presence of this heretic.,When Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi came to the door he saw that it was in fact a different heretic, not the one who asked for three days to prepare a rebuttal. This heretic b said to him: Rabbi, I am a bearer of good tidings for you: Your enemy did not find a response, and he threw himself from the roof and died. /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to /b the heretic: Since you have brought me good tidings, b would you like to dine with me? /b The heretic b said to him: Yes. After they ate and drank, /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b said to /b the heretic: Would b you /b like to b drink the cup of blessing, /b i.e., the cup of wine over which the Grace after Meals is recited, b or /b would b you /b like to b take forty gold coins /b instead, and I will recite the Grace after Meals? The heretic b said to him: I /b will b drink the cup of blessing. A Divine Voice emerged and said: The cup of blessing is worth forty gold coins. /b Evidently, each one of the blessings in the Grace after Meals is worth ten gold coins.,The Gemara adds: b Rabbi Yitzḥak says: That family /b of the heretic who dined with Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b still exists among the prominent /b families b of Rome, and /b that family b is called: The family of bar Luyyanus. /b ,§ The mishna teaches that if one b covered /b the blood b and it was /b then b uncovered /b he is not obligated to cover it again. b Rav Aḥa, son of Rava, said to Rav Ashi: What is different /b about this case from the mitzva of b returning a lost item, where the Master said: /b The verse states with regard to the obligation to return a lost item: b “You shall return /b them to your brother” (Deuteronomy 22:1), b even one hundred times? /b ,Rav Ashi b said to /b Rav Aḥa: b There, /b in the verse discussing the obligation to return a lost item, b a restriction is not written /b in the verse to limit the obligation. b Here, /b in the verse discussing the obligation to cover the blood, b a restriction is written, /b as the verse states: b “And he shall cover it.” /b The usage of the term “it” indicates that one must cover the blood only one time.,§ The mishna teaches that if b the wind /b blew earth on the blood and b covered it /b one is obligated to cover the blood. b Rabba bar bar Ḥana says /b that b Rabbi Yoḥa says: They taught /b this i halakha /i b only /b if the blood b was again uncovered. But /b if the blood b was not again uncovered /b one is b exempt from /b the obligation b to cover it. /b The Gemara asks: b And when /b the blood b was again uncovered, what of it? Isn’t it /b already b rejected /b from the mitzva of covering since it was covered by the wind? b Rav Pappa said: That is to say /b that b there is no permanent /b rejection b with regard to mitzvot. /b Although the wind covered the blood, the mitzva to cover it was not rendered null; rather, the mitzva simply could not be performed. Consequently, once the blood is again uncovered, the mitzva to cover the blood remains in place.,The Gemara asks: b But /b even if the wind covered the blood and it remained covered, why is one exempt from performing the mitzva of covering the blood? b What is different /b about this case b from that which is taught /b in a i baraita /i : In a case where b one slaughters /b an undomesticated animal or a bird b and /b its b blood is absorbed by the ground, /b one is b obligated to cover /b the blood? The Gemara responds: b There, /b the i baraita /i is referring to a case b where the impression /b of the blood b is /b still b recognizable, /b i.e., it was not entirely absorbed in the ground., strong MISHNA: /strong In a case of the b blood /b of an undomesticated animal or bird b that was mixed with water, if there is in /b the mixture b the appearance of blood /b one is b obligated to cover /b it. If the blood b was mixed with wine one views /b the wine b as though it is water, /b and if a mixture with that amount of water would have the appearance of blood one is obligated to cover it. Likewise, if the blood of an undomesticated animal or a bird b was mixed with the blood of a domesticated animal, /b which one does not have to cover,
51. Babylonian Talmud, Horayot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaism, ancient, history of Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 204
12b. אימא סיפא אין בין כהן משמש לכהן שעבר אלא פר יום הכפורים ועשירית האיפה אתאן לרבי מאיר דתניא אירע בו פסול בכהן גדול ועבר ומינו כהן אחר תחתיו הראשון חוזר לעבודתו והשני כל מצות כהונה עליו דברי ר"מ [רבי יוסי אומר ראשון חוזר לעבודתו ושני אינו ראוי לא לכהן גדול ולא לכהן הדיוט],אמר רבי יוסי מעשה ביוסף בן אילים מצפורי שאירע בו פסול בכהן גדול (ועבר ומינו אחר תחתיו ולא הניחוהו אחיו הכהנים להיות לא כהן גדול ולא כהן הדיוט כהן גדול משום איבה כהן הדיוט משום מעלין בקדש ואין מורידין,רישא רבנן וסיפא ר"מ אמר רב חסדא אין רישא רבנן וסיפא ר"מ רב יוסף אמר רבי היא ונסיב לה אליבא דתנאי,רבא אמר ר"ש היא וסבר לה כר"מ בחדא ופליג עליה בחדא,דתניא דברים שבין כהן גדול לכהן הדיוט אלו הם פר הבא על כל המצות ופר יוה"כ ועשירית האיפה ולא פורע ולא פורם אבל הוא פורם מלמטה וההדיוט מלמעלה ואין מטמא לקרובים ומוזהר על הבתולה ואסור באלמנה ומחזיר את הרוצח,ומקריב אונן ואינו אוכל [ואינו חולק] מקריב חלק בראש ונוטל חלק בראש ומשמש בשמונה כלים וכל עבודת יום הכפורים אינה כשרה אלא בו ופטור על טומאת מקדש וקדשיו,וכולן נוהגין במרובה בגדים חוץ מפר המביא על כל המצות וכולן נוהגין במשיח שעבר חוץ מפר יוה"כ ועשירית האיפה וכולן אין נוהגין במשוח מלחמה חוץ מה' דברים האמורים בפרשה לא פורע ולא פורם ואין מטמא לקרובים ומוזהר על הבתולה ואסור באלמנה ומחזיר את הרוצח דברי רבי יהודה וחכמים אומרים אינו מחזיר,והאי ממאי דר"ש היא א"ר פפא מאן שמעת ליה דאמר פטור על טומאת מקדש וקדשיו ר"ש:,חוץ מה' דברים האמורים בפרשה: מה"מ דת"ר (ויקרא כא, י) והכהן הגדול מאחיו זה כהן גדול אשר יוצק על ראשו שמן המשחה זה משוח מלחמה ומלא את ידו ללבוש את הבגדים זה מרובה בגדים על כולן הוא אומר ראשו לא יפרע ובגדיו לא יפרום ועל כל נפשות מת לא יבא,יכול יהו כולן מקריבין אוננים ת"ל (ויקרא כא, יב) כי נזר שמן משחת אלהיו עליו עליו ולא על חבירו ואחר שחלקו הכתוב יכול לא יהא מצווה על הבתולה ת"ל והוא,כתנאי (ויקרא כא, יג) והוא אשה בבתוליה יקח אחר שחלק הכתוב ריבה דברי רבי ישמעאל רבי עקיבא אומר אין לי אלא שעבר מחמת קריו מחמת מומין מנין ת"ל והוא,בעא מיניה רבא מרב נחמן משיח שנצטרע מהו באלמנה מידחא דחי או מיפטר פטר לא הוה בידיה,זימנין הוי יתיב רב פפא וקמבעיא ליה א"ל הונא בריה דרב נחמן לרב פפא תנינא אין לי אלא שעבר מחמת קריו עבר מחמת מומין מנין ת"ל והוא קם נשקיה ברישיה ויהיב ליה ברתיה:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big כהן גדול פורם מלמטה וההדיוט מלמעלה כהן גדול מקריב אונן ולא אוכל וההדיוט לא מקריב ולא אוכל:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big אמר [רב] למטה למטה ממש למעלה למעלה ממש ושמואל אמר למטה למטה מקמי שפה למעלה למעלה מקמי שפה וזה וזה בצואר,מיתיבי על כל המתים כולן רצה מבדיל קמי שפה שלו רצה אינו מבדיל קמי שפה שלו על אביו ועל אמו מבדיל כיון דבעלמא הוי קרע קרי כאן בגדיו לא יפרום,שמואל כרבי יהודה סבירא ליה דאמר כל קרע שאינו מבדיל שפה שלו אינו אלא קרע של תפלות ומי אית ליה לר"י קריעה בכהן גדול,והא תניא אילו נאמר ראש לא יפרע ובגד לא יפרום הייתי אומר בראש ובגד של סוטה הכתוב מדבר ת"ל (ויקרא כא, י) את ראשו לא יפרע ובגדיו לא יפרום שאינו בפריעה ופרימה כל עיקר דברי רבי יהודה רבי ישמעאל אומר אינו פורם כדרך שבני אדם פורמין אלא הוא מלמטה וההדיוט מלמעלה,שמואל סבר לה כר"י בחדא ופליג עליה בחדא:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big כל התדיר מחבירו קודם את חבירו וכל המקודש מחבירו קודם את חבירו פר המשיח ופר העדה עומדים פר המשיח קודם לפר העדה בכל מעשיו:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנא הני מילי אמר אביי דאמר קרא (במדבר כח, כג) מלבד עולת הבקר אשר לעולת התמיד (למה לי) מכדי כתיב עולת הבקר עולת התמיד למה לי הכי קאמר רחמנא כל דתדירה קדמה:,וכל המקודש מחבירו הוא קודם את חבירו: מנלן דתנא דבי רבי ישמעאל וקדשתו לכל דבר שבקדושה לפתוח ראשון ולברך ראשון וליטול מנה יפה ראשון: 12b. b Say the latter clause: The difference between /b a High b Priest /b currently b serving /b in that capacity b and a former /b High b Priest is only /b with regard to the b bull /b brought by the High Priest on b Yom Kippur and the tenth of an ephah /b meal-offering; but with regard to all other matters the two are equal. In this clause b we arrive at /b the opinion of b Rabbi Meir, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : If temporary b disqualification befell the High Priest and he left /b his position b and they appointed another priest in his stead, /b after the cause of his disqualification passes, b the first /b priest b returns to his service /b as High Priest. b And /b with regard to b the second /b priest, b all of the mitzvot of the /b High b Priesthood /b are still incumbent b upon him; /b this is b the statement of Rabbi Meir. Rabbi Yosei says: The first returns to his service, and the second is unfit /b to serve in either position; he may serve b neither as a High Priest nor as an ordinary priest. /b ,The i baraita /i continues. b Rabbi Yosei said: /b There was b an incident involving /b the priest b Yosef ben Eilim of Tzippori: When disqualification befell a High Priest and he left /b his position, the priests b appointed another, /b Yosef ben Eilim, b in his stead. And /b after the cause of the disqualification passed, b his brethren the priests did not allow /b Yosef ben Eilim b to /b serve, b neither /b as b a High Priest nor /b as b an ordinary priest. /b The Gemara explains: Neither as b a High Priest, due to enmity, /b jealousy, and bitterness that would be engendered if there were two High Priests with equal standing in the Temple. Nor as b an ordinary priest, because /b the principle is: b One elevates /b to a higher level b in /b matters of b sanctity and one does not downgrade. /b Once he has served as a High Priest he cannot be restored to the position of an ordinary priest.,The Gemara asks: Can it be that b the first clause /b of the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of b the Rabbis, /b who disagree with Rabbi Meir, b and the latter clause /b is in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Meir? Rav Ḥisda said: Indeed, the first clause /b of the mishna is in accordance with the opinion of b the Rabbis and the latter clause /b is in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi Meir. Rav Yosef said: /b The entire mishna b is /b in accordance with the opinion of b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi, b and he formulates /b the mishna b according to /b different b i tanna’im /i . /b It is in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis with regard to a High Priest consecrated by donning multiple garments, and in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir with regard to a former High Priest., b Rava said: /b The entire mishna b is /b stating the opinion of b Rabbi Shimon, and he holds in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Meir with regard to one /b matter b and disagrees with him with regard to one /b matter.,This is b as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b These are matters /b with regard to b which /b there are differences b between a High Priest and an ordinary priest: /b The High Priest brings b the bull that comes for any of the mitzvot, and the bull of Yom Kippur, and the /b daily b tenth of an ephah /b meal-offering. b And he may not grow /b his hair b long and may not rend /b his garments as expressions of mourning; b but /b he b rends /b his garment b from below /b in an inconspicuous manner, b and the ordinary /b priest rends his garment b from above, /b in the typical manner. b And /b the High Priest b may not render himself impure /b with impurity imparted by a corpse even b in /b the event that one of his b relatives /b dies, b and /b he is b warned to /b marry b a virgin, and /b it is b prohibited /b for him b to /b marry b a widow, and /b when he dies b he restores the /b unwitting b murderer /b to his home from the city of refuge.,The i baraita /i continues: b And /b the High Priest b sacrifices /b offerings even as b an acute mourner /b on the day that a close relative dies, b but he may not partake /b of the offerings on that day b and he does not receive a share /b of those offerings. b He sacrifices a portion at the head /b of the priests, i.e., whenever he chooses, b and takes a portion at the head, /b i.e., he takes a portion from any offering that he chooses. b And he performs /b the Temple service b wearing eight /b priestly b garments, and the entire Yom Kippur service is valid only /b when performed b by him, and he is exempt from /b bringing a sliding-scale offering for the b defiling of /b the b Temple or its sacrificial /b foods.,The i baraita /i continues: b And all /b these i halakhot /i b are in effect with regard to /b the High Priest who is consecrated by donning b multiple garments, except for the bull the /b High Priest b brings for all the mitzvot. And all /b these i halakhot /i b are in effect with regard to a former anointed /b High Priest, b except for the bull of Yom Kippur and the tenth of an ephah. And all /b these i halakhot /i b are not in effect with regard to /b a priest b anointed for war, except for the five matters stated in the portion /b where the i halakhot /i of the High Priest are enumerated (see Leviticus, chapter 21): b He may not grow /b his hair b long and may not rend /b his garments, b and he may not render himself impure /b with impurity imparted by a corpse even b in /b the event that one of his b relatives /b dies, b and he is warned to /b marry b a virgin, and /b it is b prohibited /b for him b to /b marry b a widow, and /b when he dies b he restores the /b unwitting b murderer /b to his home from the city of refuge; this is b the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. And the Rabbis say: He does not restore the /b unwitting b murderer /b to his home.,The Gemara asks: b And /b with regard to b this /b i baraita /i , b from where /b can it be derived b that /b the i tanna /i b is Rabbi Shimon? Rav Pappa said: Whom did you hear who says: /b A High Priest is b exempt from /b bringing a sliding-scale offering for the b defiling of /b the b Temple or its sacrificial /b foods? It is b Rabbi Shimon. /b He holds in accordance with the opinion of Rabbi Meir with regard to a former High Priest, and in accordance with the opinion of the Rabbis with regard to the High Priest who is consecrated by donning multiple garments, who does not bring a bull for absence of awareness of the matter with the unwitting performance of an action.,§ The i baraita /i teaches: And all these i halakhot /i are not in effect with regard to a priest anointed for war, b except for the five matters stated in the portion /b where the i halakhot /i of the High Priest are enumerated. The Gemara asks: b From where are these matters /b derived? The Gemara answers: It is b as the Sages taught: “And the priest who is greater than his brethren” /b (Leviticus 21:10); b this is a High Priest. “Upon whose head the anointing oil is poured”; this is /b the priest b anointed for war. “And who is consecrated to don the garments”; this is /b the High Priest who is consecrated by donning b multiple garments. With regard to all of them, /b the verse b states: “He shall neither let the hair of his head grow, nor rend his garments, neither shall he come upon any dead body” /b (Leviticus 21:10–11).,One b might /b have thought that b all of /b these priests b sacrifice /b offerings as b acute mourners. /b Therefore, b the verse states: “For the consecration of the anointing oil of his God is upon him” /b (Leviticus 21:12), from which it is derived: b “Upon him,” /b the High Priest, b but not upon another /b priest. b And after the verse differentiated /b the priest anointed for war, one b might /b have thought b that he would not be commanded to /b marry b a virgin, /b a mitzva that appears in the following verse. Therefore, b the verse states /b with the letter i vav /i as a prefix: b “And he /b shall take a wife in her virginity” (Leviticus 21:13), which serves to include the priest anointed for war.,The Gemara comments: This is b parallel to /b a dispute between b i tanna’im /i /b with regard to the verse b “And he shall take a wife in her virginity.” Once the verse had distinguished /b between a priest anointed for war and a High Priest in terms of bringing offerings as an acute mourner, it b included /b the priest anointed for war with regard to the i halakhot /i that follow; this is b the statement of Rabbi Yishmael. Rabbi Akiva says: I have /b derived b only /b that the High Priest b who stepped down /b for a brief period b due to his seminal emission /b is commanded to marry a virgin. b From where /b do I derive that a High Priest who stepped down b due to blemishes, /b who will remain disqualified, is commanded to marry a virgin? Therefore, b the verse states: “And he,” /b to include a High Priest who stepped down due to blemishes. According to Rabbi Akiva, there is no source available to include the priest anointed for war., b Rava raised a dilemma before Rav Naḥman: /b In the case of b an anointed /b High Priest b who was afflicted with leprosy, what is /b the i halakha /i b with regard to /b marrying b a widow? /b Is he temporarily b disqualified /b from service, i.e., does he remain a High Priest and is it therefore prohibited for him marry a widow? b Or /b is he totally b absolved /b of his status as High Priest and therefore it is permitted for him to marry a widow? The answer b was not available to him. /b ,On another b occasion, Rav Pappa was sitting and he raised /b the same b dilemma. Huna, son of Rav Naḥman, said to Rav Pappa: We learn /b in a i baraita /i : b I have /b derived b only /b that the High Priest b who stepped down /b for a brief period b due to his seminal emission /b is commanded to marry a virgin. b From where /b do I derive that a High Priest who stepped down b due to blemishes, /b who will remain disqualified, is commanded to marry a virgin? b The verse states: “And he.” /b Leprosy is an example of a blemish, so it is prohibited for a High priest afflicted with leprosy to marry a widow. When Rav Pappa heard this i baraita /i , b he arose /b and b kissed him on his head and gave him his daughter /b to marry, due to his appreciation for his expertise in Torah study., strong MISHNA: /strong b A High Priest rends /b his garments b from below /b when he is in mourning, b and an ordinary /b priest rends his garments b from above /b like a non-priest. b A High Priest sacrifices /b offerings as b an acute mourner, /b i.e., on the day of the death of one of his close relatives, b but he may not eat /b from those offerings. b And an ordinary /b priest who is an acute mourner b neither sacrifices /b offerings b nor eats /b from those offerings., strong GEMARA: /strong b Rav says: From below, /b written with regard to the High Priest, means b actually from below, /b from the bottom of the garment, and b from above /b means b actually from above, /b from the top of the garment. b And Shmuel said: From below /b means b from below the neckline, and from above /b means b from above the neckline, /b i.e., from the neckline itself, b and /b both b this /b High Priest b and that /b ordinary priest rend their garments b at the neck /b of their garment.,The Gemara b raises an objection /b to the opinion of Shmuel from a i baraita /i : b For all the dead /b relatives for whom one rends his garments, if b he wishes he rends the neckline of his /b garment b asunder; /b if b he wishes he does not rend the neckline of his /b garment b asunder. /b If he is rending his garments b for his father or for his mother he rends /b the neckline b asunder. Since in general, it is a tear /b even without rending the neckline asunder, one can b read here /b with regard to the High Priest: b “Nor rend his garments” /b (Leviticus 21:10). This supports the opinion of Rav that the High Priest does not rend his garments from above like others do; rather, he rends his garments from below.,The Gemara answers: b Shmuel holds in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda, who says: Any tear that does not rend his neckline asunder is only a gratuitous tear /b that serves no purpose. Since according to Rabbi Yehuda rending of garments involves rending the neckline, the High Priest may rend his garment from above provided that he does not rend the neckline. The Gemara asks: b And is Rabbi Yehuda of /b the opinion that there is b rending /b of garments b for a High Priest? /b , b But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Had it been stated: He shall neither let the hair of a head grow, nor rend garments, I would have said: /b It is b with regard to the head and the garment of a woman suspected by her husband of having been unfaithful [ i sota /i ] /b that b the verse is speaking, /b and it means that the High Priest must not loosen her hair or rend her garments, in the manner that an ordinary priest does to the i sota /i . Therefore, b the verse states: “He shall neither let the hair of his head grow, nor rend his garments” /b (Leviticus 21:10), indicating b that he is not /b included b in /b the mitzva to b grow long /b hair b and rend /b garments b at all; /b this is b the statement of Rabbi Yehuda. Rabbi Yishmael says: He does not rend /b his garments b in the manner that people /b typically b rend /b their garments. b Rather, he /b rends his garment b from below and an ordinary /b priest rends his garments b from above. /b Apparently, according to the opinion of Rabbi Yehuda, the High Priest does not rend his garments at all.,The Gemara answers: b Shmuel holds in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda with regard to one /b matter, i.e., the way in which garments are rent, b and disagrees with him with regard to one /b matter, as Shmuel holds that the High Priest rends his garments., strong MISHNA: /strong b Any /b mitzva b that is /b more b frequent than another /b mitzva b precedes /b that b other /b mitzva if the opportunity to fulfill one of them coincides with an opportunity to fulfill the other. b And anyone who is /b more b sanctified than another precedes /b that b other /b person. If b the bull of the anointed /b priest b and the bull of the congregation, /b which are brought for absence of awareness of the matter, b are pending, the bull of the anointed priest precedes the bull of the congregation in all its actions, /b i.e., its sacrificial rites., strong GEMARA: /strong The Gemara questions the statement in the mishna that the more frequent matter takes precedence: b From where are these matters /b derived? b Abaye said: /b It is b as the verse states /b concerning the additional offerings brought on Festivals: b “Beside the burnt-offering of the morning, which is for a daily burnt-offering” /b (Numbers 28:23). b Once it is written: “The burnt-offering of the morning,” why do I /b need: b “A daily burnt-offering”? /b Clearly the reference is to the daily burnt-offering of the morning. b This /b is what b the Merciful One is saying: Any /b matter b that is /b more b frequent takes precedence. /b Since it is a daily offering, it is more frequent. Therefore, it precedes other offerings.,The mishna continues: b And anyone who is /b more b sanctified than another precedes /b that b other /b person. The Gemara asks: b From where do we /b derive these matters? It is b as the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught, /b that from the verse written with regard to a priest: b “And you shall sanctify him, /b as he sacrifices the bread of your God, he shall be holy unto you” (Leviticus 21:8), it is derived that a priest should be esteemed and granted precedence b with regard to any matter of sanctity. /b He should be the one b to open first /b in the reading of the Torah, b and to recite the blessing /b of the i zimmun /i b first, and to take a fine portion first. /b The priest who is more sanctified takes precedence.
52. Babylonian Talmud, Gittin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaism, ancient, history of Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 204
59b. בור שהוא קרוב לאמה מתמלא ראשון מפני דרכי שלום,מצודות חיה ועופות ודגים יש בהן משום גזל מפני דרכי שלום ר' יוסי אומר גזל גמור,מציאת חרש שוטה וקטן יש בהן משום גזל מפני דרכי שלום ר' יוסי אומר גזל גמור,עני המנקף בראש הזית מה שתחתיו גזל מפני דרכי שלום ר' יוסי אומר גזל גמור,אין ממחין ביד עניי עובדי כוכבים בלקט שכחה ופאה מפני דרכי שלום:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מנה"מ אמר רב מתנה דאמר קרא (דברים לא, ט) ויכתוב משה את התורה הזאת ויתנה אל הכהנים בני לוי אטו אנא לא ידענא דכהנים בני לוי נינהו אלא כהן ברישא והדר לוי,רבי יצחק נפחא אמר מהכא (דברים כא, ה) ונגשו הכהנים בני לוי אטו אנן לא ידעינן דכהנים בני לוי נינהו אלא כהן ברישא והדר לוי,רב אשי אמר מהכא (דברי הימים א כג, יג) בני עמרם אהרן ומשה ויבדל אהרן להקדישו קדש קדשים,ר' חייא בר אבא אמר מהכא (ויקרא כא, ח) וקדשתו לכל דבר שבקדושה תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל וקדשתו לכל דבר שבקדושה לפתוח ראשון ולברך ראשון וליטול מנה יפה ראשון,א"ל אביי לרב יוסף מפני דרכי שלום דאורייתא היא א"ל דאורייתא ומפני דרכי שלום,כל התורה כולה נמי מפני דרכי שלום היא דכתיב (משלי ג, יז) דרכיה דרכי נועם וכל נתיבותיה שלום,אלא אמר אביי לכדמר דתניא שנים ממתינין זה לזה בקערה שלשה אין ממתינין הבוצע הוא פושט ידו תחלה ואם בא לחלוק כבוד לרבו או למי שגדול ממנו הרשות בידו,ואמר מר עלה לא שנו אלא בסעודה אבל בבהכ"נ לא דאתו לאינצויי,אמר רב מתנה הא דאמרת בבהכ"נ לא לא אמרן אלא בשבתות וימים טובים דשכיחי רבים אבל בשני ובחמישי לא,איני והא רב הונא קרי בכהני בשבתות ויו"ט שאני רב הונא דאפילו רבי אמי ורבי אסי כהני חשיבי דא"י מיכף הוו כייפי ליה,אמר אביי נקטינן אין שם כהן נתפרדה חבילה ואמר אביי נקטינן אין שם לוי קורא כהן,איני והאמר רבי יוחנן כהן אחר כהן לא יקרא משום פגמו של ראשון לוי אחר לוי לא יקרא משום פגם שניהם כי קאמרינן באותו כהן,מ"ש לוי אחר לוי דאיכא פגם שניהם דאמרי חד מינייהו לאו לוי הוא כהן אחר כהן נמי אמרי חד מינייהו לאו כהן הוא כגון דמוחזק לן באבוה דהאי שני דכהן הוא,ה"נ דמוחזק לן באבוה דהאי שני דלוי הוא אלא אמרי ממזרת או נתינה נסיב ופסליה לזרעיה הכא נמי אמרי גרושה או חלוצה נסיב ואחליה לזרעיה,סוף סוף לוי מי קא הוי,ולמאן אי ליושבין הא קא חזו ליה אלא ליוצאין,שלחו ליה בני גלילא לרבי חלבו אחריהן 59b. The Sages enacted that b the pit that is nearest to the irrigation channel /b that supplies water to several pits or fields b is filled first on account of the ways of peace. /b They established a fixed order for the irrigation of fields, so that people would not quarrel over who is given precedence., b Animals, birds, or fish /b that were caught in b traps /b are not acquired by the one who set the traps until he actually takes possession of them. Nevertheless, if another person comes and takes them, it b is considered robbery on account of the ways of peace. Rabbi Yosei says: /b This is b full-fledged robbery. /b ,Similarly, b a lost item /b found by b a deaf-mute, an imbecile, or a minor /b is not acquired by him, since he lacks the legal competence to effect acquisition. Nevertheless, taking such an item from him b is considered robbery on account of the ways of peace. Rabbi Yosei says: /b This is b full-fledged robbery. /b ,If b a poor person gleans /b olives b at the top of an olive tree /b and olives fall to the ground under the tree, then taking those olives b that are beneath it is /b considered b robbery on account of the ways of peace. Rabbi Yosei says: /b This is b full-fledged robbery. /b , b One does not protest against poor gentiles /b who come to take b gleanings, forgotten /b sheaves, b and the produce in the corner of the field, which is given to the poor [ i pe’a /i ], /b although they are meant exclusively for the Jewish poor, b on account of the ways of peace. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong The mishna teaches that at public readings of the Torah, a priest reads first, and after him a Levite. The Gemara asks: b From where are these matters /b derived? What is the source of this i halakha /i in the Torah? b Rav Mattana said: As the verse states: “And Moses wrote this Torah, and delivered it to the priests, the sons of Levi” /b (Deuteronomy 31:9). The Gemara explains the inference: b Is that to say I do not know that the priests are the sons of Levi? /b Why is it necessary for the verse to say this? b Rather, /b the Torah was first delivered to the priests and afterward to the other Levites, and this serves as the source for the enactment that first b a priest /b reads from the Torah, b and after /b him b a Levite. /b , b Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa said /b that this i halakha /i is derived b from here, /b as it is written: b “And the priests, the sons of Levi, shall come near” /b (Deuteronomy 21:5). The Gemara asks: b Is that to say I do not know that the priests are the sons of Levi? Rather, /b the Torah was first given to the priests and afterward to the other Levites, and from this we learn that b first a priest /b reads from the Torah, b and after /b him b a Levite. /b , b Rav Ashi said /b that this i halakha /i is derived b from here: “The sons of Amram, Aaron and Moses; and Aaron was separated, that he should be sanctified as most holy” /b (I Chronicles 23:13). This indicates that Aaron and his descendants, the priests, are considered to be holier than the rest of the tribe of Levi. Consequently, they are given precedence in public Torah readings., b Rabbi Ḥiyya bar Abba said /b that this i halakha /i is derived b from here, /b as it is stated with regard to a priest: b “And you shall sanctify him” /b (Leviticus 21:8), giving a priest priority b for every matter of sanctity. /b And with regard to this verse, a Sage from b the school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: “And you shall sanctify him,” /b giving a priest priority b for every matter of sanctity: To open /b the discussion in the study hall b first, to recite the blessing /b of Grace after Meals b first, and to take a fine portion /b at a meal b first, /b meaning that he can choose any portion at a meal for himself., b Abaye said to Rav Yosef: /b According to this, why does the mishna teach that the priest reads first from the Torah b on account of the ways of peace, /b indicating that this is a rabbinic enactment? Is it not b by Torah law /b that he reads first? Rav Yosef b said to /b Abaye: Indeed, it is b by Torah law, but /b the reason that the priest reads first is b on account of the ways of peace. /b ,Abaye objected: Aren’t the i halakhot /i of b the entire Torah also /b given b on account of the ways of peace, as it is written: “Her ways are ways of pleasantness, and all her paths are peace” /b (Proverbs 3:17)? Consequently, this i halakha /i is no different from the other i halakhot /i in the Torah, all of which were given to increase pleasantness and tranquility in the world., b Rather, Abaye said: /b The mishna’s statement that a priest reads first from the Torah on account of the ways of peace b is in accordance with /b what was said by b my master, /b Rabba. b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i ( i Tosefta /i , i Berakhot /i 5:3): When b two people /b are eating together b from a single dish, /b they must b wait for each other, /b but if there are b three, /b each eats when he wishes and they do b not /b need to b wait /b for each other. Generally, b the one who breaks bread extends his hand /b to take food b first, but if he wishes to show respect to his teacher or to one who is greater /b than he and allow him to take first, b he has permission /b to do so., b And the Master, /b Rabba, b said with regard to /b this i baraita /i : b They taught /b this b with regard to a meal, /b that one may show honor to a person of greater stature and allow him to take food first. b But in the synagogue, /b one may b not /b show another honor, because the congregants are liable to b come to quarrel /b about who is the most distinguished among them. Accordingly, the ruling of the mishna is that to prevent strife and controversy, it is not permitted for a priest to honor an Israelite and allow him to read first from the Torah in his place., b Rav Mattana said: /b With regard to b this /b matter b that you stated, /b that b in the synagogue /b a priest is b not /b permitted to honor an Israelite and allow him to read first, b we said /b this b only concerning i Shabbatot /i and Festivals, when many people are present /b for the services, b but not on Mondays and Thursdays, /b when only a small number of people are there. On those days it is permitted for one to honor his superior, and there is no concern that this will lead to a quarrel.,The Gemara asks: b Is that so? /b Is it actually prohibited for a priest to honor his teacher and allow him to read first in his place? b But didn’t Rav Huna, /b who was not a priest, b read /b the Torah section ordinarily reserved b for priests, /b even b on i Shabbatot /i and Festivals? /b The Gemara answers: b Rav Huna is different, as even Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Asi, the most important priests in Eretz Yisrael, were subject to his /b jurisdiction. Therefore, there was no concern about a quarrel, because everyone agreed that he was the leading authority of the generation and it was fitting that he should read from the Torah first.,§ b Abaye said /b that b we have a tradition /b that if b there is no priest there /b in the synagogue at the time of the Torah reading, b the bundle is separated, /b i.e., a Levite is not shown precedence over Israelites. b And Abaye said /b that b we have a tradition /b that if b there is no Levite there /b in the synagogue, b a priest reads /b in his place.,The Gemara asks: b Is that so? But didn’t Rabbi Yoḥa say: /b One b priest should not read after /b another b priest, because /b people might mistakenly think that the second priest was called to read due to b a flaw /b that was found b in /b the status of b the first /b one, i.e., that he was found not to be a priest. And one b Levite should not read after /b another b Levite, because /b people might mistakenly think that there is b a flaw in both of them. /b If two Levites read one after the other, people might say that the second is not a Levite but an Israelite, or else that the first was not a Levite, and therefore a real Levite was called to read in his place. The Gemara answers: b When we said /b that when there is no Levite present a priest reads in his place, we were speaking b of the same priest /b who had already read from the Torah, for in that case there is no concern that people will think that a flaw had been found in his status.,The Gemara raises a question with regard to Rabbi Yoḥa’s statement: b What is different /b that in the case where one b Levite /b reads from the Torah b after /b another b Levite, /b Rabbi Yoḥa says b that there is /b concern that people might mistakenly think that there is b a flaw in both of them? /b It must be that he is concerned that people might b say /b that b one of them, /b either the first or the second, b is /b certainly b not a Levite. /b If so, in the case where one b priest /b reads from the Torah b after /b another b priest, /b he should b also /b be concerned that people might b say /b that b one of them, /b either the first or the second, b is /b certainly b not a priest. /b Why, then, was Rabbi Yoḥa concerned only about suspicions that might be raised about the first priest? The Gemara answers: He speaks about a case b where we have a presumption concerning the father of the second /b one, b that he is a priest. /b ,The Gemara asks: If so, b here too, /b in the case of the Levites let us say that b we have a presumption concerning the father of the second /b one, b that he is a Levite. Rather, /b the concern here is that even if it is known that he is the son of a Levite, people might b say /b that perhaps the father b married a i mamzeret /i , /b a daughter born from an incestuous or adulterous relationship, b or a Gibeonite woman, and /b thereby b disqualified his children, /b so that they are considered Israelites rather than Levites. If so, then b here too, /b in the case of the priests, there is concern that people might b say /b that perhaps the priest’s father b married a divorced woman or a i yevama /i who underwent i ḥalitza /i [ i ḥalutza /i ] and /b thereby b disqualified his children /b from the priesthood (see Leviticus 21:7).,The Gemara answers: b Ultimately, is he a Levite? /b If the priest is disqualified from the priesthood owing to his blemished lineage, he has the status of an Israelite, not a Levite. Therefore, if he reads from the Torah after another priest, and it is known that his father is a priest, then it must be that he too is a qualified priest. Therefore, the only reason for concern is that people might say that there is a flaw in the status of the first priest.,With regard to the concern itself, the Gemara asks: b And about whom /b is there a concern? Who might mistakenly think that the first priest’s status is blemished? b If /b you say that the concern is b for those sitting /b in the synagogue until the end of the Torah reading, that is not a valid concern, as b they see /b that he is counted as one of the seven who must read from the Torah, and therefore he must certainly be a qualified priest. b Rather, /b the concern is b for those who leave /b before the conclusion of the reading, and do not know that he was counted among the seven readers., b The people of the Galilee sent /b a question b to Rabbi Ḥelbo: After them, /b the priest and the Levite,
53. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 2.19 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ancient judaism •sin, in ancient judaism Found in books: Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 10, 288
2.19. 19.But those who have written concerning sacred operations and sacrifices, admonish us to be accurate in preserving what pertains to the popana, because these are more acceptable to the Gods than the sacrifice which is performed through the mactation of animals. Sophocles also, in describing a sacrifice which is pleasing to divinity, says in his Polyidus: The skins of sheep in sacrifice were used, Libations too of wine, grapes well preserved, And fruits collected in a heap of every kind; The olive's pinguid juice, and waxen work Most variegated, of the yellow bee. Formerly, also, there were venerable monuments in Delos of those who came from the Hyperboreans, bearing handfuls [of fruits]. It is necessary, therefore, that, being purified in our manners, we should make oblations, offering to the Gods those sacrifices which are pleasing to them, and not such as are attended with great expense. Now, however, if a man's body is not pure and invested with a splendid garment, he does not think it is qualified for the sanctity of sacrifice. But when he has rendered his body splendid, together with his garment, though his soul at the same time is not, purified from vice, yet he betakes himself to sacrifice, and thinks that it is a thing of no consequence; as if divinity did not especially rejoice in that which is most divine in our nature, when it is in a pure condition, as being allied to his essence. In Epidaurus, therefore, there was the following inscription on the doors of the temple: Into an odorous temple, he who goes Should pure and holy be; but to be wise In what to sanctity pertains, is to be pure. SPAN
54. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 13.12.1, 13.12.10-13.12.11 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •philosophy, and ancient judaism Found in books: Legaspi (2018), Wisdom in Classical and Biblical Tradition, 172, 173
55. Ephrem, Hymns Against Julian, 23.3 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ancient judaism •sin, in ancient judaism Found in books: Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 288
56. Anon., Numbers Rabba, 18.10 (4th cent. CE - 9th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •judaism, ancient Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 65
18.10. "10 (Numb. 16:12) Then Moses sent to summon Dathan and Abiram: They also persisted in their wickedness and did not care to answer him (ibid., cont.), “and they said, ‘We will not come up.’” Their [very] mouths tripped up [these] wicked men, for a covet is made with the lips. So they died and went down to the nethermost Sheol, after they had gone down alive to Sheol. (Numb. 16:13) “Is it so small a matter that you have brought us up [from a land flowing with milk and honey to kill us in the desert], that you must also lord it over us”: They said to him, “On what basis do you assume superiority over us? What good have you done with us? You brought us out of the land of Egypt, which was (according to Gen. 13:10) ‘like the garden of the Lord’; but you have not brought us into the land of Canaan. Rather here we are in the desert, where the plague is sent among us; (according to Numb. 16:14) ‘would you put out the eyes of these people….’” (Numb. 16:15) “Now Moses was very angry”: He was very anguished. Why? When a man argues with his companion and reasons with him; when he answers him, he has peace of mind; but if he does not answer him, then this involves anguish. (Numb. 16:15, cont.) “And he said unto the Lord, ‘Pay no attention unto their meal offering’”: Do not accept them in repentance. Scripture should have said, “Pay no attention unto their service\"? What is the meaning of “their meal offering?” This is what Moses said to the Holy One, blessed be He, “Master of the world, I know that these have a share in that meal offering that [Israel offers every day], as stated (Numb. 29:19), ‘in addition to the daily burnt offering, and its meal offering.’ And it is offered from all of Israel. [But] in as much as these have withdrawn from Your children, do not pay attention to their portion. Let the fire leave it alone and not consume it.” (Numb. 16:15, cont.) “I have not taken one donkey from them”: That which I had [a right] to take I did not take. By universal custom, one who works in the sanctuary receives wages from the sanctuary. [In my case, however,] when I went down from Midian to Egypt I had a right to take a donkey from them, since it was on behalf of their needs that I was going down [there]; but I did not take [one]. Similarly also did Samuel the righteous say (in I Sam. 12:3), “Here am I, testify against me before the Lord and before His anointed; whose ox have I taken, or whose donkey have I taken?” When I sacrificed an ox for their offerings to seek mercy for them and likewise for anointing a king over them, it belonged to me, as stated (in I Sam. 16:2), “Take a heifer with you […].” And similarly it says (in I Sam. 9:12), “because the people have a sacrifice today at the high place ( i bamah /i ).” But I took nothing from what belonged to them. Also when I sought to handle their lawsuits and their [other] needs, and when I made the circuit of the cities, as stated (in I Sam. 7:16), “And he went on a circuit year by year to Bethel, [Gilgal, and Mizpah, and he judged Israel in all those places];” [although] by universal custom litigants go to the judge, I went around from city to city and from place to place and the donkey was mine. Now even Moses said to Israel (in Exod. 18:16), “When they have a matter, it comes unto me.” But I (Samuel) did not act in this way. Instead I took the trouble to go to them. (Numb. 16:15, cont.) “And I have not harmed a single one of them,” in that I neither convicted the innocent nor acquitted the guilty. When Moses saw that they continued in their pride, then he said to them (according to Numb. 16:17,) “‘[Tomorrow] you and all your company [are to be present before the Lord].” Then Korah went about all that night and led Israel astray. Now he would say to them, “What do you suppose? That I am busy obtaining greatness for myself? I wish for greatness to go the rounds to all of us, while Moses has taken kingship for himself and has given the high priesthood to his brother Aaron.” So did he go about seducing each and every tribe as it suited them, until they joined him. It is so stated (Numb. 16:19), “And Korah gathered all the congregation against them.” When they all entered, they were speaking with him; immediately (we read in Numb. 16:20–22), “Then the Lord spoke unto Moses and unto Aaron, saying, ‘Separate yourselves from the midst of this evil congregation, [so that I may consume them in a moment].’ But they fell on their faces.”",
58. Epigraphy, Ig, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
59. Dead Sea Scrolls, 11Q17, 4.10, 5.3, 5.5, 7.13, 9.7-9.8  Tagged with subjects: •celibacy and marriage, in ancient judaism •gender, in ancient judaism, considerations of dead sea scrolls •marriage and celibacy, in ancient judaism Found in books: Ashbrook Harvey et al. (2015), A Most Reliable Witness: Essays in Honor of Ross Shepard Kraemer, 53
62. Epigraphy, Seg, 28.421, 43.71, 44.678  Tagged with subjects: •ancient judaism •sin, in ancient judaism Found in books: Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 26, 288
63. Ps.-Caesar of Nazianzus, Dialogi, None  Tagged with subjects: •ancient judaism Found in books: Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 10
64. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q179, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: nan nan
65. Epigraphy, Lss, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 288
66. Epigraphy, Lscg, 139, 55  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 288
67. Epigraphy, Lsam, 20  Tagged with subjects: •ancient judaism •sin, in ancient judaism Found in books: Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 288
68. Anon., Tanhuma, None  Tagged with subjects: •judaism, ancient Found in books: Schiffman (1983), Testimony and the Penal Code, 65
69. Various, Anthologia Palatina, 14.71, 14.74  Tagged with subjects: •ancient judaism •sin, in ancient judaism Found in books: Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 288
70. Epigraphy, Ngsl, 7  Tagged with subjects: •ancient judaism Found in books: Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 26
72. Pseudo-Phocylides, The Sentences of Pseudo-Phocylides, 228  Tagged with subjects: •ancient judaism Found in books: Petrovic and Petrovic (2016), Inner Purity and Pollution in Greek Religion, 10