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12 results for "ambiguity"
1. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 24.19-24.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •ambiguity as focus of mishnaic rule Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 25, 26, 27, 194
24.19. "כִּי תִקְצֹר קְצִירְךָ בְשָׂדֶךָ וְשָׁכַחְתָּ עֹמֶר בַּשָּׂדֶה לֹא תָשׁוּב לְקַחְתּוֹ לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה לְמַעַן יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכֹל מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיךָ׃", 24.19. "When thou reapest thy harvest in thy field, and hast forgot a sheaf in the field, thou shalt not go back to fetch it; it shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow; that the LORD thy God may bless thee in all the work of thy hands.", 24.20. "When thou beatest thine olive-tree, thou shalt not go over the boughs again; it shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow.",
2. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.9, 19.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •ambiguity as focus of mishnaic rule Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 129, 184
19.9. "וּבְקֻצְרְכֶם אֶת־קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם לֹא תְכַלֶּה פְּאַת שָׂדְךָ לִקְצֹר וְלֶקֶט קְצִירְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט׃", 19.24. "וּבַשָּׁנָה הָרְבִיעִת יִהְיֶה כָּל־פִּרְיוֹ קֹדֶשׁ הִלּוּלִים לַיהוָה׃", 19.9. "And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corner of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the gleaning of thy harvest.", 19.24. "And in the fourth year all the fruit thereof shall be holy, for giving praise unto the LORD.",
3. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 22.28 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •ambiguity as focus of mishnaic rule Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 126
22.28. "אַל־תַּסֵּג גְּבוּל עוֹלָם אֲשֶׁר עָשׂוּ אֲבוֹתֶיךָ׃", 22.28. "Remove not the ancient landmark, Which thy fathers have set.",
4. Mishnah, Avot, 1.4-1.12 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ambiguity as focus of mishnaic rule Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 185
1.4. "יוֹסֵי בֶן יוֹעֶזֶר אִישׁ צְרֵדָה וְיוֹסֵי בֶן יוֹחָנָן אִישׁ יְרוּשָׁלַיִם קִבְּלוּ מֵהֶם. יוֹסֵי בֶן יוֹעֶזֶר אִישׁ צְרֵדָה אוֹמֵר, יְהִי בֵיתְךָ בֵית וַעַד לַחֲכָמִים, וֶהֱוֵי מִתְאַבֵּק בַּעֲפַר רַגְלֵיהֶם, וֶהֱוֵי שׁוֹתֶה בְצָמָא אֶת דִּבְרֵיהֶם: \n", 1.5. "יוֹסֵי בֶן יוֹחָנָן אִישׁ יְרוּשָׁלַיִם אוֹמֵר, יְהִי בֵיתְךָ פָתוּחַ לִרְוָחָה, וְיִהְיוּ עֲנִיִּים בְּנֵי בֵיתֶךָ, וְאַל תַּרְבֶּה שִׂיחָה עִם הָאִשָּׁה. בְּאִשְׁתּוֹ אָמְרוּ, קַל וָחֹמֶר בְּאֵשֶׁת חֲבֵרוֹ. מִכָּאן אָמְרוּ חֲכָמִים, כָּל זְמַן שֶׁאָדָם מַרְבֶּה שִׂיחָה עִם הָאִשָּׁה, גּוֹרֵם רָעָה לְעַצְמוֹ, וּבוֹטֵל מִדִּבְרֵי תוֹרָה, וְסוֹפוֹ יוֹרֵשׁ גֵּיהִנֹּם: \n", 1.6. "יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן פְּרַחְיָה וְנִתַּאי הָאַרְבֵּלִי קִבְּלוּ מֵהֶם. יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן פְּרַחְיָה אוֹמֵר, עֲשֵׂה לְךָ רַב, וּקְנֵה לְךָ חָבֵר, וֶהֱוֵי דָן אֶת כָּל הָאָדָם לְכַף זְכוּת: \n", 1.7. "נִתַּאי הָאַרְבֵּלִי אוֹמֵר, הַרְחֵק מִשָּׁכֵן רָע, וְאַל תִּתְחַבֵּר לָרָשָׁע, וְאַל תִּתְיָאֵשׁ מִן הַפֻּרְעָנוּת: \n", 1.8. "יְהוּדָה בֶן טַבַּאי וְשִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטָח קִבְּלוּ מֵהֶם. יְהוּדָה בֶן טַבַּאי אוֹמֵר, אַל תַּעַשׂ עַצְמְךָ כְעוֹרְכֵי הַדַּיָּנִין. וּכְשֶׁיִּהְיוּ בַעֲלֵי דִינִין עוֹמְדִים לְפָנֶיךָ, יִהְיוּ בְעֵינֶיךָ כִרְשָׁעִים. וּכְשֶׁנִּפְטָרִים מִלְּפָנֶיךָ, יִהְיוּ בְעֵינֶיךָ כְזַכָּאִין, כְּשֶׁקִּבְּלוּ עֲלֵיהֶם אֶת הַדִּין: \n", 1.9. "שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטָח אוֹמֵר, הֱוֵי מַרְבֶּה לַחְקֹר אֶת הָעֵדִים, וֶהֱוֵי זָהִיר בִּדְבָרֶיךָ, שֶׁמָּא מִתּוֹכָם יִלְמְדוּ לְשַׁקֵּר: \n", 1.10. "שְׁמַעְיָה וְאַבְטַלְיוֹן קִבְּלוּ מֵהֶם. שְׁמַעְיָה אוֹמֵר, אֱהֹב אֶת הַמְּלָאכָה, וּשְׂנָא אֶת הָרַבָּנוּת, וְאַל תִּתְוַדַּע לָרָשׁוּת: \n", 1.11. "אַבְטַלְיוֹן אוֹמֵר, חֲכָמִים, הִזָּהֲרוּ בְדִבְרֵיכֶם, שֶׁמָּא תָחוּבוּ חוֹבַת גָּלוּת וְתִגְלוּ לִמְקוֹם מַיִם הָרָעִים, וְיִשְׁתּוּ הַתַּלְמִידִים הַבָּאִים אַחֲרֵיכֶם וְיָמוּתוּ, וְנִמְצָא שֵׁם שָׁמַיִם מִתְחַלֵּל: \n", 1.12. "הִלֵּל וְשַׁמַּאי קִבְּלוּ מֵהֶם. הִלֵּל אוֹמֵר, הֱוֵי מִתַּלְמִידָיו שֶׁל אַהֲרֹן, אוֹהֵב שָׁלוֹם וְרוֹדֵף שָׁלוֹם, אוֹהֵב אֶת הַבְּרִיּוֹת וּמְקָרְבָן לַתּוֹרָה: \n", 1.4. "Yose ben Yoezer (a man) of Zeredah and Yose ben Yoha [a man] of Jerusalem received [the oral tradition] from them [i.e. Shimon the Righteous and Antigonus]. Yose ben Yoezer used to say: let thy house be a house of meeting for the Sages and sit in the very dust of their feet, and drink in their words with thirst.", 1.5. "Yose ben Yocha (a of Jerusalem used to say:Let thy house be wide open, and let the poor be members of thy household. Engage not in too much conversation with women. They said this with regard to one’s own wife, how much more [does the rule apply] with regard to another man’s wife. From here the Sages said: as long as a man engages in too much conversation with women, he causes evil to himself, he neglects the study of the Torah, and in the end he will inherit gehinnom.", 1.6. "Joshua ben Perahiah and Nittai the Arbelite received [the oral tradition] from them. Joshua ben Perahiah used to say: appoint for thyself a teacher, and acquire for thyself a companion and judge all men with the scale weighted in his favor.", 1.7. "Nittai the Arbelite used to say: keep a distance from an evil neighbor, do not become attached to the wicked, and do not abandon faith in [divine] retribution.", 1.8. "Judah ben Tabbai and Shimon ben Shetach received [the oral tradition] from them. Judah ben Tabbai said: do not [as a judge] play the part of an advocate; and when the litigants are standing before you, look upon them as if they were [both] guilty; and when they leave your presence, look upon them as if they were [both] innocent, when they have accepted the judgement.", 1.9. "Shimon ben Shetach used to say: be thorough in the interrogation of witnesses, and be careful with your words, lest from them they learn to lie.", 1.10. "Shemaiah and Abtalion received [the oral tradition] from them. Shemaiah used to say: love work, hate acting the superior, and do not attempt to draw near to the ruling authority.", 1.11. "Abtalion used to say: Sages be careful with your words, lest you incur the penalty of exile, and be carried off to a place of evil waters, and the disciples who follow you drink and die, and thus the name of heaven becomes profaned.", 1.12. "Hillel and Shammai received [the oral tradition] from them. Hillel used to say: be of the disciples of Aaron, loving peace and pursuing peace, loving mankind and drawing them close to the Torah.",
5. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ambiguity as focus of mishnaic rule Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 185
2.2. "יוֹסֵי בֶּן יוֹעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִסְמוֹךְ, יוֹסֵי בֶּן יוֹחָנָן אוֹמֵר לִסְמוֹךְ. יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן פְּרַחְיָה אוֹמֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִסְמוֹךְ, נִתַּאי הָאַרְבֵּלִי אוֹמֵר לִסְמוֹךְ. יְהוּדָה בֶּן טַבַּאי אוֹמֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִסְמוֹךְ, שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן שָׁטָח אוֹמֵר לִסְמוֹךְ. שְׁמַעְיָה אוֹמֵר לִסְמוֹךְ. אַבְטַלְיוֹן אוֹמֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִסְמוֹךְ. הִלֵּל וּמְנַחֵם לֹא נֶחְלְקוּ. יָצָא מְנַחֵם, נִכְנַס שַׁמַּאי. שַׁמַּאי אוֹמֵר שֶׁלֹּא לִסְמוֹךְ, הִלֵּל אוֹמֵר לִסְמוֹךְ. הָרִאשׁוֹנִים הָיוּ נְשִׂיאִים, וּשְׁנִיִּים לָהֶם אַב בֵּית דִּין: \n", 2.2. "Yose ben Yoezer says that [on a festival] the laying of the hands [on the head of a sacrifice] may not be performed. Yosef ben Joha says that it may be performed. Joshua ben Perahia says that it may not be performed. Nittai the Arbelite says that it may be performed. Judah ben Tabai says that it may not be performed. Shimon ben Shetah says that it may be performed. Shamayah says that it may be performed. Avtalyon says that it may not be performed. Hillel and Menahem did not dispute. Menahem went out, Shammai entered. Shammai says that it may not be performed. Hillel says that it may be performed. The former [of each] pair were patriarchs and the latter were heads of the court.",
6. Mishnah, Maaser Sheni, 5.19 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ambiguity as focus of mishnaic rule Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 197
7. Mishnah, Maasrot, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ambiguity as focus of mishnaic rule Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 194
1.1. "כְּלָל אָמְרוּ בַּמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, כָּל שֶׁהוּא אֹכֶל, וְנִשְׁמָר, וְגִדּוּלָיו מִן הָאָרֶץ, חַיָּב בַּמַּעַשְׂרוֹת. וְעוֹד כְּלָל אַחֵר אָמְרוּ, כָּל שֶׁתְּחִלָּתוֹ אֹכֶל וְסוֹפוֹ אֹכֶל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא שׁוֹמְרוֹ לְהוֹסִיף אֹכֶל, חַיָּב קָטָן וְגָדוֹל. וְכָל שֶׁאֵין תְּחִלָּתוֹ אֹכֶל אֲבָל סוֹפוֹ אֹכֶל, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיֵּעָשֶׂה אֹכֶל: \n", 1.1. "They said a general principle concerning tithes: whatever is food, and is looked after, and grows from the land, is liable for tithes. And they have further stated another general principle [concerning tithes]: whatever is considered food both at the beginning and at the conclusion [of its growth] even though he holds on to it in order to increase the quantity of food, is liable [to tithe] whether [it is harvested] in its earlier or later stages. But whatever is not considered food in the earlier stages [of its growth] but only in its later stages, is not liable [to tithe] until it can be considered food.",
8. Mishnah, Menachot, 10.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ambiguity as focus of mishnaic rule Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 184
10.8. "קוֹצְרִים בֵּית הַשְּׁלָחִים שֶׁבָּעֲמָקִים, אֲבָל לֹא גוֹדְשִׁין. אַנְשֵׁי יְרִיחוֹ קוֹצְרִין בִּרְצוֹן חֲכָמִים, וְגוֹדְשִׁין שֶׁלֹּא בִרְצוֹן חֲכָמִים, וְלֹא מִחוּ בְיָדָם חֲכָמִים. קוֹצֵר לַשַּׁחַת, וּמַאֲכִיל לַבְּהֵמָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהִתְחִיל עַד שֶׁלֹּא הֵבִיאָה שְׁלִישׁ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אַף יִקְצֹר וְיַאֲכִיל אַף מִשֶּׁהֵבִיאָה שְׁלִישׁ: \n", 10.8. "[Before the omer] one may reap [grain] in irrigated fields in the valley, but one may not stack it. The people of Jericho used to reap [before the omer] with the approval of the sages, and used to stack it without the approval of the sages, but the sages did not protest. One may reap the unripe grain for cattle feed. Rabbi Judah said: When is this so? If one had begun to reap it before it had reached a third of its growth. Rabbi Shimon says: one may reap it and feed [his cattle with it] even after it has reached a third of its growth.",
9. Mishnah, Peah, 1.1-1.11, 2.1-2.9, 2.13, 3.3, 3.6, 3.8, 3.11-3.12, 4.1-4.2, 4.6, 4.9-4.11, 5.1-5.8, 6.1-6.11, 7.1-7.8, 8.1, 8.7, 8.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ambiguity as focus of mishnaic rule Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 21, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 38, 49, 50, 53, 54, 58, 64, 72, 78, 88, 89, 90, 102, 114, 116, 118, 121, 126, 127, 129, 138, 184, 185, 194, 197
1.1. "אֵלּוּ דְבָרִים שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם שִׁעוּר. הַפֵּאָה, וְהַבִּכּוּרִים, וְהָרֵאָיוֹן, וּגְמִילוּת חֲסָדִים, וְתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה. אֵלּוּ דְבָרִים שֶׁאָדָם אוֹכֵל פֵּרוֹתֵיהֶן בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְהַקֶּרֶן קַיֶּמֶת לוֹ לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. כִּבּוּד אָב וָאֵם, וּגְמִילוּת חֲסָדִים, וַהֲבָאַת שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אָדָם לַחֲבֵרוֹ, וְתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה כְּנֶגֶד כֻּלָּם:", 1.2. "אֵין פּוֹחֲתִין לַפֵּאָה מִשִּׁשִּׁים, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמְרוּ אֵין לַפֵּאָה שִׁעוּר. הַכֹּל לְפִי גֹדֶל הַשָּׂדֶה, וּלְפִי רֹב הָעֲנִיִּים, וּלְפִי רֹב הָעֲנָוָה:", 1.3. "נוֹתְנִין פֵּאָה מִתְּחִלַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וּמֵאֶמְצָעָהּ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיִּתֵּן בַּסּוֹף כַּשִּׁעוּר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אִם שִׁיֵּר קֶלַח אֶחָד, סוֹמֵךְ לוֹ מִשּׁוּם פֵּאָה. וְאִם לָאו, אֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם הֶפְקֵר:", 1.4. "כְּלָל אָמְרוּ בַּפֵּאָה. כָּל שֶׁהוּא אֹכֶל, וְנִשְׁמָר, וְגִדּוּלָיו מִן הָאָרֶץ, וּלְקִיטָתוֹ כְאַחַת, וּמַכְנִיסוֹ לְקִיּוּם, חַיָּב בַּפֵּאָה. וְהַתְּבוּאָה וְהַקִּטְנִיּוֹת בַּכְּלָל הַזֶּה:", 1.5. "וּבָאִילָן, הָאוֹג וְהֶחָרוּבִין וְהָאֱגוֹזִים וְהַשְּׁקֵדִים וְהַגְּפָנִים וְהָרִמּוֹנִים וְהַזֵּיתִים וְהַתְּמָרִים, חַיָּבִין בַּפֵּאָה:", 1.6. "לְעוֹלָם הוּא נוֹתֵן מִשּׁוּם פֵּאָה וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. וְנוֹתֵן מִשּׁוּם הֶפְקֵר וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. וּמַאֲכִיל לַבְּהֵמָה וְלַחַיָּה וְלָעוֹפוֹת וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. וְנוֹטֵל מִן הַגֹּרֶן וְזוֹרֵעַ וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. כֹּהֵן וְלֵוִי שֶׁלָּקְחוּ אֶת הַגֹּרֶן, הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶם, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. הַמַּקְדִּישׁ וּפוֹדֶה, חַיָּב בְּמַעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ הַגִּזְבָּר:", 2.1. "וְאֵלּוּ מַפְסִיקִין לַפֵּאָה. הַנַּחַל, וְהַשְּׁלוּלִית, וְדֶרֶךְ הַיָּחִיד, וְדֶרֶךְ הָרַבִּים, וּשְׁבִיל הָרַבִּים, וּשְׁבִיל הַיָּחִיד הַקָּבוּעַ בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה וּבִימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים, וְהַבּוּר, וְהַנִּיר, וְזֶרַע אַחֵר. וְהַקּוֹצֵר לְשַׁחַת מַפְסִיק, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ מַפְסִיק, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן חָרָשׁ: \n", 2.2. "אַמַּת הַמַּיִם שֶׁאֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְהִקָּצֵר כְּאַחַת, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מַפְסֶקֶת. וְכֹל הֶהָרִים אֲשֶׁר בַּמַּעְדֵּר יֵעָדֵרוּן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַבָּקָר יָכוֹל לַעֲבֹר בְּכֵלָיו, הוּא נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה לַכֹּל: \n", 2.3. "הַכֹּל מַפְסִיק לַזְּרָעִים, וְאֵינוֹ מַפְסִיק לָאִילָן אֶלָּא גָדֵר. וְאִם הָיָה שֵׂעָר כּוֹתֵשׁ, אֵינוֹ מַפְסִיק, אֶלָּא נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה לַכֹּל: \n" 2.4. "וְלֶחָרוּבִין, כָּל הָרוֹאִין זֶה אֶת זֶה. אָמַר רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, נוֹהֲגִין הָיוּ בֵּית אַבָּא, נוֹתְנִין פֵּאָה אַחַת לַזֵּיתִים שֶׁהָיוּ לָהֶם בְּכָל רוּחַ, וְלֶחָרוּבִין, כָּל הָרוֹאִין זֶה אֶת זֶה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בְּרַבִּי צָדוֹק אוֹמֵר מִשְּׁמוֹ, אַף לֶחָרוּבִין שֶׁהָיוּ לָהֶם בְּכָל הָעִיר: \n", 2.5. "הַזּוֹרֵעַ אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ מִין אֶחָד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֵׂהוּ שְׁתֵּי גְרָנוֹת, נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה אַחַת. זְרָעָהּ שְׁנֵי מִינִין, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲשָׂאָן גֹּרֶן אַחַת, נוֹתֵן שְׁתֵּי פֵאוֹת. הַזּוֹרֵעַ אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ שְׁנֵי מִינֵי חִטִּין, עֲשָׂאָן גֹּרֶן אַחַת, נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה אַחַת. שְׁתֵּי גְרָנוֹת, נוֹתֵן שְׁתֵּי פֵאוֹת: \n", 2.6. "מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁזָּרַע רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אִישׁ הַמִּצְפָּה לִפְנֵי רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, וְעָלוּ לְלִשְׁכַּת הַגָּזִית וְשָׁאָלוּ. אָמַר נַחוּם הַלַּבְלָר, מְקֻבָּל אֲנִי מֵרַבִּי מְיָאשָׁא, שֶׁקִּבֵּל מֵאַבָּא, שֶׁקִּבֵּל מִן הַזּוּגוֹת, שֶׁקִּבְּלוּ מִן הַנְּבִיאִים, הֲלָכָה לְמשֶׁה מִסִּינַי, בְּזוֹרֵעַ אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ שְׁנֵי מִינֵי חִטִּין, אִם עֲשָׂאָן גֹּרֶן אַחַת, נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה אַחַת. שְׁתֵּי גְרָנוֹת, נוֹתֵן שְׁתֵּי פֵאוֹת: \n", 2.7. "שָׂדֶה שֶׁקְּצָרוּהָ כּוּתִים, קְצָרוּהָ לִסְטִים, קִרְסְמוּהָ נְמָלִים, שְׁבָרַתָּהּ הָרוּחַ אוֹ בְהֵמָה, פְּטוּרָה. קָצַר חֶצְיָהּ וְקָצְרוּ לִסְטִים חֶצְיָהּ, פְּטוּרָה, שֶׁחוֹבַת הַפֵּאָה בַּקָּמָה: \n", 2.8. "קְצָרוּהָ לִסְטִים חֶצְיָהּ וְקָצַר הוּא חֶצְיָהּ, נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה מִמַּה שֶּׁקָּצָר. קָצַר חֶצְיָהּ וּמָכַר חֶצְיָהּ, הַלּוֹקֵחַ נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה לַכֹּל. קָצַר חֶצְיָהּ וְהִקְדִּישׁ חֶצְיָהּ, הַפּוֹדֶה מִיַּד הַגִּזְבָּר, הוּא נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה לַכֹּל: \n", 3.3. "הַמַּחֲלִיק בְּצָלִים לַחִים לַשּׁוּק וּמְקַיֵּם יְבֵשִׁים לַגֹּרֶן, נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה לָאֵלּוּ לְעַצְמָן וְלָאֵלּוּ לְעַצְמָן. וְכֵן בַּאֲפוּנִין, וְכֵן בַּכֶּרֶם. הַמֵּדֵל, נוֹתֵן מִן הַמְשֹׁאָר עַל מַה שֶּׁשִּׁיֵּר. וְהַמַּחֲלִיק מֵאַחַת יַד, נוֹתֵן מִן הַמְשֹׁאָר עַל הַכֹּל: \n", 3.6. "רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, קַרְקַע בֵּית רֹבַע, חַיֶּבֶת בַּפֵּאָה. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, הָעוֹשָׂה סָאתַיִם. רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן אוֹמֵר, שִׁשָּׁה עַל שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶן בְּתֵירָה אוֹמֵר, כְּדֵי לִקְצֹר וְלִשְׁנוֹת. וַהֲלָכָה כִּדְבָרָיו. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, קַרְקַע כָּל שֶׁהוּא, חַיֶּבֶת בַּפֵּאָה, וּבַבִּכּוּרִים, וְלִכְתֹּב עָלָיו פְּרוֹזְבּוּל, וְלִקְנוֹת עִמּוֹ נְכָסִים שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם אַחֲרָיוּת בְּכֶסֶף וּבִשְׁטָר וּבַחֲזָקָה: \n", 3.8. "הַכּוֹתֵב נְכָסָיו לְעַבְדּוֹ, יָצָא בֶן חוֹרִין. שִׁיֵּר קַרְקַע כָּל שֶׁהוּא, לֹא יָצָא בֶן חוֹרִין. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, לְעוֹלָם הוּא בֶן חוֹרִין, עַד שֶׁיֹּאמַר הֲרֵי כָל נְכָסַי נְתוּנִין לְאִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי עַבְדִּי חוּץ מֵאֶחָד מֵרִבּוֹא שֶׁבָּהֶן: \n", 4.1. "הַפֵּאָה נִתֶּנֶת בִּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקָע. בְּדָלִית וּבְדֶקֶל, בַּעַל הַבַּיִת מוֹרִיד וּמְחַלֵּק לָעֲנִיִּים. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אַף בַּחֲלִיקֵי אֱגוֹזִים. אֲפִלּוּ תִשְׁעִים וְתִשְׁעָה אוֹמְרִים לְחַלֵּק וְאֶחָד אוֹמֵר לָבוֹז, לָזֶה שׁוֹמְעִין, שֶׁאָמַר כַּהֲלָכָה: \n", 4.2. "בְּדָלִית וּבְדֶקֶל אֵינוֹ כֵן, אֲפִלּוּ תִשְׁעִים וְתִשְׁעָה אוֹמְרִים לָבוֹז וְאֶחָד אוֹמֵר לְחַלֵּק, לָזֶה שׁוֹמְעִין, שֶׁאָמַר כַּהֲלָכָה: \n", 4.6. "עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים שֶׁקָּצַר אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ וְאַחַר כָּךְ נִתְגַּיֵּר, פָּטוּר מִן הַלֶּקֶט וּמִן הַשִּׁכְחָה וּמִן הַפֵּאָה. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה מְחַיֵּב בְּשִׁכְחָה, שֶׁאֵין הַשִּׁכְחָה אֶלָּא בִשְׁעַת הָעִמּוּר: \n", 4.9. "מִי שֶׁלָּקַט אֶת הַפֵּאָה וְאָמַר הֲרֵי זוֹ לְאִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי עָנִי, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, זָכָה לוֹ. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, יִתְּנֶנָּה לֶעָנִי שֶׁנִּמְצָא רִאשׁוֹן. הַלֶּקֶט וְהַשִּׁכְחָה וְהַפֵּאָה שֶׁל עוֹבֵד כּוֹכָבִים חַיָּב בְּמַעַשְׂרוֹת, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הִפְקִיר: \n", 4.10. "אֵיזֶהוּ לֶקֶט, הַנּוֹשֵׁר בִּשְׁעַת הַקְּצִירָה. הָיָה קוֹצֵר, קָצַר מְלֹא יָדוֹ, תָּלַשׁ מְלֹא קֻמְצוֹ, הִכָּהוּ קוֹץ וְנָפַל מִיָּדוֹ לָאָרֶץ, הֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבָּיִת. תּוֹךְ הַיָּד וְתוֹךְ הַמַּגָּל, לָעֲנִיִּים. אַחַר הַיָּד וְאַחַר הַמַּגָּל, לְבַעַל הַבָּיִת. רֹאשׁ הַיָּד וְרֹאשׁ הַמַּגָּל, רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, לָעֲנִיִּים. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, לְבַעַל הַבָּיִת: \n", 4.11. "חוֹרֵי הַנְּמָלִים שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַקָּמָה, הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבָּיִת. שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַקּוֹצְרִים, הָעֶלְיוֹנִים לָעֲנִיִּים, וְהַתַּחְתּוֹנִים שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבָּיִת. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, הַכֹּל לָעֲנִיִּים, שֶׁסְּפֵק לֶקֶט, לֶקֶט: \n", 5.1. "גָּדִישׁ שֶׁלֹּא לֻקַּט תַּחְתָּיו, כָּל הַנּוֹגֵעַ בָּאָרֶץ הֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁל עֲנִיִּים. הָרוּחַ שֶׁפִּזְּרָה אֶת הָעֳמָרִים, אוֹמְדִים אוֹתָהּ כַּמָּה לֶקֶט הִיא רְאוּיָה לַעֲשׂוֹת, וְנוֹתֵן לָעֲנִיִּים. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, נוֹתֵן לָעֲנִיִּים בִּכְדֵי נְפִילָה: \n", 5.2. "שִׁבֹּלֶת שֶׁבַּקָּצִיר וְרֹאשָׁהּ מַגִּיעַ לַקָּמָה, אִם נִקְצְרָה עִם הַקָּמָה, הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, וְאִם לָאו, הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁל עֲנִיִּים. שִׁבֹּלֶת שֶׁל לֶקֶט שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בַגָּדִישׁ, מְעַשֵּׂר שִׁבֹּלֶת אַחַת וְנוֹתֵן לוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, וְכִי הֵיאַךְ הֶעָנִי הַזֶּה מַחֲלִיף דָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא בָא בִרְשׁוּתוֹ. אֶלָּא מְזַכֶּה אֶת הֶעָנִי בְּכָל הַגָּדִישׁ, וּמְעַשֵּׂר שִׁבֹּלֶת אַחַת וְנוֹתֵן לוֹ: \n", 5.3. "אֵין מְגַלְגְּלִין בְּטוֹפֵחַ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים מַתִּירִין, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר: \n", 5.4. "בַּעַל הַבַּיִת שֶׁהָיָה עוֹבֵר מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם, וְצָרִיךְ לִטֹּל לֶקֶט שִׁכְחָה וּפֵאָה וּמַעְשַׂר עָנִי, יִטֹּל, וּכְשֶׁיַּחֲזֹר לְבֵיתוֹ יְשַׁלֵּם, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, עָנִי הָיָה בְּאוֹתָהּ שָׁעָה: \n", 5.5. "הַמַּחֲלִיף עִם הָעֲנִיִּים, בְּשֶׁלּוֹ פָּטוּר, וּבְשֶׁל עֲנִיִּים חַיָּב. שְׁנַיִם שֶׁקִּבְּלוּ אֶת הַשָּׂדֶה בַּאֲרִיסוּת, זֶה נוֹתֵן לָזֶה חֶלְקוֹ מַעְשַׂר עָנִי, וְזֶה נוֹתֵן לָזֶה חֶלְקוֹ מַעְשַׂר עָנִי. הַמְקַבֵּל שָׂדֶה לִקְצֹר, אָסוּר בְּלֶקֶט שִׁכְחָה וּפֵאָה וּמַעְשַׂר עָנִי. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁקִּבֵּל מִמֶּנּוּ לְמֶחֱצָה, לִשְׁלִישׁ וְלִרְבִיעַ. אֲבָל אִם אָמַר לוֹ שְׁלִישׁ מַה שֶּׁאַתָּה קוֹצֵר שֶׁלָּךְ, מֻתָּר בְּלֶקֶט וּבְשִׁכְחָה וּבְפֵאָה, וְאָסוּר בְּמַעְשַׂר עָנִי: \n", 5.6. "הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ, הַמּוֹכֵר מֻתָּר וְהַלּוֹקֵחַ אָסוּר. לֹא יִשְׂכֹּר אָדָם אֶת הַפּוֹעֲלִים עַל מְנָת שֶׁיְּלַקֵּט בְּנוֹ אַחֲרָיו. מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַנִּיחַ אֶת הָעֲנִיִּים לִלְקֹט, אוֹ שֶׁהוּא מַנִּיחַ אֶת אֶחָד וְאֶחָד לֹא, אוֹ שֶׁהוּא מְסַיֵּעַ אֶת אֶחָד מֵהֶן, הֲרֵי זֶה גּוֹזֵל אֶת הָעֲנִיִּים. עַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר (משלי כב) אַל תַּסֵּג גְּבוּל עוֹלִים: \n", 5.7. "הָעֹמֶר שֶׁשְּׁכָחוּהוּ פוֹעֲלִים וְלֹא שְׁכָחוֹ בַעַל הַבַּיִת, שְׁכָחוֹ בַעַל הַבַּיִת וְלֹא שְׁכָחוּהוּ פוֹעֲלִים, עָמְדוּ עֲנִיִּים בְּפָנָיו אוֹ שֶׁחִפּוּהוּ בְקַשׁ, הֲרֵי זֶה אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה: \n", 5.8. "הַמְעַמֵּר לְכֹבָעוֹת וּלְכֻמְסָאוֹת, לַחֲרָרָה וְלָעֳמָרִים, אֵין לוֹ שִׁכְחָה. מִמֶּנּוּ וְלַגֹּרֶן, יֶשׁ לוֹ שִׁכְחָה. הַמְעַמֵּר לַגָּדִישׁ, יֶשׁ לוֹ שִׁכְחָה. מִמֶּנּוּ וְלַגֹּרֶן, אֵין לוֹ שִׁכְחָה. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל הַמְעַמֵּר לְמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא גְמָר מְלָאכָה, יֶשׁ לוֹ שִׁכְחָה. מִמֶּנּוּ וְלַגֹּרֶן, אֵין לוֹ שִׁכְחָה. לְמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ גְמַר מְלָאכָה, אֵין לוֹ שִׁכְחָה. מִמֶּנּוּ וְלַגֹּרֶן, יֶשׁ לוֹ שִׁכְחָה: \n", 6.1. "בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, הֶבְקֵר לָעֲנִיִּים, הֶבְקֵר. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ הֶפְקֵר, עַד שֶׁיֻּפְקַר אַף לָעֲשִׁירִים, כַּשְּׁמִטָּה. כָּל עָמְרֵי הַשָּׂדֶה שֶׁל קַב קַב וְאֶחָד שֶׁל אַרְבַּעַת קַבִּין וּשְׁכָחוֹ, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, שִׁכְחָה: \n", 6.2. "הָעֹמֶר שֶׁהוּא סָמוּךְ לַגָּפָה וְלַגָּדִישׁ, לַבָּקָר וְלַכֵּלִים, וּשְׁכָחוֹ, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, שִׁכְחָה: \n", 6.3. "רָאשֵׁי שׁוּרוֹת, הָעֹמֶר שֶׁכְּנֶגְדּוֹ מוֹכִיחַ. הָעֹמֶר שֶׁהֶחֱזִיק בּוֹ לְהוֹלִיכוֹ אֶל הָעִיר, וּשְׁכָחוֹ, מוֹדִים שֶׁאֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה: \n", 6.4. "וְאֵלּוּ הֵן רָאשֵׁי שׁוּרוֹת. שְׁנַיִם שֶׁהִתְחִילוּ מֵאֶמְצַע הַשּׁוּרָה, זֶה פָּנָיו לַצָּפוֹן וְזֶה פָּנָיו לַדָּרוֹם, וְשָׁכְחוּ לִפְנֵיהֶם וּלְאַחֲרֵיהֶם, אֶת שֶׁלִּפְנֵיהֶם שִׁכְחָה, וְאֶת שֶׁלְּאַחֲרֵיהֶם אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה. יָחִיד שֶׁהִתְחִיל מֵרֹאשׁ הַשּׁוּרָה, וְשָׁכַח לְפָנָיו וּלְאַחֲרָיו, שֶׁלְּפָנָיו אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה, וְשֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו שִׁכְחָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בְּבַל תָּשׁוּב (דברים כד). זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל שֶׁהוּא בְּבַל תָּשׁוּב, שִׁכְחָה. וְשֶׁאֵינוֹ בְּבַל תָּשׁוּב, אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה: \n", 6.5. "שְׁנֵי עֳמָרִים, שִׁכְחָה, וּשְׁלשָׁה אֵינָן שִׁכְחָה. שְׁנֵי צִבּוּרֵי זֵיתִים וְחָרוּבִין, שִׁכְחָה, וּשְׁלשָׁה אֵינָן שִׁכְחָה. שְׁנֵי הוּצְנֵי פִשְׁתָּן, שִׁכְחָה, וּשְׁלשָׁה אֵינָן שִׁכְחָה. שְׁנֵי גַרְגְּרִים, פֶּרֶט, וּשְׁלשָׁה אֵינָן פֶּרֶט. שְׁנֵי שִׁבֳּלִים, לֶקֶט, וּשְׁלֹשָׁה אֵינָן לֶקֶט. אֵלּוּ כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית הִלֵּל. וְעַל כֻּלָּן בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, שְׁלשָׁה, לָעֲנִיִּים, וְאַרְבָּעָה, לְבַעַל הַבָּיִת: \n", 6.6. "הָעֹמֶר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ סָאתַיִם, וּשְׁכָחוֹ, אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה. שְׁנֵי עֳמָרִים וּבָהֶם סָאתַיִם, רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, לְבַעַל הַבָּיִת. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, לָעֲנִיִּים. אָמַר רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, וְכִי מֵרֹב הָעֳמָרִים יֻפֵּי כֹחַ שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת אוֹ הוּרַע כֹּחוֹ. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, יֻפֵּי כֹחוֹ. אָמַר לָהֶם, וּמָה אִם בִּזְמַן שֶׁהוּא עֹמֶר אֶחָד וּבוֹ סָאתַיִם וּשְׁכָחוֹ, אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה, שְׁנֵי עֳמָרִים וּבָהֶם סָאתַיִם, אֵינוֹ דִין שֶׁלֹּא יְהֵא שִׁכְחָה. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לֹא, אִם אָמַרְתָּ בְּעֹמֶר אֶחָד שֶׁהוּא כְגָדִישׁ, תֹּאמַר בִּשְׁנֵי עֳמָרִים שֶׁהֵן כִּכְרִיכוֹת: \n", 6.7. "קָמָה שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהּ סָאתַיִם, וּשְׁכָחָהּ, אֵינָהּ שִׁכְחָה. אֵין בָּהּ סָאתַיִם, אֲבָל הִיא רְאוּיָה לַעֲשׂוֹת סָאתַיִם, אֲפִלּוּ הִיא שֶׁל טוֹפֵחַ, רוֹאִין אוֹתָהּ כְּאִלּוּ הִיא עֲנָוָה שֶׁל שְׂעוֹרִים: \n", 6.8. "הַקָּמָה מַצֶּלֶת אֶת הָעֹמֶר וְאֶת הַקָּמָה. הָעֹמֶר אֵינוֹ מַצִּיל לֹא אֶת הָעֹמֶר וְלֹא אֶת הַקָּמָה. אֵיזוֹ הִיא קָמָה שֶׁהִיא מַצֶּלֶת אֶת הָעֹמֶר, כָּל שֶׁאֵינָהּ שִׁכְחָה אֲפִלּוּ קֶלַח אֶחָד: \n", 6.9. "סְאָה תְבוּאָה עֲקוּרָה וּסְאָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ עֲקוּרָה, וְכֵן בָּאִילָן, וְהַשּׁוּם וְהַבְּצָלִים, אֵינָן מִצְטָרְפִין לְסָאתַיִם, אֶלָּא שֶׁל עֲנִיִּים הֵם. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אִם בָּאת רְשׁוּת הֶעָנִי בָּאֶמְצָע, אֵינָן מִצְטָרְפִין, וְאִם לָאו, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפִין: \n", 6.10. "תְּבוּאָה שֶׁנִּתְּנָה לְשַׁחַת אוֹ לַאֲלֻמָּה, וְכֵן בַּאֲגֻדֵּי הַשּׁוּם, וַאֲגֻדּוֹת הַשּׁוּם וְהַבְּצָלִים, אֵין לָהֶן שִׁכְחָה. וְכָל הַטְּמוּנִים בָּאָרֶץ, כְּגוֹן הַלּוּף וְהַשּׁוּם וְהַבְּצָלִים, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֵין לָהֶם שִׁכְחָה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, יֵשׁ לָהֶם שִׁכְחָה: \n", 6.11. "הַקּוֹצֵר בַּלַּיְלָה וְהַמְעַמֵּר וְהַסּוּמָא, יֵשׁ לָהֶם שִׁכְחָה. וְאִם הָיָה מִתְכַּוֵּן לִטֹּל אֶת הַגַּס הַגַּס, אֵין לוֹ שִׁכְחָה. אִם אָמַר, הֲרֵי אֲנִי קוֹצֵר עַל מְנָת מַה שֶּׁאֲנִי שׁוֹכֵח אֲנִי אֶטֹּל, יֶשׁ לוֹ שִׁכְחָה: \n", 7.1. "כָּל זַיִת שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ שֵׁם בַּשָּׂדֶה, אֲפִלּוּ כְּזֵית הַנְּטוֹפָה בִּשְׁעָתוֹ, וּשְׁכָחוֹ, אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה. בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בִּשְׁמוֹ וּבְמַעֲשָׂיו וּבִמְקוֹמוֹ. בִּשְׁמוֹ, שֶׁהָיָה שִׁפְכוֹנִי אוֹ בֵישָׁנִי. בְּמַעֲשָׂיו, שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה הַרְבֵּה. בִּמְקוֹמוֹ, שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בְּצַד הַגַּת אוֹ בְצַד הַפִּרְצָה. וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַזֵּיתִים, שְׁנַיִם שִׁכְחָה, וּשְׁלשָׁה אֵינָן שִׁכְחָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אֵין שִׁכְחָה לַזֵּיתִים: \n", 7.2. "זַיִת שֶׁנִּמְצָא עוֹמֵד בֵּין שָׁלשׁ שׁוּרוֹת שֶׁל שְׁנֵי מַלְבְּנִים וּשְׁכָחוֹ, אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה. זַיִת שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ סָאתַיִם, וּשְׁכָחוֹ, אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה. בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בִּזְמַן שֶׁלֹּא הִתְחִיל בּוֹ. אֲבָל אִם הִתְחִיל בּוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ כְּזֵית הַנְּטוֹפָה בִּשְׁעָתוֹ, וּשְׁכָחוֹ, יֶשׁ לוֹ שִׁכְחָה. כָּל זְמַן שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ תַחְתָּיו, יֶשׁ לוֹ בְרֹאשׁוֹ. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁתֵּלֵךְ הַמַּחֲבֵא: \n", 7.3. "אֵיזֶהוּ פֶרֶט, הַנּוֹשֵׁר בִּשְׁעַת הַבְּצִירָה. הָיָה בוֹצֵר, עָקַץ אֶת הָאֶשְׁכּוֹל, הֻסְבַּךְ בֶּעָלִים, נָפַל מִיָּדוֹ לָאָרֶץ וְנִפְרַט, הֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבָּיִת. הַמַּנִּיחַ אֶת הַכַּלְכָּלָה תַּחַת הַגֶּפֶן בְּשָׁעָה שֶׁהוּא בוֹצֵר, הֲרֵי זֶה גּוֹזֵל אֶת הָעֲנִיִּים, עַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר (משלי כב) אַל תַּסֵּג גְּבוּל עוֹלִים: \n", 7.4. "אֵיזוֹהִי עוֹלֶלֶת. כָּל שֶׁאֵין לָהּ לֹא כָתֵף וְלֹא נָטֵף. אִם יֶשׁ לָהּ כָּתֵף אוֹ נָטֵף, שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, אִם סָפֵק, לָעֲנִיִּים. עוֹלֶלֶת שֶׁבָּאַרְכֻּבָּה, אִם נִקְרֶצֶת עִם הָאֶשְׁכּוֹל, הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, וְאִם לָאו, הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁל עֲנִיִּים. גַּרְגֵּר יְחִידִי, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֶשְׁכּוֹל. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, עוֹלֶלֶת: \n", 7.5. "הַמֵּדֵל בַּגְּפָנִים, כְּשֵׁם שֶׁהוּא מֵדֵל בְּתוֹךְ שֶׁלּוֹ, כֵּן הוּא מֵדֵל בְּשֶׁל עֲנִיִּים, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי יְהוּדָה. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, בְּשֶׁלּוֹ הוּא רַשַּׁאי, וְאֵינוֹ רַשַּׁאי בְּשֶׁל עֲנִיִּים: \n", 7.6. "כֶּרֶם רְבָעִי, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, אֵין לוֹ חֹמֶשׁ, וְאֵין לוֹ בִעוּר. בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, יֶשׁ לוֹ. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, יֶשׁ לוֹ פֶרֶט וְיֶשׁ לוֹ עוֹלְלוֹת, וְהָעֲנִיִּים פּוֹדִין לְעַצְמָן. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, כֻּלּוֹ לַגַּת: \n", 7.7. "כֶּרֶם שֶׁכֻּלּוֹ עוֹלְלוֹת, רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, לְבַעַל הַבָּיִת. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, לָעֲנִיִּים. אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, כִּי תִבְצֹר לֹא תְעוֹלֵל (דברים כד), אִם אֵין בָּצִיר, מִנַּיִן עוֹלְלוֹת. אָמַר לוֹ רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, וְכַרְמְךָ לֹא תְעוֹלֵל (ויקרא יט), אֲפִלּוּ כֻלּוֹ עוֹלְלוֹת, אִם כֵּן לָמָּה נֶאֱמַר כִּי תִבְצֹר לֹא תְעוֹלֵל, אֵין לָעֲנִיִּים בָּעוֹלְלוֹת קֹדֶם הַבָּצִיר: \n", 7.8. "הַמַּקְדִּישׁ כַּרְמוֹ עַד שֶׁלֹּא נוֹדְעוּ בוֹ הָעוֹלְלוֹת, אֵין הָעוֹלְלוֹת לָעֲנִיִּים. מִשֶּׁנּוֹדְעוּ בוֹ הָעוֹלְלוֹת, הָעוֹלְלוֹת לָעֲנִיִּים. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, יִתְּנוּ שְׂכַר גִּדּוּלָיו לַהֶקְדֵּשׁ. אֵיזֶה הִיא שִׁכְחָה בֶּעָרִיס, כָּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִפְשֹׁט אֶת יָדוֹ וְלִטְּלָהּ, וּבְרֹגְלִיּוֹת, מִשֶּׁיַּעֲבֹר הֵימֶנָּה: \n", 8.1. "מֵאֵימָתַי כָּל אָדָם מֻתָּרִין בְּלֶקֶט. מִשֶּׁיֵּלְכוּ הַנָּמוֹשׁוֹת. בְּפֶרֶט וְעוֹלְלוֹת, מִשֶּׁיֵּלְכוּ הָעֲנִיִּים בַּכֶּרֶם וְיָבֹאוּ. וּבְזֵיתִים, מִשֶּׁתֵּרֵד רְבִיעָה שְׁנִיָּה. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, וַהֲלֹא יֵשׁ שֶׁאֵינָם מוֹסְקִין אֶת זֵיתֵיהֶם אֶלָּא לְאַחַר רְבִיעָה שְׁנִיָּה. אֶלָּא כְדֵי שֶׁיְּהֵא הֶעָנִי יוֹצֵא וְלֹא יְהֵא מֵבִיא בְּאַרְבָּעָה אִסָּרוֹת:", 8.7. "אֵין פּוֹחֲתִין לֶעָנִי הָעוֹבֵר מִמָּקוֹם לְמָקוֹם מִכִּכָּר בְּפוּנְדְיוֹן, מֵאַרְבַּע סְאִין בְּסֶלַע. לָן, נוֹתְנִין לוֹ פַּרְנָסַת לִינָה. שָׁבַת, נוֹתְנִין לוֹ מְזוֹן שָׁלשׁ סְעֻדּוֹת. מִי שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ מְזוֹן שְׁתֵּי סְעֻדּוֹת, לֹא יִטֹּל מִן הַתַּמְחוּי. מְזוֹן אַרְבַּע עֶשְׂרֵה סְעֻדּוֹת, לֹא יִטֹּל מִן הַקֻּפָּה. וְהַקֻּפָּה נִגְבֵּית בִּשְׁנַיִם, וּמִתְחַלֶּקֶת בִּשְׁלשָׁה:", 8.9. "מִי שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ חֲמִשִּׁים זוּז וְהוּא נוֹשֵׂא וְנוֹתֵן בָּהֶם, הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִטֹּל. וְכָל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל וְנוֹטֵל, אֵינוֹ נִפְטָר מִן הָעוֹלָם עַד שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ לַבְּרִיּוֹת. וְכָל מִי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִטֹּל וְאֵינוֹ נוֹטֵל, אֵינוֹ מֵת מִן הַזִּקְנָה עַד שֶׁיְּפַרְנֵס אֲחֵרִים מִשֶּׁלּוֹ, וְעָלָיו הַכָּתוּב אוֹמֵר בָּרוּךְ הַגֶּבֶר אֲשֶׁר יִבְטַח בַּה' וְהָיָה ה' מִבְטַחוֹ (ירמיה יז). וְכֵן דַּיָּן שֶׁדָּן דִּין אֱמֶת לַאֲמִתּוֹ. וְכָל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ לֹא חִגֵּר, וְלֹא סוּמָא, וְלֹא פִסֵּחַ, וְעוֹשֶׂה עַצְמוֹ כְּאַחַד מֵהֶם, אֵינוֹ מֵת מִן הַזִּקְנָה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה כְּאֶחָד מֵהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים טז) צֶדֶק צֶדֶק תִּרְדֹּף. וְכָל דַּיָּן שֶׁלּוֹקֵחַ שֹׁחַד וּמַטֶּה אֶת הַדִּין, אֵינוֹ מֵת מִן הַזִּקְנָה עַד שֶׁעֵינָיו כֵּהוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג) וְשֹׁחַד לֹא תִקָּח כִּי הַשֹּׁחַד יְעַוֵּר פִּקְחִים וְגוֹ': br סְלִיק מַסֶּכֶת פֵּאָה", 1.1. "These are the things that have no definite quantity: The corners [of the field]. First-fruits; [The offerings brought] on appearing [at the Temple on the three pilgrimage festivals]. The performance of righteous deeds; And the study of the torah. The following are the things for which a man enjoys the fruits in this world while the principal remains for him in the world to come: Honoring one’s father and mother; The performance of righteous deeds; And the making of peace between a person and his friend; And the study of the torah is equal to them all.", 1.2. "They should not leave peah of less than one-sixtieth [of the field]. But even though they said, “there is no measure for peah,” everything depends upon the size of the field, the number of poor people, and the extent of the yield.", 1.3. "They may give peah at either at the beginning of the [reaping of the] field or at the middle of it. Rabbi Shimon says: as long as he gives at the end according to the set amount. Rabbi Judah says: if he leave, one stalk, he can rely on this as [fulfilling the law of] peah; and if he did not, then he only gives as ownerless property.", 1.4. "They said a general principle concerning peah: whatever is food, and is looked after, and grows from the land, and is harvested all at the same time, and is brought in for storage, is subject to the law of pe'ah. Grain and beans are in this category.", 1.5. "Among trees: the sumac, the carob, the nut, the almond, the grapevine, the pomegranate, the olive and the palm are subject to peah.", 1.6. "He may always give peah and be exempt from giving tithes until he makes a stack. One who gives [to the poor] as ownerless [produce] and be exempt from giving tithes until he makes a stack. He may feed cattle, wild animals and birds and be exempt from giving tithes until he makes a stack. He may take from the threshing floor and use it as seed and be exempt from giving tithes until he makes a stack, the words of Rabbi Akiva. A priest or Levite who purchase [grain of] a threshing floor, the tithes are theirs unless [the owner] has already made a stack. One who dedicated [his crop] and redeems it [afterwards] is obligated to give tithes until the Temple treasurer has made a stack.", 2.1. "The following divide a field for peah: a stream, a pool, a private road, a public road, a public path, a private path in constant use in summer and the rainy season, fallow land, a plowed field and a different seed. One who harvested for animal fodder, [the plot] serves divides, the words of Rabbi Meir. But the sages say: it does not stop for peah unless it is plowed.", 2.2. "A water channel that makes harvesting [on one side] impossible [while standing on the other side], Rabbi Judah says: it divides. But all of the hills that can be tilled with a hoe, even though cattle cannot pass over it in with their equipment, [is regarded as part of the field] he gives one peah from it all.", 2.3. "All of these divide in the case of a field [planted] with seeds, but in the case of trees nothing divides except a fence. Should the branches intertwine [on top of the fence], then it does not divide and he gives one peah for the whole field." 2.4. "As for carob trees, [they are not divided] as long as they see one another. Rabban Gamaliel said: we had this custom in the house of my father. We would give separate peah from the olive trees in each direction and [one peah] for all the carob trees that saw one another. Rabbi Elazar bar Zadok said in his name: also for the carob trees they had in the whole city [they only gave one peah].", 2.5. "He who plants his field with one kind of seed, even though he makes up of it two threshing-floors, he gives only one peah [for the lot]. If he plants it of two kinds, even though he makes up of it one threshing-floor, he must give two peahs. One who plants his field with two species of wheat: If he makes up of it one threshing-floor, he gives only one peah; But if two threshing-floors, he gives two peahs.", 2.6. "It happened that Rabbi Shimon of Mitzpah planted his field [with two different kinds] and came before Rabban Gamaliel. They both went up to the Chamber of Hewn Stone and asked [about the law]. Nahum the scribe said: I have a tradition from Rabbi Meyasha, who received it from Abba, who received it from the pairs [of sage], who received it from the prophets, a halakhah of Moses from Sinai, that one who plants his field with two species of wheat, if he makes up of it one threshing-floor, he gives only one peah, but if two threshing-floors, he gives two peahs.", 2.7. "A field harvested by gentiles, or harvested by robbers, or which ants have bitten [the stalks at the roots], or which wind and cattle have broken down, is exempt from peah. If [the owner] harvested half of it and robbers harvested half, it is exempt from peah, for the obligation of peah is in the standing grain.", 2.8. "If robbers harvested half and the owner the other half, he gives peah from what he has harvested. If he harvested half and sold the other half, then the purchaser must give peah for the whole. If he harvested half and dedicated the other half, then he who redeems it from the Temple treasurer must give peah for the whole.", 3.3. "One who clears [his field] of fresh onions for the market and leaves the dry ones [in the ground] for the [time of the] threshing floor, must give peah from these on their own and these on their own. The same applies to beans and to a vineyard. If he, however, he only thins it out, then he gives [peah] from the remainder according to the quantity of that which he left. But if he clears [three from one place] at one time, he gives from the remainder according to the entire quantity.", 3.6. "Rabbi Eliezer says: a piece of ground [large enough to plant] one fourth of a kav is liable for peah. Rabbi Joshua says: it must [be large enough] to grow two seahs. Rabbi Tarfon says: it must be six by six handbreadths. R. Judah ben Batera says: [it must be large enough] for a sickle to cut at least two handfuls and the halakhah is according to his words. Rabbi Akiva says: any size of land is liable for peah and for first-fruits, and [is sufficient] for the writing of the prozbul, and also to acquire through it movable property by money, by deed, or by a claim based on undisturbed possession.", 3.8. "One who assigns in writing his possessions to his slave, [the slave] thereby goes free. If he reserved for himself any land, however small, he does not become free. Rabbi Shimon says: he always becomes free, unless [the master] says: “Behold, all my goods are given to so-and-so my slave, with the exception of one ten-thousandth part of them.”", 4.1. "Peah is given from [the crop] while it is still connected with the soil. But in the case of hanging vine-branches and the date-palm, the owner brings down [the fruit] and distributes it among the poor. Rabbi Shimon says: the same applies to smooth nut trees. Even if ninety-nine [of the poor] say [to the owner] to distribute it and one says to leave it in the field, this latter is listened to, since he spoke in accordance with the halakhah.", 4.2. "With hanging vine-branches and date-palm trees it is not so; even if ninety-nine [of the poor] say [to the owner] to leave it in the field and one says to distribute it, this latter is listened to, since he spoke in accordance with the halakhah.", 4.6. "A non-Jew who harvested his field and then converted, he is exempt from [leaving] gleanings, the forgotten sheaf and peah. Rabbi Judah makes him liable to leave the forgotten sheaf, since he becomes liable for the forgotten sheaf at the time of their binding.", 4.9. "One who collected peah and said, “This is for so-and-so a poor man:” Rabbi Eliezer says: he has thus acquired it for him. The sages say: he must give it to the first poor man he finds. Gleanings, the forgotten sheaf and the peah of non-Jews are subject to tithes, unless he [the non-Jew] had declared them ownerless.", 4.10. "What are gleanings? That which falls down at the time of harvesting. If while he was harvesting, he harvested a handful, or plucked a fistful, and then a thorn pricked him, and what he had in his hand fell to the ground, it still belongs to the owner. [That which drops from] inside the hand or the sickle [belongs] to the poor, but [that which falls from] the back of the hand or the sickle [belongs] to the owner. [That which falls from] the top of the hand or sickle: Rabbi Ishmael says: to the poor; But Rabbi Akiva says: to the owner.", 4.11. "[Grain found in] ant holes where the stalks are still standing, behold it still belongs to the owner. After the harvesters [had passed over them], those found in the top parts [of the ant holes belong] to the poor, but [those found] on the bottom parts [belong] to the owner. Rabbi Meir says: it all belongs to the poor, for gleanings about which there is any doubt are regarded as gleanings.", 5.1. "If a pile of grain was stacked [on part of a field] from which gleanings had not yet been collected, whatever touches the ground belongs to the poor. If the wind scattered the sheaves, they estimate the amount of gleanings the field would have yielded and they give that to the poor. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: he must give to the poor the amount that would fall.", 5.2. "The top of a single ear of grain [that remained] after the harvesting and its top touches the standing stalk: If it can be cut with the stalk, it belongs to the owner; But if not, it belongs to the poor. If an ear of grain of gleanings that became mixed up with a stack of grain, [the owner] must tithe one ear of grain and give it to him [the poor]. Rabbi Eliezer says: how can this poor man give in exchange something that had not yet become his? Rather, [the owner] must transfer to the poor man the ownership of the whole stack and then tithe one ear of grain and give it to him.", 5.3. "They should not [irrigate a field] with a water wheel, the words of Rabbi Meir. The sages permit it, because it is still possible [for the poor to get their gleanings].", 5.4. "A property owner who was passing from place to place and need to take gleanings, the forgotten sheaf, peah or the poor man’s tithe, he may take them, and when he returns home, he must pay [for the amount gathere], the words of Rabbi Eliezer. The sages say: he was a poor man at that time [and so he need not make restitution].", 5.5. "One who exchanges with the poor, [what they give in exchange] for his is exempt [from tithes] but what [he gives in exchange] for that of the poor is subject [to tithes]. Two who received a field as sharecroppers, this one may give to the other his share of the poor man’s tithe and this one may give to the other his share of the poor man’s tithe. One who receives a field in order to harvest it, he is forbidden to take gleanings, the forgotten sheaf, peah or the poor man’s tithe. Rabbi Judah said: When is this so? When he receives it [in order to pay the owner] a half, third or quarter [of the crop]. But [if the owner] had said to him: “A third of that which you harvest belongs to you,” then he may take gleanings, the forgotten sheaf and peah, but not the poor man’s tithe.", 5.6. "One who sells, the seller is permitted [to take the agricultural gifts] and the purchaser is forbidden. One may not hire a worker on the condition that the son [of the worker] should gather the gleanings after him. One who does not allow the poor to gather, or one who allows one but not another, or one who helps one of them [to gather] behold he is a robber of the poor. Concerning him it is said: “Do not remove the landmark of those that come up (olim)” (Proverbs 22:28).", 5.7. "A sheaf which the workers forgot but not the land owner, or which the land owner forgot but not the workers; or [a sheaf] which the poor stood in front of [and blocked its view], or they covered it up with stubble, it is not considered a forgotten sheaf.", 5.8. "One who binds sheaves into stack covers, stack bases, round stacks or regular stacks, he is not subject to the law of the forgotten sheaf [while binding]. [When bringing them afterwards] to the threshing-floor, he is subject to the law of the forgotten sheaf. One who piles up the sheaves to make a stack, he is subject to the law of the forgotten sheaf. [When bringing them afterwards] to the threshing-floor, he is not subject to the law of the forgotten sheaf. This is the general rule: whoever makes the sheaves at the place which is the end of the work is subject to the law of the forgotten sheaf, [and afterwards when he takes] them to the threshing-floor, he is not subject to the law of the forgotten sheaf. However, [one who piles up the sheaves] at a place which is not the end of the work, is not subject to the law of the forgotten sheaf; [and afterwards when he takes] them to the threshing-floor, he is subject to the law of the forgotten sheaf.", 6.1. "Bet Shammai says: [That which is] made ownerless only in regard to the poor is indeed ownerless. But Bet Hillel says: it is not ownerless unless ownership is renounced even for the rich, as in the case of the sabbatical year. [If] all of the sheaves in a field are a kav each, and one is four kavs and that one is forgotten: Bet Shammai says: it is not considered forgotten. But Bet Hillel says: it is considered forgotten.", 6.2. "A sheaf left near a stone fence, or near a stack [of grain] or near oxen, or near equipment: Bet Shammai says: it is not considered “forgotten”; Bet Hillel says: it is considered “forgotten.”", 6.3. "[With regard to sheaves forgotten] at the end of the row, the sheaf lying across from it proves [that the first sheaf has not been forgotten.] [As for] a sheaf that [the owner] took to bring it to the city and forgot it, all agree that it is not considered a “forgotten sheaf.”", 6.4. "These are to be considered ends of the rows:If two men begin [to gather] from the middle of the row, one facing north and the other south and they forget [some sheaves] in front of them and behind them, those left in front of them are “forgotten,” but those left behind them are not “forgotten.” If an individual begins from the end of the row and he forgets [some sheaves] in front of him and behind him, those in front of him are not “forgotten”, whereas those behind him are “forgotten,” for this comes under the category of “you shall not go back [to retrieve it].” This is the general rule: anything that can be said to fall under the law “you shall not go back” is considered “forgotten,” but that to which the principle of “you shall not go back” cannot be applied is not considered “forgotten.”", 6.5. "Two sheaves [left lying together] are “forgotten,” but three are not “forgotten.” Two bundles of olives or carobs are “forgotten” but three are not “forgotten.” Two flax-stalks are “forgotten”, but three are not “forgotten”. Two grapes are considered “grape gleanings,” but three are not “grape gleanings.” Two ears of grain are deemed “gleanings,” but three are not gleanings.” All these [rulings] are according to Bet Hillel. And concerning them all Bet Shammai says that three [that are left] belong to the poor, and four belong to the owner.", 6.6. "A sheaf that has two seahs and he forgot it it is not considered “forgotten.” Two sheaves that together comprise two seahs: Rabban Gamaliel says: they belong to the owner; But the sages say: they belong to the poor. Rabban Gamaliel said: “Are the rights of the owner strengthened or weakened according to the greater number of the sheaves?” They replied, “His rights are strengthened.” He said to them: “If in a case of one sheaf of two seahs it is not deemed “forgotten,” then how much more should be the case of two sheaves that together contain two seahs?” They replied: “No. If you argue in the case of one sheaf it is because it is large enough to be considered a stack. Are you going to argue likewise in the case of two sheaves which are like bundles?”", 6.7. "A standing stalk of grain that contains two seahs and he forgot it, it is not considered “forgotten.” If it does not contain two seahs now, but is fit to yield two seahs, even if it was of an inferior kind of barley, it is regarded as full barley [grains].", 6.8. "A standing stalk of grain can save a sheaf and another standing stalk [from being regarded as “forgotten”]. A sheaf cannot save either another sheaf or a standing stalk. What is the standing stalk of grain that can save at sheaf? Anything which has not been forgotten, even though it is a single stalk.", 6.9. "A seah of plucked grain and a seah of unplucked grain, and also trees; and garlic and to onions do not combine to count as two seahs, but rather they must be left to the poor. Rabbi Yose says: if anything that belongs to the poor comes in between them, the two are not combined together; otherwise, they do combine.", 6.10. "Grain used for fodder or [stalks] used for binding sheaves, and also garlic-stalks used for tying other bunches, or tied bunches of garlic and onions they [all are not subject to the laws of] forgotten. Anything stored in the ground like arum, garlic and onions: Rabbi Judah says: they do not subject to the laws of “forgotten”; But the sages say: they are subject to the laws of “forgotten.”", 6.11. "One who harvests by night and binds sheaves [by night] or one who is blind [that which he leaves] is subject to the law of the “forgotten.” If he intends to remove large leaves first, then the law of “forgotten” does not apply. If he said: “Behold, I am reaping on the condition that I take afterwards that which I have forgotten,” the law of “forgotten” still applies.", 7.1. "An olive tree that has a name in the field, such as the olive tree of Netofah in its time, and he forgot it, it is not deemed “forgotten.” To what does this apply? [Only to a tree distinguished] by its name, produce, or position. “By its name:” if it were a shifkhoni or beshani. “By its produce:” if it yields large quantities. “By its position:” if it stands at the side of the winepress or near the gap in the fence. Other kinds of olive trees: two are deemed “forgotten”, but three are not deemed “forgotten.” Rabbi Yose says: there is no law of “forgotten” for olive trees.", 7.2. "An olive tree found standing between three rows [of olive trees] which have two plots separating them, and he forgot it, it is deemed, “forgotten.” An olive tree containing two seahs and he forgot it, it is not deemed forgotten. To what does this apply? Only when he [the owner] had not yet begun [to harvest the tree], but if he had begun, even if it were like the olive tree of Netofah in its time, and he forgot it, it is deemed forgotten. As long as the owner has some of the olives belonging to him at the foot of the tree, he has [possession] of those on top of the tree. Rabbi Meir says: [forgotten applies only] after [those with] the beating-rod have gone.", 7.3. "What is peret? [Grapes] which fall down during the harvesting. If while he was harvesting [the grapes], he cut off an entire cluster by its stalk, and it got tangled up in the [grape] leaves, and then it fell from his hand to the ground and the single berries were separated, it belongs to the owner. One who places a basket under the vine when he is harvesting [the grapes], behold he is a robber of the poor. Concerning him it is said: “Do not remove the landmark of those that come up (olim)” (Proverbs 22:28).", 7.4. "What constitutes a defective cluster (olelet) of grapes? Any [cluster] which has neither a shoulder [a wide upper part] nor a pendant [a cone-shaped lower part]. If it has a shoulder or a pendant, it belongs to the owner. If there is a doubt, it belongs to the poor. A defective cluster on the joint of a vine [where a normal cluster hangs from the vine], if it can be cut off with the cluster, it belongs to the owner; but if it can not, it belongs to the poor. A single grape: Rabbi Judah says: It is deemed a whole cluster, But the sages say: It is deemed a defective cluster.", 7.5. "One who is thinning out vines, just as he may thin out in that which belongs to him, so too he may thin out in that which belongs to the poor, the words of Rabbi Judah. Rabbi Meir says: in that which belongs to him, he is permitted, but he is not permitted in that which belongs to the poor.", 7.6. "[The grapes of] a vineyard in its fourth year:Bet Shammai says: the laws of the added fifth and removal do not apply to them; But Bet Hillel says: they do. Bet Shammai says: the laws of peret and the defective clusters apply to them, and the poor can redeem the grapes for themselves. But Bet Hillel says: all [of them] go to the wine-press.", 7.7. "A vineyard which consists entirely of defective clusters: Rabbi Eliezer says: it belongs to the owner. Rabbi Akiva says: to the poor. Rabbi Eliezer: “When you harvest the grapes of your vineyard, do not take the defective clusters” (Deuteronomy 24:21). If there is no grape harvesting, how can there be “defective clusters”? Rabbi Akiva said to him: “And from your vineyard do not take the defective clusters” (Leviticus 19:10) even if it consists entirely of defective clusters. If that is so, why is it said: “When you harvest the grapes of your vineyard, do not take the defective clusters”? [This teaches that] the poor have no right to claim the defective clusters before the harvest.", 7.8. "One who dedicates his entire vineyard [to the Temple] before the “defective clusters” were recognizable, the “defective clusters” do not belong to the poor. After the defective clusters were recognizable, then they do belong to the poor. Rabbi Yose says: [the poor] must give the value of their improved growth to the Temple. What is deemed “forgotten” in the case of a trellis [a lattice for supporting plants]? Anything that one can no longer stretch his hand and take it. And in the case of ground-trained vines? From the time [the gatherers] pass by it.", 8.1. "From when are all people permitted to take gleanings, [forgotten sheaves and peah]? After the old ones of the poor have gone. And in the case of peret and defective clusters? After the poor have gone into the vineyard and come back again. And in the case of the olive trees? After the descent of the second rainfall. Rabbi Judah said: But aren’t there those who do not harvest their olives until after the second rainfall?” Rather, once the poor man has gone out [to gather the agricultural gifts taken from olive trees] and cannot bring back with him [more than the value of] four issars.", 8.7. "They may not give a poor person wandering from place to place less than a loaf worth a pundion at a time when four seahs [of wheat cost] one sela. If he spends the night [at a place], they must give him the cost of what he needs for the night. If he stays over Shabbat they must give him enough food for three meals. He who has the money for two meals, he may not take anything from the charity dish. And if he has enough money for fourteen meals, he may not take any support from the communal fund. The communal fund is collected by two and distributed by three people.", 8.9. "One who has fifty zuz and he is using them for his business, he must not take. And anyone who does not need to take [charity] and yet takes, will not depart from this world before he actually needs [charity] from others. And anyone who needs to take and does not take, will not die of old age until he supports others with his own money. Concerning him the verse says: “Blessed is the man who trusts in the Lord and whose hope is the Lord” (Jeremiah 17:7). And so too a judge who judges in truth according to its truth. And anyone who is not lame or blind but pretends to be as one of these, he will not die of old age before he actually becomes one of these, as it is said, “He who searches for evil, it shall come upon him” (Proverbs 11:27) and it is also said: “Righteousness, righteousness shall you pursue.” And any judge who accepts a bribe or who perverts justice will not die in old age before his eyes have become dim, as it is said: “And you shall not accept a bribe, for a bribe blinds the eyes of those who have sight.” Congratulations! We have finished Peah! It is a tradition at this point to thank God for helping us finish learning the tractate and to commit ourselves to going back and relearning it, so that we may not forget it and so that its lessons will stay with us for all of our lives. You have now finished an entire tractate that is about a subject you probably knew almost nothing about before you began. The tractates of Seder Zeraim are much less learned than those of Moed, Nashim and Nezikin, the seders that we have learned up until now. Neverthless, I, and I hope you, found the tractate to be a fascinating attempt by the rabbis to work out the meaning of many biblical verses, as well as important issues such as fair ownership over property and how to take care of the poor. Along the way we have begun to learn a little about how agriculture worked in the Mishnaic period. This is a topic we will continue to address throughout the seder. Tomorrow we begin Tractate Demai.",
10. Mishnah, Terumot, 2.4 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ambiguity as focus of mishnaic rule Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 184
2.4. "אֵין תּוֹרְמִין מִמִּין עַל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ. וְאִם תָּרַם, אֵין תְּרוּמָתוֹ תְרוּמָה. כָּל מִין חִטִּים, אֶחָד. כָּל מִין תְּאֵנִים וּגְרוֹגָרוֹת וּדְבֵלָה, אֶחָד. וְתוֹרֵם מִזֶּה עַל זֶה. כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ כֹּהֵן, תּוֹרֵם מִן הַיָּפֶה. וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין כֹּהֵן, תּוֹרֵם מִן הַמִּתְקַיֵּם. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לְעוֹלָם הוּא תוֹרֵם מִן הַיָּפֶה: \n", 2.4. "They may not give terumah from one kind for another kind, and if he did give, the terumah is not terumah. All kinds of wheat count as one. All kinds of fresh figs, dried figs and fig cakes count as one, and he may take terumah from one for the other. Wherever there is a priest, one must give terumah from the very best, and where there is no priest, one must give terumah from that which lasts longest. Rabbi Judah says: he should always give only from the very best.",
11. Palestinian Talmud, Peah, 5.1 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ambiguity as focus of mishnaic rule Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 89
12. Mishna, Challah, 4.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •ambiguity as focus of mishnaic rule Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 114
4.1. "שְׁתֵּי נָשִׁים שֶׁעָשׂוּ שְׁנֵי קַבִּין, וְנָגְעוּ זֶה בָזֶה, אֲפִלּוּ הֵם מִמִּין אֶחָד, פְּטוּרִים. וּבִזְמַן שֶׁהֵם שֶׁל אִשָּׁה אַחַת, מִין בְּמִינוֹ, חַיָּב. וְשֶׁלֹּא בְמִינוֹ, פָּטוּר: \n", 4.1. "Two women who made [separate doughs] from two [separate] kavs, and these [doughs] touched one another, even if they are of the same species, they are exempt [from hallah]. When they belong to one woman: If one species [comes into contact] with the same species, they are subject [to hallah]. If different species, they are exempt.",