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354 results for "allegory"
1. Hebrew Bible, Job, 2.10, 5.17-5.18, 7.4, 9.17, 10.8, 12.13-12.25, 13.26, 29.18, 33.14-33.15 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, two jars •allegory, allegorical •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 96, 142; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 59, 60; Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 116
5.17. "הִנֵּה אַשְׁרֵי אֱנוֹשׁ יוֹכִחֶנּוּ אֱלוֹהַּ וּמוּסַר שַׁדַּי אַל־תִּמְאָס׃", 5.18. "כִּי הוּא יַכְאִיב וְיֶחְבָּשׁ יִמְחַץ וידו [וְיָדָיו] תִּרְפֶּינָה׃", 7.4. "אִם־שָׁכַבְתִּי וְאָמַרְתִּי מָתַי אָקוּם וּמִדַּד־עָרֶב וְשָׂבַעְתִּי נְדֻדִים עֲדֵי־נָשֶׁף׃", 9.17. "אֲשֶׁר־בִּשְׂעָרָה יְשׁוּפֵנִי וְהִרְבָּה פְצָעַי חִנָּם׃", 10.8. "יָדֶיךָ עִצְּבוּנִי וַיַּעֲשׂוּנִי יַחַד סָבִיב וַתְּבַלְּעֵנִי׃", 12.13. "עִמּוֹ חָכְמָה וּגְבוּרָה לוֹ עֵצָה וּתְבוּנָה׃", 12.14. "הֵן יַהֲרוֹס וְלֹא יִבָּנֶה יִסְגֹּר עַל־אִישׁ וְלֹא יִפָּתֵחַ׃", 12.15. "הֵן יַעְצֹר בַּמַּיִם וְיִבָשׁוּ וִישַׁלְּחֵם וְיַהַפְכוּ אָרֶץ׃", 12.16. "עִמּוֹ עֹז וְתוּשִׁיָּה לוֹ שֹׁגֵג וּמַשְׁגֶּה׃", 12.17. "מוֹלִיךְ יוֹעֲצִים שׁוֹלָל וְשֹׁפְטִים יְהוֹלֵל׃", 12.18. "מוּסַר מְלָכִים פִּתֵּחַ וַיֶּאְסֹר אֵזוֹר בְּמָתְנֵיהֶם׃", 12.19. "מוֹלִיךְ כֹּהֲנִים שׁוֹלָל וְאֵתָנִים יְסַלֵּף׃", 12.21. "שׁוֹפֵךְ בּוּז עַל־נְדִיבִים וּמְזִיחַ אֲפִיקִים רִפָּה׃", 12.22. "מְגַלֶּה עֲמֻקוֹת מִנִּי־חֹשֶׁךְ וַיֹּצֵא לָאוֹר צַלְמָוֶת׃", 12.23. "מַשְׂגִּיא לַגּוֹיִם וַיְאַבְּדֵם שֹׁטֵחַ לַגּוֹיִם וַיַּנְחֵם׃", 12.24. "מֵסִיר לֵב רָאשֵׁי עַם־הָאָרֶץ וַיַּתְעֵם בְּתֹהוּ לֹא־דָרֶךְ׃", 12.25. "יְמַשְׁשׁוּ־חֹשֶׁךְ וְלֹא־אוֹר וַיַּתְעֵם כַּשִּׁכּוֹר׃", 13.26. "כִּי־תִכְתֹּב עָלַי מְרֹרוֹת וְתוֹרִישֵׁנִי עֲוֺנוֹת נְעוּרָי׃", 29.18. "וָאֹמַר עִם־קִנִּי אֶגְוָע וְכַחוֹל אַרְבֶּה יָמִים׃", 33.14. "כִּי־בְאַחַת יְדַבֶּר־אֵל וּבִשְׁתַּיִם לֹא יְשׁוּרֶנָּה׃", 33.15. "בַּחֲלוֹם חֶזְיוֹן לַיְלָה בִּנְפֹל תַּרְדֵּמָה עַל־אֲנָשִׁים בִּתְנוּמוֹת עֲלֵי מִשְׁכָּב׃", 2.10. "But he said unto her: ‘Thou speakest as one of the impious women speaketh. What? shall we receive good at the hand of God, and shall we not receive evil?’ For all this did not Job sin with his lips.", 5.17. "Behold, happy is the man whom God correcteth; Therefore despise not thou the chastening of the Almighty.", 5.18. "For He maketh sore, and bindeth up; He woundeth, and His hands make whole.", 7.4. "When I lie down, I say: ‘When shall I arise?’ But the night is long, and I am full of tossings to and fro unto the dawning of the day.", 9.17. "He that would break me with a tempest, And multiply my wounds without cause;", 10.8. "Thy hands have framed me and fashioned me Together round about; yet Thou dost destroy me!", 12.13. "With Him is wisdom and might; He hath counsel and understanding.", 12.14. "Behold, He breaketh down, and it cannot be built again; He shutteth up a man, and there can be no opening.", 12.15. "Behold, He withholdeth the waters, and they dry up; Also He sendeth them out, and they overturn the earth.", 12.16. "With Him is strength and sound wisdom; The deceived and the deceiver are His.", 12.17. "He leadeth counsellors away stripped, And judges maketh He fools.", 12.18. "He looseth the bond of kings, And bindeth their loins with a girdle.", 12.19. "He leadeth priests away stripped, And overthroweth the mighty.", 12.20. "He removeth the speech of men of trust, And taketh away the sense of the elders.", 12.21. "He poureth contempt upon princes, And looseth the belt of the strong.", 12.22. "He uncovereth deep things out of darkness, And bringeth out to light the shadow of death.", 12.23. "He increaseth the nations, and destroyeth them; He enlargeth the nations, and leadeth them away.", 12.24. "He taketh away the heart of the chiefs of the people of the land, And causeth them to wander in a wilderness where there is no way.", 12.25. "They grope in the dark without light, And He maketh them to stagger like a drunken man.", 13.26. "That Thou shouldest write bitter things against me, And make me to inherit the iniquities of my youth.", 29.18. "Then I said: ‘I shall die with my nest, And I shall multiply my days as the phoenix;", 33.14. "For God speaketh in one way, Yea in two, though man perceiveth it not.", 33.15. "In a dream, in a vision of the night, When deep sleep falleth upon men, In slumberings upon the bed;",
2. Hebrew Bible, Ruth, 28.6 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 5
3. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 36.6, 37.12, 50.8-50.21, 95.8, 101.7, 102.5, 106.30, 139.5, 142.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 110, 113, 115, 152; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 47, 459; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 91; Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 63
36.6. "יְהוָה בְּהַשָּׁמַיִם חַסְדֶּךָ אֱמוּנָתְךָ עַד־שְׁחָקִים׃", 37.12. "זֹמֵם רָשָׁע לַצַּדִּיק וְחֹרֵק עָלָיו שִׁנָּיו׃", 50.8. "לֹא עַל־זְבָחֶיךָ אוֹכִיחֶךָ וְעוֹלֹתֶיךָ לְנֶגְדִּי תָמִיד׃", 50.9. "לֹא־אֶקַּח מִבֵּיתְךָ פָר מִמִּכְלְאֹתֶיךָ עַתּוּדִים׃", 50.11. "יָדַעְתִּי כָּל־עוֹף הָרִים וְזִיז שָׂדַי עִמָּדִי׃", 50.12. "אִם־אֶרְעַב לֹא־אֹמַר לָךְ כִּי־לִי תֵבֵל וּמְלֹאָהּ׃", 50.13. "הַאוֹכַל בְּשַׂר אַבִּירִים וְדַם עַתּוּדִים אֶשְׁתֶּה׃", 50.14. "זְבַח לֵאלֹהִים תּוֹדָה וְשַׁלֵּם לְעֶלְיוֹן נְדָרֶיךָ׃", 50.15. "וּקְרָאֵנִי בְּיוֹם צָרָה אֲחַלֶּצְךָ וּתְכַבְּדֵנִי׃", 50.16. "וְלָרָשָׁע אָמַר אֱלֹהִים מַה־לְּךָ לְסַפֵּר חֻקָּי וַתִּשָּׂא בְרִיתִי עֲלֵי־פִיךָ׃", 50.17. "וְאַתָּה שָׂנֵאתָ מוּסָר וַתַּשְׁלֵךְ דְּבָרַי אַחֲרֶיךָ׃", 50.18. "אִם־רָאִיתָ גַנָּב וַתִּרֶץ עִמּוֹ וְעִם מְנָאֲפִים חֶלְקֶךָ׃", 50.19. "פִּיךָ שָׁלַחְתָּ בְרָעָה וּלְשׁוֹנְךָ תַּצְמִיד מִרְמָה׃", 50.21. "אֵלֶּה עָשִׂיתָ וְהֶחֱרַשְׁתִּי דִּמִּיתָ הֱיוֹת־אֶהְיֶה כָמוֹךָ אוֹכִיחֲךָ וְאֶעֶרְכָה לְעֵינֶיךָ׃", 95.8. "אַל־תַּקְשׁוּ לְבַבְכֶם כִּמְרִיבָה כְּיוֹם מַסָּה בַּמִּדְבָּר׃", 101.7. "לֹא־יֵשֵׁב בְּקֶרֶב בֵּיתִי עֹשֵׂה רְמִיָּה דֹּבֵר שְׁקָרִים לֹא־יִכּוֹן לְנֶגֶד עֵינָי׃", 102.5. "הוּכָּה־כָעֵשֶׂב וַיִּבַשׁ לִבִּי כִּי־שָׁכַחְתִּי מֵאֲכֹל לַחְמִי׃", 139.5. "אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה׃", 142.5. "הַבֵּיט יָמִין וּרְאֵה וְאֵין־לִי מַכִּיר אָבַד מָנוֹס מִמֶּנִּי אֵין דּוֹרֵשׁ לְנַפְשִׁי׃", 36.6. "Thy lovingkindness, O LORD, is in the heavens; Thy faithfulness reacheth unto the skies.", 37.12. "The wicked plotteth against the righteous, and gnasheth at him with his teeth.", 50.8. "I will not reprove thee for thy sacrifices; and thy burnt-offerings are continually before Me.", 50.9. "I will take no bullock out of thy house, nor he-goats out of thy folds.", 50.10. "For every beast of the forest is Mine, and the cattle upon a thousand hills.", 50.11. "I know all the fowls of the mountains; and the wild beasts of the field are Mine.", 50.12. "If I were hungry, I would not tell thee; for the world is Mine, and the fulness thereof.", 50.13. "Do I eat the flesh of bulls, or drink the blood of goats?", 50.14. "offer unto God the sacrifice of thanksgiving; and pay thy vows unto the Most High;", 50.15. "And call upon Me in the day of trouble; I will deliver thee, and thou shalt honour Me.'", 50.16. "But unto the wicked God saith: 'What hast thou to do to declare My statutes, And that thou hast taken My covet in thy mouth?", 50.17. "Seeing thou hatest instruction, and castest My words behind thee.", 50.18. "When thou sawest a thief, thou hadst company with him, and with adulterers was thy portion.", 50.19. "Thou hast let loose thy mouth for evil, and thy tongue frameth deceit. .", 50.20. "Thou sittest and speakest against thy brother; Thou slanderest thine own mother's son.", 50.21. "These things hast thou done, and should I have kept silence? Thou hadst thought that I was altogether such a one as thyself; but I will reprove thee, and set the cause before thine eyes.", 95.8. "'Harden not your heart, as at Meribah, As in the day of Massah in the wilderness;", 101.7. "He that worketh deceit shall not dwell within my house; he that speaketh falsehood shall not be established before mine eyes.", 102.5. "My heart is smitten like grass, and withered; for I forget to eat my bread.", 106.30. "Then stood up Phinehas, and wrought judgment, And so the plague was stayed.", 139.5. "Thou hast hemmed me in behind and before, And laid Thy hand upon me.", 142.5. "Look on my right hand, and see, For there is no man that knoweth me; I have no way to flee; No man careth for my soul.",
4. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.8, 3.18, 3.27, 4.11, 28.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah •allegory/allegorical, tannaitic allegory •allegory/allegorical, and midrash •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 80, 93, 105; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 91
1.8. "שְׁמַע בְּנִי מוּסַר אָבִיךָ וְאַל־תִּטֹּשׁ תּוֹרַת אִמֶּךָ׃", 3.18. "עֵץ־חַיִּים הִיא לַמַּחֲזִיקִים בָּהּ וְתֹמְכֶיהָ מְאֻשָּׁר׃", 3.27. "אַל־תִּמְנַע־טוֹב מִבְּעָלָיו בִּהְיוֹת לְאֵל ידיך [יָדְךָ] לַעֲשׂוֹת׃" 4.11. "בְּדֶרֶךְ חָכְמָה הֹרֵתִיךָ הִדְרַכְתִּיךָ בְּמַעְגְּלֵי־יֹשֶׁר׃", 28.14. "אַשְׁרֵי אָדָם מְפַחֵד תָּמִיד וּמַקְשֶׁה לִבּוֹ יִפּוֹל בְּרָעָה׃", 1.8. "Hear, my son, the instruction of thy father, And forsake not the teaching of thy mother;", 3.18. "She is a tree of life to them that lay hold upon her, And happy is every one that holdest her fast.", 3.27. "Withhold not good from him to whom it is due, When it is in the power of thy hand to do it." 4.11. "I have taught thee in the way of wisdom; I have led thee in paths of uprightness.", 28.14. "Happy is the man that feareth alway; But he that hardeneth his heart shall fall into evil.",
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 11.16, 15.30-15.31, 21.17-21.20, 25.7-25.8, 25.12-25.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 109, 110, 119, 120, 152; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 224, 227; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 595
11.16. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶסְפָה־לִּי שִׁבְעִים אִישׁ מִזִּקְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָדַעְתָּ כִּי־הֵם זִקְנֵי הָעָם וְשֹׁטְרָיו וְלָקַחְתָּ אֹתָם אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהִתְיַצְּבוּ שָׁם עִמָּךְ׃", 15.31. "כִּי דְבַר־יְהוָה בָּזָה וְאֶת־מִצְוָתוֹ הֵפַר הִכָּרֵת תִּכָּרֵת הַנֶּפֶשׁ הַהִוא עֲוֺנָה בָהּ׃", 21.17. "אָז יָשִׁיר יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת עֲלִי בְאֵר עֱנוּ־לָהּ׃", 21.18. "בְּאֵר חֲפָרוּהָ שָׂרִים כָּרוּהָ נְדִיבֵי הָעָם בִּמְחֹקֵק בְּמִשְׁעֲנֹתָם וּמִמִּדְבָּר מַתָּנָה׃", 21.19. "וּמִמַּתָּנָה נַחֲלִיאֵל וּמִנַּחֲלִיאֵל בָּמוֹת׃", 25.7. "וַיַּרְא פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן וַיָּקָם מִתּוֹךְ הָעֵדָה וַיִּקַּח רֹמַח בְּיָדוֹ׃", 25.8. "וַיָּבֹא אַחַר אִישׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־הַקֻּבָּה וַיִּדְקֹר אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֵת אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־קֳבָתָהּ וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה מֵעַל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 25.12. "לָכֵן אֱמֹר הִנְנִי נֹתֵן לוֹ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי שָׁלוֹם׃", 25.13. "וְהָיְתָה לּוֹ וּלְזַרְעוֹ אַחֲרָיו בְּרִית כְּהֻנַּת עוֹלָם תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר קִנֵּא לֵאלֹהָיו וַיְכַפֵּר עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 11.16. "And the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Gather unto Me seventy men of the elders of Israel, whom thou knowest to be the elders of the people, and officers over them; and bring them unto the tent of meeting, that they may stand there with thee.", 15.30. "But the soul that doeth aught with a high hand, whether he be home-born or a stranger, the same blasphemeth the LORD; and that soul shall be cut off from among his people.", 15.31. "Because he hath despised the word of the LORD, and hath broken His commandment; that soul shall utterly be cut off, his iniquity shall be upon him.", 21.17. "Then sang Israel this song: Spring up, O well—sing ye unto it—", 21.18. "The well, which the princes digged, Which the nobles of the people delved, With the sceptre, and with their staves. And from the wilderness to Mattanah;", 21.19. "and from Mattanah to Nahaliel; and from Nahaliel to Bamoth;", 21.20. "and from Bamoth to the valley that is in the field of Moab, by the top of Pisgah, which looketh down upon the desert.", 25.7. "And when Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he rose up from the midst of the congregation, and took a spear in his hand.", 25.8. "And he went after the man of Israel into the chamber, and thrust both of them through, the man of Israel, and the woman through her belly. So the plague was stayed from the children of Israel.", 25.12. "Wherefore say: Behold, I give unto him My covet of peace;", 25.13. "and it shall be unto him, and to his seed after him, the covet of an everlasting priesthood; because he was jealous for his God, and made atonement for the children of Israel.’",
6. Hebrew Bible, Nahum, None (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical, and abstraction •allegory/allegorical, and pesher •allegory/allegorical, and typology •allegory/allegorical, in the dead sea scrolls •allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 116, 117, 118
7. Hebrew Bible, Malachi, 3.1, 3.20 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 438; Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 68
3.1. "הָבִיאוּ אֶת־כָּל־הַמַּעֲשֵׂר אֶל־בֵּית הָאוֹצָר וִיהִי טֶרֶף בְּבֵיתִי וּבְחָנוּנִי נָא בָּזֹאת אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אִם־לֹא אֶפְתַּח לָכֶם אֵת אֲרֻבּוֹת הַשָּׁמַיִם וַהֲרִיקֹתִי לָכֶם בְּרָכָה עַד־בְּלִי־דָי׃", 3.1. "הִנְנִי שֹׁלֵחַ מַלְאָכִי וּפִנָּה־דֶרֶךְ לְפָנָי וּפִתְאֹם יָבוֹא אֶל־הֵיכָלוֹ הָאָדוֹן אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם מְבַקְשִׁים וּמַלְאַךְ הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר־אַתֶּם חֲפֵצִים הִנֵּה־בָא אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת׃", 3.1. "Behold, I send My messenger, and he shall clear the way before Me; and the Lord, whom ye seek, will suddenly come to His temple, and the messenger of the covet, Whom ye delight in, Behold, he cometh, Saith the LORD of hosts.", 3.20. "But unto you that fear My name shall the sun of righteousness arise with healing in its wings; and ye shall go forth, and gambol as calves of the stall.",
8. Hebrew Bible, Joel, 3.1-3.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, luke Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 318
3.1. "וְהָיָה אַחֲרֵי־כֵן אֶשְׁפּוֹךְ אֶת־רוּחִי עַל־כָּל־בָּשָׂר וְנִבְּאוּ בְּנֵיכֶם וּבְנוֹתֵיכֶם זִקְנֵיכֶם חֲלֹמוֹת יַחֲלֹמוּן בַּחוּרֵיכֶם חֶזְיֹנוֹת יִרְאוּ׃", 3.2. "וְגַם עַל־הָעֲבָדִים וְעַל־הַשְּׁפָחוֹת בַּיָּמִים הָהֵמָּה אֶשְׁפּוֹךְ אֶת־רוּחִי׃", 3.3. "וְנָתַתִּי מוֹפְתִים בַּשָּׁמַיִם וּבָאָרֶץ דָּם וָאֵשׁ וְתִימֲרוֹת עָשָׁן׃", 3.4. "הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ יֵהָפֵךְ לְחֹשֶׁךְ וְהַיָּרֵחַ לְדָם לִפְנֵי בּוֹא יוֹם יְהוָה הַגָּדוֹל וְהַנּוֹרָא׃" 3.5. "וְהָיָה כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־יִקְרָא בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה יִמָּלֵט כִּי בְּהַר־צִיּוֹן וּבִירוּשָׁלִַם תִּהְיֶה פְלֵיטָה כַּאֲשֶׁר אָמַר יְהוָה וּבַשְּׂרִידִים אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה קֹרֵא׃", 3.1. "And it shall come to pass afterward, That I will pour out My spirit upon all flesh; And your sons and your daughters shall prophesy, Your old men shall dream dreams, Your young men shall see visions;", 3.2. "And also upon the servants and upon the handmaids In those days will I pour out My spirit.", 3.3. "And I will shew wonders in the heavens and in the earth, Blood, and fire, and pillars of smoke.", 3.4. "The sun shall be turned into darkness, And the moon into blood, Before the great and terrible day of the LORD come." 3.5. "And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the LORD shall be delivered; For in mount Zion and in Jerusalem there shall be those that escape, As the LORD hath said, And among the remt those whom the LORD shall call.",
9. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 2.8-2.14, 4.8, 5.2 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 59; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 240, 245, 246, 258
2.8. "קוֹל דּוֹדִי הִנֵּה־זֶה בָּא מְדַלֵּג עַל־הֶהָרִים מְקַפֵּץ עַל־הַגְּבָעוֹת׃", 2.9. "דּוֹמֶה דוֹדִי לִצְבִי אוֹ לְעֹפֶר הָאַיָּלִים הִנֵּה־זֶה עוֹמֵד אַחַר כָּתְלֵנוּ מַשְׁגִּיחַ מִן־הַחֲלֹּנוֹת מֵצִיץ מִן־הַחֲרַכִּים׃", 2.11. "כִּי־הִנֵּה הסתו [הַסְּתָיו] עָבָר הַגֶּשֶׁם חָלַף הָלַךְ לוֹ׃", 2.12. "הַנִּצָּנִים נִרְאוּ בָאָרֶץ עֵת הַזָּמִיר הִגִּיעַ וְקוֹל הַתּוֹר נִשְׁמַע בְּאַרְצֵנוּ׃", 2.13. "הַתְּאֵנָה חָנְטָה פַגֶּיהָ וְהַגְּפָנִים סְמָדַר נָתְנוּ רֵיחַ קוּמִי לכי [לָךְ] רַעְיָתִי יָפָתִי וּלְכִי־לָךְ׃", 2.14. "יוֹנָתִי בְּחַגְוֵי הַסֶּלַע בְּסֵתֶר הַמַּדְרֵגָה הַרְאִינִי אֶתּ־מַרְאַיִךְ הַשְׁמִיעִינִי אֶת־קוֹלֵךְ כִּי־קוֹלֵךְ עָרֵב וּמַרְאֵיךְ נָאוֶה׃", 4.8. "אִתִּי מִלְּבָנוֹן כַּלָּה אִתִּי מִלְּבָנוֹן תָּבוֹאִי תָּשׁוּרִי מֵרֹאשׁ אֲמָנָה מֵרֹאשׁ שְׂנִיר וְחֶרְמוֹן מִמְּעֹנוֹת אֲרָיוֹת מֵהַרְרֵי נְמֵרִים׃", 5.2. "אֲנִי יְשֵׁנָה וְלִבִּי עֵר קוֹל דּוֹדִי דוֹפֵק פִּתְחִי־לִי אֲחֹתִי רַעְיָתִי יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי שֶׁרֹּאשִׁי נִמְלָא־טָל קְוֻּצּוֹתַי רְסִיסֵי לָיְלָה׃", 2.8. Hark! my beloved! behold, he cometh, Leaping upon the mountains, skipping upon the hills. 2.9. My beloved is like a gazelle or a young hart; Behold, he standeth behind our wall, He looketh in through the windows, He peereth through the lattice. 2.10. My beloved spoke, and said unto me: ‘Rise up, my love, my fair one, and come away. 2.11. For, lo, the winter is past, The rain is over and gone; 2.12. The flowers appear on the earth; The time of singing is come, And the voice of the turtle is heard in our land; 2.13. The fig-tree putteth forth her green figs, And the vines in blossom give forth their fragrance. Arise, my love, my fair one, and come away. 2.14. O my dove, that art in the clefts of the rock, in the covert of the cliff, Let me see thy countece, let me hear thy voice; For sweet is thy voice, and thy countece is comely.’ 4.8. Come with me from Lebanon, my bride, With me from Lebanon; Look from the top of Amana, From the top of Senir and Hermon, From the lions’dens, From the mountains of the leopards. 5.2. I sleep, but my heart waketh; Hark! my beloved knocketh: ‘Open to me, my sister, my love, my dove, my undefiled; For my head is filled with dew, My locks with the drops of the night.’
10. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 5.9, 7.18, 10.21, 11.18, 14.3-14.21, 18.3, 23.4, 32.39, 33.2, 34.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 200; Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 109, 111, 113, 114; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 96, 142; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 148; Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 9, 11; Wright (2015), The Letter of Aristeas : 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' 38, 274, 279
5.9. "לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחֲוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבוֹת עַל־בָּנִים וְעַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃", 7.18. "לֹא תִירָא מֵהֶם זָכֹר תִּזְכֹּר אֵת אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְפַרְעֹה וּלְכָל־מִצְרָיִם׃", 10.21. "הוּא תְהִלָּתְךָ וְהוּא אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר־עָשָׂה אִתְּךָ אֶת־הַגְּדֹלֹת וְאֶת־הַנּוֹרָאֹת הָאֵלֶּה אֲשֶׁר רָאוּ עֵינֶיךָ׃", 11.18. "וְשַׂמְתֶּם אֶת־דְּבָרַי אֵלֶּה עַל־לְבַבְכֶם וְעַל־נַפְשְׁכֶם וּקְשַׁרְתֶּם אֹתָם לְאוֹת עַל־יֶדְכֶם וְהָיוּ לְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֵיכֶם׃", 14.3. "לֹא תֹאכַל כָּל־תּוֹעֵבָה׃", 14.4. "זֹאת הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכֵלוּ שׁוֹר שֵׂה כְשָׂבִים וְשֵׂה עִזִּים׃", 14.5. "אַיָּל וּצְבִי וְיַחְמוּר וְאַקּוֹ וְדִישֹׁן וּתְאוֹ וָזָמֶר׃", 14.6. "וְכָל־בְּהֵמָה מַפְרֶסֶת פַּרְסָה וְשֹׁסַעַת שֶׁסַע שְׁתֵּי פְרָסוֹת מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה בַּבְּהֵמָה אֹתָהּ תֹּאכֵלוּ׃", 14.7. "אַךְ אֶת־זֶה לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמַּעֲלֵי הַגֵּרָה וּמִמַּפְרִיסֵי הַפַּרְסָה הַשְּׁסוּעָה אֶת־הַגָּמָל וְאֶת־הָאַרְנֶבֶת וְאֶת־הַשָּׁפָן כִּי־מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הֵמָּה וּפַרְסָה לֹא הִפְרִיסוּ טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם׃", 14.8. "וְאֶת־הַחֲזִיר כִּי־מַפְרִיס פַּרְסָה הוּא וְלֹא גֵרָה טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם מִבְּשָׂרָם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ וּבְנִבְלָתָם לֹא תִגָּעוּ׃", 14.9. "אֶת־זֶה תֹּאכְלוּ מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בַּמָּיִם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקֶשֶׂת תֹּאכֵלוּ׃", 14.11. "כָּל־צִפּוֹר טְהֹרָה תֹּאכֵלוּ׃", 14.12. "וְזֶה אֲשֶׁר לֹא־תֹאכְלוּ מֵהֶם הַנֶּשֶׁר וְהַפֶּרֶס וְהָעָזְנִיָּה׃", 14.13. "וְהָרָאָה וְאֶת־הָאַיָּה וְהַדַּיָּה לְמִינָהּ׃", 14.14. "וְאֵת כָּל־עֹרֵב לְמִינוֹ׃", 14.15. "וְאֵת בַּת הַיַּעֲנָה וְאֶת־הַתַּחְמָס וְאֶת־הַשָּׁחַף וְאֶת־הַנֵּץ לְמִינֵהוּ׃", 14.16. "אֶת־הַכּוֹס וְאֶת־הַיַּנְשׁוּף וְהַתִּנְשָׁמֶת׃", 14.17. "וְהַקָּאָת וְאֶת־הָרָחָמָה וְאֶת־הַשָּׁלָךְ׃", 14.18. "וְהַחֲסִידָה וְהָאֲנָפָה לְמִינָהּ וְהַדּוּכִיפַת וְהָעֲטַלֵּף׃", 14.19. "וְכֹל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם לֹא יֵאָכֵלוּ׃", 14.21. "לֹא תֹאכְלוּ כָל־נְבֵלָה לַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר־בִּשְׁעָרֶיךָ תִּתְּנֶנָּה וַאֲכָלָהּ אוֹ מָכֹר לְנָכְרִי כִּי עַם קָדוֹשׁ אַתָּה לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃", 18.3. "וְזֶה יִהְיֶה מִשְׁפַּט הַכֹּהֲנִים מֵאֵת הָעָם מֵאֵת זֹבְחֵי הַזֶּבַח אִם־שׁוֹר אִם־שֶׂה וְנָתַן לַכֹּהֵן הַזְּרֹעַ וְהַלְּחָיַיִם וְהַקֵּבָה׃", 23.4. "לֹא־יָבֹא עַמּוֹנִי וּמוֹאָבִי בִּקְהַל יְהוָה גַּם דּוֹר עֲשִׂירִי לֹא־יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָה עַד־עוֹלָם׃", 32.39. "רְאוּ עַתָּה כִּי אֲנִי אֲנִי הוּא וְאֵין אֱלֹהִים עִמָּדִי אֲנִי אָמִית וַאֲחַיֶּה מָחַצְתִּי וַאֲנִי אֶרְפָּא וְאֵין מִיָּדִי מַצִּיל׃", 33.2. "וַיֹּאמַר יְהוָה מִסִּינַי בָּא וְזָרַח מִשֵּׂעִיר לָמוֹ הוֹפִיעַ מֵהַר פָּארָן וְאָתָה מֵרִבְבֹת קֹדֶשׁ מִימִינוֹ אשדת [אֵשׁ] [דָּת] לָמוֹ׃", 33.2. "וּלְגָד אָמַר בָּרוּךְ מַרְחִיב גָּד כְּלָבִיא שָׁכֵן וְטָרַף זְרוֹעַ אַף־קָדְקֹד׃", 5.9. "Thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children, and upon the third and upon the fourth generation of them that hate Me,", 7.18. "thou shalt not be afraid of them; thou shalt well remember what the LORD thy God did unto Pharaoh, and unto all Egypt:", 10.21. "He is thy glory, and He is thy God, that hath done for thee these great and tremendous things, which thine eyes have seen.", 11.18. "Therefore shall ye lay up these My words in your heart and in your soul; and ye shall bind them for a sign upon your hand, and they shall be for frontlets between your eyes.", 14.3. "Thou shalt not eat any abominable thing.", 14.4. "These are the beasts which ye may eat: the ox, the sheep, and the goat,", 14.5. "the hart, and the gazelle, and the roebuck, and the wild goat, and the pygarg, and the antelope, and the mountain-sheep.", 14.6. "And every beast that parteth the hoof, and hath the hoof wholly cloven in two, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that ye may eat.", 14.7. "Nevertheless these ye shall not eat of them that only chew the cud, or of them that only have the hoof cloven: the camel, and the hare, and the rock-badger, because they chew the cud but part not the hoof, they are unclean unto you;", 14.8. "and the swine, because he parteth the hoof but cheweth not the cud, he is unclean unto you; of their flesh ye shall not eat, and their carcasses ye shall not touch.", 14.9. "These ye may eat of all that are in the waters: whatsoever hath fins and scales may ye eat;", 14.10. "and whatsoever hath not fins and scales ye shall not eat; it is unclean unto you.", 14.11. "of all clean birds ye may eat.", 14.12. "But these are they of which ye shall not eat: the great vulture, and the bearded vulture, and the ospray;", 14.13. "and the glede, and the falcon, and the kite after its kinds;", 14.14. "and every raven after its kinds;", 14.15. "and the ostrich, and the night-hawk, and the sea-mew, and the hawk after its kinds;", 14.16. "the little owl, and the great owl, and the horned owl;", 14.17. "and the pelican, and the carrion-vulture, and the cormorant;", 14.18. "and the stork, and the heron after its kinds, and the hoopoe, and the bat.", 14.19. "And all winged swarming things are unclean unto you; they shall not be eaten.", 14.20. "of all clean winged things ye may eat.", 14.21. "Ye shall not eat of any thing that dieth of itself; thou mayest give it unto the stranger that is within thy gates, that he may eat it; or thou mayest sell it unto a foreigner; for thou art a holy people unto the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk.", 18.3. "And this shall be the priests’due from the people, from them that offer a sacrifice, whether it be ox or sheep, that they shall give unto the priest the shoulder, and the two cheeks, and the maw.", 23.4. "An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the LORD; even to the tenth generation shall none of them enter into the assembly of the LORD for ever;", 32.39. "See now that I, even I, am He, And there is no god with Me; I kill, and I make alive; I have wounded, and I heal; And there is none that can deliver out of My hand.", 33.2. "And he said: The LORD came from Sinai, And rose from Seir unto them; He shined forth from mount Paran, And He came from the myriads holy, At His right hand was a fiery law unto them.", 34.10. "And there hath not arisen a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face;",
11. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 11.1-11.30, 16.1-16.3, 17.11, 19.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 346, 347; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 215, 220; Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 9, 11; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 413; Wright (2015), The Letter of Aristeas : 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' 279
11.1. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה וְאֶל־אַהֲרֹן לֵאמֹר אֲלֵהֶם׃", 11.1. "וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לוֹ סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקֶשֶׂת בַּיַּמִּים וּבַנְּחָלִים מִכֹּל שֶׁרֶץ הַמַּיִם וּמִכֹּל נֶפֶשׁ הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר בַּמָּיִם שֶׁקֶץ הֵם לָכֶם׃", 11.2. "כֹּל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף הַהֹלֵךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לָכֶם׃", 11.2. "דַּבְּרוּ אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֵאמֹר זֹאת הַחַיָּה אֲשֶׁר תֹּאכְלוּ מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 11.3. "כֹּל מַפְרֶסֶת פַּרְסָה וְשֹׁסַעַת שֶׁסַע פְּרָסֹת מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה בַּבְּהֵמָה אֹתָהּ תֹּאכֵלוּ׃", 11.3. "וְהָאֲנָקָה וְהַכֹּחַ וְהַלְּטָאָה וְהַחֹמֶט וְהַתִּנְשָׁמֶת׃", 11.4. "אַךְ אֶת־זֶה לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמַּעֲלֵי הַגֵּרָה וּמִמַּפְרִיסֵי הַפַּרְסָה אֶת־הַגָּמָל כִּי־מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא וּפַרְסָה אֵינֶנּוּ מַפְרִיס טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃", 11.4. "וְהָאֹכֵל מִנִּבְלָתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב וְהַנֹּשֵׂא אֶת־נִבְלָתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃", 11.5. "וְאֶת־הַשָּׁפָן כִּי־מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא וּפַרְסָה לֹא יַפְרִיס טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃", 11.6. "וְאֶת־הָאַרְנֶבֶת כִּי־מַעֲלַת גֵּרָה הִוא וּפַרְסָה לֹא הִפְרִיסָה טְמֵאָה הִוא לָכֶם׃", 11.7. "וְאֶת־הַחֲזִיר כִּי־מַפְרִיס פַּרְסָה הוּא וְשֹׁסַע שֶׁסַע פַּרְסָה וְהוּא גֵּרָה לֹא־יִגָּר טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃", 11.8. "מִבְּשָׂרָם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ וּבְנִבְלָתָם לֹא תִגָּעוּ טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם׃", 11.9. "אֶת־זֶה תֹּאכְלוּ מִכֹּל אֲשֶׁר בַּמָּיִם כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקֶשֶׂת בַּמַּיִם בַּיַּמִּים וּבַנְּחָלִים אֹתָם תֹּאכֵלוּ׃", 11.11. "וְשֶׁקֶץ יִהְיוּ לָכֶם מִבְּשָׂרָם לֹא תֹאכֵלוּ וְאֶת־נִבְלָתָם תְּשַׁקֵּצוּ׃", 11.12. "כֹּל אֲשֶׁר אֵין־לוֹ סְנַפִּיר וְקַשְׂקֶשֶׂת בַּמָּיִם שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לָכֶם׃", 11.13. "וְאֶת־אֵלֶּה תְּשַׁקְּצוּ מִן־הָעוֹף לֹא יֵאָכְלוּ שֶׁקֶץ הֵם אֶת־הַנֶּשֶׁר וְאֶת־הַפֶּרֶס וְאֵת הָעָזְנִיָּה׃", 11.14. "וְאֶת־הַדָּאָה וְאֶת־הָאַיָּה לְמִינָהּ׃", 11.15. "אֵת כָּל־עֹרֵב לְמִינוֹ׃", 11.16. "וְאֵת בַּת הַיַּעֲנָה וְאֶת־הַתַּחְמָס וְאֶת־הַשָּׁחַף וְאֶת־הַנֵּץ לְמִינֵהוּ׃", 11.17. "וְאֶת־הַכּוֹס וְאֶת־הַשָּׁלָךְ וְאֶת־הַיַּנְשׁוּף׃", 11.18. "וְאֶת־הַתִּנְשֶׁמֶת וְאֶת־הַקָּאָת וְאֶת־הָרָחָם׃", 11.19. "וְאֵת הַחֲסִידָה הָאֲנָפָה לְמִינָהּ וְאֶת־הַדּוּכִיפַת וְאֶת־הָעֲטַלֵּף׃", 11.21. "אַךְ אֶת־זֶה תֹּאכְלוּ מִכֹּל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף הַהֹלֵךְ עַל־אַרְבַּע אֲשֶׁר־לא [לוֹ] כְרָעַיִם מִמַּעַל לְרַגְלָיו לְנַתֵּר בָּהֵן עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 11.22. "אֶת־אֵלֶּה מֵהֶם תֹּאכֵלוּ אֶת־הָאַרְבֶּה לְמִינוֹ וְאֶת־הַסָּלְעָם לְמִינֵהוּ וְאֶת־הַחַרְגֹּל לְמִינֵהוּ וְאֶת־הֶחָגָב לְמִינֵהוּ׃", 11.23. "וְכֹל שֶׁרֶץ הָעוֹף אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ אַרְבַּע רַגְלָיִם שֶׁקֶץ הוּא לָכֶם׃", 11.24. "וּלְאֵלֶּה תִּטַּמָּאוּ כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃", 11.25. "וְכָל־הַנֹּשֵׂא מִנִּבְלָתָם יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃", 11.26. "לְכָל־הַבְּהֵמָה אֲשֶׁר הִוא מַפְרֶסֶת פַּרְסָה וְשֶׁסַע אֵינֶנָּה שֹׁסַעַת וְגֵרָה אֵינֶנָּה מַעֲלָה טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בָּהֶם יִטְמָא׃", 11.27. "וְכֹל הוֹלֵךְ עַל־כַּפָּיו בְּכָל־הַחַיָּה הַהֹלֶכֶת עַל־אַרְבַּע טְמֵאִים הֵם לָכֶם כָּל־הַנֹּגֵעַ בְּנִבְלָתָם יִטְמָא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃", 11.28. "וְהַנֹּשֵׂא אֶת־נִבְלָתָם יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב טְמֵאִים הֵמָּה לָכֶם׃", 11.29. "וְזֶה לָכֶם הַטָּמֵא בַּשֶּׁרֶץ הַשֹּׁרֵץ עַל־הָאָרֶץ הַחֹלֶד וְהָעַכְבָּר וְהַצָּב לְמִינֵהוּ׃", 16.1. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אַחֲרֵי מוֹת שְׁנֵי בְּנֵי אַהֲרֹן בְּקָרְבָתָם לִפְנֵי־יְהוָה וַיָּמֻתוּ׃", 16.1. "וְהַשָּׂעִיר אֲשֶׁר עָלָה עָלָיו הַגּוֹרָל לַעֲזָאזֵל יָעֳמַד־חַי לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְכַפֵּר עָלָיו לְשַׁלַּח אֹתוֹ לַעֲזָאזֵל הַמִּדְבָּרָה׃", 16.2. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה דַּבֵּר אֶל־אַהֲרֹן אָחִיךָ וְאַל־יָבֹא בְכָל־עֵת אֶל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ מִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת אֶל־פְּנֵי הַכַּפֹּרֶת אֲשֶׁר עַל־הָאָרֹן וְלֹא יָמוּת כִּי בֶּעָנָן אֵרָאֶה עַל־הַכַּפֹּרֶת׃", 16.2. "וְכִלָּה מִכַּפֵּר אֶת־הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאֶת־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְאֶת־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְהִקְרִיב אֶת־הַשָּׂעִיר הֶחָי׃", 16.3. "כִּי־בַיּוֹם הַזֶּה יְכַפֵּר עֲלֵיכֶם לְטַהֵר אֶתְכֶם מִכֹּל חַטֹּאתֵיכֶם לִפְנֵי יְהוָה תִּטְהָרוּ׃", 16.3. "בְּזֹאת יָבֹא אַהֲרֹן אֶל־הַקֹּדֶשׁ בְּפַר בֶּן־בָּקָר לְחַטָּאת וְאַיִל לְעֹלָה׃", 17.11. "כִּי נֶפֶשׁ הַבָּשָׂר בַּדָּם הִוא וַאֲנִי נְתַתִּיו לָכֶם עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לְכַפֵּר עַל־נַפְשֹׁתֵיכֶם כִּי־הַדָּם הוּא בַּנֶּפֶשׁ יְכַפֵּר׃", 19.19. "אֶת־חֻקֹּתַי תִּשְׁמֹרוּ בְּהֶמְתְּךָ לֹא־תַרְבִּיעַ כִּלְאַיִם שָׂדְךָ לֹא־תִזְרַע כִּלְאָיִם וּבֶגֶד כִּלְאַיִם שַׁעַטְנֵז לֹא יַעֲלֶה עָלֶיךָ׃", 11.1. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses and to Aaron, saying unto them:", 11.2. "Speak unto the children of Israel, saying: These are the living things which ye may eat among all the beasts that are on the earth.", 11.3. "Whatsoever parteth the hoof, and is wholly cloven-footed, and cheweth the cud, among the beasts, that may ye eat.", 11.4. "Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them that only chew the cud, or of them that only part the hoof: the camel, because he cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof, he is unclean unto you.", 11.5. "And the rock-badger, because he cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof, he is unclean unto you.", 11.6. "And the hare, because she cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof, she is unclean unto you", 11.7. "And the swine, because he parteth the hoof, and is cloven-footed, but cheweth not the cud, he is unclean unto you.", 11.8. "of their flesh ye shall not eat, and their carcasses ye shall not touch; they are unclean unto you.", 11.9. "These may ye eat of all that are in the waters: whatsoever hath fins and scales in the waters, in the seas, and in the rivers, them may ye eat.", 11.10. "And all that have not fins and scales in the seas, and in the rivers, of all that swarm in the waters, and of all the living creatures that are in the waters, they are a detestable thing unto you,", 11.11. "and they shall be a detestable thing unto you; ye shall not eat of their flesh, and their carcasses ye shall have in detestation.", 11.12. "Whatsoever hath no fins nor scales in the waters, that is a detestable thing unto you.", 11.13. "And these ye shall have in detestation among the fowls; they shall not be eaten, they are a detestable thing: the great vulture, and the bearded vulture, and the ospray;", 11.14. "and the kite, and the falcon after its kinds;", 11.15. "every raven after its kinds;", 11.16. "and the ostrich, and the night-hawk, and the sea-mew, and the hawk after its kinds;", 11.17. "and the little owl, and the cormorant, and the great owl;", 11.18. "and the horned owl, and the pelican, and the carrion-vulture;", 11.19. "and the stork, and the heron after its kinds, and the hoopoe, and the bat.", 11.20. "All winged swarming things that go upon all fours are a detestable thing unto you.", 11.21. "Yet these may ye eat of all winged swarming things that go upon all fours, which have jointed legs above their feet, wherewith to leap upon the earth;", 11.22. "even these of them ye may eat: the locust after its kinds, and the bald locust after its kinds, and the cricket after its kinds, and the grasshopper after its kinds.", 11.23. "But all winged swarming things, which have four feet, are a detestable thing unto you.", 11.24. "And by these ye shall become unclean; whosoever toucheth the carcass of them shall be unclean until even.", 11.25. "And whosoever beareth aught of the carcass of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even.", 11.26. "Every beast which parteth the hoof, but is not cloven footed, nor cheweth the cud, is unclean unto you; every one that to toucheth them shall be unclean.", 11.27. "And whatsoever goeth upon its paws, among all beasts that go on all fours, they are unclean unto you; whoso toucheth their carcass shall be unclean until the even.", 11.28. "And he that beareth the carcass of them shall wash his clothes, and be unclean until the even; they are unclean unto you.", 11.29. "And these are they which are unclean unto you among the swarming things that swarm upon the earth: the weasel, and the mouse, and the great lizard after its kinds,", 11.30. "and the gecko, and the land-crocodile, and the lizard, and the sand-lizard, and the chameleon.", 16.1. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses, after the death of the two sons of Aaron, when they drew near before the LORD, and died;", 16.2. "and the LORD said unto Moses: ‘Speak unto Aaron thy brother, that he come not at all times into the holy place within the veil, before the ark-cover which is upon the ark; that he die not; for I appear in the cloud upon the ark-cover.", 16.3. "Herewith shall Aaron come into the holy place: with a young bullock for a sin-offering, and a ram for a burnt-offering.", 17.11. "For the life of the flesh is in the blood; and I have given it to you upon the altar to make atonement for your souls; for it is the blood that maketh atonement by reason of the life.", 19.19. "Ye shall keep My statutes. Thou shalt not let thy cattle gender with a diverse kind; thou shalt not sow thy field with two kinds of seed; neither shall there come upon thee a garment of two kinds of stuff mingled together.",
12. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1, 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5, 1.6, 1.7, 1.8, 1.9, 1.10, 1.11, 1.12, 1.13, 1.14, 1.15, 1.16, 1.17, 1.18, 1.19, 1.20, 1.21, 1.22, 1.23, 1.24, 1.25, 1.26, 1.27, 1.28, 2, 2.1-3.19, 2.4-28.9, 2.7, 2.9, 2.24, 3, 3.3, 3.6, 3.7, 3.8, 3.14, 3.19, 3.24-41.24, 4.7, 4.8, 4.9, 4.10, 4.11, 4.12, 4.13, 4.14, 4.15, 6.1, 6.2, 6.3, 6.4, 6.9-11.32, 9.20, 15, 15.2, 15.3, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9, 15.10, 15.11, 15.12, 15.13, 15.14, 15.15, 15.16, 15.17, 15.18, 16, 16.6, 16.7, 16.8, 16.9, 16.10, 16.11, 16.12, 16.13, 16.14, 17.19, 20.7, 21, 21.12, 21.25, 22, 26.17, 26.18, 26.19, 26.20, 26.21, 26.22, 28.11, 28.12, 28.13, 28.14, 28.15, 28.16, 28.17, 31.11, 31.12, 31.13, 31.14, 31.15, 31.16, 31.17, 31.18, 31.19, 31.20, 31.21, 39, 40, 46.2, 46.3, 46.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 146
13. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 1, 2, 4.11, 11.4, 11.6, 12.2-28.34, 12.2, 12.11, 12.29, 12.41, 15.22, 15.24, 15.25, 15.26, 16.4, 16.11, 16.15, 16.21, 16.22, 16.29, 16.31, 16.32, 17.8, 19.18, 20.5, 20.19, 25, 26, 26.33, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 31.2, 31.3, 33.18, 33.20, 33.23, 34.29, 34.30, 34.31, 34.32, 34.33, 34.34, 34.35, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 142
4.11. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֵלָיו מִי שָׂם פֶּה לָאָדָם אוֹ מִי־יָשׂוּם אִלֵּם אוֹ חֵרֵשׁ אוֹ פִקֵּחַ אוֹ עִוֵּר הֲלֹא אָנֹכִי יְהוָה׃", 4.11. "And the LORD said unto him: ‘Who hath made man’s mouth? or who maketh a man dumb, or deaf, or seeing, or blind? is it not I the LORD?",
14. Hebrew Bible, Hosea, 6.6, 13.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, letter of aristeas •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 47; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 596
6.6. "כִּי חֶסֶד חָפַצְתִּי וְלֹא־זָבַח וְדַעַת אֱלֹהִים מֵעֹלוֹת׃", 13.14. "מִיַּד שְׁאוֹל אֶפְדֵּם מִמָּוֶת אֶגְאָלֵם אֱהִי דְבָרֶיךָ מָוֶת אֱהִי קָטָבְךָ שְׁאוֹל נֹחַם יִסָּתֵר מֵעֵינָי׃", 6.6. "For I desire mercy, and not sacrifice, And the knowledge of God rather than burnt-offerings.", 13.14. "Shall I ransom them from the power of the nether-world? Shall I redeem them from death? Ho, thy plagues, O death! Ho, thy destruction, O netherworld! Repentance be hid from Mine eyes!",
15. Homer, Odyssey, 1.16-1.19, 4.236-4.237, 8.62-8.63, 15.488-15.489, 19.559-19.567, 19.569, 20.199-20.203, 24.1-24.14 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •alexandria, alexandrian scholarship, allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, two jars •allegory, allegorical •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 583; Finkelberg (2019), Homer and Early Greek Epic: Collected Essays, 225; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 142; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 6, 10
16. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 1.10-1.17, 5.11-5.18, 6.9-6.10, 11.2-11.3, 13.21, 25.8, 27.13, 33.15, 45.7, 54.1-54.2, 54.16, 55.1-55.2, 63.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 92, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 105, 106, 112, 115, 120, 125; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 47, 96, 142, 459, 463; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 91, 133; Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 63; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 596
1.11. "לָמָּה־לִּי רֹב־זִבְחֵיכֶם יֹאמַר יְהוָה שָׂבַעְתִּי עֹלוֹת אֵילִים וְחֵלֶב מְרִיאִים וְדַם פָּרִים וּכְבָשִׂים וְעַתּוּדִים לֹא חָפָצְתִּי׃", 1.12. "כִּי תָבֹאוּ לֵרָאוֹת פָּנָי מִי־בִקֵּשׁ זֹאת מִיֶּדְכֶם רְמֹס חֲצֵרָי׃", 1.13. "לֹא תוֹסִיפוּ הָבִיא מִנְחַת־שָׁוְא קְטֹרֶת תּוֹעֵבָה הִיא לִי חֹדֶשׁ וְשַׁבָּת קְרֹא מִקְרָא לֹא־אוּכַל אָוֶן וַעֲצָרָה׃", 1.14. "חָדְשֵׁיכֶם וּמוֹעֲדֵיכֶם שָׂנְאָה נַפְשִׁי הָיוּ עָלַי לָטֹרַח נִלְאֵיתִי נְשֹׂא׃", 1.15. "וּבְפָרִשְׂכֶם כַּפֵּיכֶם אַעְלִים עֵינַי מִכֶּם גַּם כִּי־תַרְבּוּ תְפִלָּה אֵינֶנִּי שֹׁמֵעַ יְדֵיכֶם דָּמִים מָלֵאוּ׃", 1.16. "רַחֲצוּ הִזַּכּוּ הָסִירוּ רֹעַ מַעַלְלֵיכֶם מִנֶּגֶד עֵינָי חִדְלוּ הָרֵעַ׃", 1.17. "לִמְדוּ הֵיטֵב דִּרְשׁוּ מִשְׁפָּט אַשְּׁרוּ חָמוֹץ שִׁפְטוּ יָתוֹם רִיבוּ אַלְמָנָה׃", 5.11. "הוֹי מַשְׁכִּימֵי בַבֹּקֶר שֵׁכָר יִרְדֹּפוּ מְאַחֲרֵי בַנֶּשֶׁף יַיִן יַדְלִיקֵם׃", 5.12. "וְהָיָה כִנּוֹר וָנֶבֶל תֹּף וְחָלִיל וָיַיִן מִשְׁתֵּיהֶם וְאֵת פֹּעַל יְהוָה לֹא יַבִּיטוּ וּמַעֲשֵׂה יָדָיו לֹא רָאוּ׃", 5.13. "לָכֵן גָּלָה עַמִּי מִבְּלִי־דָעַת וּכְבוֹדוֹ מְתֵי רָעָב וַהֲמוֹנוֹ צִחֵה צָמָא׃", 5.14. "לָכֵן הִרְחִיבָה שְּׁאוֹל נַפְשָׁהּ וּפָעֲרָה פִיהָ לִבְלִי־חֹק וְיָרַד הֲדָרָהּ וַהֲמוֹנָהּ וּשְׁאוֹנָהּ וְעָלֵז בָּהּ׃", 5.15. "וַיִּשַּׁח אָדָם וַיִּשְׁפַּל־אִישׁ וְעֵינֵי גְבֹהִים תִּשְׁפַּלְנָה׃", 5.16. "וַיִּגְבַּה יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְהָאֵל הַקָּדוֹשׁ נִקְדָּשׁ בִּצְדָקָה׃", 5.17. "וְרָעוּ כְבָשִׂים כְּדָבְרָם וְחָרְבוֹת מֵחִים גָּרִים יֹאכֵלוּ׃", 5.18. "הוֹי מֹשְׁכֵי הֶעָוֺן בְּחַבְלֵי הַשָּׁוְא וְכַעֲבוֹת הָעֲגָלָה חַטָּאָה׃", 6.9. "וַיֹּאמֶר לֵךְ וְאָמַרְתָּ לָעָם הַזֶּה שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ וְאַל־תָּבִינוּ וּרְאוּ רָאוֹ וְאַל־תֵּדָעוּ׃", 11.2. "וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ יְהוָה רוּחַ חָכְמָה וּבִינָה רוּחַ עֵצָה וּגְבוּרָה רוּחַ דַּעַת וְיִרְאַת יְהוָה׃", 11.3. "וַהֲרִיחוֹ בְּיִרְאַת יְהוָה וְלֹא־לְמַרְאֵה עֵינָיו יִשְׁפּוֹט וְלֹא־לְמִשְׁמַע אָזְנָיו יוֹכִיחַ׃", 13.21. "וְרָבְצוּ־שָׁם צִיִּים וּמָלְאוּ בָתֵּיהֶם אֹחִים וְשָׁכְנוּ שָׁם בְּנוֹת יַעֲנָה וּשְׂעִירִים יְרַקְּדוּ־שָׁם׃", 25.8. "בִּלַּע הַמָּוֶת לָנֶצַח וּמָחָה אֲדֹנָי יְהוִה דִּמְעָה מֵעַל כָּל־פָּנִים וְחֶרְפַּת עַמּוֹ יָסִיר מֵעַל כָּל־הָאָרֶץ כִּי יְהוָה דִּבֵּר׃", 27.13. "וְהָיָה בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא יִתָּקַע בְּשׁוֹפָר גָּדוֹל וּבָאוּ הָאֹבְדִים בְּאֶרֶץ אַשּׁוּר וְהַנִּדָּחִים בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם וְהִשְׁתַּחֲווּ לַיהוָה בְּהַר הַקֹּדֶשׁ בִּירוּשָׁלִָם׃", 33.15. "הֹלֵךְ צְדָקוֹת וְדֹבֵר מֵישָׁרִים מֹאֵס בְּבֶצַע מַעֲשַׁקּוֹת נֹעֵר כַּפָּיו מִתְּמֹךְ בַּשֹּׁחַד אֹטֵם אָזְנוֹ מִשְּׁמֹעַ דָּמִים וְעֹצֵם עֵינָיו מֵרְאוֹת בְּרָע׃", 45.7. "יוֹצֵר אוֹר וּבוֹרֵא חֹשֶׁךְ עֹשֶׂה שָׁלוֹם וּבוֹרֵא רָע אֲנִי יְהוָה עֹשֶׂה כָל־אֵלֶּה׃", 54.1. "רָנִּי עֲקָרָה לֹא יָלָדָה פִּצְחִי רִנָּה וְצַהֲלִי לֹא־חָלָה כִּי־רַבִּים בְּנֵי־שׁוֹמֵמָה מִבְּנֵי בְעוּלָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃", 54.1. "כִּי הֶהָרִים יָמוּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָעוֹת תְּמוּטֶנָה וְחַסְדִּי מֵאִתֵּךְ לֹא־יָמוּשׁ וּבְרִית שְׁלוֹמִי לֹא תָמוּט אָמַר מְרַחֲמֵךְ יְהוָה׃", 54.2. "הַרְחִיבִי מְקוֹם אָהֳלֵךְ וִירִיעוֹת מִשְׁכְּנוֹתַיִךְ יַטּוּ אַל־תַּחְשֹׂכִי הַאֲרִיכִי מֵיתָרַיִךְ וִיתֵדֹתַיִךְ חַזֵּקִי׃", 54.16. "הן [הִנֵּה] אָנֹכִי בָּרָאתִי חָרָשׁ נֹפֵחַ בְּאֵשׁ פֶּחָם וּמוֹצִיא כְלִי לְמַעֲשֵׂהוּ וְאָנֹכִי בָּרָאתִי מַשְׁחִית לְחַבֵּל׃", 55.1. "כִּי כַּאֲשֶׁר יֵרֵד הַגֶּשֶׁם וְהַשֶּׁלֶג מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְשָׁמָּה לֹא יָשׁוּב כִּי אִם־הִרְוָה אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְהוֹלִידָהּ וְהִצְמִיחָהּ וְנָתַן זֶרַע לַזֹּרֵעַ וְלֶחֶם לָאֹכֵל׃", 55.1. "הוֹי כָּל־צָמֵא לְכוּ לַמַּיִם וַאֲשֶׁר אֵין־לוֹ כָּסֶף לְכוּ שִׁבְרוּ וֶאֱכֹלוּ וּלְכוּ שִׁבְרוּ בְּלוֹא־כֶסֶף וּבְלוֹא מְחִיר יַיִן וְחָלָב׃", 55.2. "לָמָּה תִשְׁקְלוּ־כֶסֶף בְּלוֹא־לֶחֶם וִיגִיעֲכֶם בְּלוֹא לְשָׂבְעָה שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ אֵלַי וְאִכְלוּ־טוֹב וְתִתְעַנַּג בַּדֶּשֶׁן נַפְשְׁכֶם׃", 63.13. "מוֹלִיכָם בַּתְּהֹמוֹת כַּסּוּס בַּמִּדְבָּר לֹא יִכָּשֵׁלוּ׃", 1.10. "Hear the word of the LORD, Ye rulers of Sodom; Give ear unto the law of our God, Ye people of Gomorrah.", 1.11. "To what purpose is the multitude of your sacrifices unto Me? Saith the LORD; I am full of the burnt-offerings of rams, And the fat of fed beasts; And I delight not in the blood of bullocks, or of lambs, or of he-goats.", 1.12. "When ye come to appear before Me, Who hath required this at your hand, To trample My courts?", 1.13. "Bring no more vain oblations; It is an offering of abomination unto Me; New moon and sabbath, the holding of convocations— I cannot endure iniquity along with the solemn assembly.", 1.14. "Your new moons and your appointed seasons My soul hateth; They are a burden unto Me; I am weary to bear them.", 1.15. "And when ye spread forth your hands, I will hide Mine eyes from you; Yea, when ye make many prayers, I will not hear; Your hands are full of blood.", 1.16. "Wash you, make you clean, Put away the evil of your doings From before Mine eyes, Cease to do evil;", 1.17. "Learn to do well; Seek justice, relieve the oppressed, Judge the fatherless, plead for the widow.", 5.11. "Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning, That they may follow strong drink; That tarry late into the night, Till wine inflame them!", 5.12. "And the harp and the psaltery, the tabret and the pipe, And wine, are in their feasts; But they regard not the work of the LORD, Neither have they considered the operation of His hands.", 5.13. "Therefore My people are gone into captivity, For want of knowledge; And their honourable men are famished, And their multitude are parched with thirst.", 5.14. "Therefore the nether-world hath enlarged her desire, And opened her mouth without measure; And down goeth their glory, and their tumult, and their uproar, And he that rejoiceth among them.", 5.15. "And man is bowed down, And man is humbled, And the eyes of the lofty are humbled; .", 5.16. "But the LORD of hosts is exalted through justice, And God the Holy One is sanctified through righteousness.", 5.17. "Then shall the lambs feed as in their pasture, And the waste places of the fat ones shall wanderers eat.", 5.18. "Woe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, And sin as it were with a cart rope,", 6.9. "And He said: ‘Go, and tell this people: Hear ye indeed, but understand not; and see ye indeed, but perceive not.", 6.10. "Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’", 11.2. "And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and might, The spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD.", 11.3. "And his delight shall be in the fear of the LORD; And he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, Neither decide after the hearing of his ears;", 13.21. "But wild-cats shall lie there; And their houses shall be full of ferrets; And ostriches shall dwell there, And satyrs shall dance there.", 25.8. "He will swallow up death for ever; And the Lord GOD will wipe away tears from off all faces; And the reproach of His people will He take away from off all the earth; For the LORD hath spoken it.", 27.13. "And it shall come to pass in that day, That a great horn shall be blown; And they shall come that were lost in the land of Assyria, And they that were dispersed in the land of Egypt; And they shall worship the LORD in the holy mountain at Jerusalem.", 33.15. "He that walketh righteously, and speaketh uprightly; He that despiseth the gain of oppressions, That shaketh his hands from holding of bribes, That stoppeth his ears from hearing of blood, And shutteth his eyes from looking upon evil;", 45.7. "I form the light, and create darkness; I make peace, and create evil; I am the LORD, that doeth all these things.", 54.1. "Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear, Break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail; For more are the children of the desolate Than the children of the married wife, saith the LORD.", 54.2. "Enlarge the place of thy tent, And let them stretch forth the curtains of thy habitations, spare not; Lengthen thy cords, and strengthen thy stakes.", 54.16. "Behold, I have created the smith That bloweth the fire of coals, And bringeth forth a weapon for his work; And I have created the waster to destroy.", 55.1. "Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye for water, And he that hath no money; Come ye, buy, and eat; Yea, come, buy wine and milk Without money and without price.", 55.2. "Wherefore do ye spend money for that which is not bread? And your gain for that which satisfieth not? Hearken diligently unto Me, and eat ye that which is good, And let your soul delight itself in fatness.", 63.13. "That led them through the deep, as a horse in the wilderness, without stumbling?",
17. Hesiod, Works And Days, 100-104, 213-243, 245-247, 638, 667-669, 717-718, 90-99, 244 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 96, 142
244. And decent men suffer no scarcity
18. Hesiod, Theogony, 218-220, 633-634, 900, 905 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 96, 142
905. Would catch a hissing sound, which then would change
19. Hebrew Bible, 1 Samuel, 15.22 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, letter of aristeas Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 47
15.22. "וַיֹּאמֶר שְׁמוּאֵל הַחֵפֶץ לַיהוָה בְּעֹלוֹת וּזְבָחִים כִּשְׁמֹעַ בְּקוֹל יְהוָה הִנֵּה שְׁמֹעַ מִזֶּבַח טוֹב לְהַקְשִׁיב מֵחֵלֶב אֵילִים׃", 15.22. "And Shemu᾽el said, Has the Lord as great delight in burnt offerings and sacrifices, as in obeying the voice of the Lord? Behold, to obey is better than sacrifice, and to hearken than the fat of rams.",
20. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 7.21-7.26, 31.33, 33.11 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 62; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 47; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 245
7.21. "כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת אֱלֹהֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל עֹלוֹתֵיכֶם סְפוּ עַל־זִבְחֵיכֶם וְאִכְלוּ בָשָׂר׃", 7.22. "כִּי לֹא־דִבַּרְתִּי אֶת־אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם וְלֹא צִוִּיתִים בְּיוֹם הוציא [הוֹצִיאִי] אוֹתָם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם עַל־דִּבְרֵי עוֹלָה וָזָבַח׃", 7.23. "כִּי אִם־אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה צִוִּיתִי אוֹתָם לֵאמֹר שִׁמְעוּ בְקוֹלִי וְהָיִיתִי לָכֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְאַתֶּם תִּהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם וַהֲלַכְתֶּם בְּכָל־הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר אֲצַוֶּה אֶתְכֶם לְמַעַן יִיטַב לָכֶם׃", 7.24. "וְלֹא שָׁמְעוּ וְלֹא־הִטּוּ אֶת־אָזְנָם וַיֵּלְכוּ בְּמֹעֵצוֹת בִּשְׁרִרוּת לִבָּם הָרָע וַיִּהְיוּ לְאָחוֹר וְלֹא לְפָנִים׃", 7.25. "לְמִן־הַיּוֹם אֲשֶׁר יָצְאוּ אֲבוֹתֵיכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרַיִם עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה וָאֶשְׁלַח אֲלֵיכֶם אֶת־כָּל־עֲבָדַי הַנְּבִיאִים יוֹם הַשְׁכֵּם וְשָׁלֹחַ׃", 7.26. "וְלוֹא שָׁמְעוּ אֵלַי וְלֹא הִטּוּ אֶת־אָזְנָם וַיַּקְשׁוּ אֶת־עָרְפָּם הֵרֵעוּ מֵאֲבוֹתָם׃", 31.33. "כִּי זֹאת הַבְּרִית אֲשֶׁר אֶכְרֹת אֶת־בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל אַחֲרֵי הַיָּמִים הָהֵם נְאֻם־יְהוָה נָתַתִּי אֶת־תּוֹרָתִי בְּקִרְבָּם וְעַל־לִבָּם אֶכְתֲּבֶנָּה וְהָיִיתִי לָהֶם לֵאלֹהִים וְהֵמָּה יִהְיוּ־לִי לְעָם׃", 33.11. "קוֹל שָׂשׂוֹן וְקוֹל שִׂמְחָה קוֹל חָתָן וְקוֹל כַּלָּה קוֹל אֹמְרִים הוֹדוּ אֶת־יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת כִּי־טוֹב יְהוָה כִּי־לְעוֹלָם חַסְדּוֹ מְבִאִים תּוֹדָה בֵּית יְהוָה כִּי־אָשִׁיב אֶת־שְׁבוּת־הָאָרֶץ כְּבָרִאשֹׁנָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃", 7.21. "Thus saith the LORD of hosts, the God of Israel: Add your burnt-offerings unto your sacrifices, and eat ye flesh.", 7.22. "For I spoke not unto your fathers, nor commanded them in the day that I brought them out of the land of Egypt, concerning burnt-offerings or sacrifices;", 7.23. "but this thing I commanded them, saying: ‘Hearken unto My voice, and I will be your God, and ye shall be My people; and walk ye in all the way that I command you, that it may be well with you.’", 7.24. "But they hearkened not, nor inclined their ear, but walked in their own counsels, even in the stubbornness of their evil heart, and went backward and not forward,", 7.25. "even since the day that your fathers came forth out of the land of Egypt unto this day; and though I have sent unto you all My servants the prophets, sending them daily betimes and often,", 7.26. "yet they hearkened not unto Me, nor inclined their ear, but made their neck stiff; they did worse than their fathers.", 31.33. "But this is the covet that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, saith the LORD, I will put My law in their inward parts, and in their heart will I write it; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people;", 33.11. "the voice of joy and the voice of gladness, the voice of the bridegroom and the voice of the bride, the voice of them that say: ‘Give thanks to the LORD of hosts, for the LORD is good, for His mercy endureth for ever’, even of them that bring offerings of thanksgiving into the house of the LORD. For I will cause the captivity of the land to return as at the first, saith the LORD.",
21. Homer, Iliad, 1.423-1.425, 2.419-2.420, 15.109, 16.250-16.252, 24.525-24.533 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, two jars Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 95, 142; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 390
1.423. / But remain by your swift, sea-faring ships, and continue your wrath against the Achaeans, and refrain utterly from battle; for Zeus went yesterday to Oceanus, to the blameless Ethiopians for a feast, and all the gods followed with him; but on the twelfth day he will come back again to Olympus, 1.424. / But remain by your swift, sea-faring ships, and continue your wrath against the Achaeans, and refrain utterly from battle; for Zeus went yesterday to Oceanus, to the blameless Ethiopians for a feast, and all the gods followed with him; but on the twelfth day he will come back again to Olympus, 1.425. / and then will I go to the house of Zeus with threshold of bronze, and will clasp his knees in prayer, and I think I shall win him. 2.419. / and have burned with consuming fire the portals thereof, and cloven about the breast of Hector his tunic, rent with the bronze; and in throngs may his comrades round about him fall headlong in the dust, and bite the earth. So spake he; but not as yet would the son of Cronos grant him fulfillment; 2.420. / nay, he accepted the sacrifice, but toil he made to wax unceasingly. Then, when they had prayed and had sprinkled the barley grains, they first drew back the victims' heads and cut their throats, and flayed them; and they cut out the thigh-pieces and covered them with a double layer of fat, and laid raw flesh thereon. 15.109. / In sooth we are even yet fain to draw nigh unto him and thwart him of his will by word or by constraint, but he sitteth apart and recketh not, neither giveth heed thereto; for he deemeth that among the immortal gods he is manifestly supreme in might and strength. Wherefore content ye yourselves with whatsoever evil thing he sendeth upon each. 16.250. / and a part the Father granted him, and a part denied. That Patroclus should thrust back the war and battle from the ships he granted; but that he should return safe from out the battle he denied.Achilles then, when he had poured libation and made prayer to father Zeus, went again into his tent, and laid the cup away in the chest, and came forth and 16.251. / and a part the Father granted him, and a part denied. That Patroclus should thrust back the war and battle from the ships he granted; but that he should return safe from out the battle he denied.Achilles then, when he had poured libation and made prayer to father Zeus, went again into his tent, and laid the cup away in the chest, and came forth and 16.252. / and a part the Father granted him, and a part denied. That Patroclus should thrust back the war and battle from the ships he granted; but that he should return safe from out the battle he denied.Achilles then, when he had poured libation and made prayer to father Zeus, went again into his tent, and laid the cup away in the chest, and came forth and 24.525. / For on this wise have the gods spun the thread for wretched mortals, that they should live in pain; and themselves are sorrowless. For two urns are set upon the floor of Zeus of gifts that he giveth, the one of ills, the other of blessings. To whomsoever Zeus, that hurleth the thunderbolt, giveth a mingled lot, 24.526. / For on this wise have the gods spun the thread for wretched mortals, that they should live in pain; and themselves are sorrowless. For two urns are set upon the floor of Zeus of gifts that he giveth, the one of ills, the other of blessings. To whomsoever Zeus, that hurleth the thunderbolt, giveth a mingled lot, 24.527. / For on this wise have the gods spun the thread for wretched mortals, that they should live in pain; and themselves are sorrowless. For two urns are set upon the floor of Zeus of gifts that he giveth, the one of ills, the other of blessings. To whomsoever Zeus, that hurleth the thunderbolt, giveth a mingled lot, 24.528. / For on this wise have the gods spun the thread for wretched mortals, that they should live in pain; and themselves are sorrowless. For two urns are set upon the floor of Zeus of gifts that he giveth, the one of ills, the other of blessings. To whomsoever Zeus, that hurleth the thunderbolt, giveth a mingled lot, 24.529. / For on this wise have the gods spun the thread for wretched mortals, that they should live in pain; and themselves are sorrowless. For two urns are set upon the floor of Zeus of gifts that he giveth, the one of ills, the other of blessings. To whomsoever Zeus, that hurleth the thunderbolt, giveth a mingled lot, 24.530. / that man meeteth now with evil, now with good; but to whomsoever he giveth but of the baneful, him he maketh to be reviled of man, and direful madness driveth him over the face of the sacred earth, and he wandereth honoured neither of gods nor mortals. Even so unto Peleus did the gods give glorious gifts 24.531. / that man meeteth now with evil, now with good; but to whomsoever he giveth but of the baneful, him he maketh to be reviled of man, and direful madness driveth him over the face of the sacred earth, and he wandereth honoured neither of gods nor mortals. Even so unto Peleus did the gods give glorious gifts 24.532. / that man meeteth now with evil, now with good; but to whomsoever he giveth but of the baneful, him he maketh to be reviled of man, and direful madness driveth him over the face of the sacred earth, and he wandereth honoured neither of gods nor mortals. Even so unto Peleus did the gods give glorious gifts 24.533. / that man meeteth now with evil, now with good; but to whomsoever he giveth but of the baneful, him he maketh to be reviled of man, and direful madness driveth him over the face of the sacred earth, and he wandereth honoured neither of gods nor mortals. Even so unto Peleus did the gods give glorious gifts
22. Hebrew Bible, Amos, 3.6, 5.23 (8th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, two jars •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 96, 142; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 133
3.6. "אִם־יִתָּקַע שׁוֹפָר בְּעִיר וְעָם לֹא יֶחֱרָדוּ אִם־תִּהְיֶה רָעָה בְּעִיר וַיהוָה לֹא עָשָׂה׃", 5.23. "הָסֵר מֵעָלַי הֲמוֹן שִׁרֶיךָ וְזִמְרַת נְבָלֶיךָ לֹא אֶשְׁמָע׃", 3.6. "Shall the horn be blown in a city, And the people not tremble? Shall evil befall a city, And the LORD hath not done it?", 5.23. "Take thou away from Me the noise of thy songs; And let Me not hear the melody of thy psalteries.",
23. Hebrew Bible, 2 Samuel, 7.13-7.14 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 413
7.13. "הוּא יִבְנֶה־בַּיִת לִשְׁמִי וְכֹנַנְתִּי אֶת־כִּסֵּא מַמְלַכְתּוֹ עַד־עוֹלָם׃", 7.14. "אֲנִי אֶהְיֶה־לּוֹ לְאָב וְהוּא יִהְיֶה־לִּי לְבֵן אֲשֶׁר בְּהַעֲוֺתוֹ וְהֹכַחְתִּיו בְּשֵׁבֶט אֲנָשִׁים וּבְנִגְעֵי בְּנֵי אָדָם׃", 7.13. "He shall build a house for my name, and I will make firm the throne of his kingdom for ever.", 7.14. "I will be his father, and he will be my son. If he commit iniquity, I will chasten him with the rod of men, and with such plagues as befall the sons of Adam:",
24. Mimnermus of Colophon, Fragments, 2.15 (7th cent. BCE - 6th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, two jars Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 142
25. Theognis, Elegies, 155-158, 165-166, 171-172, 230-232, 463-464, 591-592, 133 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 142
26. Aeschylus, Fragments, 2.488-2.489 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, two jars Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 142
27. Hecataeus of Miletus, Fragments, 1.190-1.191, 1.195, 1.197 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 166
28. Heraclitus of Ephesus, Fragments, None (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 388
29. Pindar, Isthmian Odes, 5.52 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, two jars Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 142
30. Hebrew Bible, Ezekiel, 2.4 (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 91
2.4. "וְהַבָּנִים קְשֵׁי פָנִים וְחִזְקֵי־לֵב אֲנִי שׁוֹלֵחַ אוֹתְךָ אֲלֵיהֶם וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵיהֶם כֹּה אָמַר אֲדֹנָי יְהֹוִה׃", 2.4. "and the children are brazen-faced and stiff-hearted, I do send thee unto them; and thou shalt say unto them: Thus saith the Lord GOD.",
31. Hebrew Bible, Zechariah, 6.12 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 68
6.12. "וְאָמַרְתָּ אֵלָיו לֵאמֹר כֹּה אָמַר יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת לֵאמֹר הִנֵּה־אִישׁ צֶמַח שְׁמוֹ וּמִתַּחְתָּיו יִצְמָח וּבָנָה אֶת־הֵיכַל יְהוָהּ׃", 6.12. "and speak unto him, saying: Thus speaketh the LORD of hosts, saying: Behold, a man whose name is the Shoot, and who shall shoot up out of his place, and build the temple of the LORD;",
32. Herodotus, Histories, 5.67.5 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •alexandria, alexandrian scholarship, allegory, allegorical interpretation Found in books: Finkelberg (2019), Homer and Early Greek Epic: Collected Essays, 225
5.67.5. Besides other honors paid to Adrastus by the Sicyonians, they celebrated his lamentable fate with tragic choruses in honor not of Dionysus but of Adrastus. Cleisthenes, however, gave the choruses back to Dionysus and the rest of the worship to Melanippus.
33. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 5
476c. They would, indeed. He, then, who believes in beautiful things, but neither believes in beauty itself nor is able to follow when someone tries to guide him to the knowledge of it—do you think that his life is a dream or a waking? Just consider. Is not the dream state, whether the man is asleep or awake, just this: the mistaking of resemblance for identity? I should certainly call that dreaming, he said. Well, then, take the opposite case: the man whose thought recognizes a beauty in itself,
34. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 12.1-12.2 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical, tannaitic allegory •allegory/allegorical, and midrash •allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 106
12.1. "וַיַּעַשׂ הַמֶּלֶךְ רְחַבְעָם תַּחְתֵּיהֶם מָגִנֵּי נְחֹשֶׁת וְהִפְקִיד עַל־יַד שָׂרֵי הָרָצִים הַשֹּׁמְרִים פֶּתַח בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ׃", 12.1. "וַיְהִי כְּהָכִין מַלְכוּת רְחַבְעָם וּכְחֶזְקָתוֹ עָזַב אֶת־תּוֹרַת יְהוָה וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עִמּוֹ׃", 12.2. "וַיְהִי בַּשָּׁנָה הַחֲמִישִׁית לַמֶּלֶךְ רְחַבְעָם עָלָה שִׁישַׁק מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָם כִּי מָעֲלוּ בַּיהוָה׃", 12.1. "And it came to pass, when the kingdom of Rehoboam was established, and he was strong, that he forsook the law of the LORD, and all Israel with him.", 12.2. "And it came to pass in the fifth year of king Rehoboam, that Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem, because they had dealt treacherously with the LORD,",
35. Democritus, Fragments, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 10
36. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 96, 142
37. Hebrew Bible, Ecclesiastes, 1.14, 11.2 (5th cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, augustine •allegory, allegorical interpretation, beatitudes •allegory, allegorical interpretation, ambrose Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 456, 459
1.14. "רָאִיתִי אֶת־כָּל־הַמַּעֲשִׂים שֶׁנַּעֲשׂוּ תַּחַת הַשָּׁמֶשׁ וְהִנֵּה הַכֹּל הֶבֶל וּרְעוּת רוּחַ׃", 11.2. "תֶּן־חֵלֶק לְשִׁבְעָה וְגַם לִשְׁמוֹנָה כִּי לֹא תֵדַע מַה־יִּהְיֶה רָעָה עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃", 1.14. "I have seen all the works that are done under the sun; and, behold, all is vanity and a striving after wind.", 11.2. "Divide a portion into seven, yea, even into eight; For thou knowest not what evil shall be upon the earth.",
38. Plato, Epinomis, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, two jars Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 142
978a. ὄντως, οὐκ ἂν ἔτι πᾶς ἄν τις γνοίη σύμπαντα ἀριθμὸν ὅσης ἡμῖν δυνάμεως αἴτιος ἂν εἴη συγγιγνόμενος—ἐπεὶ καὶ τὰ κατὰ μουσικὴν πᾶσαν διαριθμουμένων κινήσεώς τε καὶ φθόγγων δῆλον ὅτι δεῖ—καὶ τὸ μέγιστον, ἀγαθῶν ὡς πάντων αἴτιον, ὅτι δὲ κακῶν οὐδενός, εὖ τοῦτο γνωστέον, ὃ καὶ τάχα γένοιτʼ ἄν. ἀλλʼ ἡ σχεδὸν ἀλόγιστός τε καὶ ἄτακτος ἀσχήμων τε καὶ ἄρρυθμος ἀνάρμοστός τε φορά, καὶ πάνθʼ ὁπόσα κακοῦ 978a. it is not anybody who can tell how great is the power which we owe to the accompaniment of number as a whole—for it is clear that everything in music needs a distinct numeration of movement and notes—and above all, how it is the cause of all good things; and that it is the cause of no evil thing is a point that must be well understood, as it may be quickly enough. Nay, the motion that we may call unreasoned and unordered, lacking shape and rhythm and harmony, and everything that has a share of some evil,
39. Plato, Gorgias, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 347
40. Plato, Laws, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegorical interpretation/allegory Found in books: Wright (2015), The Letter of Aristeas : 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' 274
715e. αὐτὸς αὑτοῦ ὁρᾷ, γέρων δὲ ὀξύτατα. ΚΛ. ἀληθέστατα. ΑΘ. τί δὴ τὸ μετὰ ταῦτα; ἆρʼ οὐχ ἥκοντας μὲν καὶ παρόντας θῶμεν τοὺς ἐποίκους, τὸν δʼ ἑξῆς αὐτοῖς διαπεραντέον ἂν εἴη λόγον; ΚΛ. πῶς γὰρ οὔ; ΑΘ. ἄνδρες τοίνυν φῶμεν πρὸς αὐτούς, ὁ μὲν δὴ θεός, ὥσπερ καὶ ὁ παλαιὸς λόγος, ἀρχήν τε καὶ τελευτὴν καὶ 715e. when he is young, but at its keenest when he is old. Clin. Very true. Ath. What, then, is to be our next step? May we not assume that our immigrants have arrived and are in the country, and should we not proceed with our address to them? Clin. of course. Ath. Let us, then, speak to them thus:— O men, that God who, as old tradition tells, holdeth the beginning, the end, and the center of all things that exist,
41. Plato, Letters, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 540
42. Plato, Phaedo, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, plato’s cave Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 447
43. Plato, Philebus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 202
39a. ΣΩ. ἡ μνήμη ταῖς αἰσθήσεσι συμπίπτουσα εἰς ταὐτὸν κἀκεῖνα ἃ περὶ ταῦτʼ ἐστὶ τὰ παθήματα φαίνονταί μοι σχεδὸν οἷον γράφειν ἡμῶν ἐν ταῖς ψυχαῖς τότε λόγους· καὶ ὅταν μὲν ἀληθῆ γράφῃ τοῦτο τὸ πάθημα , δόξα τε ἀληθὴς καὶ λόγοι ἀπʼ αὐτοῦ συμβαίνουσιν ἀληθεῖς ἐν ἡμῖν γιγνόμενοι· ψευδῆ δʼ ὅταν ὁ τοιοῦτος παρʼ ἡμῖν γραμματεὺς γράψῃ, τἀναντία τοῖς ἀληθέσιν ἀπέβη. 39a. Soc. Memory unites with the senses, and they and the feelings which are connected with them seem to me almost to write words in our souls; and when the feeling in question writes the truth, true opinions and true statements are produced in us; but when the writer within us writes falsehoods, the resulting opinions and statements are the opposite of true.
44. Plato, Symposium, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 360
45. Plato, Theaetetus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 202
46. Menander, Epitrepontes, 1086, 1085 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 142
47. Aristotle, On Dreams, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 206
48. Aristotle, Posterior Analytics, 1.10, 2.7 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 202, 206
49. Aristotle, Politics, 1.13 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegorical interpretation/allegory Found in books: Wright (2015), The Letter of Aristeas : 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' 393
50. Aristotle, Poetics, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 88
51. Aristotle, Meteorology, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 388
52. Aristobulus Cassandreus, Fragments, None (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 49
53. Aristotle, Gait of Animals, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 143
54. Aristotle, Heavens, 2.14 (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 388
55. Aristotle, Categories, None (4th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 202
56. Theocritus, Idylls, 7.21 (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 68
57. Democritus Ephesius, Fragments, None (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 10
58. Ezekiel The Tragedian, Exagoge, 12, 16, 35, 99, 155 (3rd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 171
59. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Qppsa, 2.4, 2.10, 3.5, 3.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 473
60. Cicero, On Divination, 1.64, 2.13, 2.124-2.126, 2.129, 2.132, 2.142-2.144 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 10; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 408
1.64. Divinare autem morientes illo etiam exemplo confirmat Posidonius, quod adfert, Rhodium quendam morientem sex aequales nominasse et dixisse, qui primus eorum, qui secundus, qui deinde deinceps moriturus esset. Sed tribus modis censet deorum adpulsu homines somniare, uno, quod provideat animus ipse per sese, quippe qui deorum cognatione teneatur, altero, quod plenus ae+r sit inmortalium animorum, in quibus tamquam insignitae notae veritatis appareant, tertio, quod ipsi di cum dormientibus conloquantur. Idque, ut modo dixi, facilius evenit adpropinquante morte, ut animi futura augurentur. 2.13. Sed animadverti, Quinte, te caute et ab iis coniecturis, quae haberent artem atque prudentiam, et ab iis rebus, quae sensibus aut artificiis perciperentur, abducere divinationem eamque ita definire: divinationem esse earum rerum praedictionem et praesensionem, quae essent fortuitae. Primum eodem revolveris. Nam et medici et gubernatoris et imperatoris praesensio est rerum fortuitarum. Num igitur aut haruspex aut augur aut vates quis aut somnians melius coniecerit aut e morbo evasurum aegrotum aut e periculo navem aut ex insidiis exercitum quam medicus, quam gubernator, quam imperator? 2.124. Sed haec quoque in promptu fuerint; nunc interiora videamus. Aut enim divina vis quaedam consulens nobis somniorum significationes facit, aut coniectores ex quadam convenientia et coniunctione naturae, quam vocant sumpa/qeian, quid cuique rei conveniat ex somniis, et quid quamque rem sequatur, intellegunt, aut eorum neutrum est, sed quaedam observatio constans atque diuturna est, cum quid visum secundum quietem sit, quid evenire et quid sequi soleat. Primum igitur intellegendum est nullam vim esse divinam effectricem somniorum. Atque illud quidem perspicuum est, nulla visa somniorum proficisci a numine deorum; nostra enim causa di id facerent, ut providere futura possemus. 2.125. Quotus igitur est quisque, qui somniis pareat, qui intellegat, qui meminerit? quam multi vero, qui contemt eamque superstitionem inbecilli animi atque anilis putent! Quid est igitur, cur his hominibus consulens deus somniis moneat eos, qui illa non modo cura, sed ne memoria quidem digna ducant? Nec enim ignorare deus potest, qua mente quisque sit, nec frustra ac sine causa quid facere dignum deo est, quod abhorret etiam ab hominis constantia. Ita, si pleraque somnia aut ignorantur aut negleguntur, aut nescit hoc deus aut frustra somniorum significatione utitur; et horum neutrum in deum cadit; nihil igitur a deo somniis significari fatendum est. 2.126. Illud etiam requiro, cur, si deus ista visa nobis providendi causa dat, non vigilantibus potius det quam dormientibus. Sive enim externus et adventicius pulsus animos dormientium commovet, sive per se ipsi animi moventur, sive quae causa alia est, cur secundum quietem aliquid videre, audire, agere videamur, eadem causa vigilantibus esse poterat; idque si nostra causa di secundum quietem facerent, vigilantibus idem facerent, praesertim cum Chrysippus Academicos refellens permulto clariora et certiora esse dicat, quae vigilantibus videantur, quam quae somniantibus. Fuit igitur divina beneficentia dignius, cum consulerent nobis, clariora visa dare vigilanti quam obscuriora per somnum. Quod quoniam non fit, somnia divina putanda non sunt. 2.129. Venit enim iam in contentionem, utrum sit probabilius, deosne inmortalis, rerum omnium praestantia excellentis, concursare circum omnium mortalium, qui ubique sunt, non modo lectos, verum etiam grabatos et, cum stertentem aliquem viderint, obicere iis visa quaedam tortuosa et obscura, quae illi exterriti somno ad coniectorem mane deferant, an natura fieri, ut mobiliter animus agitatus, quod vigilans viderit, dormiens videre videatur. Utrum philosophia dignius, sagarum superstitione ista interpretari an explicatione naturae? ut, si iam fieri possit vera coniectura somniorum, tamen isti, qui profitentur, eam facere non possint; ex levissimo enim et indoctissimo genere constant. Stoici autem tui negant quemquam nisi sapientem divinum esse posse. 2.132. Iam vero quo pertinent obscuritates et aenigmata somniorum? intellegi enim a nobis di velle debebant ea, quae nostra causa nos monerent. Quid? poe+ta nemo, nemo physicus obscurus? 2.142. Nunc quidem propter intermissionem forensis operae et lucubrationes detraxi et meridiationes addidi, quibus uti antea non solebam, nec tam multum dormiens ullo somnio sum admonitus, tantis praesertim de rebus, nec mihi magis umquam videor, quam cum aut in foro magistratus aut in curia senatum video, somniare. Etenim (ex divisione hoc secundum est) quae est continuatio coniunctioque naturae, quam, ut dixi, vocant sumpa/qeian, eius modi, ut thensaurus ex ovo intellegi debeat? Nam medici ex quibusdam rebus et advenientis et crescentis morbos intellegunt, non nullas etiam valetudinis significationes, ut hoc ipsum, pleni enectine simus, ex quodam genere somniorum intellegi posse dicunt. Thensaurus vero et hereditas et honos et victoria et multa generis eiusdem qua cum somniis naturali cognatione iunguntur? 2.143. Dicitur quidam, cum in somnis complexu Venerio iungeretur, calculos eiecisse. Video sympathian; visum est enim tale obiectum dormienti, ut id, quod evenit, naturae vis, non opinio erroris effecerit. Quae igitur natura obtulit illam speciem Simonidi, a qua vetaretur navigare? aut quid naturae copulatum habuit Alcibiadis quod scribitur somnium? qui paulo ante interitum visus est in somnis amicae esse amictus amiculo. Is cum esset proiectus inhumatus ab omnibusque desertus iaceret, amica corpus eius texit suo pallio. Ergo hoc inerat in rebus futuris et causas naturalis habebat, an, et ut videretur et ut eveniret, casus effecit? 2.144. Quid? ipsorum interpretum coniecturae nonne magis ingenia declarant eorum quam vim consensumque naturae? Cursor ad Olympia proficisci cogitans visus est in somnis curru quadrigarum vehi. Mane ad coniectorem. At ille: Vinces, inquit; id enim celeritas significat et vis equorum. Post idem ad Antiphontem. Is autem: Vincare, inquit, necesse est; an non intellegis quattuor ante te cucurrisse? Ecce alius cursor (atque horum somniorum et talium plenus est Chrysippi liber, plenus Antipatri) —sed ad cursorem redeo: Ad interpretem detulit aquilam se in somnis visum esse factum. At ille: Vicisti; ista enim avi volat nulla vehementius. Huic eidem Antipho: Baro, inquit, victum te esse non vides? ista enim avis insectans alias avis et agitans semper ipsa postrema est . 1.64. Moreover, proof of the power of dying men to prophesy is also given by Posidonius in his well-known account of a certain Rhodian, who, when on his death-bed, named six men of equal age and foretold which of them would die first, which second, and so on. Now Posidonius holds the view that there are three ways in which men dream as the result of divine impulse: first, the soul is clairvoyant of itself because of its kinship with the gods; second, the air is full of immortal souls, already clearly stamped, as it were, with the marks of truth; and third, the gods in person converse with men when they are asleep. And, as I said just now, it is when death is at hand that men most readily discern signs of the future. 2.13. But I observed, Quintus, that you prudently withdrew divination from conjectures based upon skill and experience in public affairs, from those drawn from the use of the senses and from those made by persons in their own callings. I observed, also, that you defined divination to be the foreknowledge and foretelling of things which happen by chance. In the first place, that is a contradiction of what you have admitted. For the foreknowledge possessed by a physician, a pilot, and a general is of things which happen by chance. Then can any soothsayer, augur, prophet, or dreamer conjecture better than a physician, a pilot, or a general that an invalid will come safely out of his sickness, or that a ship will escape from danger, or that an army will avoid an ambuscade? 2.124. But, though the conclusion just stated is obvious, let us now look deeper into the question. Surely you must assume, either that there is a Divine Power which, in planning for our good, gives us information by means of dreams; or that, because of some natural connexion and association — the Greeks call it συμπάθεια — interpreters of dreams know what sort of a dream is required to fit any situation and what sort of a result will follow any dream; or that neither of these suppositions is true, but that the usual result or consequence of every dream is known by a consistent system of rules based on long-continued observation. In the first place, then, it must be understood that there is no divine power which creates dreams. And indeed it is perfectly clear that none of the visions seen in dreams have their origin in the will of the gods; for the gods, for our sakes, would so interpose that we might be able to foresee the future. 2.125. But how often, pray, do you find anyone who pays any attention to dreams or who understands or remembers them? On the other hand, how many treat them with disdain, and regard a belief in them as the superstition of a weak and effeminate mind! Moreover, why does God, in planning for the good of the human race, convey his warnings by means of dreams which men consider unworthy not only of worrying about, but even of remembering? For it is impossible that God does not know how people generally regard dreams; and to do anything needlessly and without a cause is unworthy of a god and is inconsistent even with the habits of right-thinking men. And hence, if most dreams are unnoticed and disregarded, either God is ignorant of that fact, or he does a vain thing in conveying information by means of dreams; but neither supposition accords with the nature of a god, therefore, it must be admitted that God conveys no information by means of dreams. [61] 2.126. I also ask, if God gives us these visions as forewarnings, why does he not give them to us when we are awake rather than when we are asleep? For, whether our souls in sleep are impelled by some external and foreign force; or whether they are self-moved; or whether there is some other cause why, during sleep, we imagine ourselves seeing or hearing, or doing certain things — whatever the cause, it would apply just as well when we are awake. If the gods did send us warnings in our sleep and for our good they would do the same for us when we are awake, especially since, as Chrysippus says in replying to the Academicians, appearances seen when we are awake are much more distinct and trustworthy than those seen in dreams. It would, therefore, have been more in keeping with the beneficence of gods, in consulting for our good, to send us clear visions in our waking moments rather than unintelligible ones in our dreams. But since that is not the case, dreams ought not to be held divine. 2.129. The question now arises as to which is the more probable: do the immortal gods, who are of surpassing excellence in all things, constantly flit about, not only the beds, but even the lowly pallets of mortals, wherever they may be, and when they find someone snoring, throw at him dark and twisted visions, which scare him from his sleep and which he carries in the morning to a dream-expert to unravel? or does nature bring it to pass that the ever-active soul sees in sleep phantoms of what it saw when the body was awake? Which is more consot with philosophy: to explain these apparitions by the superstitious theories of fortune-telling hags, or by an explanation based on natural causes? But even if it were possible to draw trustworthy inferences from dreams, it could not be done by those who profess to have that power; for their fraternity is composed of the most shallow and the most ignorant of men. Yet your Stoics assert that no one can be a diviner unless he is a wise man. 2.132. Beside, what purpose is served by dark and enigmatic dreams? Surely the gods ought to want us to understand the advice they give us for our good. Oh! but you retort, Are poets and natural philosophers never obscure? Indeed they are: Euphorion is even too obscure; but Homer is not. 2.142. Moreover, at the present time, owing to the interruption of my public labours, I have ceased my nocturnal studies, and (contrary to my former practice) I have added afternoon naps. Yet despite all this time spent in sleep I have not received a single prophecy in a dream, certainly not one about the great events now going on. Indeed, I never seem to be dreaming more than when I see the magistrates in the forum and the Senate in its chamber.[69] Coming now to the second branch of the present topic, is there some such natural connecting link, which, as I said before, the Greeks call συμπάθεια, that the finding of a treasure must be deduced from dreaming of an egg? of course physicians, from certain symptoms, know the incipiency and progress of a disease; and it is claimed that from some kinds of dreams they even can gather certain indications as to a patients health, as whether the internal humours of the body are excessive or deficient. But what natural bond of union is there between dreams, on the one hand, and treasures, legacies, public office, victory and many other things of the same kind, on the other? 2.143. A person, it is said, while dreaming of coition, ejected gravel. In this case I can see a relation between the dream and the result; for the vision presented to the sleeper was such as to make it clear that what happened was due to natural causes and not to the delusion. But by what law of nature did Simonides receive that vision which forbade him to sail? or what was the connexion between the laws of nature and the dream of Alcibiades in which according to history, shortly before his death, he seemed to be enveloped in the cloak of his mistress? Later, when his body had been cast out and was lying unburied and universally neglected, his mistress covered it with her mantle. Then do you say that this dream was united by some natural tie with the fate that befell Alcibiades, or did chance cause both the apparition and the subsequent event? [70] 2.144. Furthermore, is it not a fact that the conjectures of the interpreters of dreams give evidence of their authors sagacity rather than afford any proof of a relation between dreams and the laws of nature? For example, a runner, who was planning to set out for the Olympic games, dreamed that he was riding in a chariot drawn by four horses. In the morning he went to consult an interpreter, who said to him, You will win, for that is implied in the speed and strength of horses. Later the runner went to Antipho, who said, You are bound to lose, for do you not see that four ran ahead of you? And behold another runner! — for the books of Chrysippus and Antipater are full of such dreams — but to return to the runner: he reported to an interpreter that he had dreamed of having been changed into an eagle. The interpreter said to him, You are the victor, for no bird flies faster than the eagle. This runner also consulted Antipho. Simpleton, said the latter, dont you see that you are beaten? For that bird is always pursuing and driving other birds before it and itself is always last.
61. Musaeus Ephesius, Titulus, None (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 4
62. Septuagint, Ecclesiasticus (Siracides), 25.8, 34.5-34.6, 39.1, 40.1-40.10, 44.19-44.23, 46.13-46.20 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 5, 6; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 414
25.8. happy is he who lives with an intelligent wife,and he who has not made a slip with his tongue,and he who has not served a man inferior to himself; 34.5. Divinations and omens and dreams are folly,and like a woman in travail the mind has fancies. 34.6. Unless they are sent from the Most High as a visitation,do not give your mind to them. 39.1. On the other hand he who devotes himself to the study of the law of the Most High will seek out the wisdom of all the ancients,and will be concerned with prophecies; 39.1. Nations will declare his wisdom,and the congregation will proclaim his praise; 40.1. Much labor was created for every man,and a heavy yoke is upon the sons of Adam,from the day they come forth from their mothers womb till the day they return to the mother of all. 40.1. All these were created for the wicked,and on their account the flood came. 40.2. Their perplexities and fear of heart -- their anxious thought is the day of death, 40.2. Wine and music gladden the heart,but the love of wisdom is better than both. 40.3. from the man who sits on a splendid throne to the one who is humbled in dust and ashes, 40.3. In the mouth of the shameless begging is sweet,but in his stomach a fire is kindled. 40.4. from the man who wears purple and a crown to the one who is clothed in burlap; 40.5. there is anger and envy and trouble and unrest,and fear of death, and fury and strife. And when one rests upon his bed,his sleep at night confuses his mind. 40.6. He gets little or no rest,and afterward in his sleep, as though he were on watch,he is troubled by the visions of his mind like one who has escaped from the battle-front; 40.7. at the moment of his rescue he wakes up,and wonders that his fear came to nothing. 40.8. With all flesh, both man and beast,and upon sinners seven times more, 40.9. are death and bloodshed and strife and sword,calamities, famine and affliction and plague. 44.19. Abraham was the great father of a multitude of nations,and no one has been found like him in glory; 44.21. Therefore the Lord assured him by an oath that the nations would be blessed through his posterity;that he would multiply him like the dust of the earth,and exalt his posterity like the stars,and cause them to inherit from sea to sea and from the River to the ends of the earth. 44.22. To Isaac also he gave the same assurance for the sake of Abraham his father. 44.23. The blessing of all men and the covet he made to rest upon the head of Jacob;he acknowledged him with his blessings,and gave him his inheritance;he determined his portions,and distributed them among twelve tribes. 46.14. By the law of the Lord he judged the congregation,and the Lord watched over Jacob. 46.15. By his faithfulness he was proved to be a prophet,and by his words he became known as a trustworthy seer. 46.16. He called upon the Lord, the Mighty One,when his enemies pressed him on every side,and he offered in sacrifice a sucking lamb. 46.17. Then the Lord thundered from heaven,and made his voice heard with a mighty sound; 46.18. and he wiped out the leaders of the people of Tyre and all the rulers of the Philistines. 46.19. Before the time of his eternal sleep,Samuel called men to witness before the Lord and his anointed:"I have not taken any ones property,not so much as a pair of shoes." And no man accused him.
63. Cicero, On Duties, 1.129 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical reading Found in books: Trettel (2019), Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14, 148
1.129. Quibus in rebus duo maxime sunt fugienda, ne quid effeminatum aut molle et ne quid durum aut rusticum sit. Nec vero histrionibus oratoribusque concedendum est, ut iis haec apta sint, nobis dissoluta. Scaenicorum quidem mos tantam habet vetere disciplina verecundiam, ut in scaenam sine subligaculo prodeat nemo; verentur enim, ne, si quo casn evenerit, ut corporis partes quaedam aperiantur, aspiciantur non decore. Nostro quidem more cum parentibus puberes filii, cum soceris generi non lavantur. Retinenda igitur est huius generis verecundia, praesertim natura ipsa magistra et duce. 1.129.  In these matters we must avoid especially the two extremes — our conduct and speech should not be effeminate and over-nice, on the one hand, nor coarse and boorish, on the other. And we surely must not admit that, while this rule applies to actors and orators, it is not binding upon us. As for stage-people, their custom, because of its traditional discipline, carries modesty to such a point that an actor would never step out upon the stage without a breech-cloth on, for fear he might make an improper exhibition, if by some accident certain parts of his person should happen to become exposed. And in our own custom grown sons do not bathe with their fathers, nor sons-in‑law with their fathers-in‑law. We must, therefore, keep to the path of this sort of modesty, especially when Nature is our teacher and guide.
64. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q169, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 116
65. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 1.21, 3.16, 6.2-6.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical, tannaitic allegory •allegory/allegorical, and midrash •allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah •allegory/allegorical, and pesher •allegory/allegorical, in the dead sea scrolls •allegory/allegorical, allegorical text or interpretation •allegory/allegorical, of law •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 114, 119, 120; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 595
66. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q271, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 439
67. Septuagint, Judith, 12.7-12.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 0th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegorical interpretation/allegory Found in books: Wright (2015), The Letter of Aristeas : 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' 440
12.7. So Holofernes commanded his guards not to hinder her. And she remained in the camp for three days, and went out each night to the valley of Bethulia, and bathed at the spring in the camp. 12.8. When she came up from the spring she prayed the Lord God of Israel to direct her way for the raising up of her people.
68. Septuagint, 3 Maccabees, 1.12, 2.32-2.33, 4.16 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 51
1.12. Even after the law had been read to him, he did not cease to maintain that he ought to enter, saying, "Even if those men are deprived of this honor, I ought not to be." 2.32. But the majority acted firmly with a courageous spirit and did not depart from their religion; and by paying money in exchange for life they confidently attempted to save themselves from the registration. 2.33. They remained resolutely hopeful of obtaining help, and they abhorred those who separated themselves from them, considering them to be enemies of the Jewish nation, and depriving them of common fellowship and mutual help. 4.16. The king was greatly and continually filled with joy, organizing feasts in honor of all his idols, with a mind alienated from truth and with a profane mouth, praising speechless things that are not able even to communicate or to come to one's help, and uttering improper words against the supreme God.
69. Septuagint, 2 Maccabees, 1.10 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, aristobulus •allegory, allegorical interpretation, jewish •allegory/allegorical, jewish-hellenistic allegory •allegory/allegorical, a short history of •allegory/allegorical, allegorical text or interpretation •allegory/allegorical, and apologetics •allegory/allegorical, in alexandria •allegory/allegorical, of dietary laws •allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah •allegory/allegorical, of homer •allegory/allegorical, of anthropomorphism Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 85; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 171
1.10. Those in Jerusalem and those in Judea and the senate and Judas,To Aristobulus, who is of the family of the anointed priests, teacher of Ptolemy the king, and to the Jews in Egypt,Greeting, and good health.'
70. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Psalms, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 115
71. Philodemus of Gadara, Rhetorica, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 81
72. Septuagint, Wisdom of Solomon, 25.8 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 414
73. Hebrew Bible, Daniel, 5.4, 12.2 (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 51, 436
5.4. "אִשְׁתִּיו חַמְרָא וְשַׁבַּחוּ לֵאלָהֵי דַּהֲבָא וְכַסְפָּא נְחָשָׁא פַרְזְלָא אָעָא וְאַבְנָא׃", 12.2. "וְרַבִּים מִיְּשֵׁנֵי אַדְמַת־עָפָר יָקִיצוּ אֵלֶּה לְחַיֵּי עוֹלָם וְאֵלֶּה לַחֲרָפוֹת לְדִרְאוֹן עוֹלָם׃", 5.4. "They drank wine, and praised the gods of gold, and of silver, of brass, of iron, of wood, and of stone.", 12.2. "And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to reproaches and everlasting abhorrence.",
74. Dead Sea Scrolls, Community Rule, 9.3-9.6 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 135
75. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 1.21, 3.16, 6.2-6.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical, tannaitic allegory •allegory/allegorical, and midrash •allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah •allegory/allegorical, and pesher •allegory/allegorical, in the dead sea scrolls •allegory/allegorical, allegorical text or interpretation •allegory/allegorical, of law •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 114, 119, 120; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 595
76. Horace, Odes, 3.1.1 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 4
77. Anon., Sibylline Oracles, 3.591-3.593 (1st cent. BCE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegorical interpretation/allegory Found in books: Wright (2015), The Letter of Aristeas : 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' 440
78. Demetrius, Style, 100-102, 280, 285, 99, 151 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 81, 88
79. Diodorus Siculus, Historical Library, 1.12.3 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 223
1.12.3.  The fire they called Hephaestus, as it is translated, holding him to be a great god and one who contributes much both to the birth and full development of all things.
80. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 113, 204 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 408
204. For it was not likely that in his state he could clearly and distinctly comprehend either sleep or waking, or a stationary position or motion; but when he appears to have come to an opinion in the best manner, then above all other times is he found to be most foolish, since his affairs then come to an end, by no means resembling that which was expected;
81. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 43, 63 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 96
63. Let us then, with reference to our gratitude to and honouring of the omnipotent God, be active and ready, deprecating all sluggishness and delay; for those who are passing over from obedience to the passions to the contemplation of virtue, are enjoined to keep the passover with their loins girded up, being ready to do service, and binding up the burden of the flesh, or, as it is expressed, their shoes, "standing upright, and firmly on their feet, and having in their hands a Staff," that is to say education, with the object of succeeding without any failure in all the affairs of life; and lastly, "to eat the passover in haste." For, by the passover, is signified the crossing over of the created and perishable being to God:--and very appropriately; for there is no single good thing which does not belong to God, and which is not divine.
82. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 158 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 202
158. I, Flaccus, who was born, and brought up, and educated in Rome, the heaven of the world, and who have been the schoolfellow and companion of the granddaughters of Augustus, and who was afterwards selected by Tiberius Caesar as one of his most intimate friends, and who have had entrusted to me for six years the greatest of all his possessions, namely, Egypt.
83. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.5, 1.11, 1.175, 1.263-1.293, 2.95-2.135, 2.259-2.265 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical exegesis •allegory, allegorical interpretation, philo Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 203, 348, 349; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 95, 224, 227
1.5. And I will begin first with that with which it is necessary to begin. Moses was by birth a Hebrew, but he was born, and brought up, and educated in Egypt, his ancestors having migrated into Egypt with all their families on account of the long famine which oppressed Babylon and all the adjacent countries; for they were in search of food, and Egypt was a champaign country blessed with a rich soil, and very productive of every thing which the nature of man requires, and especially of corn and wheat, 1.11. Then, as was natural for people involved in a miserable misfortune, they accused themselves as having brought a heavier affliction on themselves than they need have done. "For why," said they, "did we not expose him at the first moment of his birth?" For people in general do not look upon one who has not lived long enough to partake of salutary food as a human being at all. "But we, in our superfluous affection, have nourished him these three entire months, causing ourselves by such conduct more abundant grief, and inflicting upon him a heavier punishment, in order that he, having at last attained to a great capacity for feeling pleasures and pains, should at last perish in the perception of the most grievous evils." 1.175. Thus he spoke to them while yet standing still. But after a short time he became inspired by God, and being full of the divine spirit and under the influence of that spirit which was accustomed to enter into him, he prophesied and animated them thus: "This army which you behold so splendidly equipped with arms, you shall no more see arrayed against you; for it shall fall, utterly and completely overthrown, so that not a relic shall be seen any more upon the earth, and that not at any distance of time, but this very next night." 1.263. This war struck all the Asiatic nations with terrible consternation, and especially all those who were near the borders of the Amorites, inasmuch as they looked upon the dangers as being nearer to themselves. Accordingly, one of the neighbouring kings, by name Balak, who ruled over a large and thickly inhabited country of the east, before he met them in battle, feeling great distrust of his own power, did not think fit to meet them in close combat, being desirous to avoid carrying on a war of extermination by open arms; but he had recourse to inquiries and divination, thinking that by some kind of ruse or other he might be able to overthrow the irresistible power of the Hebrews. 1.264. Now there was a man at that time very celebrated for his skill in divination, dwelling in Mesopotamia, who was initiated in every branch of the soothsayers' art. And he was celebrated and renowned above all men for his experience as a diviner and prophet, as he had in many instances foretold to many people incredible and most important events; 1.265. for, on one occasion, he had predicted heavy rain to one nation at the height of summer; to another he had foretold a drought and burning heat in the middle of winter. Others he had forewarned of a dearth which should follow a season of abundance; and, on the other hand, plenty after famine. In some instances he had predicted the inundations of rivers; or, on the contrary, their falling greatly and becoming dried up; and the departure of pestilential diseases, and ten thousand other things. From all which he had obtained a name of wide celebrity, as he was believed to have foreseen them all, and so he had attained to great renown and his glory had spread everywhere and was continually increasing. 1.266. So this man, Balak, now sent some of his companions, entreating him to come to him, and he gave him some presents at once, and he promised to give him others also, explaining to him the necessity which he was in, on account of which he had sent for him. But he did not treat the messengers with any noble or consistent disposition, but with great courtesy and civility evaded their request, as if he were one of the most celebrated prophets, and as such was accustomed to do nothing whatever without first consulting the oracle, and so he declined, saying that the Deity would not permit him to go with them. 1.267. So the messengers returned back to the king, without having succeeded in their errand. And immediately other messengers of the highest rank in the whole land were sent on the same business, bringing with them more abundant presents of money, and promising still more ample rewards than the former ambassadors had promised. 1.268. And Balaam, being allured by the gifts which were already proffered to him, and also by the hopes for the future which they held out to him, and being influenced also by the rank of those who invited him, began to yield, again alleging the commands of the Deity as his excuse, but no longer with sincerity. Accordingly, on the next day he prepared for his departure, relating some dreams by which he said he had been influenced, affirming that he had been compelled by their manifest visions not to remain, but to follow the ambassadors. 1.269. But when he was on his road a very manifest sign met him in the way, showing him plainly that the purpose for which he was travelling was displeasing to God, and ill-omened; for the beast on which he was riding, while proceeding onwards in the straight road, at first stopped suddenly, 1.270. then, as if some one was forcibly resisting it, or standing in front and driving it back by force, it retreated, moving first to the right and then to the left, and could not stand still, but kept moving, first to one side and then to the other, as if it had been under the influence of wine and intoxication; and though it was repeatedly beaten, it disregarded the blows, so that it very nearly threw its rider, and though he stuck on did still hurt him considerably; 1.271. for close on each side of the path there were walls and strong fences; therefore, when the beast in its violent motions struck heavily against the walls, the owner had his knee, and leg, and foot pressed and crushed, and was a good deal lacerated. 1.272. The truth is, that there was, as it seems, a divine vision, which, as the beast, on which the diviner was seeking, saw at a great distance as it was coming towards him, and it was frightened at it; but the man did not see it, which was a proof of his insensibility, for he was thus shown to be inferior to a brute beast in the power of sight, at a time when he was boasting that he could see, not only the whole world, but also the Creator of the world. 1.273. Accordingly, having after some time seen the angel opposing him, not because he was desiring to see so astonishing a spectacle, but that he might become acquainted with his own insignificance and nothingness, he betook himself to supplications and prayers, entreating to be pardoned, on the ground that he had acted as he had done out of ignorance, and had not sinned of deliberate purpose. 1.274. Then, as he said that he ought to return back again, he asked of the vision which appeared to him, whether he should go back again to his own house; but the angel beholding his insincerity, and being indigt at it (for what need was there for him to ask questions in a matter which was so evident, which had its answer plain in itself, and which did not require any more positive information by means of words, unless a person's ears are more to be trusted than his eyes, and words than thing 1.275. But when the king heard that he was now near at hand, he went forth with his guards to meet him; and when they met at first there were, as was natural, greetings and salutations, and then a brief reproof of his tardiness and of his not having come more readily. After this there were feastings and costly entertainments, and all those other things which are usually prepared on the occasion of the reception of strangers, everything with royal magnificence being prepared, so as to give an exaggerated idea of the power and glory of the king. 1.276. The next day at the rising of the sun, Balak took the prophet and led him up to a high hill, where it also happened that a pillar had been erected to some deity which the natives of the country had been accustomed to worship; and from thence there was seen a portion of the camp of the Hebrews, which was shown to the magician from this point, as if from a watch tower. 1.277. And he when he beheld it said: "Do thou, O king, build here seven altars, and offer upon every one of them a bullock and a ram. And I will turn aside and inquire of God what I am to say." So, having gone forth, immediately he became inspired, the prophetic spirit having entered into him, which drove all his artificial system of divination and cunning out of his soul; for it was not possible that holy inspiration should dwell in the same abode with magic. Then, returning back to the king, and beholding the sacrifices and the altars flaming, he became like the interpreter of some other being who was prompting his words, 1.278. and spoke in prophetic strain as follows: "Balak has sent for me from Mesopotamia, having caused me to take a long journey from the east, that he might chastise the Hebrews by means of curses. But in what manner shall I be able to curse those who have not been cursed by God? For I shall behold them with my eyes from the loftiest mountains, and I shall see them with my mind; and I shall never be able to injure the people which shall dwell alone, not being numbered among the other nations, not in accordance with the inheritance of any particular places, or any apportionment of lands, but by reason of the peculiar nature of their remarkable customs, as they will never mingle with any other nation so as to depart from their national and ancestral ways. 1.279. Who has ever discovered with accuracy the first origin of the birth of these people? Their bodies, indeed, may have been fashioned according to human means of propagation; but their souls have been brought forth by divine agency, wherefore they are nearly related to God. May my soul die as to the death of the body, that it may be remembered among the souls of the righteous, such as the souls of these men are." 1.280. When Balak heard these words he was grieved within himself; and after he had stopped speaking, not being able to contain his sorrow, he said: "You were invited hither to curse my enemies, and are you not ashamed to offer up prayers for their good? I must, without knowing it, have been deceiving myself, thinking you a friend; who were, on the contrary, without my being aware of it, enrolled among the ranks of the enemy, as is now plain. Perhaps, too, you made all the delay in coming to me by reason of the regard for them, which you were secretly cherishing in your soul, and your secret dislike to me and to my people; for, as the old proverb says, what is apparent affords the best means of judging of what is not visible." 1.281. But Balaam, his moment of inspiration being now past, replied: "I am exposed in this to a most unjust charge, and am undeservedly accused; for I am saying nothing of my own, but whatever the Deity prompts me to say. And this is not the first time that I have said and that you have heard this, but I declared it on the former occasion when you sent the ambassadors, to whom I made the same answer." 1.282. But as the king thought either that the prophet was deceiving him, or that the Deity might change his mind, and the consequence of a change of place might alter the firmness of his decision, he led him off to another spot, where, from an exceedingly long, and high, and distant hill, he might be able to show him a part of the army of his enemies. Then, again, he built seven altars and sacrificed the same number of victims that he had sacrificed at first, and sent the prophet to look for favourable omens and predictions. 1.283. And he, as soon as he was by himself, was again suddenly filled by divine inspiration, and, without at all understanding the words which he uttered, spoke everything that was put into his mouth, prophesying in the following manner:--"Rise up and listen, O king! prick up thy ears and hear. God is not able to speak falsely as if he were a man, nor does he change his purpose like the son of man. When he has once spoken, does he not abide by his word? For he will say nothing at all which shall not be completely brought to pass, since his word is also his deed. I, indeed, have been brought hither to bless this nation, and not to curse it. 1.284. There shall be no labour or distress among the Hebrews. God visibly holds his shield over them, who also dissipated the violence of the Egyptian attacks, leading forth all these myriads of people as one man. Therefore they disregarded auguries and every other part of the prophetic art, trusting to the one sole Governor of the world alone. And I see the people rising up like a young lion, and exulting as a lion. He shall feast on the prey, and for drink he shall drink the blood of the wounded; and, when he is satisfied, he shall not turn to sleep, but he shall be awake and sing the song of victory." 1.285. But Balak, being very indigt at finding that all the assistance which he expected to derive from divination was turning out contrary to his hopes, said: "O man, neither curse them at all, nor bless them at all; for silence, which is free from danger, is better than unpleasant speeches." And when he had said this, as if he had forgotten what he had said, owing to the inconstancy of his mind, he led the prophet to another place, from which he could show him a part of the Hebrew army; and again he invited him to curse them. 1.286. But the prophet, as being even more wicked than the king, although he had always replied to the accusations which were brought against him with one true excuse, namely, that he was saying nothing out of his own head, but was only interpreting the words of another, being himself carried away and inspired, when he ought no longer to have accompanied him but to have gone away home, ran forward even more eagerly than his conductor, although in his secret thoughts he was oppressed by a heavy feeling of evil, yet still desired in his mind to curse this people, though he was forbidden to do so with his mouth. 1.287. So, coming to a mountain greater than any of those on which he had stood before, and which reached a very long way, he bade the king perform the same sacrifices as before, again building seven altars, and again offering up fourteen victims, on each altar two, a bullock and a ram. And he himself did no longer, according to his usual custom, go to seek for divination and auguries, since he much loathed his art, looking upon it as a picture which had become defaced through age, and had been obscured, and lost its felicity of conjecture. But he now, though with difficulty, understood the fact that the designs of the king, who had hired him, did not correspond with the will of God. 1.288. Therefore, turning to the wilderness, he saw the Hebrews encamped in their tribes, and he saw their numbers and their array, and admired it as being like the order of a city rather than of a camp, and, becoming inspired, he again spoke. 1.289. What, then, said the man who saw truly, who in his sleep saw a clear vision of God with the ever open and sleepless eyes of his soul? "How goodly are thy abodes, O army of Hebrews; they tents are shady as groves, as a paradise on the bank of a river, as a cedar by the waters. 1.290. A man shall hereafter come forth out of thee who shall rule over many nations, and his kingdom shall increase every day and be raised up to heaven. This people hath God for its guide all the way from Egypt, who leads on their multitude in one line. 1.291. Therefore they shall devour many nations of their enemies, and they shall take all their fat as far as their very marrow, and shall destroy their enemies with their far-shooting arrows. He shall lie down to rest like a lion, and like a lion's whelp, fearing no one, but showing great contempt for every one, and causing fear to all other nations. Miserable is he who shall stir up and rouse him to anger. Blessed are they that bless thee, and cursed are they that curse thee." 1.292. And the king, being very indigt at these words, said: "Having been invited hither to curse my enemies, you have now prayed for and blessed them these three times. Fly, therefore, quickly, passion is a hasty affection, lest I be compelled to do something more violent than usual. 1.293. of what a vast amount of money, O most foolish of men, of how many presents, and of how much renown, and celebrity, and glory, hast thou deprived thyself in thy madness! Now you will return to thy home from a foreign land, bearing with thee no good thing, but only reproaches and (as it seems likely 2.95. But the ark was in the innermost shrine, in the inaccessible holy of holies, behind curtains; being gilded in a most costly and magnificent manner within and without, the covering of which was like to that which is called in the sacred scriptures the mercy-seat. 2.96. Its length and width are accurately described, but its depth is not mentioned, being chiefly compared to and resembling a geometrical superficies; so that it appears to be an emblem, if looked at physically, of the merciful power of God; and, if regarded in a moral point of view, of a certain intellect spontaneously propitious to itself, which is especially desirous to contract and destroy, by means of the love of simplicity united with knowledge, that vain opinion which raises itself up to an unreasonable height and puffs itself up without any grounds. 2.97. But the ark is the depository of the laws, for in that are placed the holy oracles of God, which were given to Moses; and the covering of the ark, which is called the mercy-seat, is a foundation for two winged creatures to rest upon, which are called, in the native language of the Hebrews, cherubim, but as the Greeks would translate the word, vast knowledge and science. 2.98. Now some persons say, that these cherubim are the symbols of the two hemispheres, placed opposite to and fronting one another, the one beneath the earth and the other above the earth, for the whole heaven is endowed with wings. 2.99. But I myself should say, that what is here represented under a figure are the two most ancient and supreme powers of the divine God, namely, his creative and his kingly power; and his creative power is called God; according to which he arranged, and created, and adorned this universe, and his kingly power is called Lord, by which he rules over the beings whom he has created, and governs them with justice and firmness; 2.100. for he, being the only true living God, is also really the Creator of the world; since he brought things which had no existence into being; and he is also a king by nature, because no one can rule over beings that have been created more justly than he who created them. 2.101. And in the space between the five pillars and the four pillars, is that space which is, properly speaking, the space before the temple, being cut off by two curtains of woven work, the inner one of which is called the veil, and the outer one is called the covering: and the remaining three vessels, of those which I have enumerated, were placed as follows:--The altar of incense was placed in the middle, between earth and water, as a symbol of gratitude, which it was fitting should be offered up, on account of the things that had been done for the Hebrews on both these elements, for these elements have had the central situation of the world allotted to them. 2.102. The candlestick was placed on the southern side of the tabernacle, since by it the maker intimates, in a figurative manner, the motions of the stars which give light; for the sun, and the moon, and the rest of the stars, being all at a great distance from the northern parts of the universe, make all their revolutions in the south. And from this candlestick there proceeded six branches, three on each side, projecting from the candlestick in the centre, so as altogether to complete the number of seven; 2.103. and in all the seven there were seven candles and seven lights, being symbols of those seven stars which are called planets by those men who are versed in natural philosophy; for the sun, like the candlestick, being placed in the middle of the other six, in the fourth rank, gives light to the three planets which are above him, and to those of equal number which are below him, adapting to circumstances the musical and truly divine instrument. 2.104. And the table, on which bread and salt are laid, was placed on the northern side, since it is the north which is the most productive of winds, and because too all nourishment proceeds from heaven and earth, the one giving rain, and the other bringing to perfection all seeds by means of the irrigation of water; 2.105. for the symbols of heaven and earth are placed side by side, as the holy scripture shows, the candlestick being the symbol of heaven, and that which is truly called the altar of incense, on which all the fumigatory offerings are made, being the emblem of the things of earth. 2.106. But it became usual to call the altar which was in the open air the altar of sacrifice, as being that which preserved and took care of the sacrifices; intimating, figuratively, the consuming power of these things, and not the lambs and different parts of the victims which were offered, and which were naturally calculated to be destroyed by fire, but the intention of him who offered them; 2.107. for if the man who made the offerings was foolish and ignorant, the sacrifices were no sacrifices, the victims were not sacred or hallowed, the prayers were ill-omened, and liable to be answered by utter destruction, for even when they appear to be received, they produce no remission of sins but only a reminding of them. 2.108. But if the man who offers the sacrifice be bold and just, then the sacrifice remains firm, even if the flesh of the victim be consumed, or rather, I might say, even if no victim be offered up at all; for what can be a real and true sacrifice but the piety of a soul which loves God? The gratitude of which is blessed with immortality, and without being recorded in writing is engraved on a pillar in the mind of God, being made equally everlasting with the sun, and moon, and the universal world. 2.109. After these things the architect of the tabernacle next prepared a sacred dress for him who was to be appointed high priest, having in its embroidery a most exceedingly beautiful and admirable work; and the robe was two-fold; one part of which was called the under-robe, and the other the robe over the shoulders. 2.110. Now the under-robe was of a more simple form and character, for it was entirely of hyacinthine colours, except the lowest and exterior portions, and these were ornamented with golden pomegranates, and bells, and wreaths of flowers; 2.111. but the robe over the shoulders or mantle was a most beautiful and skilful work, and was made with most perfect skill of all the aforesaid kinds of material, of hyacinth colour, and purple, and fine linen, and scarlet, gold thread being entwined and embroidered in it. For the leaves were divided into fine hairs, and woven in with every thread, 2.112. and on the collar stones were fitted in, two being costly emeralds of exceeding value, on which the names of the patriarchs of the tribes were engraved, six on each, making twelve in all; and on the breast were twelve other precious stones, differing in colour like seals, in four rows of three stones each, and these were fitted in what was called the logeum 2.113. and the logeum was made square and double, as a sort of foundation, that it mighty bear on it, as an image, two virtues, manifestation and truth; and the whole was fastened to the mantle by fine golden chains, and fastened to it so that it might never get loose; 2.114. and a golden leaf was wrought like a crown, having four names engraved on it which may only be mentioned or heard by holy men having their ears and their tongues purified by wisdom, and by no one else at all in any place whatever. 2.115. And this holy prophet Moses calls the name, a name of four letters, making them perhaps symbols of the primary numbers, the unit, the number two, the number three, the number four: since all things are comprised in the number four, namely, a point, and a line, and a superficies, and a solid, and the measures of all things, and the most excellent symphonies of music, and the diatessaron in the sesquitertial proportion, and the chord in fifths, in the ratio of one and a half to one, and the diapason in the double ratio, and the double diapason in the fourfold ratio. Moreover, the number four has an innumerable list of other virtues likewise, the greater part of which we have discussed with accuracy in our dissertation on numbers. 2.116. And in it there was a mitre, in order that the leaf might not touch the head; and there was also a cidaris made, for the kings of the eastern countries are accustomed to use a cidaris, instead of a diadem. 2.117. Such, then, is the dress of the high priest. But we must not omit to mention the signification which it conceals beneath both in its whole and in its parts. In its whole it is a copy and representation of the world; and the parts are a representation of the separate parts of the world. 2.118. And we must begin with the long robe reaching down to the feet of the wearer. This tunic is wholly of the colour of a hyacinth, so as to be a representation of the air; for by nature the air is black, and in a measure it reaches down from the highest parts to the feet, being stretched from the parts about the moon, as far as the extremities of the earth, and being diffused everywhere. On which account also, the tunic reaches from the chest to the feet, and is spread over the whole body, 2.119. and unto it there is attached a fringe of pomegranates round the ankles, and flowers, and bells. Now the flowers are an emblem of the earth; for it is from the earth that all flowers spring and bloom; but the pomegranates (rhoiskoi 2.120. And the place itself is the most distinct possible evidence of what is here meant to be expressed; for as the pomegranates, and the flowers, and the bells, are placed in the hem of the garment which reaches to the feet, so likewise the things of which they are the symbols, namely, the earth and water, have had the lowest position in the world assigned to them, and being in strict accord with the harmony of the universe, they display their own particular powers in definite periods of time and suitable seasons. 2.121. Now of the three elements, out of which and in which all the different kinds of things which are perceptible by the outward senses and perishable are formed, namely, the air, the water and the earth, the garment which reached down to the feet in conjunction with the ornaments which were attached to that part of it which was about the ankles have been plainly shown to be appropriate symbols; for as the tunic is one, and as the aforesaid three elements are all of one species, since they all have all their revolutions and changes beneath the moon, and as to the garment are attached the pomegranates, and the flowers; so also in certain manner the earth and the water may be said to be attached to and suspended from the air, for the air is their chariot. 2.122. And our argument will be able to bring forth twenty probable reasons that the mantle over the shoulders is an emblem of heaven. For in the first place, the two emeralds on the shoulderblades, which are two round stones, are, in the opinion of some persons who have studied the subject, emblems of those stars which are the rulers of night and day, namely, the sun and moon; or rather, as one might argue with more correctness and a nearer approach to truth, they are the emblems of the two hemispheres; for, like those two stones, the portion below the earth and that over the earth are both equal, and neither of them is by nature adapted to be either increased or diminished like the moon. 2.123. And the colour of the stars is an additional evidence in favour of my view; for to the glance of the eye the appearance of the heaven does resemble an emerald; and it follows necessarily that six names are engraved on each of the stones, because each of the hemispheres cuts the zodiac in two parts, and in this way comprehends within itself six animals. 2.124. Then the twelve stones on the breast, which are not like one another in colour, and which are divided into four rows of three stones in each, what else can they be emblems of, except of the circle of the zodiac? For that also is divided into four parts, each consisting of three animals, by which divisions it makes up the seasons of the year, spring, summer, autumn, and winter, distinguishing the four changes, the two solstices, and the two equinoxes, each of which has its limit of three signs of this zodiac, by the revolutions of the sun, according to that unchangeable, and most lasting, and really divine ratio which exists in numbers; 2.125. on which account they attached it to that which is with great propriety called the logeum. For all the changes of the year and the seasons are arranged by well-defined, and stated, and firm reason; and, though this seems a most extraordinary and incredible thing, by their seasonable changes they display their undeviating and everlasting permanence and durability. 2.126. And it is said with great correctness, and exceeding beauty also, that the twelve stones all differ in their colour, and that no one of them resembles the other; for also in the zodiac each animal produces that colour which is akin to and belongs to itself, both in the air, and in the earth, and in the water; and it produces it likewise in all the affections which move them, and in all kinds of animals and of plants. 2.127. And this logeum is described as double with great correctness; for reason is double, both in the universe and also in the nature of mankind, in the universe there is that reason which is conversant about incorporeal species which are like patterns as it were, from which that world which is perceptible only by the intellect was made, and also that which is concerned with the visible objects of sight, which are copies and imitations of those species above mentioned, of which the world which is perceptible by the outward senses was made. Again, in man there is one reason which is kept back, and another which finds vent in utterance: and the one is, as it were a spring, and the other (that which is uttered 2.128. And the architect assigned a quadrangular form to the logeum, intimating under an exceedingly beautiful figure, that both the reason of nature, and also that of man, ought to penetrate everywhere, and ought never to waver in any case; in reference to which, it is that he has also assigned to it the two virtues that have been already enumerated, manifestation and truth; for the reason of nature is true, and calculated to make manifest, and to explain everything; and the reason of the wise man, imitating that other reason, ought naturally, and appropriately to be completely sincere, honouring truth, and not obscuring anything through envy, the knowledge of which can benefit those to whom it would be explained; 2.129. not but what he has also assigned their two appropriate virtues to those two kinds of reason which exist in each of us, namely, that which is uttered and that which is kept concealed, attributing clearness of manifestation to the uttered one, and truth to that which is concealed in the mind; for it is suitable to the mind that it should admit of no error or falsehood, and to explanation that it should not hinder anything that can conduce to the most accurate manifestation. 2.130. Therefore there is no advantage in reason which expends itself in dignified and pompous language, about things which are good and desirable, unless it is followed by consistent practice of suitable actions; on which account the architect has affixed the logeum to the robe which is worn over the shoulder, in order that it may never get loose, as he does not approve of the language being separated from the actions; for he puts forth the shoulder as the emblem of energy and action. 2.131. Such then are the figurative meanings which he desires to indicate by the sacred vestments of the high priest; and instead of a diadem he represents a cidaris on the head, because he thinks it right that the man who is consecrated to God, as his high priest, should, during the time of his exercising his office be superior to all men, not only to all private individuals, but even to all kings; 2.132. and above this cidaris is a golden leaf, on which an engraving of four letters was impressed; by which letters they say that the name of the living God is indicated, since it is not possible that anything that it in existence, should exist without God being invoked; for it is his goodness and his power combined with mercy that is the harmony and uniter of all things. 2.133. The high priest, then, being equipped in this way, is properly prepared for the performance of all sacred ceremonies, that, whenever he enters the temple to offer up the prayers and sacrifices in use among his nation, all the world may likewise enter in with him, by means of the imitations of it which he bears about him, the garment reaching to his feet, being the imitation of the air, the pomegranate of the water, the flowery hem of the earth, and the scarlet dye of his robe being the emblem of fire; also, the mantle over his shoulders being a representation of heaven itself; the two hemispheres being further indicated by the round emeralds on the shoulder-blades, on each of which were engraved six characters equivalent to six signs of the zodiac; the twelve stones arranged on the breast in four rows of three stones each, namely the logeum, being also an emblem of that reason which holds together and regulates the universe. 2.134. For it was indispensable that the man who was consecrated to the Father of the world, should have as a paraclete, his son, the being most perfect in all virtue, to procure forgiveness of sins, and a supply of unlimited blessings; 2.135. perhaps, also, he is thus giving a previous warning to the servant of God, even if he is unable to make himself worthy of the Creator, of the world, at least to labour incessantly to make himself worthy of the world itself; the image of which he is clothed in, in a manner that binds him from the time that he puts it on, to bear about the pattern of it in his mind, so that he shall be in a manner changed from the nature of a man into the nature of the world, and, if one may say so (and one may by all means and at all times speak the plain truth in sincerity 2.259. And Moses, when he saw it, commanded them to collect it; and being full of inspiration, said: "You must believe in God, inasmuch as you have already had experience of his mercies and benefits in matters beyond all your hopes. This food may not be treasured up or laid up in garners. Let no one leave any portion of it till the morning." 2.260. When they heard this, some of those who had no firm piety, thinking perhaps that what was now said to them was not an oracle from God, but merely the advice of their leader, left some till the next day. And it putrified, and at first filled all the camp around with its foul smell, and then it turned to worms, the origin of which always is from corruption. 2.261. And Moses, when he saw this, was naturally indigt with those who were thus disobedient; for how could he help being so, when those who had beheld such numerous and great actions which could not possibly be perverted into mere fictitious and well contrived appearances, but which had been easily accomplished by the divine providence, did not only doubt, but even absolutely disbelieved, and were the hardest of all man to be convinced? 2.262. But the Father established the oracle of his prophet by two most conspicuous manifestations, the one of which he gave immediately by the destruction of what had been left, and by the evil stench which arose, and by the change of it into worms, the vilest of animals; and the other demonstration he afforded subsequently, for that which was over and above after that which had been collected by the multitude, was always melted away by the beams of the sun, and consumed, and destroyed in that manner. 2.263. He gave a second instance of his prophetical inspiration not long afterwards in the oracle which he delivered about the sacred seventh day. For though it had had a natural precedence over all other days, not only from the time that the world was created, but even before the origination of the heaven and all the objects perceptible to the outward senses, men still knew it not, perhaps because, by reason of the continued and uninterrupted destructions which had taken place by water and fire, succeeding generations had not been able to receive from former ones any traditions of the arrangement and order which had been established in the connection of preceding times, which, as it was not known, Moses, now being inspired, declared to his people in an oracle which was borne testimony to by a visible sign from heaven. 2.264. And the sign was this. A small portion of food descended from the air on the previous days, but a double portion on the day before the seventh day. And on the previous days, if any portion was left it became liquefied and melted away, until it was entirely changed into dew, and so consumed; but on this day it endured no alteration, but remained in the same state as before, and when this was reported to him, and beheld by him, Moses did not so much conjecture as receive the impulse of divine inspiration under which he prophesied of the seventh day. 2.265. I omit to mention that all such conjectures are akin to prophecy; for the mind could never make such correct and felicitous conjectures, unless it were a divine spirit which guided their feet into the way of truth;
84. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 216-217, 214 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 226
214. But this man, having formed a proper conception of this in his mind, and being under the influence of inspiration, left his country, and his family, and his father's house, well knowing that, if he remained among them, the deceitful fancies of the polytheistic doctrine abiding there likewise, must render his mind incapable of arriving at the proper discovery of the true God, who is the only everlasting God and the Father of all other things, whether appreciable only by the intellect or perceptible by the outward senses; while, on the other hand, he saw, that if he rose up and quitted his native land, deceit would also depart from his mind. changing his false opinions into true belief.
85. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.10, 1.21, 1.51, 1.100, 2.28, 2.59 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 200; Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 89; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 96, 221
86. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.171, 1.277, 1.298, 4.49, 4.69, 4.123, 4.203-4.307 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 203; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 210, 224; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 413; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 408
1.171. Moreover, the most fragrant of all incenses are offered up twice every day in the fire, being burnt within the veil, both when the sun rises and sets, before the morning and after the evening sacrifice, so that the sacrifices of blood display our gratitude for ourselves as being composed of blood, but the offerings of incense show our thankfulness for the domit part within us, our rational spirit, which was fashioned after the archetypal model of the divine image. 1.277. And this command is a symbol of nothing else but of the fact that in the eyes of God it is not the number of things sacrificed that is accounted valuable, but the purity of the rational spirit of the sacrificer. Unless, indeed, one can suppose that a judge who is anxious to pronounce a holy judgment will never receive gifts from any of those whose conduct comes before his tribunal, or that, if he does receive such presents, he will be liable to an accusation of corruption; and that a good man will not receive gifts from a wicked person, not even though he may be poor and the other rich, and he himself perhaps in actual want of what he would so receive; and yet that God can be corrupted by bribes, who is most all-sufficient for himself and who has no need of any thing created; who, being himself the first and most perfect good thing, the everlasting fountain of wisdom, and justice, and of every virtue, rejects the gifts of the wicked. 1.298. The third, which is a reason of the very greatest importance, is this. Since we are not only well treated while we are awake, but also when we are asleep, inasmuch as the mighty God gives sleep as a great assistance to the human race, for the benefit of both their bodies and souls, of their bodies as being by it relieved of the labours of the day, and of their souls as being lightened by it of all their cares, and being restored to themselves after all the disorder and confusion caused by the outward senses, and as being then enabled to retire within and commune with themselves, the law has very properly thought fit to make a distinction of the actions of thanksgiving, so that sacrifices may be made on behalf of those who are awake by means of the victims which are offered, and on behalf of those who are asleep, and of those who are benefited by sleep, by the lighting of the sacred candles.LV. 4.49. for a prophet does not utter anything whatever of his own, but is only an interpreter, another Being suggesting to him all that he utters, while he is speaking under inspiration, being in ignorance that his own reasoning powers are departed, and have quitted the citadel of his soul; while the divine spirit has entered in and taken up its abode there, and is operating upon all the organization of his voice, and making it sound to the distinct manifestation of all the prophecies which he is delivering. 4.69. And what in life is there equally beautiful with truth, which the all-wise legislator erected in the most sacred place, in that part of the dress of the chief priest, where the domit part of the soul lies, wishing to adorn it with the most beautiful and glorious of all ornaments? And next to truth he has placed power as akin to it, which he has in this case called manifestation, being the two images of the two kinds of speech which exist in us, the secret speech and the lettered speech, for the lettered speech requires manifestation, by which the secret thoughts in all our hearts are made known to our neighbour, but the secret speech has need of truth for the perfection of life and actions, by means of which the road to happiness is found out.XII. 4.123. On which account Moses, in another passage, establishes a law concerning blood, that one may not eat the blood nor the Fat.{27}{#le 3:17.} The blood, for the reason which I have already mentioned, that it is the essence of the life; not of the mental and rational life, but of that which exists in accordance with the outward senses, to which it is owing that both we and irrational animals also have a common existence.CONCERNING THE SOUL OR LIFE OF MANXXIV. For the essence of the soul of man is the breath of God, especially if we follow the account of Moses, who, in his history of the creation of the world, says that God breathed into the first man, the founder of our race, the breath of life; breathing it into the principal part of his body, namely the face, where the outward senses are established, the body-guards of the mind, as if it were the great king. And that which was thus breathed into his face was manifestly the breath of the air, or whatever else there may be which is even more excellent than the breath of the air, as being a ray emitted from the blessed and thricehappy nature of God. 4.203. After this the lawgiver proceeds to connect with these commandments a somewhat similar harmony or series of injunctions; commanding breeders not to breed from animals of different species; not to sow a vineyard so as to make it bear two crops at once; and not to wear garments woven of two different substances, which are a mixed and base work. Now the first of these injunctions we have already mentioned in our treatise on adulterers, in order to make it more evident, that our people ought not to be anxious for marriages with foreigners, corrupting the dispositions of the women, and destroying also the good hopes which might be conceived of the propagation of legitimate children. For the lawgiver, who has forbidden all copulation between irrational animals of different species, appears to have utterly driven away all adulterers to a great distance. 4.204. And we must now speak again of this rule in this our treatise on justice. For we must take care not to pass over the opportunity of adapting it to as many particulars as possible. It is just then to bring together those things which are capable of union; now animals of the same species are by nature capable of union, as, on the other hand, all animals of different species are incapable of any admixture or union, and the man who brings unlawful connections to pass between such animals is an injust man, transgressing the ordices of nature; 4.205. but that which is the really sacred law takes such exceeding care to provide for the maintece of justice, that it will not permit even the ploughing of the land to be carried on by animals of unequal strength, and forbids a husbandman to plough with an ass and a heifer yoked to the same plough, lest the weaker animals, being compelled to exert itself to keep up with the superior power of the stronger animal, should become exhausted, and sink under the effort; 4.206. and the bull is looked upon as the stronger animal, and is enrolled in the class of clean beasts and animals, while the ass is a weaker animal and of the class of unclean beasts; but nevertheless he has not grudged those animals which appear to be weaker, the assistance which they can derive from justice, in order, as I imagine, to teach the judges most forcibly, that they are never in their decisions to give the worse fate to the humbly born, in matters the investigation of which depends not on birth but on virtue and vice. 4.207. And resembling these injunctions is the last commandment concerning things yoked in pairs, namely, that it is unlawful to wear together substances of a different character, such as wool and linen; for in the case of these substances, not only does the difference prevent any union, but also the superior strength of the one substance is calculated rather to tear the other than to unite with it, when it is wanted to be used.XL. 4.208. The commandment which came in the middle of the three injunctions about pairs, was that one was not to sow a vineyard so as to make it bear two crops at the same time; the object of this law being, in the first place, that those things which are of different species might not be confused by being mixed together; for crops grown from seed have no connection with trees, nor trees with crops grown from seed; on which account nature has not appointed to them both the same time for the production of their fruits, but has assigned to the one the spring as the season of their harvest, while to the others it has appointed the end of summer, as the season for the gathering of their fruits; 4.209. accordingly, it happens that at the same period of the year the one are become withered having been in bloom at an earlier time, while the others are just budding having been dried up before; for the crops which are produced from seed begin to flourish in the winter, when the trees are losing their leaves; and in the spring, on the contrary, when all the crops which are produced from seed are drying up, the wood of all trees, whether wild or improved by cultivation, are shooting; and one may almost say, that the period in which the crops which are produced from seed come to perfection is the same as that in which those of the trees derive the beginning of their productiveness. 4.210. Very naturally therefore, has God separated things so wholly different from one another, both in their natures and in the period of their flowering, and in the seasons of their producing their appropriate fruits, and has appointed different situations for them, producing order out of disorder; for order is closely connected with arrangement, and disorder with a want of arrangement. 4.211. And in the second place, in order that the two different species may not go through a reciprocal system of inflicting and suffering injury, because of one kind drawing away the nourishment from the other kind, while if that nourishment is divided into small portions, as happens in times of famine and of scarcity of necessaries, all plants of every kind will in every place become weak, and will be either afflicted with barrenness, becoming utterly unproductive, or at all events will never bear tolerably fine fruit, inasmuch as they have been previously weakened by want of nourishment. 4.212. And in the third place, in order that the naturally fertile land may not be oppressed with burdens beyond its strength, partly by the continued and uninterrupted thickness of the crops which are sown, and of the trees which are planted in the same place, and partly by the doubling of the crops, which are exacted from the ground; for it ought to be quite sufficient for the owner to draw one yearly tribute from one spot, just as it is sufficient for a king to receive his tribute from a city once a year; and to endeavour to extract larger revenues is the act of exceeding covetousness, by which all the laws of nature are attempted to be overturned. 4.213. For which reason the law might well say to those who have determined to sow their vineyards with seed out of pure covetousness; "Do not you be worse than those kings who have subdued cities with arms and warlike expeditions, for even they, from a prudent regard for the future and from a proper wish to spare their subjects, are content to receive one payment of tribute each year, as they are desirous not to reduce them utterly to the very extremity of want and distress in a short time; 4.214. but if you in the spring exact from the same piece of ground crops of barley and of wheat, and in the summer the crops from the fruit-bearing trees, you will be exhausting it by a double contribution; for then it will very naturally grow faint and fail, like an athlete, who is never abroad any time to take breath and to collect his strength for the beginning of another contest. 4.215. "But you seem rashly to forget those precepts of general advantage which I enjoined you to observe. For, at all events, if you had recollected the commandment concerning the seventh year, in which I commanded you to allow the land to remain fallow and sacred, without being exhausted by any agricultural operation of any kind, by reason of the labours which it has been going through for the six preceding years, and which is has undergone, producing its crops at the appointed seasons of the year in accordance with the ordices of nature; you would not now be introducing innovations, and giving vent to all your covetous desires, be seeking for unprecedented crops, sowing a land fit for the growth of trees, and especially one planted with vines, in order by two crops every year, both being founded in iniquity, to increase your substance out of undue avarice, amassing money by lawless desires." 4.216. For the same man would never endure to let his land lie fallow every seventy years without exacting any revenue from it, for the sake of not having his land exhausted by over-production, but of allowing it to recover itself by rest, and yet at the same time to oppress and overwhelm it by double burdens; 4.217. therefore I have judged it necessary to pronounce all acquisition or exaction of wealth in this way unholy and impious; I mean the production of the fruit of trees, and of such crops as are derived from seed, because such fertility does in a manner exhaust and destroy the vivifying principle in the good soil, and, because too, by requiring so much, the owner of the land is insulting and abusing the bounty and liberality of God, giving full reins to his unrighteous desires, and not restraining them by any limits. 4.218. Ought we not, then, to feel an attachment to such commandments as these, which tend to restrain us from and to remove us to a great distance from the acts of covetousness, which are common among men, blunting the edge of the passion itself? For if the private individual, who, in the matter of his plants, has learnt to renounce all unrighteous gain, if he should acquire power in weightier matters and become a king, would adopt the same practice towards men and women, not exacting twofold tributes from them, not exhausting his subjects with taxes and contributions; for the habits in which he has been brought up would be sufficient for him, and would be able to soften the harshness of his disposition, and in a manner to educate him, and to re-mould him to a better character. And that is a better character which justice impresses upon the soul.XLI. 4.219. These, then, are the laws which he appoints to be observed by each individual. But there are other commandments of a more general nature of which he enjoins the observance to the whole nation in common, recommending them to attend to them, not only with regard to their own friends and allies, but also to those who are unconnected with their alliance. 4.220. For if, says Moses, {46}{#de 20:1.} they shut themselves up within their walls and make their necks stiff, then let you young men arm themselves well, and being provided with all the preparations necessary for war, go forth and fortify their camp all around, and watch in expectancy, not indulging their anger so as to neglect reason, but taking care to apply themselves to what must be done firmly and strenuously. 4.221. Let them, therefore, at once send out heralds to invite the enemy to an agreement, and at the same time let them display the power and considerable character of the force which is encamped; and if the enemy, repenting of the evil designs which they had conceived, submit and turn to peace in any manner, then let the people gladly receive them and make a truce with them; for peace, even though it be very unfavourable, is more advantageous than war. 4.222. But if they persevere in their folly, and push it further, acting with audacity, then let our people, display vigorous confidence, relying also on the invincible alliance of justice, and so let them advance, placing their destructive engines against the walls, and when they have made a breach in some part of them let them all enter in together; and shooting with their spears with correct aim, and brandishing their swords, and slaying the enemies all around, let them repel them unshrinkingly, inflicting upon them what they were intended to suffer themselves, 4.223. until they have overthrown the whole army arrayed against them, every man of them, and taken their silver, and their gold, and all the booty. And let them bring fire against their city, and burn it so that it may never, after an interval of rest, again raise its head and excite wars and tumults, with the view also of terrifying and warning the neighbouring states, since it is by the calamities of others that men are taught to act with moderation. But let them suffer the maidens and the women to go free, inasmuch as they did not expect to suffer any of the evils which war brings upon men at their hands, as they are exempt from all military service through their natural weakness. 4.224. From all which it is plain that the nation of the Jews is allied with and friendly to all those who are of the same sentiments, and all who are peaceful in their intentions; and that it is not to be despised as one that submits to those who begin to treat it with injustice out of cowardice; but when it goes forth to defend itself, it distinguishes between those who are habitually plotting against it and those who are not; 4.225. for to be eager to slay all men, and even those who have committed but slight offences, or no offences at all against one, I should call the conduct of an inhuman and pitiless soul, as it would be also to treat women as if they were an addition to the men who carry on war, when their way of life is naturally peaceful and domestic. 4.226. But our lawgiver implants such a love of justice in all men who live under the institution which he has established, that he does not permit them to injure the fertile land of even an hostile city by ravaging it, or by cutting down the trees, so as to destroy the crops. 4.227. "For why," says he, "do you bear a grudge against iimate things, which are in their nature quiet, and which produce wholesome fruits? Does the tree, my friend, display the hostile spirit of a man that is an enemy, so that you are to tear it up by the roots in retaliation for the evils which it has inflicted, or which it has designed to inflict upon you? 4.228. On the contrary, it assists you, bestowing on you, when you are victorious, an abundance of necessary food, and of supplies which conduce to rendering life happy and luxurious; for it is not men alone who contribute revenues to their lords, but plants offer even more useful tribute at the fixed seasons of the year, a tribute without which men cannot live." 4.229. But there is no prohibition against their cutting down those trees which are barren and unproductive, and which are not cultivated for food, for the purpose of making staves, or poles, or posts, or fences; and, when occasion requires, ladders, and engines, and wooden towers; for the chief use of these kinds of trees is for such and other similar purposes.XLII. 4.230. We have now enumerated the matters which belong to justice; but as for justice itself, what poet or orator could celebrate it, in worthy terms, since it is beyond all panegyric and all praise? At all events, there is one most important good thing belonging to it, {47}{the text has eumeneia, which Mangey pronounces corrupt.} which, even if one were to pass over and be silent about all its other parts, would be an all-sufficient panegyric on it; 4.231. for this is the principle of equality, which is, as those who have accurately investigated the secrets of nature have handed down to us, the mother of justice; and equality is a light which is never shaded; the sun (if one must speak the plain truth 4.232. it is equality which, by its unchangeable laws and ordices, has arranged, in their present beautiful order, all the things in heaven and earth; for who is there who does not know this fact, that the days are measured in due proportion to the nights, and the nights in due proportion to the days, by the sun, according to the equality of proportionate distances? 4.233. Nature, therefore, has marked out those periods in every year, which are called the equinoxes, from the state of things which exists at that time, namely, the spring and the autumnal equinox, with such distinctness, that even the most illiterate persons are aware of the equality which then exists between the extent of the days and of the nights. 4.234. Again, are not the periods of the moon, as she advances and retraces her course, from a crescent to a full circle, and again, from a complete orb to a crescent, also measured by an equality of distances? For as great and as long as the period and amount of her increase is, so also is her diminution, in both respects, as to magnitude and duration, as to the number of days and the size of her orb. 4.235. And as, in that purest of all essences, heaven, equality is honoured with especial honours, so also is she in the neighbour of heaven, the air. For as the year is portioned out into four divisions, the air is formed by nature to endure changes and alterations at what are called the seasons of the year, and it displays an indescribable regularity in its irregularity; for as the atmosphere is divided by an equal number of months into winter, and spring, and summer, and autumn, it completes the whole year by allotting three months to each season; as, in fact, the very name of the year (eniauto 4.236. Again, this same equality extends from the heavenly bodies, and from those which are raised on high, to the things upon earth, raising on high its own pure nature, which is akin to the air, and sending downwards its beams like the sun, as a sort of secondary light, 4.237. for all the things which are inharmonious or irregular among us are caused by inequality, and all those which have in them that regularity which becomes them are the work of equality, which, in the universal essence of the universe, one may fairly call the world, and in cities one may entitle it that best regulated and most excellent of all constitutions, democracy, and in bodies health, and in souls virtue. 4.238. For, on the contrary, inequality is the cause of diseases and wickednesses; and the existence of the longest lived man of the human race would fail, if he were to attempt to enumerate all the praiseworthy qualities of equality, and of its offspring, justice. In consequence of which it seems to me to be best to be satisfied with what has already been said, which may be sufficient to rouse up the recollection of those persons who are fond of learning, and to leave the remaining circumstances unwritten in their souls, as divine images in a most sacred place.
87. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.14, 1.21, 1.25, 1.30-1.33, 2.271 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, philo •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 214, 221; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 595
1.14. However, enough of this. The next thing must be to consider why it is that as four wells had been dug by the servants of Abraham and Isaac, the fourth and last was called the well of the oath. 1.21. All these things, then, we feel: but the heaven has a nature which is incomprehensible, and it has never conveyed to us any distinct indication by which we can understand its nature; for what can we say? that it is solid ice, as some persons have chosen to assert? or that it is the purest fire? or that it is a fifth body, moving in a circle having no participation in any of the four elements? For what can we say? Has that most remote sphere of the fixed stars any density in an upward direction? or is it merely a superficies devoid of all depth, something like a plane figure? 1.25. There are, then, four principal elements in us, the body, the external sense, the speech, and the mind. Now of these, three are not uncertain or unintelligible in every respect, but they contain some indication in themselves by which they are comprehended. 1.30. Now then is the fourth element which exists within us, the domit mind, comprehensible to us in the same manner as these other divisions? Certainly not; for what do we think it to be in its essence? Do we look upon it as spirit, or as blood, or, in short, as any bodily substance! But it is not a substance, but must be pronounced incorporeal. Is it then a limit, or a species, or a number, or a continued act, or a harmony, or any existing thing whatever? 1.31. Is it, the very first moment that we are born, infused into us from without, or is it some warm nature in us which is cooled by the air which is diffused around us, like a piece of iron which has been heated at a forge, and then being plunged into cold water, is by that process tempered and hardened? (And perhaps it is from the cooling process [psyxis] to which it is thus submitted that the soul [heµ psycheµ] derives its name.) What more shall we say? When we die, is it extinguished and destroyed together with our bodies? or does it continue to live a long time? or, thirdly, is it wholly incorruptible and immortal? 1.32. Again, where, in what part does this mind lie hid? Has it received any settled habitation? For some men have dedicated it to our head, as the principal citadel, around which all the outward senses have their lairs; thinking it natural that its body-guards should be stationed near it, as near the palace of a mighty king. Some again contend earnestly in favour of the position which they assign it, believing that it is enshrined like a statue in the heart. 1.33. Therefore now the fourth element is incomprehensible, in the world of heaven, in comparison of the nature of the earth, of the water, and of the air; and the mind in man, in comparison of the body and the outward sense, and the speech, which is the interpreter of the mind; may it not be the case also, that for this reason the fourth year is described as holy and praiseworthy in the sacred scriptures? 2.271. for then, says the scripture, "Israel sang this song at the Well;" that is to say, in triumph for the fact that knowledge, which had long been hidden but which was sought for, had at length been found by all men, though lying deep by nature; the duty of which was to irrigate the rational fields existing in the souls of those men who are fond of contemplation.
88. Philo of Alexandria, On Sobriety, 9 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical, philonic allegory •allegory/allegorical, philo’s allegory of hagar/sarah •allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 122
89. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 249, 258-259, 263-265, 54-57 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 214, 220
57. So that the race of mankind also is twofold, the one being the race of those who live by the divine Spirit and reason; the other of those who exist according to blood and the pleasure of the flesh. This species is formed of the earth, but that other is an accurate copy of the divine image;
90. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 80, 82-84 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 215
91. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 54, 92, 63 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 202
63. On which principle also it is that he also calls Israel, who was the younger brother in point of time, "the first born Son," judging of him by his merit, signifying thereby that, since to see God is the most clear proof of primogeniture, he is in consequence pardoned as the eldest offspring of the uncreate incomprehensible God, conceived by that virtue which is hated among men, and to whom the law enjoins that "the honours due to seniority shall be paid, as being the Eldest."
92. Philo of Alexandria, On Planting, 19-20, 24, 44, 6, 8, 18 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 214, 218
93. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 4.2 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 202
94. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 134, 165, 168, 29-30, 63, 135 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 210, 214, 215
135. But he asserts that the formation of the individual man, perceptible by the external senses is a composition of earthy substance, and divine spirit. For that the body was created by the Creator taking a lump of clay, and fashioning the human form out of it; but that the soul proceeds from no created thing at all, but from the Father and Ruler of all things. For when he uses the expression, "he breathed into," etc., he means nothing else than the divine spirit proceeding form that happy and blessed nature, sent to take up its habitation here on earth, for the advantage of our race, in order that, even if man is mortal according to that portion of him which is visible, he may at all events be immortal according to that portion which is invisible; and for this reason, one may properly say that man is on the boundaries of a better and an immortal nature, partaking of each as far as it is necessary for him; and that he was born at the same time, both mortal and the immortal. Mortal as to his body, but immortal as to his intellect. XLVII.
95. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Joseph, 116 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, philo Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 224
96. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 2-3 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 216
3. For as long as the pure rays of wisdom shine forth in the soul, by means of which the wise man sees God and his powers, no one of those who bring false news ever enters into the reason, but all such are kept at a distance outside of the sacred threshhold. But when the light of the intellect is dimmed and overshadowed, then the companions of darkness having become victorious, associate themselves with the dissolute and effeminate passions which the prophet calls the daughters of men, and they bear children to them and not to God.
97. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 10-38, 40-57, 6-9, 39 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 214, 216, 227
39. But he who pursues it eagerly and follows upon its track, fills philosophy with base opinions; on which account he is said to uncover its nakedness, for how can there be any concealment or ignorance of the reproaches to which those men are justly exposed, who profess indeed to be wise men, but who make a traffic of wisdom, and bargain for the sale of it, as they say men do in the market, who put up their wares for sale, sometimes for a slight gain, sometimes for sweet and caressing speeches, and sometimes for insecure hopes, founded on no sure ground, and sometimes even for promises which are in no respect better than dreams. X.
98. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 182-183, 186 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 227
186. He also celebrates the number seven, multiplied by the number ten; at one time speaking of the seventy palm-trees by the fountains, and in other passages he speaks of the elders, who were only seventy in number, to whom the divine and prophetical Spirit was vouchsafed. And again, it is the same number of heifers which are sacrificed at the solemn festival of the feast of tabernacles, in a regular and proper division and order, for they are not all sacrificed together, but in seven days, the beginning being made with thirteen bulls; for thus, by every day subtracting one till they come to the number seven, the arranged number of seventy is properly completed.
99. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 175 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, philo Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 224
100. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 10, 151-152, 158-159, 36, 9, 20 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 435; Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 122
101. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 111 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, philo Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 218
111. In this way iimate things combine with those which have life, irrational things with those endowed with reason, trees with men, and men with plants, things untameable with those which are tame, and domestic animals with savage ones, the male with the female, and the female with the male; in short, terrestrial animals with such as live in the water, aquatic creatures with those whose home is in the air, and flying animals with any of these described above. And besides all those things, earth with heaven, and heaven with earth, air with water, and water with air. And again the intermediate natures with one another, and with these at their extremities, and the extremities too form an attachment to the intermediate natures and to one another. 111. Let them, then, not be ignorant that they are convicted before the two tribunals which are the only ones which exist in nature, of impiety as regards their duty towards God, as not worshipping those who have introduced beings who do not exist into existence, and who, in this respect, have imitated God; and as regards their duty towards men, of misanthropy and cruelty.
102. Philo of Alexandria, On The Eternity of The World, 2 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 10
2. If then, we, who have been practised and trained in all the doctrines of prudence, and temperance, and virtue, have discarded all the stains of the passions and diseases, perhaps God would not disdain to give to souls completely purified and cleansed, so as to appear in his image, a knowledge of heavenly things either by means of dreams, or of oracles, or of signs, or of wonders. But since we have on us the marks of folly, and injustice, and of all other vices strongly stamped upon us and difficult to be effaced, we must be content even if we are only able by them to discover some faint copy and imitation of the truth.
103. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 83 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 203
83. But the last name intimating the really wise man; for the latter name, by the word sound, intimates the uttered speech; and by the word father, the domit mind. For the speech which is conceived within is naturally the father of that which is uttered, inasmuch as it is older than the latter, and as it also suggests what is to be said. And by the addition of the word elect his goodness is intimated. For the evil disposition is a random and confused one, but that which is elect is good, having been selected from all others by reason of its excellence.
104. Ovid, Metamorphoses, 3.509, 10.83-10.85 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 438; de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 348
3.509. nusquam corpus erat; croceum pro corpore florem 10.83. Ille etiam Thracum populis fuit auctor amorem 10.84. in teneros transferre mares citraque iuventam 10.85. aetatis breve ver et primos carpere flores.
105. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 72-80, 82-93, 81 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 203
81. For without some one to offer suggestions, speech will not speak; and the mind is what suggests to speech, as God suggests to the mind. "And he shall speak for thee to the people, and he shall be thy mouth, and thou shalt be to him as God." And there is a most emphatic meaning in the expression, "He shall speak for thee," that is to say, He shall interpret thy conceptions, and "He shall be thy mouth." For the stream of speech being borne through the tongue and mouth conveys the conceptions abroad. But speech is the interpreter of the mind to men, while again mind is by means of speech the interpreter to God; but these thoughts are those of which God alone is the overseer.
106. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 1.33-1.42, 2.5, 2.10, 2.15, 3.161, 3.244-3.245 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 214, 218
107. Mishnah, Maaser Sheni, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical, a short history of •allegory/allegorical, allegorical text or interpretation •allegory/allegorical, etymology of the word •allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 81
4.3. "בַּעַל הַבַּיִת אוֹמֵר בְּסֶלַע וְאַחֵר אוֹמֵר בְּסֶלַע, בַּעַל הַבַּיִת קוֹדֵם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מוֹסִיף חֹמֶשׁ. בַּעַל הַבַּיִת אוֹמֵר בְּסֶלַע וְאַחֵר אוֹמֵר בְּסֶלַע וְאִסָּר, אֶת שֶׁל סֶלַע וְאִסָּר קוֹדֵם, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא מוֹסִיף עַל הַקֶּרֶן. הַפּוֹדֶה מַעֲשֵׂר שֵׁנִי שֶׁלּוֹ, מוֹסִיף עָלָיו חֲמִשִּׁית, בֵּין שֶׁהוּא שֶׁלּוֹ וּבֵין שֶׁנִּתַּן לוֹ בְּמַתָּנָה: \n",
108. Mishnah, Sukkah, 4.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 595
4.9. "נִסּוּךְ הַמַּיִם כֵּיצַד. צְלוֹחִית שֶׁל זָהָב מַחֲזֶקֶת שְׁלשֶׁת לֻגִּים הָיָה מְמַלֵּא מִן הַשִּׁלּוֹחַ. הִגִּיעוּ לְשַׁעַר הַמַּיִם, תָּקְעוּ וְהֵרִיעוּ וְתָקָעוּ. עָלָה בַכֶּבֶשׁ וּפָנָה לִשְׂמֹאלוֹ, שְׁנֵי סְפָלִים שֶׁל כֶּסֶף הָיוּ שָׁם. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שֶׁל סִיד הָיוּ, אֶלָּא שֶׁהָיוּ מֻשְׁחָרִין פְּנֵיהֶם מִפְּנֵי הַיָּיִן. וּמְנֻקָּבִין כְּמִין שְׁנֵי חֳטָמִין דַּקִּין, אֶחָד מְעֻבֶּה וְאֶחָד דַּק, כְּדֵי שֶׁיְּהוּ שְׁנֵיהֶם כָּלִין בְּבַת אַחַת. מַעֲרָבִי שֶׁל מַיִם, מִזְרָחִי שֶׁל יָיִן. עֵרָה שֶׁל מַיִם לְתוֹךְ שֶׁל יַיִן, וְשֶׁל יַיִן לְתוֹךְ שֶׁל מַיִם, יָצָא. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, בְּלֹג הָיָה מְנַסֵּךְ כָּל שְׁמֹנָה. וְלַמְנַסֵּךְ אוֹמְרִים לוֹ, הַגְבַּהּ יָדֶךָ, שֶׁפַּעַם אַחַת נִסֵּךְ אֶחָד עַל גַּבֵּי רַגְלָיו, וּרְגָמוּהוּ כָל הָעָם בְּאֶתְרוֹגֵיהֶן: \n", 4.9. "How was the water libation [performed]? A golden flask holding three logs was filled from the Shiloah. When they arrived at the water gate, they sounded a teki'ah [long blast], a teru'ah [a staccato note] and again a teki'ah. [The priest then] went up the ascent [of the altar] and turned to his left where there were two silver bowls. Rabbi Judah says: they were of plaster [but they looked silver] because their surfaces were darkened from the wine. They had each a hole like a slender snout, one being wide and the other narrow so that both emptied at the same time. The one on the west was for water and the one on the east for wine. If he poured the flask of water into the bowl for wine, or that of wine into that for water, he has fulfilled his obligation. Rabbi Judah says: with one log he performed the ceremony of the water-libation all eight days. To [the priest] who performed the libation they used to say, “Raise your hand”, for one time, a certain man poured out the water over his feet, and all the people pelted him with their etrogs.",
109. Mishnah, Hagigah, 2.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 240
2.1. "אֵין דּוֹרְשִׁין בַּעֲרָיוֹת בִּשְׁלֹשָׁה. וְלֹא בְמַעֲשֵׂה בְרֵאשִׁית בִּשְׁנַיִם. וְלֹא בַמֶּרְכָּבָה בְּיָחִיד, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן הָיָה חָכָם וּמֵבִין מִדַּעְתּוֹ. כָּל הַמִּסְתַּכֵּל בְּאַרְבָּעָה דְּבָרִים, רָאוּי לוֹ כְּאִלּוּ לֹא בָּא לָעוֹלָם, מַה לְּמַעְלָה, מַה לְּמַטָּה, מַה לְּפָנִים, וּמַה לְּאָחוֹר. וְכָל שֶׁלֹּא חָס עַל כְּבוֹד קוֹנוֹ, רָאוּי לוֹ שֶׁלֹּא בָּא לָעוֹלָם: \n", 2.1. "They may not expound upon the subject of forbidden relations in the presence of three. Nor the work of creation in the presence of two. Nor [the work of] the chariot in the presence of one, unless he is a sage and understands of his own knowledge. Whoever speculates upon four things, it would have been better had he not come into the world: what is above, what is beneath, what came before, and what came after. And whoever takes no thought for the honor of his creator, it would have been better had he not come into the world.",
110. Josephus Flavius, Life, 10-12, 2-9, 1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 202
111. Mishnah, Avot, 3.5, 3.11, 5.21 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical, tannaitic allegory •allegory/allegorical, and midrash •allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah •allegory/allegorical, radical allegory •allegory/allegorical, ʾapiqoros •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 112, 153; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 439
3.5. "רַבִּי נְחוּנְיָא בֶּן הַקָּנָה אוֹמֵר, כָּל הַמְקַבֵּל עָלָיו עֹל תּוֹרָה, מַעֲבִירִין מִמֶּנּוּ עֹל מַלְכוּת וְעֹל דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ. וְכָל הַפּוֹרֵק מִמֶּנּוּ עֹל תּוֹרָה, נוֹתְנִין עָלָיו עֹל מַלְכוּת וְעֹל דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ:", 3.11. "רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר הַמּוֹדָעִי אוֹמֵר, הַמְחַלֵּל אֶת הַקָּדָשִׁים, וְהַמְבַזֶּה אֶת הַמּוֹעֲדוֹת, וְהַמַּלְבִּין פְּנֵי חֲבֵרוֹ בָרַבִּים, וְהַמֵּפֵר בְּרִיתוֹ שֶׁל אַבְרָהָם אָבִינוּ עָלָיו הַשָּׁלוֹם, וְהַמְגַלֶּה פָנִים בַּתּוֹרָה שֶׁלֹּא כַהֲלָכָה, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיֵּשׁ בְּיָדוֹ תוֹרָה וּמַעֲשִׂים טוֹבִים, אֵין לוֹ חֵלֶק לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא:", 5.21. "הוּא הָיָה אוֹמֵר, בֶּן חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים לַמִּקְרָא, בֶּן עֶשֶׂר לַמִּשְׁנָה, בֶּן שְׁלשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה לַמִּצְוֹת, בֶּן חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה לַתַּלְמוּד, בֶּן שְׁמֹנֶה עֶשְׂרֵה לַחֻפָּה, בֶּן עֶשְׂרִים לִרְדֹּף, בֶּן שְׁלשִׁים לַכֹּחַ, בֶּן אַרְבָּעִים לַבִּינָה, בֶּן חֲמִשִּׁים לָעֵצָה, בֶּן שִׁשִּׁים לַזִּקְנָה, בֶּן שִׁבְעִים לַשֵּׂיבָה, בֶּן שְׁמֹנִים לַגְּבוּרָה, בֶּן תִּשְׁעִים לָשׁוּחַ, בֶּן מֵאָה כְּאִלּוּ מֵת וְעָבַר וּבָטֵל מִן הָעוֹלָם: \n", 3.5. "Rabbi Nehunia ben Hakkanah said: whoever takes upon himself the yoke of the Torah, they remove from him the yoke of government and the yoke of worldly concerns, and whoever breaks off from himself the yoke of the Torah, they place upon him the yoke of government and the yoke of worldly concerns.", 3.11. "Rabbi Elazar of Modiin said: one who profanes sacred things, and one who despises the festivals, and one who causes his fellow’s face to blush in public, and one who annuls the covet of our father Abraham, may he rest in peace, and he who is contemptuous towards the Torah, even though he has to his credit [knowledge of the] Torah and good deeds, he has not a share in the world to come.", 5.21. "He used to say: At five years of age the study of Scripture; At ten the study of Mishnah; At thirteen subject to the commandments; At fifteen the study of Talmud; At eighteen the bridal canopy; At twenty for pursuit [of livelihood]; At thirty the peak of strength; At forty wisdom; At fifty able to give counsel; At sixty old age; At seventy fullness of years; At eighty the age of “strength”; At ninety a bent body; At one hundred, as good as dead and gone completely out of the world.",
112. Longinus, On The Sublime, 9.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical, a short history of •allegory/allegorical, allegorical text or interpretation •allegory/allegorical, etymology of the word •allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 81
113. Mishnah, Ketuvot, 1.6, 5.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 100; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 439
1.6. "הַנּוֹשֵׂא אֶת הָאִשָּׁה וְלֹא מָצָא לָהּ בְּתוּלִים, הִיא אוֹמֶרֶת, מִשֶּׁאֵרַסְתַּנִי נֶאֱנַסְתִּי, וְנִסְתַּחֲפָה שָׂדֶךָ. וְהַלָּה אוֹמֵר, לֹא כִי, אֶלָּא עַד שֶׁלֹּא אֵרַסְתִּיךְ, וְהָיָה מִקָּחִי מֶקַּח טָעוּת. רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל וְרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמְרִים, נֶאֱמֶנֶת. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, לֹא מִפִּיהָ אָנוּ חַיִּין, אֶלָּא הֲרֵי זוֹ בְחֶזְקַת בְּעוּלָה עַד שֶׁלֹּא תִתְאָרֵס, וְהִטְעַתּוּ, עַד שֶׁתָּבִיא רְאָיָה לִדְבָרֶיהָ: \n", 5.6. "הַמַּדִּיר אֶת אִשְׁתּוֹ מִתַּשְׁמִישׁ הַמִּטָּה, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, שְׁתֵּי שַׁבָּתוֹת. בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, שַׁבָּת אֶחָת. הַתַּלְמִידִים יוֹצְאִין לְתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה שֶׁלֹּא בִרְשׁוּת, שְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. הַפּוֹעֲלִים, שַׁבָּת אֶחָת. הָעוֹנָה הָאֲמוּרָה בַתּוֹרָה, הַטַּיָּלִין, בְּכָל יוֹם. הַפּוֹעֲלִים, שְׁתַּיִם בַּשַּׁבָּת. הַחַמָּרִים, אַחַת בַּשַּׁבָּת. הַגַּמָּלִים, אַחַת לִשְׁלֹשִׁים יוֹם. הַסַּפָּנִים, אַחַת לְשִׁשָּׁה חֳדָשִׁים, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר: \n", 1.6. "If a man marries a woman and does not find her to be a virgin: She says, “After you betrothed me I was raped, and so your field has been washed away” And he says, “No, rather [it occurred] before I betrothed you and my acquisition was a mistaken acquisition” Rabban Gamaliel and Rabbi Eliezer say: she is believed. Rabbi Joshua says: We do not live by her mouth, rather she is in the presumption of having had intercourse before she was betrothed and having deceived him, until she brings proof for her statement.", 5.6. "A man forbade himself by vow from having intercourse with his wife: Beth Shammai says: two weeks; Beth Hillel says: one week. Students may go away to study Torah, without the permission [of their wives for a period of] thirty days; workers for one week. The times for conjugal duty prescribed in the torah are: For independent men, every day; For workers, twice a week; For donkey-drivers, once a week; For camel-drivers, once in thirty days; For sailors, once in six months. These are the words of Rabbi Eliezer.",
114. Josephus Flavius, Against Apion, 1.4 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 202
1.4. As for the witnesses whom I shall produce for the proof of what I say, they shall be such as are esteemed to be of the greatest reputation for truth, and the most skilful in the knowledge of all antiquity, by the Greeks themselves. I will also show, that those who have written so reproachfully and falsely about us, are to be convicted by what they have written themselves to the contrary.
115. Mishnah, Qiddushin, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 148
116. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 1.24, 3.180-3.187, 11.146, 12.8, 12.11-12.118, 18.259 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 348, 349; Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 81, 88; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 202; Wright (2015), The Letter of Aristeas : 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' 30, 36
1.24. I exhort, therefore, my readers to examine this whole undertaking in that view; for thereby it will appear to them, that there is nothing therein disagreeable either to the majesty of God, or to his love to mankind; for all things have here a reference to the nature of the universe; while our legislator speaks some things wisely, but enigmatically, and others under a decent allegory, but still explains such things as required a direct explication plainly and expressly. 3.180. for if any one do but consider the fabric of the tabernacle, and take a view of the garments of the high priest, and of those vessels which we make use of in our sacred ministration, he will find that our legislator was a divine man, and that we are unjustly reproached by others; for if any one do without prejudice, and with judgment, look upon these things, he will find they were every one made in way of imitation and representation of the universe. 3.181. When Moses distinguished the tabernacle into three parts, and allowed two of them to the priests, as a place accessible and common, he denoted the land and the sea, these being of general access to all; but he set apart the third division for God, because heaven is inaccessible to men. 3.182. And when he ordered twelve loaves to be set on the table, he denoted the year, as distinguished into so many months. By branching out the candlestick into seventy parts, he secretly intimated the Decani, or seventy divisions of the planets; and as to the seven lamps upon the candlesticks, they referred to the course of the planets, of which that is the number. 3.183. The veils, too, which were composed of four things, they declared the four elements; for the fine linen was proper to signify the earth, because the flax grows out of the earth; the purple signified the sea, because that color is dyed by the blood of a sea shell-fish; the blue is fit to signify the air; and the scarlet will naturally be an indication of fire. 3.184. Now the vestment of the high priest being made of linen, signified the earth; the blue denoted the sky, being like lightning in its pomegranates, and in the noise of the bells resembling thunder. And for the ephod, it showed that God had made the universe of four elements; and as for the gold interwoven, I suppose it related to the splendor by which all things are enlightened. 3.185. He also appointed the breastplate to be placed in the middle of the ephod, to resemble the earth, for that has the very middle place of the world. And the girdle which encompassed the high priest round, signified the ocean, for that goes round about and includes the universe. Each of the sardonyxes declares to us the sun and the moon; those, I mean, that were in the nature of buttons on the high priest’s shoulders. 3.186. And for the twelve stones, whether we understand by them the months, or whether we understand the like number of the signs of that circle which the Greeks call the Zodiac, we shall not be mistaken in their meaning. And for the mitre, which was of a blue color, it seems to me to mean heaven; 3.187. for how otherwise could the name of God be inscribed upon it? That it was also illustrated with a crown, and that of gold also, is because of that splendor with which God is pleased. Let this explication suffice at present, since the course of my narration will often, and on many occasions, afford me the opportunity of enlarging upon the virtue of our legislator. 11.146. So Esdras hearkened to this advice, and made the heads of the priests, and of the Levites, and of the Israelites, swear that they would put away those wives and children, according to the advice of Jechonias. 12.8. And as he knew that the people of Jerusalem were most faithful in the observation of oaths and covets; and this from the answer they made to Alexander, when he sent an embassage to them, after he had beaten Darius in battle; so he distributed many of them into garrisons, and at Alexandria gave them equal privileges of citizens with the Macedonians themselves; and required of them to take their oaths, that they would keep their fidelity to the posterity of those who committed these places to their care. 12.11. 1. When Alexander had reigned twelve years, and after him Ptolemy Soter forty years, Philadelphus then took the kingdom of Egypt, and held it forty years within one. He procured the law to be interpreted, and set free those that were come from Jerusalem into Egypt, and were in slavery there, who were a hundred and twenty thousand. The occasion was this: 12.12. Demetrius Phalerius, who was library keeper to the king, was now endeavoring, if it were possible, to gather together all the books that were in the habitable earth, and buying whatsoever was any where valuable, or agreeable to the king’s inclination, (who was very earnestly set upon collecting of books,) to which inclination of his Demetrius was zealously subservient. 12.13. And when once Ptolemy asked him how many ten thousands of books he had collected, he replied, that he had already about twenty times ten thousand; but that, in a little time, he should have fifty times ten thousand. 12.14. But he said he had been informed that there were many books of laws among the Jews worthy of inquiring after, and worthy of the king’s library, but which, being written in characters and in a dialect of their own, will cause no small pains in getting them translated into the Greek tongue; 12.15. that the character in which they are written seems to be like to that which is the proper character of the Syrians, and that its sound, when pronounced, is like theirs also; and that this sound appears to be peculiar to themselves. Wherefore he said that nothing hindered why they might not get those books to be translated also; for while nothing is wanting that is necessary for that purpose, we may have their books also in this library. 12.16. So the king thought that Demetrius was very zealous to procure him abundance of books, and that he suggested what was exceeding proper for him to do; and therefore he wrote to the Jewish high priest, that he should act accordingly. 12.17. 2. Now there was one Aristeus, who was among the king’s most intimate friends, and on account of his modesty very acceptable to him. This Aristeus resolved frequently, and that before now, to petition the king that he would set all the captive Jews in his kingdom free; 12.18. and he thought this to be a convenient opportunity for the making that petition. So he discoursed, in the first place, with the captains of the king’s guards, Sosibius of Tarentum, and Andreas, and persuaded them to assist him in what he was going to intercede with the king for. 12.19. Accordingly Aristeus embraced the same opinion with those that have been before mentioned, and went to the king, and made the following speech to him: 12.20. “It is not fit for us, O king, to overlook things hastily, or to deceive ourselves, but to lay the truth open. For since we have determined not only to get the laws of the Jews transcribed, but interpreted also, for thy satisfaction, by what means can we do this, while so many of the Jews are now slaves in thy kingdom? 12.21. Do thou then what will be agreeable to thy magimity, and to thy good nature: free them from the miserable condition they are in, because that God, who supporteth thy kingdom, was the author of their law 12.22. as I have learned by particular inquiry; for both these people, and we also, worship the same God the framer of all things. We call him, and that truly, by the name of Ζηνα, [or life, or Jupiter,] because he breathes life into all men. Wherefore do thou restore these men to their own country, and this do to the honor of God, because these men pay a peculiarly excellent worship to him. 12.23. And know this further, that though I be not of kin to them by birth, nor one of the same country with them, yet do I desire these favors to be done them, since all men are the workmanship of God; and I am sensible that he is well-pleased with those that do good. I do therefore put up this petition to thee, to do good to them.” 12.24. 3. When Aristeus was saying thus, the king looked upon him with a cheerful and joyful countece, and said, “How many ten thousands dost thou suppose there are of such as want to be made free?” To which Andreas replied, as he stood by, and said, “A few more than ten times ten thousand.” The king made answer, “And is this a small gift that thou askest, Aristeus?” 12.25. But Sosibius, and the rest that stood by, said that he ought to offer such a thank-offering as was worthy of his greatness of soul, to that God who had given him his kingdom. With this answer he was much pleased; and gave order, that when they paid the soldiers their wages, they should lay down [a hundred and] twenty drachmas for every one of the slaves? 12.26. And he promised to publish a magnificent decree, about what they requested, which should confirm what Aristeus had proposed, and especially what God willed should be done; whereby he said he would not only set those free who had been led away captive by his father and his army, but those who were in this kingdom before, and those also, if any such there were, who had been brought away since. 12.27. And when they said that their redemption money would amount to above four hundred talents, he granted it. A copy of which decree I have determined to preserve, that the magimity of this king may be made known. 12.28. Its contents were as follows: “Let all those who were soldiers under our father, and who, when they overran Syria and Phoenicia, and laid waste Judea, took the Jews captives, and made them slaves, and brought them into our cities, and into this country, and then sold them; as also all those that were in my kingdom before them, and if there be any that have been lately brought thither,—be made free by those that possess them; and let them accept of [a hundred and] twenty drachmas for every slave. And let the soldiers receive this redemption money with their pay, but the rest out of the king’s treasury: 12.29. for I suppose that they were made captives without our father’s consent, and against equity; and that their country was harassed by the insolence of the soldiers, and that, by removing them into Egypt, the soldiers have made a great profit by them. 12.30. Out of regard therefore to justice, and out of pity to those that have been tyrannized over, contrary to equity, I enjoin those that have such Jews in their service to set them at liberty, upon the receipt of the before-mentioned sum; and that no one use any deceit about them, but obey what is here commanded. 12.31. And I will that they give in their names within three days after the publication of this edict, to such as are appointed to execute the same, and to produce the slaves before them also, for I think it will be for the advantage of my affairs. And let every one that will inform against those that do not obey this decree, and I will that their estates be confiscated into the king’s treasury.” 12.32. When this decree was read to the king, it at first contained the rest that is here inserted, and omitted only those Jews that had formerly been brought, and those brought afterwards, which had not been distinctly mentioned; so he added these clauses out of his humanity, and with great generosity. He also gave order that the payment, which was likely to be done in a hurry, should be divided among the king’s ministers, and among the officers of his treasury. 12.33. When this was over, what the king had decreed was quickly brought to a conclusion; and this in no more than seven days’ time, the number of the talents paid for the captives being above four hundred and sixty, and this, because their masters required the [hundred and] twenty drachmas for the children also, the king having, in effect, commanded that these should be paid for, when he said in his decree, that they should receive the forementioned sum for every slave. 12.34. 4. Now when this had been done after so magnificent a manner, according to the king’s inclinations, he gave order to Demetrius to give him in writing his sentiments concerning the transcribing of the Jewish books; for no part of the administration is done rashly by these kings, but all things are managed with great circumspection. 12.35. On which account I have subjoined a copy of these epistles, and set down the multitude of the vessels sent as gifts [to Jerusalem], and the construction of every one, that the exactness of the artificers’ workmanship, as it appeared to those that saw them, and which workman made every vessel, may be made manifest, and this on account of the excellency of the vessels themselves. Now the copy of the epistle was to this purpose: 12.36. “Demetrius to the great king. When thou, O king, gavest me a charge concerning the collection of books that were wanting to fill your library, and concerning the care that ought to be taken about such as are imperfect, I have used the utmost diligence about those matters. And I let you know, that we want the books of the Jewish legislation, with some others; for they are written in the Hebrew characters, and being in the language of that nation, are to us unknown. 12.37. It hath also happened to them, that they have been transcribed more carelessly than they ought to have been, because they have not had hitherto royal care taken about them. Now it is necessary that thou shouldst have accurate copies of them. And indeed this legislation is full of hidden wisdom, and entirely blameless, as being the legislation of God; 12.38. for which cause it is, as Hecateus of Abdera says, that the poets and historians make no mention of it, nor of those men who lead their lives according to it, since it is a holy law, and ought not to be published by profane mouths. 12.39. If then it please thee, O king, thou mayest write to the high priest of the Jews, to send six of the elders out of every tribe, and those such as are most skillful of the laws, that by their means we may learn the clear and agreeing sense of these books, and may obtain an accurate interpretation of their contents, and so may have such a collection of these as may be suitable to thy desire.” 12.40. 5. When this epistle was sent to the king, he commanded that an epistle should be drawn up for Eleazar, the Jewish high priest, concerning these matters; and that they should inform him of the release of the Jews that had been in slavery among them. He also sent fifty talents of gold for the making of large basons, and vials, and cups, and an immense quantity of precious stones. 12.41. He also gave order to those who had the custody of the chest that contained those stones, to give the artificers leave to choose out what sorts of them they pleased. He withal appointed, that a hundred talents in money should be sent to the temple for sacrifices, and for other uses. 12.42. Now I will give a description of these vessels, and the manner of their construction, but not till after I have set down a copy of the epistle which was written to Eleazar the high priest, who had obtained that dignity on the occasion following: 12.43. When Onias the high priest was dead, his son Simon became his successor. He was called Simon the Just because of both his piety towards God, and his kind disposition to those of his own nation. 12.44. When he was dead, and had left a young son, who was called Onias, Simon’s brother Eleazar, of whom we are speaking, took the high priesthood; and he it was to whom Ptolemy wrote, and that in the manner following: 12.45. “King Ptolemy to Eleazar the high priest, sendeth greeting. There are many Jews who now dwell in my kingdom, whom the Persians, when they were in power, carried captives. These were honored by my father; some of them he placed in the army, and gave them greater pay than ordinary; to others of them, when they came with him into Egypt, he committed his garrisons, and the guarding of them, that they might be a terror to the Egyptians. 12.46. And when I had taken the government, I treated all men with humanity, and especially those that are thy fellow citizens, of whom I have set free above a hundred thousand that were slaves, and paid the price of their redemption to their masters out of my own revenues; 12.47. and those that are of a fit age, I have admitted into them number of my soldiers. And for such as are capable of being faithful to me, and proper for my court, I have put them in such a post, as thinking this [kindness done to them] to be a very great and an acceptable gift, which I devote to God for his providence over me. 12.48. And as I am desirous to do what will be grateful to these, and to all the other Jews in the habitable earth, I have determined to procure an interpretation of your law, and to have it translated out of Hebrew into Greek, and to be deposited in my library. 12.49. Thou wilt therefore do well to choose out and send to me men of a good character, who are now elders in age, and six in number out of every tribe. These, by their age, must be skillful in the laws, and of abilities to make an accurate interpretation of them; and when this shall be finished, I shall think that I have done a work glorious to myself. 12.50. And I have sent to thee Andreas, the captain of my guard, and Aristeus, men whom I have in very great esteem; by whom I have sent those first-fruits which I have dedicated to the temple, and to the sacrifices, and to other uses, to the value of a hundred talents. And if thou wilt send to us, to let us know what thou wouldst have further, thou wilt do a thing acceptable to me.” 12.51. 6. When this epistle of the king was brought to Eleazar, he wrote an answer to it with all the respect possible: “Eleazar the high priest to king Ptolemy, sendeth greeting. If thou and thy queen Arsinoe, and thy children, be well, we are entirely satisfied. 12.52. When we received thy epistle, we greatly rejoiced at thy intentions; and when the multitude were gathered together, we read it to them, and thereby made them sensible of the piety thou hast towards God. 12.53. We also showed them the twenty vials of gold, and thirty of silver, and the five large basons, and the table for the shew-bread; as also the hundred talents for the sacrifices, and for the making what shall be needful at the temple; which things Andreas and Aristeus, those most honored friends of thine, have brought us; and truly they are persons of an excellent character, and of great learning, and worthy of thy virtue. 12.54. Know then that we will gratify thee in what is for thy advantage, though we do what we used not to do before; for we ought to make a return for the numerous acts of kindness which thou hast done to our countrymen. 12.55. We immediately, therefore, offered sacrifices for thee and thy sister, with thy children and friends; and the multitude made prayers, that thy affairs may be to thy mind, and that thy kingdom may be preserved in peace, and that the translation of our law may come to the conclusion thou desirest, and be for thy advantage. 12.56. We have also chosen six elders out of every tribe, whom we have sent, and the law with them. It will be thy part, out of thy piety and justice, to send back the law, when it hath been translated, and to return those to us that bring it in safety. Farewell.” 12.57. 7. This was the reply which the high priest made. But it does not seem to me to be necessary to set down the names of the seventy [two] elders who were sent by Eleazar, and carried the law, which yet were subjoined at the end of the epistle. 12.58. However, I thought it not improper to give an account of those very valuable and artificially contrived vessels which the king sent to God, that all may see how great a regard the king had for God; for the king allowed a vast deal of expenses for these vessels, and came often to the workmen, and viewed their works, and suffered nothing of carelessness or negligence to be any damage to their operations. 12.59. And I will relate how rich they were as well as I am able, although perhaps the nature of this history may not require such a description; but I imagine I shall thereby recommend the elegant taste and magimity of this king to those that read this history. 12.60. 8. And first I will describe what belongs to the table. It was indeed in the king’s mind to make this table vastly large in its dimensions; but then he gave orders that they should learn what was the magnitude of the table which was already at Jerusalem, and how large it was, and whether there was a possibility of making one larger than it. 12.61. And when he was informed how large that was which was already there, and that nothing hindered but a larger might be made, he said that he was willing to have one made that should be five times as large as the present table; but his fear was, that it might be then useless in their sacred ministrations by its too great largeness; for he desired that the gifts he presented them should not only be there for show, but should be useful also in their sacred ministrations. 12.62. According to which reasoning, that the former table was made of so moderate a size for use, and not for want of gold, he resolved that he would not exceed the former table in largeness; but would make it exceed it in the variety and elegancy of its materials. 12.63. And as he was sagacious in observing the nature of all things, and in having a just notion of what was new and surprising, and where there was no sculptures, he would invent such as were proper by his own skill, and would show them to the workmen, he commanded that such sculptures should now be made, and that those which were delineated should be most accurately formed by a constant regard to their delineation. 12.64. 9. When therefore the workmen had undertaken to make the table, they framed it in length two cubits [and a half], in breadth one cubit, and in height one cubit and a half; and the entire structure of the work was of gold. They withal made a crown of a hand-breadth round it, with wave-work wreathed about it, and with an engraving which imitated a cord, and was admirably turned on its three parts; 12.65. for as they were of a triangular figure, every angle had the same disposition of its sculptures, that when you turned them about, the very same form of them was turned about without any variation. Now that part of the crown-work that was enclosed under the table had its sculptures very beautiful; but that part which went round on the outside was more elaborately adorned with most beautiful ornaments, because it was exposed to sight, and to the view of the spectators; 12.66. for which reason it was that both those sides which were extant above the rest were acute, and none of the angles, which we before told you were three, appeared less than another, when the table was turned about. Now into the cordwork thus turned were precious stones inserted, in rows parallel one to the other, enclosed in golden buttons, which had ouches in them; 12.67. but the parts which were on the side of the crown, and were exposed to the sight, were adorned with a row of oval figures obliquely placed, of the most excellent sort of precious stones, which imitated rods laid close, and encompassed the table round about. 12.68. But under these oval figures, thus engraven, the workmen had put a crown all round it, where the nature of all sorts of fruit was represented, insomuch that the bunches of grapes hung up. And when they had made the stones to represent all the kinds of fruit before mentioned, and that each in its proper color, they made them fast with gold round the whole table. 12.69. The like disposition of the oval figures, and of the engraved rods, was framed under the crown, that the table might on each side show the same appearance of variety and elegancy of its ornaments; so that neither the position of the wave-work nor of the crown might be different, although the table were turned on the other side, but that the prospect of the same artificial contrivances might be extended as far as the feet; 12.70. for there was made a plate of gold four fingers broad, through the entire breadth of the table, into which they inserted the feet, and then fastened them to the table by buttons and button-holes, at the place where the crown was situate, that so on what side soever of the table one should stand, it might exhibit the very same view of the exquisite workmanship, and of the vast expenses bestowed upon it: 12.71. but upon the table itself they engraved a meander, inserting into it very valuable stones in the middle like stars, of various colors; the carbuncle and the emerald, each of which sent out agreeable rays of light to the spectators; with such stones of other sorts also as were most curious and best esteemed, as being most precious in their kind. 12.72. Hard by this meander a texture of net-work ran round it, the middle of which appeared like a rhombus, into which were inserted rock-crystal and amber, which, by the great resemblance of the appearance they made, gave wonderful delight to those that saw them. 12.73. The chapiters of the feet imitated the first buddings of lilies, while their leaves were bent and laid under the table, but so that the chives were seen standing upright within them. 12.74. Their bases were made of a carbuncle; and the place at the bottom, which rested on that carbuncle, was one palm deep, and eight fingers in breadth. 12.75. Now they had engraven upon it with a very fine tool, and with a great deal of pains, a branch of ivy and tendrils of the vine, sending forth clusters of grapes, that you would guess they were nowise different from real tendrils; for they were so very thin, and so very far extended at their extremities, that they were moved with the wind, and made one believe that they were the product of nature, and not the representation of art. 12.76. They also made the entire workmanship of the table appear to be threefold, while the joints of the several parts were so united together as to be invisible, and the places where they joined could not be distinguished. Now the thickness of the table was not less than half a cubit. 12.77. So that this gift, by the king’s great generosity, by the great value of the materials, and the variety of its exquisite structure, and the artificer’s skill in imitating nature with graying tools, was at length brought to perfection, while the king was very desirous, that though in largeness it were not to be different from that which was already dedicated to God, yet that in exquisite workmanship, and the novelty of the contrivances, and in the splendor of its construction, it should far exceed it, and be more illustrious than that was. 12.78. 10. Now of the cisterns of gold there were two, whose sculpture was of scale-work, from its basis to its belt-like circle, with various sorts of stones enchased in the spiral circles. 12.79. Next to which there was upon it a meander of a cubit in height; it was composed of stones of all sorts of colors. And next to this was the rod-work engraven; and next to that was a rhombus in a texture of net-work, drawn out to the brim of the basin, 12.80. while small shields, made of stones, beautiful in their kind, and of four fingers’ depth, filled up the middle parts. About the top of the basin were wreathed the leaves of lilies, and of the convolvulus, and the tendrils of vines in a circular manner. 12.81. And this was the construction of the two cisterns of gold, each containing two firkins. But those which were of silver were much more bright and splendid than looking-glasses, and you might in them see the images that fell upon them more plainly than in the other. 12.82. The king also ordered thirty vials; those of which the parts that were of gold, and filled up with precious stones, were shadowed over with the leaves of ivy and of vines, artificially engraven. 12.83. And these were the vessels that were after an extraordinary manner brought to this perfection, partly by the skill of the workmen, who were admirable in such fine work, but much more by the diligence and generosity of the king, 12.84. who not only supplied the artificers abundantly, and with great generosity, with what they wanted, but he forbade public audiences for the time, and came and stood by the workmen, and saw the whole operation. And this was the cause why the workmen were so accurate in their performance, because they had regard to the king, and to his great concern about the vessels, and so the more indefatigably kept close to the work. 12.85. 11. And these were what gifts were sent by Ptolemy to Jerusalem, and dedicated to God there. But when Eleazar the high priest had devoted them to God, and had paid due respect to those that brought them, and had given them presents to be carried to the king, he dismissed them. 12.86. And when they were come to Alexandria, and Ptolemy heard that they were come, and that the seventy elders were come also, he presently sent for Andreas and Aristens, his ambassadors, who came to him, and delivered him the epistle which they brought him from the high priest, and made answer to all the questions he put to them by word of mouth. 12.87. He then made haste to meet the elders that came from Jerusalem for the interpretation of the laws; and he gave command, that every body who came on other occasions should be sent away, which was a thing surprising, and what he did not use to do; 12.88. for those that were drawn thither upon such occasions used to come to him on the fifth day, but ambassadors at the month’s end. But when he had sent those away, he waited for these that were sent by Eleazar; 12.89. but as the old men came in with the presents, which the high priest had given them to bring to the king, and with the membranes, upon which they had their laws written in golden letters he put questions to them concerning those books; 12.90. and when they had taken off the covers wherein they were wrapt up, they showed him the membranes. So the king stood admiring the thinness of those membranes, and the exactness of the junctures, which could not be perceived; (so exactly were they connected one with another;) and this he did for a considerable time. He then said that he returned them thanks for coming to him, and still greater thanks to him that sent them; and, above all, to that God whose laws they appeared to be. 12.91. Then did the elders, and those that were present with them, cry out with one voice, and wished all happiness to the king. Upon which he fell into tears by the violence of the pleasure he had, it being natural to men to afford the same indications in great joy that they do under sorrows. 12.92. And when he had bid them deliver the books to those that were appointed to receive them, he saluted the men, and said that it was but just to discourse, in the first place, of the errand they were sent about, and then to address himself to themselves. He promised, however, that he would make this day on which they came to him remarkable and eminent every year through the whole course of his life; 12.93. for their coming to him, and the victory which he gained over Antigonus by sea, proved to be on the very same day. He also gave orders that they should sup with him; and gave it in charge that they should have excellent lodgings provided for them in the upper part of the city. 12.94. 12. Now he that was appointed to take care of the reception of strangers, Nicanor by name, called for Dorotheus, whose duty it was to make provision for them, and bid him prepare for every one of them what should be requisite for their diet and way of living; which thing was ordered by the king after this manner: 12.95. he took care that those that belonged to every city, which did not use the same way of living, that all things should be prepared for them according to the custom of those that came to him, that, being feasted according to the usual method of their own way of living, they might be the better pleased, and might not be uneasy at any thing done to them from which they were naturally averse. And this was now done in the case of these men by Dorotheus, who was put into this office because of his great skill in such matters belonging to common life; 12.96. for he took care of all such matters as concerned the reception of strangers, and appointed them double seats for them to sit on, according as the king had commanded him to do; for he had commanded that half of their seats should be set at his right hand, and the other half behind his table, and took care that no respect should be omitted that could be shown them. 12.97. And when they were thus set down, he bid Dorotheus to minister to all those that were come to him from Judea, after the manner they used to be ministered to; for which cause he sent away their sacred heralds, and those that slew the sacrifices, and the rest that used to say grace; but called to one of those that were come to him, whose name was Eleazar, who w a priest, and desired him to say grace; 12.98. who then stood in the midst of them, and prayed, that all prosperity might attend the king, and those that were his subjects. Upon which an acclamation was made by the whole company, with joy and a great noise; and when that was over, they fell to eating their supper, and to the enjoyment of what was set before them. 12.99. And at a little interval afterward, when the king thought a sufficient time had been interposed, he began to talk philosophically to them, and he asked every one of them a philosophical question and such a one as might give light in those inquiries; and when they had explained all the problems that had been proposed by the king about every point, he was well-pleased with their answers. This took up the twelve days in which they were treated; 12.100. and he that pleases may learn the particular questions in that book of Aristeus, which he wrote on this very occasion. 12.101. 13. And while not the king only, but the philosopher Menedemus also, admired them, and said that all things were governed by Providence, and that it was probable that thence it was that such force or beauty was discovered in these men’s words, they then left off asking any more such questions. 12.102. But the king said that he had gained very great advantages by their coming, for that he had received this profit from them, that he had learned how he ought to rule his subjects. And he gave order that they should have every one three talents given them, and that those that were to conduct them to their lodging should do it. 12.103. Accordingly, when three days were over, Demetrius took them, and went over the causeway seven furlongs long: it was a bank in the sea to an island. And when they had gone over the bridge, he proceeded to the northern parts, and showed them where they should meet, which was in a house that was built near the shore, and was a quiet place, and fit for their discoursing together about their work. 12.104. When he had brought them thither, he entreated them (now they had all things about them which they wanted for the interpretation of their law) that they would suffer nothing to interrupt them in their work. Accordingly, they made an accurate interpretation, with great zeal and great pains, and this they continued to do till the ninth hour of the day; 12.105. after which time they relaxed, and took care of their body, while their food was provided for them in great plenty: besides, Dorotheus, at the king’s command, brought them a great deal of what was provided for the king himself. 12.106. But in the morning they came to the court and saluted Ptolemy, and then went away to their former place, where, when they had washed their hands, and purified themselves, they betook themselves to the interpretation of the laws. 12.107. Now when the law was transcribed, and the labor of interpretation was over, which came to its conclusion in seventy-two days, Demetrius gathered all the Jews together to the place where the laws were translated, and where the interpreters were, and read them over. 12.108. The multitude did also approve of those elders that were the interpreters of the law. They withal commended Demetrius for his proposal, as the inventor of what was greatly for their happiness; and they desired that he would give leave to their rulers also to read the law. Moreover, they all, both the priest and the ancientest of the elders, and the principal men of their commonwealth, made it their request, that since the interpretation was happily finished, it might continue in the state it now was, and might not be altered. 12.109. And when they all commended that determination of theirs, they enjoined, that if any one observed either any thing superfluous, or any thing omitted, that he would take a view of it again, and have it laid before them, and corrected; which was a wise action of theirs, that when the thing was judged to have been well done, it might continue for ever. 12.110. 14. So the king rejoiced when he saw that his design of this nature was brought to perfection, to so great advantage; and he was chiefly delighted with hearing the Laws read to him; and was astonished at the deep meaning and wisdom of the legislator. And he began to discourse with Demetrius, “How it came to pass, that when this legislation was so wonderful, no one, either of the poets or of the historians, had made mention of it.” 12.111. Demetrius made answer, “that no one durst be so bold as to touch upon the description of these laws, because they were divine and venerable, and because some that had attempted it were afflicted by God.” 12.112. He also told him, that “Theopompus was desirous of writing somewhat about them, but was thereupon disturbed in his mind for above thirty days’ time; and upon some intermission of his distemper, he appeased God [by prayer], as suspecting that his madness proceeded from that cause.” Nay, indeed, he further saw in a dream, that his distemper befell him while he indulged too great a curiosity about divine matters, and was desirous of publishing them among common men; but when he left off that attempt, he recovered his understanding again. 12.113. Moreover, he informed him of Theodectes, the tragic poet, concerning whom it was reported, that when in a certain dramatic representation he was desirous to make mention of things that were contained in the sacred books, he was afflicted with a darkness in his eyes; and that upon his being conscious of the occasion of his distemper, and appeasing God (by prayer), he was freed from that affliction. 12.114. 15. And when the king had received these books from Demetrius, as we have said already, he adored them, and gave order that great care should be taken of them, that they might remain uncorrupted. He also desired that the interpreters would come often to him out of Judea, 12.115. and that both on account of the respects that he would pay them, and on account of the presents he would make them; for he said it was now but just to send them away, although if, of their own accord, they would come to him hereafter, they should obtain all that their own wisdom might justly require, and what his generosity was able to give them. 12.116. So he then sent them away, and gave to every one of them three garments of the best sort, and two talents of gold, and a cup of the value of one talent, and the furniture of the room wherein they were feasted. And these were the things he presented to them. 12.117. But by them he sent to Eleazar the high priest ten beds, with feet of silver, and the furniture to them belonging, and a cup of the value of thirty talents; and besides these, ten garments, and purple, and a very beautiful crown, and a hundred pieces of the finest woven linen; as also vials and dishes, and vessels for pouring, and two golden cisterns to be dedicated to God. 12.118. He also desired him, by an epistle, that he would give these interpreters leave, if any of them were desirous of coming to him, because he highly valued a conversation with men of such learning, and should be very willing to lay out his wealth upon such men. And this was what came to the Jews, and was much to their glory and honor, from Ptolemy Philadelphus. 18.259. Many of these severe things were said by Apion, by which he hoped to provoke Caius to anger at the Jews, as he was likely to be. But Philo, the principal of the Jewish embassage, a man eminent on all accounts, brother to Alexander the alabarch, and one not unskillful in philosophy, was ready to betake himself to make his defense against those accusations;
117. Mishnah, Middot, 2.5-2.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 133
2.5. "עֶזְרַת הַנָּשִׁים הָיְתָה אֹרֶךְ מֵאָה וּשְׁלשִׁים וְחָמֵשׁ עַל רֹחַב מֵאָה וּשְׁלֹשִׁים וְחָמֵשׁ. וְאַרְבַּע לְשָׁכוֹת הָיוּ בְאַרְבַּע מִקְצוֹעוֹתֶיהָ, שֶׁל אַרְבָּעִים אַרְבָּעִים אַמָּה. וְלֹא הָיוּ מְקוֹרוֹת. וְכָךְ הֵם עֲתִידִים לִהְיוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (יחזקאל מו), וַיּוֹצִיאֵנִי אֶל הֶחָצֵר הַחִיצוֹנָה וַיַּעֲבִירֵנִי אֶל אַרְבַּעַת מִקְצוֹעֵי הֶחָצֵר וְהִנֵּה חָצֵר בְּמִקְצֹעַ הֶחָצֵר, חָצֵר בְּמִקְצֹעַ הֶחָצֵר, בְּאַרְבַּעַת מִקְצֹעוֹת הֶחָצֵר חֲצֵרוֹת קְטֻרוֹת. וְאֵין קְטֻרוֹת אֶלָּא שֶׁאֵינָן מְקוֹרוֹת. וּמֶה הָיוּ מְשַׁמְּשׁוֹת. דְּרוֹמִית מִזְרָחִית, הִיא הָיְתָה לִשְׁכַּת הַנְּזִירִים, שֶׁשָּׁם הַנְּזִירִים מְבַשְּׁלִין אֶת שַׁלְמֵיהֶן, וּמְגַלְּחִין אֶת שְׂעָרָן, וּמְשַׁלְּחִים תַּחַת הַדּוּד. מִזְרָחִית צְפוֹנִית, הִיא הָיְתָה לִשְׁכַּת הָעֵצִים, שֶׁשָּׁם הַכֹּהֲנִים בַּעֲלֵי מוּמִין מַתְלִיעִין הָעֵצִים. וְכָל עֵץ שֶׁנִּמְצָא בוֹ תוֹלַעַת, פָּסוּל מֵעַל גַּבֵּי הַמִּזְבֵּחַ. צְפוֹנִית מַעֲרָבִית, הִיא הָיְתָה לִשְׁכַּת מְצֹרָעִים. מַעֲרָבִית דְּרוֹמִית, אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב, שָׁכַחְתִּי מֶה הָיְתָה מְשַׁמֶּשֶׁת. אַבָּא שָׁאוּל אוֹמֵר, שָׁם הָיוּ נוֹתְנִין יַיִן וָשֶׁמֶן, הִיא הָיְתָה נִקְרֵאת לִשְׁכַּת בֵּית שְׁמַנְיָה. וַחֲלָקָה הָיְתָה בָּרִאשׁוֹנָה, וְהִקִּיפוּהָ כְצוֹצְרָה, שֶׁהַנָּשִׁים רוֹאוֹת מִלְמַעְלָן, וְהָאֲנָשִׁים מִלְּמַטָּן, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יְהוּ מְעֹרָבִין. וַחֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה מַעֲלוֹת עוֹלוֹת מִתּוֹכָהּ לְעֶזְרַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, כְּנֶגֶד חֲמֵשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה מַעֲלוֹת שֶׁבַּתְּהִלִּים, שֶׁעֲלֵיהֶן הַלְוִיִּם אוֹמְרִים בַּשִּׁיר. לֹא הָיוּ טְרוּטוֹת, אֶלָּא מֻקָּפוֹת כַּחֲצִי גֹרֶן עֲגֻלָּה: \n", 2.6. "וּלְשָׁכוֹת הָיוּ תַחַת עֶזְרַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, וּפְתוּחוֹת לְעֶזְרַת הַנָּשִׁים, שֶׁשָּׁם הַלְוִיִּם נוֹתְנִים כִּנּוֹרוֹת וּנְבָלִים וּמְצִלְתַּיִם וְכָל כְּלֵי שִׁיר. עֶזְרַת יִשְׂרָאֵל הָיְתָה אֹרֶךְ מֵאָה אַמָּה וּשְׁלשִׁים וְחָמֵשׁ עַל רֹחַב אַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה. וְכֵן עֶזְרַת כֹּהֲנִים הָיְתָה אֹרֶךְ מֵאָה וּשְׁלשִׁים וְחָמֵשׁ עַל רֹחַב אַחַת עֶשְׂרֵה. וְרָאשֵׁי פִסְפָּסִין מַבְדִּילִין בֵּין עֶזְרַת יִשְׂרָאֵל לְעֶזְרַת הַכֹּהֲנִים. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר, מַעֲלָה הָיְתָה שָׁם, וּגְבוֹהָה אַמָּה, וְהַדּוּכָן נָתוּן עָלֶיהָ, וּבָהּ שָׁלשׁ מַעֲלוֹת שֶׁל חֲצִי חֲצִי אַמָּה. נִמְצֵאת עֶזְרַת הַכֹּהֲנִים גְּבוֹהָה מֵעֶזְרַת יִשְׂרָאֵל שְׁתֵּי אַמּוֹת וּמֶחֱצָה. כָּל הָעֲזָרָה הָיְתָה אֹרֶךְ מֵאָה וּשְׁמוֹנִים וָשֶׁבַע עַל רֹחַב מֵאָה וּשְׁלשִׁים וְחָמֵשׁ. וּשְׁלֹשׁ עֶשְׂרֵה הִשְׁתַּחֲוָיוֹת הָיוּ שָׁם. אַבָּא יוֹסֵי בֶן חָנָן אוֹמֵר, כְּנֶגֶד שְׁלֹשָׁה עָשָׂר שְׁעָרִים. שְׁעָרִים דְּרוֹמִיִּים סְמוּכִים לַמַּעֲרָב, שַׁעַר הָעֶלְיוֹן, שַׁעַר הַדֶּלֶק, שַׁעַר הַבְּכוֹרוֹת, שַׁעַר הַמָּיִם, וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ שַׁעַר הַמַּיִם. שֶׁבּוֹ מַכְנִיסִין צְלוֹחִית שֶׁל מַיִם שֶׁל נִסּוּךְ בֶּחָג. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בֶּן יַעֲקֹב אוֹמֵר, וּבוֹ הַמַּיִם מְפַכִּים, וַעֲתִידִין לִהְיוֹת יוֹצְאִין מִתַּחַת מִפְתַּן הַבָּיִת. וּלְעֻמָּתָן בַּצָּפוֹן סְמוּכִים לַמַּעֲרָב, שַׁעַר יְכָנְיָה, שַׁעַר הַקָּרְבָּן, שַׁעַר הַנָּשִׁים, שַׁעַר הַשִּׁיר. וְלָמָּה נִקְרָא שְׁמוֹ שַׁעַר יְכָנְיָה, שֶׁבּוֹ יָצָא יְכָנְיָה בְּגָלוּתוֹ. שֶׁבַּמִּזְרָח, שַׁעַר נִקָּנוֹר. וּשְׁנֵי פִשְׁפָּשִׁים הָיוּ לוֹ, אֶחָד מִימִינוֹ וְאֶחָד מִשְּׂמֹאלוֹ. וּשְׁנַיִם בַּמַעֲרָב, לֹא הָיָה לָהֶם שֵׁם: \n", 2.5. "The courtyard of the women was a hundred and thirty-five cubits long by a hundred and thirty-five wide. It had four chambers in its four corners, each of which was forty cubits. They were not roofed, and so they will be in the time to come, as it says, “Then he brought me forth into the outer court, and caused me to pass by the four corners of the court, and behold in every corner of the court there was a court. In the four corners of the court there were keturot courts” (Ezekiel 46:21-22) and keturot means that they were not roofed. For what were they used? The southeastern one was the chamber of the Nazirites where the Nazirites used to boil their shelamim and shave their hair and throw it under the pot. The northeastern one was the wood chamber where priests with physical defects used to pick out the wood which had worms, every piece with a worm in it being unfit for use on the altar. The northwestern one was the chamber of those with skin disease. The southwestern one: Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob said: I forget what it was used for. Abba Shaul says: they used to store there wine and oil, and it was called the chamber of oil. It [the courtyard of the women] had originally been smooth [without protrusions in the walls] but subsequently they surrounded it with a balcony so that the women could look on from above while the men were below, and they should not mix together. Fifteen steps led up from it to the courtyard of Israel, corresponding to the fifteen [songs of] ascents mentioned in the Book of Psalms, and upon which the Levites used to sing. They were not rectangular but circular like the half of a threshing floor.", 2.6. "There were chambers underneath the Court of Israel which opened into the Court of Women, where the Levites used to keep lyres and lutes and cymbals and all kinds of musical instruments. The Court of Israel was a hundred and thirty-five cubits in length by eleven in breadth. Similarly the Court of the Priests was a hundred and thirty-five cubits in length by eleven in breadth. And a row of mosaic stones separated the Court of Israel from the Court of the Priests. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: there was a step a cubit high on which a platform was placed, and it had three steps each of half a cubit in height. In this way the Court of the Priests was made two and a half cubits higher than that of Israel. The whole of the Court was a hundred and eighty-seven cubits in length by a hundred and thirty-five in breadth. And thirteen prostrations were made there. Abba Yose ben Ha says: they were made facing the thirteen gates. On the south beginning from the west there were the upper gate, the gate of burning, the gate of the firstborn, and the water gate. And why was it called the water gate? Because they brought in through it the pitcher of water for libation on the festival. Rabbi Eliezer ben Jacob says: in it the water welled up, and in the time to come from there it will come out from under the threshold of the Temple. Corresponding to them in the north beginning in the west were the gate of Yehoniah, the gate of the offering, the women's gate, the gate of song. Why was it called the gate of Yehoniah? Because Yehoniah went forth into captivity through it. On the east was the gate of Nicanor; it had two doors, one on its right and one on its left (10 +. There were further two gates in the west which had no special name (12 +.",
118. Mishnah, Peah, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 439
1.1. "אֵלּוּ דְבָרִים שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם שִׁעוּר. הַפֵּאָה, וְהַבִּכּוּרִים, וְהָרֵאָיוֹן, וּגְמִילוּת חֲסָדִים, וְתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה. אֵלּוּ דְבָרִים שֶׁאָדָם אוֹכֵל פֵּרוֹתֵיהֶן בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְהַקֶּרֶן קַיֶּמֶת לוֹ לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. כִּבּוּד אָב וָאֵם, וּגְמִילוּת חֲסָדִים, וַהֲבָאַת שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אָדָם לַחֲבֵרוֹ, וְתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה כְּנֶגֶד כֻּלָּם:", 1.1. "These are the things that have no definite quantity: The corners [of the field]. First-fruits; [The offerings brought] on appearing [at the Temple on the three pilgrimage festivals]. The performance of righteous deeds; And the study of the torah. The following are the things for which a man enjoys the fruits in this world while the principal remains for him in the world to come: Honoring one’s father and mother; The performance of righteous deeds; And the making of peace between a person and his friend; And the study of the torah is equal to them all.",
119. Mishnah, Yadayim, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 240
3.5. "סֵפֶר שֶׁנִּמְחַק וְנִשְׁתַּיֵּר בּוֹ שְׁמוֹנִים וְחָמֵשׁ אוֹתִיּוֹת, כְּפָרָשַׁת וַיְהִי בִּנְסֹעַ הָאָרֹן, מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. מְגִלָּה שֶׁכָּתוּב בָּהּ שְׁמוֹנִים וְחָמֵשׁ אוֹתִיּוֹת כְּפָרָשַׁת וַיְהִי בִּנְסֹעַ הָאָרֹן, מְטַמָּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. כָּל כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים וְקֹהֶלֶת מְטַמְּאִין אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם, וְקֹהֶלֶת מַחֲלֹקֶת. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, קֹהֶלֶת אֵינוֹ מְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם וְשִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים מַחֲלֹקֶת. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, קֹהֶלֶת מִקֻּלֵּי בֵית שַׁמַּאי וּמֵחֻמְרֵי בֵית הִלֵּל. אָמַר רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן עַזַּאי, מְקֻבָּל אֲנִי מִפִּי שִׁבְעִים וּשְׁנַיִם זָקֵן, בַּיּוֹם שֶׁהוֹשִׁיבוּ אֶת רַבִּי אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן עֲזַרְיָה בַּיְשִׁיבָה, שֶׁשִּׁיר הַשִּׁירִים וְקֹהֶלֶת מְטַמְּאִים אֶת הַיָּדַיִם. אָמַר רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, חַס וְשָׁלוֹם, לֹא נֶחֱלַק אָדָם מִיִּשְׂרָאֵל עַל שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים שֶׁלֹּא תְטַמֵּא אֶת הַיָּדַיִם, שֶׁאֵין כָּל הָעוֹלָם כֻּלּוֹ כְדַאי כַּיּוֹם שֶׁנִּתַּן בּוֹ שִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים לְיִשְׂרָאֵל, שֶׁכָּל הַכְּתוּבִים קֹדֶשׁ, וְשִׁיר הַשִּׁירִים קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים. וְאִם נֶחְלְקוּ, לֹא נֶחְלְקוּ אֶלָּא עַל קֹהֶלֶת. אָמַר רַבִּי יוֹחָנָן בֶּן יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בֶּן חָמִיו שֶׁל רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא, כְּדִבְרֵי בֶן עַזַּאי, כָּךְ נֶחְלְקוּ וְכָךְ גָּמְרוּ: \n", 3.5. "A scroll on which the writing has become erased and eighty-five letters remain, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\" (Numbers 11:35-36) defiles the hands. A single sheet on which there are written eighty-five letters, as many as are in the section beginning, \"And it came to pass when the ark set forward\", defiles the hands. All the Holy Scriptures defile the hands. The Song of Songs and Kohelet (Ecclesiastes) defile the hands. Rabbi Judah says: the Song of Songs defiles the hands, but there is a dispute about Kohelet. Rabbi Yose says: Kohelet does not defile the hands, but there is a dispute about the Song of Songs. Rabbi Shimon says: [the ruling about] Kohelet is one of the leniencies of Bet Shammai and one of the stringencies of Bet Hillel. Rabbi Shimon ben Azzai said: I have received a tradition from the seventy-two elders on the day when they appointed Rabbi Elazar ben Azariah head of the academy that the Song of Songs and Kohelet defile the hands. Rabbi Akiba said: Far be it! No man in Israel disputed that the Song of Songs [saying] that it does not defile the hands. For the whole world is not as worthy as the day on which the Song of Songs was given to Israel; for all the writings are holy but the Song of Songs is the holy of holies. If they had a dispute, they had a dispute only about Kohelet. Rabbi Yoha ben Joshua the son of the father-in-law of Rabbi Akiva said in accordance with the words of Ben Azzai: so they disputed and so they reached a decision.",
120. New Testament, 1 John, 2.16-2.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 585
2.16. ὅτι πᾶν τὸ ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ, ἡ ἐπιθυμία τῆς σαρκὸς καὶ ἡ ἐπιθυμία τῶν ὀφθαλμῶν καὶ ἡ ἀλαζονία τοῦ βίου, οὐκ ἔστιν ἐκ τοῦ πατρός, ἀλλὰ ἐκ τοῦ κόσμου ἐστίν· 2.17. καὶ ὁ κόσμος παράγεται καὶ ἡ ἐπιθυμία [αὐτοῦ], ὁ δὲ ποιῶν τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ μένει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα. 2.16. For all that is in the world, the lust of the flesh, the lust of the eyes, and the pride of life, isn't the Father's, but is the world's. 2.17. The world is passing away with its lusts, but he who does God's will remains forever.
121. Anon., Didache, 8.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 245
122. Mishnah, Sanhedrin, 2.2-2.3, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical, a short history of •allegory/allegorical, allegorical text or interpretation •allegory/allegorical, etymology of the word •allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 81; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 245
2.2. "הַמֶּלֶךְ לֹא דָן וְלֹא דָנִין אוֹתוֹ, לֹא מֵעִיד וְלֹא מְעִידִין אוֹתוֹ, לֹא חוֹלֵץ וְלֹא חוֹלְצִין לְאִשְׁתּוֹ. לֹא מְיַבֵּם וְלֹא מְיַבְּמִין לְאִשְׁתּוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אִם רָצָה לַחֲלֹץ אוֹ לְיַבֵּם, זָכוּר לָטוֹב. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, אֵין שׁוֹמְעִין לוֹ. וְאֵין נוֹשְׂאִין אַלְמָנָתוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, נוֹשֵׂא הַמֶּלֶךְ אַלְמָנָתוֹ שֶׁל מֶלֶךְ, שֶׁכֵּן מָצִינוּ בְדָוִד שֶׁנָּשָׂא אַלְמָנָתוֹ שֶׁל שָׁאוּל, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמואל ב יב) וָאֶתְּנָה לְךָ אֶת בֵּית אֲדֹנֶיךָ וְאֶת נְשֵׁי אֲדֹנֶיךָ בְּחֵיקֶךָ: \n", 2.3. "מֵת לוֹ מֵת, אֵינוֹ יוֹצֵא מִפֶּתַח פַּלְטְרִין שֶׁלּוֹ. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אִם רוֹצֶה לָצֵאת אַחַר הַמִּטָּה, יוֹצֵא, שֶׁכֵּן מָצִינוּ בְדָוִד שֶׁיָּצָא אַחַר מִטָּתוֹ שֶׁל אַבְנֵר, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שם ג) וְהַמֶּלֶךְ דָּוִד הֹלֵךְ אַחֲרֵי הַמִּטָּה. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לֹא הָיָה הַדָּבָר אֶלָּא לְפַיֵּס אֶת הָעָם. וּכְשֶׁמַּבְרִין אוֹתוֹ, כָּל הָעָם מְסֻבִּין עַל הָאָרֶץ וְהוּא מֵסֵב עַל הַדַּרְגָּשׁ: \n", 3.5. "הָאוֹהֵב וְהַשּׂוֹנֵא. אוֹהֵב, זֶה שׁוּשְׁבִינוֹ. שׂוֹנֵא, כָּל שֶׁלֹּא דִבֶּר עִמּוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה יָמִים בְּאֵיבָה. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, לֹא נֶחְשְׁדוּ יִשְׂרָאֵל עַל כָּךְ: \n", 2.2. "The king can neither judge nor be judged, he cannot testify and others cannot testify against him. He may not perform halitzah, nor may others perform halitzah for his wife. He may not contract levirate marriage nor may his brothers contract levirate marriage with his wife. Rabbi Judah says: “If he wished to perform halitzah or to contract levirate marriage his memory is a blessing.” They said to him: “They should not listen to him.” None may marry his widow. Rabbi Judah says: “The king may marry the widow of a king, for so have we found it with David, who married the widow of Saul, as it says, “And I gave you my master’s house and my master’s wives into your embrace” (II Samuel 12:8).", 2.3. "If any of his near kin die he may not go out of the door of his palace. Rabbi Judah says: “If he wishes to follow the bier he may, since we have found that David followed the bier of Avner, as it says, “And King David followed the bier” (II Samuel 3:31) They answered, “That was only to appease the people.” When they feed him the funeral meal all the people sit on the floor and he sits on a couch.", 3.5. "A friend or an enemy [is disqualified]. “A friend”: this is one’s groomsman. “An enemy”: anyone whom he has not spoken to in three days because of anger. They replied: “Israelites are not suspected of such.”",
123. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 202
1.1. 1. Whereas the war which the Jews made with the Romans hath been the greatest of all those, not only that have been in our times, but, in a manner, of those that ever were heard of; both of those wherein cities have fought against cities, or nations against nations; while some men who were not concerned in the affairs themselves have gotten together vain and contradictory stories by hearsay, and have written them down after a sophistical manner;
124. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 8.6.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical, a short history of •allegory/allegorical, allegorical text or interpretation •allegory/allegorical, etymology of the word •allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 81, 89
8.6.44.  Allegory, which is translated in Latin by inversio, either presents one thing in words and another in meaning, or else something absolutely opposed to the meaning of the words. The first type is generally produced by a series of metaphors. Take as an example: "O ship, new waves will bear thee back to sea. What dost thou? Make the haven, come what may," and the rest of the ode, in which Horace represents the state under the semblance of a ship, the civil wars as tempests, and peace and good-will as the haven.
125. New Testament, Luke, 1.78, 2.26, 2.29, 4.16-4.22, 4.34, 6.21-6.22, 6.43-6.44, 20.34 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 586; Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 99; Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 240; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 318, 436; Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 68; Trettel (2019), Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14, 98
1.78. διὰ σπλάγχνα ἐλέους θεοῦ ἡμῶν, ἐν οἷς ἐπισκέψεται ἡμᾶς ἀνατολὴ ἐξ ὕψους, 2.26. καὶ ἦν αὐτῷ κεχρηματισμένον ὑπὸ τοῦ πνεύματος τοῦ ἁγίου μὴ ἰδεῖν θάνατον πρὶν [ἢ] ἂν ἴδῃ τὸν χριστὸν Κυρίου. 2.29. Νῦν ἀπολύεις τὸν δοῦλόν σου, δέσποτα, κατὰ τὸ ῥῆμά σου ἐν εἰρήνῃ· 4.16. Καὶ ἦλθεν εἰς Ναζαρά, οὗ ἦν τεθραμμένος, καὶ εἰσῆλθεν κατὰ τὸ εἰωθὸς αὐτῷ ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῶν σαββάτων εἰς τὴν συναγωγήν, καὶ ἀνέστη ἀναγνῶναι. 4.17. καὶ ἐπεδόθη αὐτῷ βιβλίον τοῦ προφήτου Ἠσαίου, καὶ ἀνοίξας τὸ βιβλίον εὗρεν [τὸν] τόπον οὗ ἦν γεγραμμένον 4.18. Πνεῦμα Κυρίου ἐπʼ ἐμέ, οὗ εἵνεκεν ἔχρισέν με εὐαγγελίσασθαι πτωχοῖς, ἀπέσταλκέν με κηρύξαι αἰχμαλώτοις ἄφεσιν καὶ τυφλοῖς ἀνάβλεψιν, ἀποστεῖλαι τεθραυσμένους ἐν ἀφέσει, 4.19. κηρύξαι ἐνιαυτὸν Κυρίου δεκτόν. 4.20. καὶ πτύξας τὸ βιβλίον ἀποδοὺς τῷ ὑπηρέτῃ ἐκάθισεν· καὶ πάντων οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ ἦσαν ἀτενίζοντες αὐτῷ. 4.21. ἤρξατο δὲ λέγειν πρὸς αὐτοὺς ὅτι Σήμερον πεπλήρωται ἡ γραφὴ αὕτη ἐν τοῖς ὠσὶν ὑμῶν. 4.22. καὶ πάντες ἐμαρτύρουν αὐτῷ καὶ ἐθαύμαζον ἐπὶ τοῖς λόγοις τῆς χάριτος τοῖς ἐκπορευομένοις ἐκ τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἔλεγον Οὐχὶ υἱός ἐστιν Ἰωσὴφ οὗτος; 4.34. Ἔα, τί ἡμῖν καὶ σοί, Ἰησοῦ Ναζαρηνέ; ἦλθες ἀπολέσαι ἡμᾶς; 6.21. μακάριοι οἱ πεινῶντες νῦν, ὅτι χορτασθήσεσθε. μακάριοι οἱ κλαίοντες νῦν, ὅτι γελάσετε. 6.22. μακάριοί ἐστε ὅταν μισήσωσιν ὑμᾶς οἱ ἄνθρωποι, καὶ ὅταν ἀφορίσωσιν ὑμᾶς καὶ ὀνειδίσωσιν καὶ ἐκβάλωσιν τὸ ὄνομα ὑμῶν ὡς πονηρὸν ἕνεκα τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου· 6.43. Οὐ γὰρ ἔστιν δένδρον καλὸν ποιοῦν καρπὸν σαπρόν, οὐδὲ πάλιν δένδρον σαπρὸν ποιοῦν καρπὸν καλόν. ἕκαστον γὰρ δένδρον ἐκ τοῦ ἰδίου καρποῦ γινώσκεται· 6.44. οὐ γὰρ ἐξ ἀκανθῶν συλλέγουσιν σῦκα, οὐδὲ ἐκ βάτου σταφυλὴν τρυγῶσιν. 20.34. καὶ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Οἱ υἱοὶ τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου γαμοῦσιν καὶ γαμίσκονται, 1.78. Because of the tender mercy of our God, Whereby the dawn from on high will visit us, 2.26. It had been revealed to him by the Holy Spirit that he should not see death before he had seen the Lord's Christ. 2.29. "Now you are releasing your servant, Master, According to your word, in peace; 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.17. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written, 4.18. "The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed, 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord." 4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing." 4.22. All testified about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, "Isn't this Joseph's son?" 4.34. saying, "Ah! what have we to do with you, Jesus of Nazareth? Have you come to destroy us? I know you who you are: the Holy One of God!" 6.21. Blessed are you who hunger now, For you will be filled. Blessed are you who weep now, For you will laugh. 6.22. Blessed are you when men shall hate you, and when they shall separate you from them and reproach you, and throw out your name as evil, for the Son of Man's sake. 6.43. For there is no good tree that brings forth rotten fruit; nor again a rotten tree that brings forth good fruit. 6.44. For each tree is known by its own fruit. For people don't gather figs from thorns, nor do they gather grapes from a bramble bush. 20.34. Jesus said to them, "The sons of this age marry, and are given in marriage.
126. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.18-1.26, 4.7, 5.7, 7.12-7.15, 7.19, 8.8, 9.8-9.10, 9.20, 10.1-10.4, 10.11, 10.24, 10.32, 11.25, 12.13, 14.11, 15.34, 15.51-15.56, 16.1, 16.3, 16.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 420; Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 20, 21, 94, 130, 167; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 46, 47, 174, 178, 179; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 58; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 414, 453, 473, 595, 596
1.18. Ὁ λόγος γὰρ ὁ τοῦ σταυροῦ τοῖς μὲν ἀπολλυμένοις μωρία ἐστίν, τοῖς δὲ σωζομένοις ἡμῖν δύναμις θεοῦ ἐστίν. 1.19. γέγραπται γάρ 1.20. ποῦ σοφός;ποῦ γραμματεύς;ποῦ συνζητητὴς τοῦ αἰῶνος τούτου; οὐχὶ ἐμώρανεν ὁ θεὸς τὴν σοφίαν τοῦ κόσμου; 1.21. ἐπειδὴ γὰρ ἐν τῇ σοφίᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ οὐκ ἔγνω ὁ κόσμος διὰ τῆς σοφίας τὸν θεόν, εὐδόκησεν ὁ θεὸς διὰ τῆς μωρίας τοῦ κηρύγματος σῶσαι τοὺς πιστεύοντας. 1.22. ἐπειδὴ καὶ Ἰουδαῖοι σημεῖα αἰτοῦσιν καὶ Ἕλληνες σοφίαν ζητοῦσιν· 1.23. ἡμεῖς δὲ κηρύσσομεν Χριστὸν ἐσταυρωμένον, Ἰουδαίοις μὲν σκάνδαλον ἔθνεσιν δὲ μωρίαν, 1.24. αὐτοῖς δὲ τοῖς κλητοῖς, Ἰουδαίοις τε καὶ Ἕλλησιν, Χριστὸν θεοῦ δύναμιν καὶ θεοῦ σοφίαν. 1.25. ὅτι τὸ μωρὸν τοῦ θεοῦ σοφώτερον τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἐστίν, καὶ τὸ ἀσθενὲς τοῦ θεοῦ ἰσχυρότερον τῶν ἀνθρώπων. 1.26. Βλέπετε γὰρ τὴν κλῆσιν ὑμῶν, ἀδελφοί, ὅτι οὐ πολλοὶ σοφοὶ κατὰ σάρκα, οὐ πολλοὶ δυνατοί, οὐ πολλοὶ εὐγενεῖς· 4.7. τίς γάρ σε διακρίνει; τί δὲ ἔχεις ὃ οὐκ ἔλαβες; εἰ δὲ καὶ ἔλαβες, τί καυχᾶσαι ὡς μὴ λαβών; 5.7. ἐκκαθάρατε τὴν παλαιὰν ζύμην, ἵνα ἦτε νέον φύραμα, καθώς ἐστε ἄζυμοι. καὶ γὰρτὸ πάσχαἡμῶνἐτύθηΧριστός· 7.12. Τοῖς δὲ λοιποῖς λέγω ἐγώ, οὐχ ὁ κύριος· εἴ τις ἀδελφὸς γυναῖκα ἔχει ἄπιστον, καὶ αὕτη συνευδοκεῖ οἰκεῖν μετʼ αὐτοῦ, μὴ ἀφιέτω αὐτήν· 7.13. καὶ γυνὴ ἥτις ἔχει ἄνδρα ἄπιστον, καὶ οὗτος συνευδοκεῖ οἰκεῖν μετʼ αὐτῆς, μὴ ἀφιέτω τὸν ἄνδρα. 7.14. ἡγίασται γὰρ ὁ ἀνὴρ ὁ ἄπιστος ἐν τῇ γυναικί, καὶ ἡγίασται ἡ γυνὴ ἡ ἄπιστος ἐν τῷ ἀδελφῷ· ἐπεὶ ἄρα τὰ τέκνα ὑμῶν ἀκάθαρτά ἐστιν, νῦν δὲ ἅγιά ἐστιν. 7.15. εἰ δὲ ὁ ἄπιστος χωρίζεται, χωριζέσθω· οὐ δεδούλωται ὁ ἀδελφὸς ἢ ἡ ἀδελφὴ ἐν τοῖς τοιούτοις, ἐν δὲ εἰρήνῃ κέκληκεν ὑμᾶς ὁ θεός. 7.19. ἡ περιτομὴ οὐδέν ἐστιν, καὶ ἡ ἀκροβυστία οὐδέν ἐστιν, ἀλλὰ τήρησις ἐντολῶν θεοῦ. 8.8. βρῶμα δὲ ἡμᾶς οὐ παραστήσει τῷ θεῷ· οὔτε ἐὰν μὴ φάγωμεν, ὑστερούμεθα, οὔτε ἐὰν φάγωμεν, περισσεύομεν. 9.8. Μὴ κατὰ ἄνθρωπον ταῦτα λαλῶ, ἢ καὶ ὁ νόμος ταῦτα οὐ λέγει; 9.9. ἐν γὰρ τῷ Μωυσέως νόμῳ γέγραπταιΟὐ φιμώσεις βοῦν ἀλοῶντα.μὴ τῶν βοῶν μέλει τῷ θεῷ, ἢ διʼ ἡμᾶς πάντως λέγει; 9.10. διʼ ἡμᾶς γὰρ ἐγράφη, ὅτι ὀφείλει ἐπʼ ἐλπίδι ὁ ἀροτριῶν ἀροτριᾷν, καὶ ὁ ἀλοῶν ἐπʼ ἐλπίδι τοῦ μετέχειν. 9.20. καὶ ἐγενόμην τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις ὡς Ἰουδαῖος, ἵνα Ἰουδαίους κερδήσω· τοῖς ὑπὸ νόμον ὡς ὑπὸ νόμον, μὴ ὢν αὐτὸς ὑπὸ νόμον, ἵνα τοὺς ὑπὸ νόμον κερδήσω· 10.1. Οὐ θέλω γὰρ ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, ἀδελφοί, ὅτι οἱ πατέρες ἡμῶν πάντες ὑπὸ τὴν νεφέλην ἦσαν καὶ πάντες διὰ τῆς θαλάσσης διῆλθον, 10.2. καὶ πάντες εἰς τὸν Μωυσῆν ἐβαπτίσαντο ἐν τῇ νεφέλῃ καὶ ἐν τῇ θαλάσσῃ, 10.3. καὶ πάντες [τὸ αὐτὸ] πνευματικὸν βρῶμα ἔφαγον 10.4. καὶ πάντες τὸ αὐτὸ πνευματικὸν ἔπιον πόμα, ἔπινον γὰρ ἐκ πνευματικῆς ἀκολουθούσης πέτρας, ἡ πέτρα δὲ ἦν ὁ χριστός· 10.11. ταῦτα δὲ τυπικῶς συνέβαινεν ἐκείνοις, ἐγράφη δὲ πρὸς νουθεσίαν ἡμῶν, εἰς οὓς τὰ τέλη τῶν αἰώνων κατήντηκεν. 10.24. μηδεὶς τὸ ἑαυτοῦ ζητείτω ἀλλὰ τὸ τοῦ ἑτέρου. 10.32. ἀπρόσκοποι καὶ Ἰουδαίοις γίνεσθε καὶ Ἕλλησιν καὶ τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ, 11.25. Τοῦτο τὸ ποτήριον ἡ καινὴδιαθήκηἐστὶν ἐντῷἐμῷαἵματι·τοῦτο ποιεῖτε, ὁσάκις ἐὰν πίνητε, εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν. 12.13. καὶ γὰρ ἐν ἑνὶ πνεύματι ἡμεῖς πάντες εἰς ἓν σῶμα ἐβαπτίσθημεν, εἴτε Ἰουδαῖοι εἴτε Ἕλληνες, εἴτε δοῦλοι εἴτε ἐλεύθεροι, καὶ πάντες ἓν πνεῦμα ἐποτίσθημεν. 14.11. ἐὰν οὖν μὴ εἰδῶ τὴν δύναμιν τῆς φωνῆς, ἔσομαι τῷ λαλοῦντι βάρβαρος καὶ ὁ λαλῶν ἐν ἐμοὶ βάρβαρος. 15.34. φθείρουσιν ἤθη χρηστὰ ὁμιλίαι κακαί· ἐκνήψατε δικαίως καὶ μὴ ἁμαρτάνετε, ἀγνωσίαν γὰρ θεοῦ τινὲς ἔχουσιν· πρὸς ἐντροπὴν ὑμῖν λαλῶ. 15.51. ἰδοὺ μυστήριον ὑμῖν λέγω· πάντες οὐ κοιμηθησόμεθα πάντες δὲ ἀλλαγησόμεθα, 15.52. ἐν ἀτόμῳ, ἐν ῥιπῇ ὀφθαλμοῦ, ἐν τῇ ἐσχάτῃ σάλπιγγι· σαλπίσει γάρ, καὶ οἱ νεκροὶ ἐγερθήσονται ἄφθαρτοι, καὶ ἡμεῖς ἀλλαγησόμεθα. 15.53. δεῖ γὰρ τὸ φθαρτὸν τοῦτο ἐνδύσασθαι ἀφθαρσίαν καὶ τὸ θνητὸν τοῦτο ἐνδύσασθαι ἀθανασίαν. 15.54. ὅταν δὲ τὸ θνητὸν τοῦτο ἐνδύσηται [τὴν] ἀθανασίαν, τότε γενήσεται ὁ λόγος ὁ γεγραμμένος Κατεπόθη ὁ θάνατος εἰς νῖκος. 15.55. ποῦ σου, θάνατε, τὸ νῖκος; ποῦ σου, θάνατε, τὸ κέντρον; 15.56. τὸ δὲ κέντρον τοῦ θανάτου ἡ ἁμαρτία, ἡ δὲ δύναμις τῆς ἁμαρτίας ὁ νόμος· 16.1. Περὶ δὲ τῆς λογίας τῆς εἰς τοὺς ἁγίους, ὥσπερ διέταξα ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Γαλατίας, οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς ποιήσατε. 16.3. ὅταν δὲ παραγένωμαι, οὓς ἐὰν δοκιμάσητε διʼ ἐπιστολῶν, τούτους πέμψω ἀπενεγκεῖν τὴν χάριν ὑμῶν εἰς Ἰερουσαλήμ· 16.15. Παρακαλῶ δὲ ὑμᾶς, ἀδελφοί· οἴδατε τὴν οἰκίαν Στεφανᾶ, ὅτι ἐστὶν ἀπαρχὴ τῆς Ἀχαίας καὶ εἰς διακονίαν τοῖς ἁγίοις ἔταξαν ἑαυτούς· 1.18. For the word of the cross isfoolishness to those who are dying, but to us who are saved it is thepower of God. 1.19. For it is written,"I will destroy the wisdom of the wise,I will bring the discernment of the discerning to nothing." 1.20. Where is the wise? Where is the scribe? Where is the lawyerof this world? Hasn't God made foolish the wisdom of this world? 1.21. For seeing that in the wisdom of God, the world through its wisdomdidn't know God, it was God's good pleasure through the foolishness ofthe preaching to save those who believe. 1.22. For Jews ask for signs,Greeks seek after wisdom, 1.23. but we preach Christ crucified; astumbling block to Jews, and foolishness to Greeks, 1.24. but to thosewho are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ is the power of God andthe wisdom of God. 1.25. Because the foolishness of God is wiser thanmen, and the weakness of God is stronger than men. 1.26. For you seeyour calling, brothers, that not many are wise according to the flesh,not many mighty, and not many noble; 4.7. For who makes you different? And what doyou have that you didn't receive? But if you did receive it, why do youboast as if you had not received it? 5.7. Purge out the old yeast, that you may bea new lump, even as you are unleavened. For indeed Christ, ourPassover, has been sacrificed in our place. 7.12. But to the rest I -- not the Lord -- say, if any brother hasan unbelieving wife, and she is content to live with him, let him notleave her. 7.13. The woman who has an unbelieving husband, and he iscontent to live with her, let her not leave her husband. 7.14. For theunbelieving husband is sanctified in the wife, and the unbelieving wifeis sanctified in the husband. Otherwise your children would be unclean,but now are they holy. 7.15. Yet if the unbeliever departs, let therebe separation. The brother or the sister is not under bondage in suchcases, but God has called us in peace. 7.19. Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision isnothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God. 8.8. But food will not commend us to God. Forneither, if we don't eat, are we the worse; nor, if we eat, are we thebetter. 9.8. DoI speak these things according to the ways of men? Or doesn't the lawalso say the same thing? 9.9. For it is written in the law of Moses,"You shall not muzzle an ox while it treads out the grain." Is it forthe oxen that God cares, 9.10. or does he say it assuredly for oursake? Yes, it was written for our sake, because he who plows ought toplow in hope, and he who threshes in hope should partake of his hope. 9.20. To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to thosewho are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those whoare under the law; 10.1. Now I would not have you ignorant, brothers, that our fatherswere all under the cloud, and all passed through the sea; 10.2. andwere all baptized into Moses in the cloud and in the sea; 10.3. andall ate the same spiritual food; 10.4. and all drank the samespiritual drink. For they drank of a spiritual rock that followed them,and the rock was Christ. 10.11. Now all these thingshappened to them by way of example, and they were written for ouradmonition, on whom the ends of the ages have come. 10.24. Let no one seek his own, but each one his neighbor's good. 10.32. Give no occasions for stumbling, either to Jews, or to Greeks,or to the assembly of God; 11.25. In the same way he also took the cup, after supper,saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood. Do this, as often asyou drink, in memory of me." 12.13. For in one Spirit we were all baptized into one body, whetherJews or Greeks, whether bond or free; and were all given to drink intoone Spirit. 14.11. If then I don't know the meaning ofthe sound, I would be to him who speaks a foreigner, and he who speakswould be a foreigner to me. 15.34. Wake up righteously, and don't sin, for some have no knowledgeof God. I say this to your shame. 15.51. Behold, I tell you a mystery. We will not all sleep, but wewill all be changed, 15.52. in a moment, in the twinkling of an eye,at the last trumpet. For the trumpet will sound, and the dead will beraised incorruptible, and we will be changed. 15.53. For thiscorruptible must put on incorruption, and this mortal must put onimmortality. 15.54. But when this corruptible will have put onincorruption, and this mortal will have put on immortality, then whatis written will happen: "Death is swallowed up in victory." 15.55. "Death, where is your sting?Hades, where is your victory?" 15.56. The sting of death is sin, and the power of sin is the law. 16.1. Now concerning the collection for the saints, as I commandedthe assemblies of Galatia, you do likewise. 16.3. When I arrive, I will sendwhoever you approve with letters to carry your gracious gift toJerusalem. 16.15. Now I beg you, brothers (you know the house of Stephanas,that it is the first fruits of Achaia, and that they have setthemselves to minister to the saints),
127. New Testament, 1 Peter, 1.1 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
1.1. ΠΕΤΡΟΣ ἀπόστολος Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐκλεκτοῖς παρεπιδήμοις διασπορᾶς Πόντου, Γαλατίας, Καππαδοκίας, Ἀσίας, καὶ Βιθυνίας, 1.1. Peter, an apostle of Jesus Christ, to the chosen ones who are living as strangers in the Dispersion in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia, and Bithynia,
128. Artemidorus, Oneirocritica, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 5
129. Aristobulus Milesius, Fragments, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 49
130. Tosefta, Yadayim, 2.14 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 240
131. Tosefta, Sukkah, 3.3, 3.11 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 595
3.3. "למה נקרא שמו שער המים שבו מכניסין צלוחית של מים [של ניסוך] בחג ראב\"י אומר [בו] (יחזקאל מז) מים מפכים [מלמד שמפכפכין ויוצאין כמו הפך הזה] ועתידין להיות יוצאין מתחת מפתן הבית וכה\"א (שם) [בצאת האיש קדים וקו בידו] וימד אלף באמה ויעבירני במים מי אפסים [מלמד שאדם עובר במים עד קרסוליו וימד אלף ויעבירני במים מי ברכים מלמד שאדם עובר במים עד ברכיו ד\"א מי ברכים [מים] שמתברכין והולכין] וימד אלף ויעבירני [במים] מי מתנים [מלמד שאדם עובר בו עד מתניו] וימד אלף נחל אשר לא אוכל לעבור יכול לא יעברנו ברגל אבל יעברנו [בסחו] ת\"ל כי גאו המים מי שחו יכול לא יעברנו בסחו אבל יעברנו בספינה קטנה [ת\"ל כי גאו המים מי שחו מלשוט יכול לא יעברנו בספינה קטנה אבל יעברנו בספינה גדולה] ת\"ל (ישעיהו לג) בל תלך בו אני שיט יכול לא יעברנו בספינה גדולה אבל יעברנו בבורני גדולה ת\"ל (שם) וצי אדיר לא יעברנו ואומר (זכריה יד) והיה ביום ההוא יצאו מים חיים מירושלים וגו' יכול יתערבו בם מעיינות [אחרים] ת\"ל (זכריה יג) ביום ההוא יהיה מקור נפתח וגו' [מקום] אחד לחטאת ולנדה [לאן] הולכין לים הגדול [לימה] של טבריא [לימה] של סדום כדי לרפאות את מימן שנאמר (יחזקאל מז) ויאמר אלי המים האלה יוצאין אל הגלילה הקדמונה [וירדו אל הערבה ובאו הימה אל הימה וגו' המים האלה יוצאין אל הגלילה הקדמונה] זה ימה של סדום וירדו אל הערבה זה ימה של טבריא ובאו הימה אל הימה המוצאים ונרפאו המים זה הים הגדול ואומר (שם) כל נפש חיה אשר ישרוץ אל כל אשר יבא שם נחלים יחיה והיה הדגה רבה מאוד כי באו שמה המים האלה וירפאו וחי כל אשר יבא שמה ואומר [והיה] ועמדו עליו דוגים ואומר בצאתיו וגבאיו ואומר ועל הנחל יעלה על שפתו וגו' מלמד שכל מימי בראשית עתידין להיות יוצאין כמפי הפך הזה וכך היתה הבאר שהיתה עם ישראל במדבר דומה לסלע מלא [כברה] מפרפרת ועולה כמפי הפך הזה עולה עמהן להרים ויורדת עמהן לגאיות מקום שישראל שורין הוא שורה כנגדן במקום גבוהה כנגד פתחו של אהל מועד נשיאי ישראל באין וסובבין אותה במקלותיהן ואומרים עליה את השירה (במדבר כא) עלי באר ענו לה עלי באר והמים מבעבעין ועולין כעמוד למעלה וכל אחד ואחד מושך במקלו איש לשבטו ואיש למשפחתו [שנא' (שם) באר חפרוה שרים וגו' וגם היא סובבת את כל מחנה ישראל ומשקה את כל הישימון] שנאמר (שם) ונשקפה על פני הישימון והיא נעשה נחלים שנאמר (תהילים עח) ונחלים ישטפו הן יושבין באיספקאות ובאין זה אצל זה שנאמר (תהילים קה) הלכו בציות נהר העולה דרך ימין [עולה] דרך ימין [העולה] דרך שמאל [עולה] דרך שמאל [כן מים מתמצין הימנה היא] נעשית נחל גדול והולכין לים הגדול ומביאין [משם] כל חמדת העולם שנאמר (דברים ב) זה ארבעים שנה [ה' אלהיך עמך] לא חסרת דבר.", 3.3. "Why is the name \"Water Gate\"? It is so called because through it they take the flask of water used for the libation at the Feast. R. Eliezer b. Jacob says of it, \"The waters are dripping, intimating that water oozing out and rising, as if from this flask, will in future days come forth from under the threshold of the Temple, and so it says, ‘When the man went forth eastward with the line in his hand, he measured a thousand cubits, and caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the ankles, intimating that a man can pass through waters up to his ankles ; and again he measured a thousand, and caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the knees, intimating that a man can pass through waters up to his knees.’”Another interpretation of waters that were to the knees, \"intimating that after they have been blessed, they flow out. Again, he measured a thousand, and caused me to pass through the waters, waters that were to the loins, intimating that a man can pass through waters up to his loins. Afterwards he measured a thousand, and it was a river that I could not pass through. Though one cannot cross it on foot, yet one may be able to do so by swimming; though one cannot cross it in a small boat, as we learn from the Scripture, For the waters were risen, waters to swim in they were risen too high for swimming. Though one cannot cross it in a small boat, yet one may be able to do so in a large boat, as we learn from the Scripture, There shall not go thereon any rowing ship. Though one cannot cross it in a large boat, yet one may be able to do so in a fast sailing vessel, as we learn from the Scripture, And gallant ship shall not pass over it. 2 And so it is said, And it shall come to pass in that day, that living waters shall go out from Jerusalem, half of them toward the eastern sea, and half of them toward the western sea ; in summer and in winter shall it be. It may be other fountains will be mixed with them, as we learn from the Scripture, In that day shall there be a fountain opened to the house of David, and to the inhabitants of Jerusalem, for sin and for uncleanness. Whither do the waters go ? To the Mediterranean, and to the sea of Tiberias, and to the Dead Sea, that their waters may be healed, as it is said : And he said to me, These waters issue forth towards the eastern region that is the Dead Sea ; and shall go down into the Arabah that is the Sea of Tiberias ; and they shall go towards the other sea that is the Mediterranean Sea ; and the waters shall be healed ; and it shall come to pass that every living creature that swarms, in every place whither the river comes, shall live ; and there shall be a very great multitude of fish; for these waters are come hither, that all things may be healed and live, whithersoever the river cometh. And it also says : And it shall come to pass that fishers shall stand by it ; from Engedi even unto Englaim shall be a place for the spreading of nets ; their fish shall be after their kinds, as the fish of the Great Sea, exceeding many. And it also says : But the miry places thereof and the marishes thereof, shall not be healed ; they shall be given for salt. And also : By the river, upon the bank thereof, on this side and on that side, shall grow every tree for meat, whose leaf shall not wither, neither shall the fruit thereof fail ; it shall bring forth first-fruits every month, because the waters thereof issue out of the sanctuary ; and the fruit thereof shall be for meat, and the leaf thereof for healing intimating that all \"the waters of creation\" will come forth as from the mouth of this flask. So the well, which was with Israel in the wilderness, was like a rock of the size of a k'bara, 6 and was oozing out and rising as from the mouth of this flask, travelling with them up the mountains and going down with them to the valleys. Wherever Israel encamped it encamped opposite them before the door of the Tabernacle. The princes of Israel with their slaves surrounded it, and said over it this song, Spring up, O well, sing ye unto it. Then the waters bubbled forth, and rose on high like a pillar; and every one drew out the staff of his tribe and family, as it is said, The well which the princes digged, Which the nobles of the people delved, With the sceptre and with their staves. And from Mattanah to Nahaliel ; and from Nahaliel to Bamoth ; and from Bamoth to the valley, etc. going round every camp of the Lord, and watering all Jeshimon ; and it made mighty streams, as it is said, And streams overflowed. 3 And they were sitting in skiffs, going from place to place, as it is written, They ran in the dry places like a river. If Israel went up on the right, it would come down on the right ; if on the left, it would come down on the left. The waters which emptied themselves from it became a great river, pouring themselves into the Mediterranean, and bringing thence all the precious things of the world, as it is said, These forty years the Lord thy God hath been with thee ; thou hast lacked nothing.",
132. Tosefta, Shabbat, 15.9 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical, and midrash •allegory/allegorical, radical allegory •allegory/allegorical, ʾapiqoros Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 153
15.9. "שברי ערבה לכסות בהן את [החבית ושל זכוכית לצוק לתוכה מקפה] ר' יהודה אומר ובלבד שיהו עושין מעין מלאכתן שברי ערבה לצוק [לתוכן מקפה ושל זכוכית לצוק] לתוכן שמן לתינוק חבית [שנתגלתה] ואבטיח שניקר נוטלן ומניחן במקום המוצנע.",
133. Tosefta, Sanhedrin, 12.10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 240, 258
134. New Testament, Matthew, 5.3-5.12, 6.16-6.18, 7.17-7.20, 7.28-7.29, 9.13, 11.10, 12.7, 19.4-19.6, 24.31, 24.42, 25.1-25.13 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, augustine •allegory, allegorical interpretation, beatitudes •allegory, allegorical interpretation, plato’s cave •allegory, allegorical •allegory, allegorical interpretation, ambrose •allegory, allegorical interpretation, wesley, j. •allegory, allegorical interpretation, letter of aristeas •allegory, allegorical exegesis •allegory/allegorical reading Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 438; Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 240; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 47, 436, 445, 459, 463, 475; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 245, 246, 255, 596; Trettel (2019), Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14, 171
5.3. ΜΑΚΑΡΙΟΙ οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι, ὅτι αὐτῶν ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν. 5.4. μακάριοι οἱ πενθοῦντες, ὅτι αὐτοὶ παρακληθήσονται. 5.5. μακάριοι οἱ πραεῖς, ὅτι αὐτοὶ κληρονομήσουσι τὴν γῆν. 5.6. μακάριοι οἱ πεινῶντες καὶ διψῶντες τὴν δικαιοσύνην, ὅτι αὐτοὶ χορτασθήσονται. 5.7. μακάριοι οἱ ἐλεήμονες, ὅτι αὐτοὶ ἐλεηθήσονται. 5.8. μακάριοι οἱ καθαροὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ, ὅτι αὐτοὶ τὸν θεὸν ὄψονται. 5.9. μακάριοι οἱ εἰρηνοποιοί, ὅτι [αὐτοὶ] υἱοὶ θεοῦ κληθήσονται. 5.10. μακάριοι οἱ δεδιωγμένοι ἕνεκεν δικαιοσύνης, ὅτι αὐτῶν ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν. 5.11. μακάριοί ἐστε ὅταν ὀνειδίσωσιν ὑμᾶς καὶ διώξωσιν καὶ εἴπωσιν πᾶν πονηρὸν καθʼ ὑμῶν ψευδόμενοι ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ· 5.12. χαίρετε καὶ ἀγαλλιᾶσθε, ὅτι ὁ μισθὸς ὑμῶν πολὺς ἐν τοῖς οὐρανοῖς· οὕτως γὰρ ἐδίωξαν τοὺς προφήτας τοὺς πρὸ ὑμῶν. 6.16. Ὅταν δὲ νηστεύητε, μὴ γίνεσθε ὡς οἱ ὑποκριταὶ σκυθρωποί, ἀφανίζουσιν γὰρ τὰ πρόσωπα αὐτῶν ὅπως φανῶσιν τοῖς ἀνθρώποις νηστεύοντες· ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἀπέχουσιν τὸν μισθὸν αὐτῶν. 6.17. σὺ δὲ νηστεύων ἄλειψαί σου τὴν κεφαλὴν καὶ τὸ πρόσωπόν σου νίψαι, 6.18. ὅπως μὴ φανῇς τοῖς ἀνθρώποις νηστεύων ἀλλὰ τῷ πατρί σου τῷ ἐν τῷ κρυφαίῳ· καὶ ὁ πατήρ σου ὁ βλέπων ἐν τῷ κρυφαίῳ ἀποδώσει σοι. 7.17. οὕτω πᾶν δένδρον ἀγαθὸν καρποὺς καλοὺς ποιεῖ, τὸ δὲ σαπρὸν δένδρον καρποὺς πονηροὺς ποιεῖ· 7.18. οὐ δύναται δένδρον ἀγαθὸν καρποὺς πονηροὺς ἐνεγκεῖν, οὐδὲ δένδρον σαπρὸν καρποὺς καλοὺς ποιεῖν, 7.19. πᾶν δένδρον μὴ ποιοῦν καρπὸν καλὸν ἐκκόπτεται καὶ εἰς πῦρ βάλλεται. 7.20. ἄραγε ἀπὸ τῶν καρπῶν αὐτῶν ἐπιγνώσεσθε αὐτούς. 7.28. Καὶ ἐγένετο ὅτε ἐτέλεσεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τοὺς λόγους τούτους, ἐξεπλήσσοντο οἱ ὄχλοι ἐπὶ τῇ διδαχῇ αὐτοῦ· 7.29. ἦν γὰρ διδάσκων αὐτοὺς ὡς ἐξουσίαν ἔχων καὶ οὐχ ὡς οἱ γραμματεῖς αὐτῶν. 9.13. πορευθέντες δὲ μάθετε τί ἐστιν Ἔλεος θέλω καὶ οὐ θυσίαν· οὐ γὰρ ἦλθον καλέσαι δικαίους ἀλλὰ ἁμαρτωλούς. 11.10. οὗτός ἐστιν περὶ οὗ γέγραπται Ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ἀποστέλλω τὸν ἄγγελόν μου πρὸ προσώπου σου, ὃς κατασκευάσει τὴν ὁδόν σου ἔμπροσθέν σου. 12.7. εἰ δὲ ἐγνώκειτε τί ἐστιν Ἔλεος θέλω καὶ οὐ θυσίαν, οὐκ ἂν κατεδικάσατε τοὺς ἀναιτίους. 19.4. ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν Οὐκ ἀνέγνωτε ὅτι ὁ κτίσας ἀπʼ ἀρχῆς ἄρσεν καὶ θῆλυ ἐποίησεν αὐτοὺς 19.5. καὶ εἶπεν Ἕνεκα τούτου καταλείψει ἄνθρωπος τὸν πατέρα καὶ τὴν μητέρα καὶ κολληθήσεται τῇ γυναικὶ αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἔσονται οἱ δύο εἰς σάρκα μίαν; 19.6. ὥστε οὐκέτι εἰσὶν δύο ἀλλὰ σὰρξ μία· ὃ οὖν ὁ θεὸς συνέζευξεν ἄνθρωπος μὴ χωριζέτω. 24.31. καὶ ἀποστελεῖ τοὺς ἀγγέλους αὐτοῦ μετὰ σάλπιγγος μεγάλης, καὶ ἐπισυνάξουσιν τοὺς ἐκλεκτοὺς αὐτοῦ ἐκ τῶν τεσσάρων ἀνέμων ἀπʼ ἄκρων οὐρανῶν ἕως [τῶν] ἄκρων αὺτῶν. 24.42. γρηγορεῖτε οἶν, ὅτι οὐκ οἴδατε ποίᾳ ἡμέρᾳ ὁ κύριος ὑμῶν ἔρχεται. 25.1. Τότε ὁμοιωθήσεται ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν δέκα παρθένοις, αἵτινες λαβοῦσαι τὰς λαμπάδας ἑαυτῶν ἐξῆλθον εἰς ὑπάντησιν τοῦ νυμφίου. 25.2. πέντε δὲ ἐξ αὐτῶν ἦσαν μωραὶ καὶ πέντε φρόνιμοι· 25.3. αἱ γὰρ μωραὶ λαβοῦσαι τὰς λαμπάδας [αὐτῶν] οὐκ ἔλαβον μεθʼ ἑαυτῶν ἔλαιον· 25.4. αἱ δὲ φρόνιμοι ἔλαβον ἔλαιον ἐν τοῖς ἀγγείοις μετὰ τῶν λαμπάδων ἑαυτῶν. 25.5. χρονίζοντος δὲ τοῦ νυμφίου ἐνύσταξαν πᾶσαι καὶ ἐκάθευδον. 25.6. μέσης δὲ νυκτὸς κραυγὴ γέγονεν Ἰδοὺ ὁ νυμφίος, ἐξέρχεσθε εἰς ἀπάντησιν. 25.7. τότε ἠγέρθησαν πᾶσαι αἱ παρθένοι ἐκεῖναι καὶ ἐκόσμησαν τὰς λαμπάδας ἑαυτῶν. 25.8. αἱ δὲ μωραὶ ταῖς φρονίμοις εἶπαν Δότε ἡμῖν ἐκ τοῦ ἐλαίου ὑμῶν, ὅτι αἱ λαμπάδες ἡμῶν σβέννυνται. 25.9. ἀπεκρίθησαν δὲ αἱ φρόνιμοι λέγουσαι Μήποτε οὐ μὴ ἀρκέσῃ ἡμῖν καὶ ὑμῖν· πορεύεσθε μᾶλλον πρὸς τοὺς πωλοῦντας καὶ ἀγοράσατε ἑαυταῖς. 25.10. ἀπερχομένων δὲ αὐτῶν ἀγοράσαι ἦλθεν ὁ νυμφίος, καὶ αἱ ἕτοιμοι εἰσῆλθον μετʼ αὐτοῦ εἰς τοὺς γάμους, καὶ ἐκλείσθη ἡ θύρα. 25.11. ὕστερον δὲ ἔρχονται καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ παρθένοι λέγουσαι Κύριε κύριε, ἄνοιξον ἡμῖν· 25.12. ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, οὐκ οἶδα ὑμᾶς. 25.13. Γρηγορεῖτε οὖν, ὅτι οὐκ οἴδατε τὴν ἡμέραν οὐδὲ τὴν ὥραν. 5.3. "Blessed are the poor in spirit, For theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.4. Blessed are those who mourn, For they shall be comforted. 5.5. Blessed are the gentle, For they shall inherit the earth. 5.6. Blessed are those who hunger and thirst after righteousness, For they shall be filled. 5.7. Blessed are the merciful, For they shall obtain mercy. 5.8. Blessed are the pure in heart, For they shall see God. 5.9. Blessed are the peacemakers, For they shall be called sons of God. 5.10. Blessed are those who have been persecuted for righteousness' sake, For theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.11. "Blessed are you when people reproach you, persecute you, and say all kinds of evil against you falsely, for my sake. 5.12. Rejoice, and be exceedingly glad, for great is your reward in heaven. For that is how they persecuted the prophets who were before you. 6.16. "Moreover when you fast, don't be like the hypocrites, with sad faces. For they disfigure their faces, that they may be seen by men to be fasting. Most assuredly I tell you, they have received their reward. 6.17. But you, when you fast, anoint your head, and wash your face; 6.18. so that you are not seen by men to be fasting, but by your Father who is in secret, and your Father, who sees in secret, will reward you. 7.17. Even so, every good tree produces good fruit; but the corrupt tree produces evil fruit. 7.18. A good tree can't produce evil fruit, neither can a corrupt tree produce good fruit. 7.19. Every tree that doesn't grow good fruit is cut down, and thrown into the fire. 7.20. Therefore, by their fruits you will know them. 7.28. It happened, when Jesus had finished saying these things, that the multitudes were astonished at his teaching, 7.29. for he taught them with authority, and not like the scribes. 9.13. But you go and learn what this means: 'I desire mercy, and not sacrifice,' for I came not to call the righteous, but sinners to repentance." 11.10. For this is he, of whom it is written, 'Behold, I send my messenger before your face, who will prepare your way before you.' 12.7. But if you had known what this means, 'I desire mercy, and not sacrifice,' you would not have condemned the guiltless. 19.4. He answered, "Haven't you read that he who made them from the beginning made them male and female, 19.5. and said, 'For this cause a man shall leave his father and mother, and shall join to his wife; and the two shall become one flesh?' 19.6. So that they are no more two, but one flesh. What therefore God has joined together, don't let man tear apart." 24.31. He will send out his angels with a great sound of a trumpet, and they will gather together his elect from the four winds, from one end of the sky to the other. 24.42. Watch therefore, for you don't know in what hour your Lord comes. 25.1. "Then the Kingdom of Heaven will be like ten virgins, who took their lamps, and went out to meet the bridegroom. 25.2. Five of them were foolish, and five were wise. 25.3. Those who were foolish, when they took their lamps, took no oil with them, 25.4. but the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps. 25.5. Now while the bridegroom delayed, they all slumbered and slept. 25.6. But at midnight there was a cry, 'Behold! The bridegroom is coming! Come out to meet him!' 25.7. Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps. 25.8. The foolish said to the wise, 'Give us some of your oil, for our lamps are going out.' 25.9. But the wise answered, saying, 'What if there isn't enough for us and you? You go rather to those who sell, and buy for yourselves.' 25.10. While they went away to buy, the bridegroom came, and those who were ready went in with him to the marriage feast, and the door was shut. 25.11. Afterward the other virgins also came, saying, 'Lord, Lord, open to us.' 25.12. But he answered, 'Most assuredly I tell you, I don't know you.' 25.13. Watch therefore, for you don't know the day nor the hour in which the Son of Man is coming.
135. Tosefta, Hagigah, 2.1-2.7 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 240, 245
2.1. "אין דורשין בעריות בשלשה אבל דורשין בשנים [ולא] במעשה בראשית בשנים אבל דורשין ביחיד ולא במרכבה ביחיד אא\"כ היה חכם מבין מדעתו מעשה ברבן יוחנן בן זכאי שהיה רוכב על החמור והיה רבי אלעזר בן ערך מחמר אחריו אמר לו רבי שנה פרק אחד במעשה מרכבה אמר לו לא [כן אמרתי לך מתחלה שאין שונין] במרכבה ביחיד אלא אם כן היה חכם מבין מדעתו אמר לו מעתה ארצה לפניך אמר לו אמור פתח רבי אלעזר בן ערך ודרש במעשה מרכבה ירד רבי יוחנן בן זכאי מן החמור ונתעטף בטליתו וישבו שניהם על גבי אבן תחת הזית והרצה לפניו עמד ונשקו ואמר ברוך ה' אלהי ישראל אשר נתן בן לאברהם אבינו שיודע להבין ולדרוש בכבוד אביו שבשמים יש נאה דורש ואין נאה מקיים נאה מקיים ואין נאה דורש [אלעזר בן ערך] נאה דורש ונאה מקיים אשריך [אברהם] אבינו שאלעזר בן ערך יצא מחלציך [שיודע להבין ולדרוש בכבוד אביו שבשמים] רבי יוסי ברבי יהודה אומר רבי יהושע הרצה לפני רבן יוחנן בן זכאי [רבי עקיבה] הרצה לפני רבי יהושע חנניא בן חכינאי הרצה לפני רבי עקיבה.", 2.2. "ארבעה נכנסו לפרדס בן עזאי ובן זומא אחר ורבי עקיבה אחד הציץ ומת אחד הציץ ונפגע אחד הציץ וקיצץ בנטיעות ואחד עלה בשלום וירד בשלום בן עזאי הציץ ומת עליו הכתוב אומר (תהילים קטו) יקר בעיני ה' המותה לחסידיו בן זומא הציץ ונפגע עליו הכתוב אומר (משלי כה) דבש מצאת אכול דייך [וגו'] אלישע הציץ וקיצץ בנטיעות עליו הכתוב אומר (קוהלת ה) אל תתן את פיך לחטיא את בשרך וגו' רבי עקיבה עלה בשלום וירד בשלום עליו הכתוב אומר (שיר השירים א) משכני אחריך נרוצה [וגו'] משלו משל למה הדבר דומה לפרדס של מלך ועלייה בנוייה על גביו מה עליו [על אדם] להציץ ובלבד שלא יזוז [את עיניו] ממנו. ועוד משלו משל למה הדבר דומה [לאיסתרא] העוברת בין שני דרכים אחד של אור ואחד של שלג הטה לכאן נכוה [באור] הטה לכאן נכוה משלג מה עליו על אדם להלך באמצע ובלבד שלא יהא נוטה לא לכאן ולא לכאן. מעשה ברבי יהושע [שהיה מהלך באסתרטא והיה בן זומא בא כנגדו] הגיע אצלו ולא נתן לו שלום אמר לו [מאין ולאן] בן זומא אמר לו צופה הייתי במעשה בראשית ואין בין מים העליונים למים התחתונים אפילו טפח שנאמר (בראשית א) ורוח אלהים מרחפת על פני המים ואומר (דברים לג) כנשר יעיר קנו [וגו'] מה נשר זה טס על גבי קינו נוגע ואינו נוגע כך אין בין מים העליונים למים התחתונים אפילו טפח אמר להם רבי יהושע לתלמידיו כבר בן זומא מבחוץ לא היו ימים מועטים עד שנסתלק בן זומא.", 2.3. "כל המסתכל בארבעה דברים ראוי לו [כאלו לא] בא לעולם מה למעלה מה למטה מה לפנים ומה לאחור [יכול] קודם למעשה בראשית תלמוד לומר (דברים ד) למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ יכול [עד שלא נבראו סדרי תקופות תלמוד לומר (שם) ולמקצה השמים ועד קצה השמים מה תלמוד לומר למן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ מן היום אשר ברא אלהים אדם על הארץ אתה דורש ואי אתה דורש] מה למעלה מה למטה מה היה ומה עתיד להיות.", 2.4. "מימיהן לא נחלקו אלא על הסמיכה חמשה זוגות הן שלשה מזוגות הראשונים שאמרו [שלא] לסמוך ושנים מזוגות האחרונים שאמרו לסמוך [שלשה] היו נשיאים ושנים [מהן] אבות בית דין דברי רבי מאיר [רבי יהודה אומר שמעון בן שטח נשיא] יהודה בן טבאי אב ב\"ד אמר רבי יוסי בתחלה לא היתה מחלוקת בישראל אלא בית דין של שבעים ואחד [היה] בלשכת הגזית [ושאר] בתי דינים של עשרים ושלשה [היו בעיירות ארץ ישראל ושני בתי דינים של שלשה שלשה היו בירושלים אחד בהר הבית ואחד בחיל] נצרך אחד מהם הולך אצל בית דין שבעירו אין בית דין הולך אצל בית דין הסמוך לעירו [אם] שמעו אמרו להם אם לאו הוא ומופלא שבהן באין לבית דין שבהר הבית [אם] שמעו אמרו להם ואם לאו הוא ומופלא שבהם באין לבית דין [שבחיל אם שמעו אמרו להם אם לאו אלו ואלו באין לבית דין] שבלשכת הגזית ובית דין שבלשכת הגזית אע\"פ שהוא של שבעים ואחד אין פחות מעשרים ושלשה נצרך אחד מהם לצאת רואה אם יש שם עשרים ושלשה יוצא ואם לאו אין יוצא עד שיהו שם עשרים ושלשה היו יושבין מתמיד של שחר עד תמיד של בין הערבים ובשבתות ובימים טובים נכנסין לבית המדרש שבהר הבית [נשאלה הלכה] אם שמעו אמרו להם ואם לאו עומדין במנין אם רבו המטמאין טימאו אם רבו המטהרין טיהרו משם הלכה יוצא רווחת בישראל משרבו תלמידי שמאי והלל שלא שמשו כל צרכן [הרבו] מחלוקת בישראל [ונעשו כשתי תורות ומשם היו יושבין ובודקין] כל מי שהוא חכם [ועניו] ושפוי וירא חטא ופרקו טוב [ורוח] הבריות נוחה הימנו [עושין אותו] דיין בעירו משנעשה דיין בעירו מעלין ומושיבין אותו בהר הבית ומשם מעלין ומושיבין אותו בחיל ומשם מעלין ומושיבין אותו בלשכת הגזית ושם יושבין ובודקין יחסי כהונה ויחסי לויה כהן שנמצא בו פסול לובש שחורין ומתעטף שחורין יוצא והולך לו ושלא נמצא בו פסול לובש לבנים ומתעטף לבנים נכנס ומשמש עם אחיו הכהנים ויום טוב היו עושין שלא נמצא פסול בזרעו של אהרן ומביא עשירית האיפה משלו ועובדה בידו אף על פי שאין המשמר שלו אחד כהן גדול ואחד כהן הדיוט שעבדו עד שלא הביאו עשירית האיפה שלהן עבודתן כשרה.", 2.5. "איזו היא סמיכה שנחלקו עליה בית שמאי אומרים אין סומכין ביום טוב ושלמים החוגג בהן סומך עליהן מערב יום טוב [בית הלל אומרים מביאין שלמים ועולות וסומכין עליהן] אמרו בית הלל לבית שמאי ומה אם בשעה שאי אתה מותר לעשות להדיוט אתה מותר לעשות לגבוה שעה שאתה מותר לעשות להדיוט אין דין שיהא מותר לעשות לגבוה אמרו להם בית שמאי נדרים ונדבות יוכיחו [שמותרין לעשות להדיוט ואין מותרין לעשות] לגבוה אמרו להם בית הלל לא אם אמרתם בנדרים ונדבות שאין זמנן קבוע תאמרו בחגיגה שזמנה קבועה אמרו להם בית שמאי אף חגיגה פעמים [שאין זמנה] קבוע שמי שלא חג ביום טוב הראשון של חג חוגג את כל הרגל ויום טוב האחרון אבא שאול היה אומר בלשון אחרת משום בית הלל ומה אם [בשעת] שכירתך סתומה כירת רבך פתוחה [בעת] שכירתך פתוחה [לא תהא כירת] רבך פתוחה דבר אחר שלא יהא שולחנך מלא ושולחן רבך ריקן.", 2.6. "מעשה בהלל הזקן שסמך על העולה בעזרה וחברו עליו תלמידי בית שמאי אמר להם באו וראו שהיא נקבה וצריכין אנו לעשותה זבחי שלמים הפליגן בדברים והלכו להם מיד גברה ידן של ב\"ש ובקשו לקבוע הלכה כמותן והיה שם בבא בן בוטא שהוא מתלמידי בית שמאי [ויודע שהלכה כדברי בית הלל] בכל מקום [והלך] והביא את כל צאן קדר והעמידן בעזרה ואמר כל מי שצריך להביא עולות ושלמים יבוא ויטול באו ונטלו [את הבהמה והעלו עולות] וסמכו עליהן בו ביום נקבעה הלכה כדברי בית הלל ולא [ערער אדם בדבר] ושוב מעשה [בתלמיד אחד] מתלמידי בית הלל שסמך על העולה בעזרה מצאו תלמיד אחד מתלמידי בית שמאי אמר לו מה זה סמיכה אמר לו מה זה שתיקה שתקו בנזיפה.", 2.7. "עצרת שחל להיות בשני או בחמישי או בששי או באחד מכל ימות השבת בית שמאי אומרים יום טבוח [ביום של אחריה] בית הלל אומרים אין יום טבוח ומעשה שמת [אלכסנדר] בלוד ובאו אנשי עיירות להספידו אמר להם ר\"ט צאו אין מספידין ביו\"ט. ", 2.2. "Four entered the orchard: Ben Azzai, Ben Zoma, another, and Rabbi Akiva. One looked and died. One looked and was harmed. One looked and cut down the trees. And one went up in peace and went down in peace. Ben Azzai looked and died. Scripture says about him (Psalms 116, 15): \"Precious in the sight of the LORD Is the death of His saints\". Ben Zoma looked and was harmed. Scripture says about him (Proverbs 25, 16): \"Hast thou found honey? eat so much as is sufficient for thee\" and the continuation. [Cont. of the verse: \"Lest thou be filled therewith, and vomit it.\" Elisha looked and cut down the trees. Scripture says about him (Ecclesiastes 5, 5): \"Suffer not thy mouth to bring thy flesh into guilt\" etc. Rabbi Akiva went up in peace and went down in peace. Scripture says about him (Song of Songs 1, 4): \"Draw me, we will run after thee\" etc. They gave a parable: What is this similar to? To the orchard of a king and there is an attic above it. It is upon [the man] to look so long as he does not move [his eyes] from it. Another parable was given. What is this similar tp? To [a street] that passes between two paths, one of fire, and one of snow. If it leans one way, it gets burned [by the fire]. If it leans the other way it gets burned by the snow. A man must walk in the middle and not lean to or fro. A story of Rabbi Yehoshua [Who was walkin in the street and Ben Zoma came opposite him] he reached him and did not greet him. He said to him [from where and to where] Ben Zoma? He said to him: I was watching the creation, and there is not between the upper waters and the lower waters even a handbreadth. As it is written (Genesis 1, 2) \"and the spirit of God hovered over the face of the waters\". And it says (Deuteronomy 32, 11): \"As a vulture that stirreth up her nest\" etc. Just as the vulture flies over the nest, touching and not touching, so too there is not even a handbreadth between the upper waters and lower waters. Rabbi Yehoshua said to his students: Ben Zoma is already outside. In a few days, Ben Zoma passed away.", 2.4. "In their days they only argued about  laying of hands. There were five pairs. three of the first pairs said not to lay on hands and two of the other pairs said to lay on hands. Three were Nesi'im (princes) and two (of them) were the heads of courts. The words of R. Meir. R. Judah said Simon ben Shetah was Nasi (prince) and Judah ben Tabbai the head of the court....Said R. Yose: Originally there were no arguments in Israel. Rather, a 71 member court sat in the chamber of hewn stone and other courts of 23 existed in the cities of Erez Yisrael. And two courts of 3 apiece were in Jerusalem, one on the temple mount and one in Hayil. When one of them was necessary [a person] goes to the court in his city. No court (in his city)--[the person] goes to the court near his city. If they heard, they say to him; if not, he and their most distinguished member go to the court on the temple mount. If they heard, they say to him; if not, he and their most distinguished member go to the court in Hayil. If they heard they say to him; if not these and these arrive at the court in the chamber of hewn stone (And the court of the chamber of hewn stone even though it is 71, it can never have less than 23. If one of them needs to leave, he sees if there will be 23 he may leave; if not, he may not leave until there are 23. They would sit from the offering of the morning sacrifice until the offering of the afternoon sacrifice. And on sabbaths and Holidays they would enter the Beit Midrash on the temple mount.) If they heard they say to them, and if not, they establish a quorum and take a roll. If the majority says impure it is impure. If the majority says pure it is pure. From there the Halakhah (law) goes out widespread in Israel. When there increased the students of Shammai and Hillel who did not properly apprentice, conflict increased in Israel and it became as though there were two Torahs. And for there they would sit and inspect. Whoever was wise and humble and abundant and sin-fearing and mature and getting along with other people they make him a judge in his city. After being made a judge in his city they could elevate and set him on the temple mount and from there they could elevate and seat him in Hayil and from there they can elevate and seat him in the chamber of hewn stone and from there they sit and inspect the lineages of the priests and levites. A priest in whom has been found a blemish wears black and wraps in black, exits and leaves. One in whom not a blemish is found wears white and wraps in white, enters and serves with his brothers the priests. They would make a holiday that not a blemish was found among the children of Aaron. And he would bring a tenth of an Eifah of his own flour and do the service with his own hands even though it is not his priestly shift. A high priest and a regular priest who served before bringing their tenth of an Eifah their service is acceptable. "
136. Plutarch, On Isis And Osiris, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 390
137. Plutarch, On Hearing, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 81, 88, 90, 109
138. Plutarch, On Stoic Self-Contradictions, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 96
139. Plutarch, Moralia, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 142
140. Plutarch, Placita Philosophorum (874D-911C), 5.2.3 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 6
141. Plutarch, Themistocles, 1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 4
1. Thus Probably Plutarch began with his favourite tale of Themistocles’ remark (dealing with the festival day and the day after) to the generals who came after him; cf. 270 c, supra , and the note. rightly spoke the great Themistocles to the generals who succeeded him, for whom he had opened a way for their subsequent exploits by driving out the barbarian host and making Greece free. And rightly will it be spoken also to those who pride themselves on their writings; for if you take away the men of action, you will have no men of letters. Take away Pericles’ statesmanship, and Phormio’s trophies for his naval victories at Rhium, and Nicias’s valiant deeds at Cythera and Megara and Corinth, Demosthenes’ Pylos, and Cleon’s four hundred captives, Tolmides’ circumnavigation of the Peloponnesus, and Myronides’ Cf. Thucydides, i. 108; iv. 95. victory over the Boeotians at Oenophyta-take these away and Thucydides is stricken from your list of writers. Take away Alcibiades ’ spirited exploits in the Hellespontine region, and those of Thrasyllus by Lesbos, and the overthrow by Theramenes of the oligarchy, Thrasybulus and Archinus and the uprising of the Seventy Cf. Xenophon, Hellenica , ii. 4. 2. from Phyle against the Spartan hegemony, and Conon’s restoration of Athens to her power on the sea - take these away and Cratippus An historian who continued Thucydides, claiming to be his contemporary (see E. Schwartz, Hermes , xliv. 496). is no more. Xenophon, to be sure, became his own history by writing of his generalship and his successes and recording that it was Themistogenes Cf. Xenophon, Hellenica , iii. 1. 2; M. MacLaren, Trans. Amer. Phil. Assoc. lxv. (1934) pp. 240-247. the Syracusan who had compiled an account of them, his purpose being to win greater credence for his narrative by referring to himself in the third person, thus favouring another with the glory of the authorship. But all the other historians, men like Cleitodemus, Diyllus, Cf. Moralia , 862 b; Müller, Frag. Hist. Graec. ii. 360-361. Philochorus, Phylarchus, have been for the exploits of others what actors are for plays, exhibiting the deeds of the generals and kings, and merging themselves with their characters as tradition records them, in order that they might share in a certain effulgence, so to speak, and splendour. For there is reflected from the men of action upon the men of letters an image of another’s glory, which shines again there, since the deed is seen, as in a mirror, through the agency of their words.
142. Ps.-Philo, Biblical Antiquities, 10.7, 11.15, 20.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 595
143. Pliny The Elder, Natural History, 8.71 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 74
144. New Testament, Mark, 4.10-4.12, 6.31-6.44, 13.35 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 91; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 255
4.10. Καὶ ὅτε ἐγένετο κατὰ μόνας, ἠρώτων αὐτὸν οἱ περὶ αὐτὸν σὺν τοῖς δώδεκα τὰς παραβολάς. 4.11. καὶ ἔλεγεν αὐτοῖς Ὑμῖν τὸ μυστήριον δέδοται τῆς βασιλείας τοῦ θεοῦ· ἐκείνοις δὲ τοῖς ἔξω ἐν παραβολαῖς τὰ πάντα γίνεται, 4.12. ἵνα βλέποντες βλέπωσι καὶ μὴ ἴδωσιν, καὶ ἀκούοντες ἀκούωσι καὶ μὴ συνίωσιν, μή ποτε ἐπιστρέψωσιν καὶ ἀφεθῇ αὐτοῖς. 6.31. καὶ λέγει αὐτοῖς Δεῦτε ὑμεῖς αὐτοὶ κατʼ ἰδίαν εἰς ἔρημον τόπον καὶ ἀναπαύσασθε ὀλίγον. ἦσαν γὰρ οἱ ἐρχόμενοι καὶ οἱ ὑπάγοντες πολλοί, καὶ οὐδὲ φαγεῖν εὐκαίρουν. 6.32. καὶ ἀπῆλθον ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ εἰς ἔρημον τόπον κατʼ ἰδίαν. 6.33. καὶ εἶδαν αὐτοὺς ὑπάγοντας καὶ ἔγνωσαν πολλοί, καὶ πεζῇ ἀπὸ πασῶν τῶν πόλεων συνέδραμον ἐκεῖ καὶ προῆλθον αὐτούς. 6.34. Καὶ ἐξελθὼν εἶδεν πολὺν ὄχλον, καὶ ἐσπλαγχνίσθη ἐπʼ αὐτοὺς ὅτι ἦσαν ὡς πρόβατα μὴ ἔχοντα ποιμένα, καὶ ἤρξατο διδάσκειν αὐτοὺς πολλά. 6.35. Καὶ ἤδη ὥρας πολλῆς γενομένης προσελθόντες αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ αὐτοῦ ἔλεγον ὅτι Ἔρημός ἐστιν ὁ τόπος, καὶ ἤδη ὥρα πολλή· 6.36. ἀπόλυσον αὐτούς, ἵνα ἀπελθόντες εἰς τοὺς κύκλῳ ἀγροὺς καὶ κώμας ἀγοράσωσιν ἑαυτοῖς τί φάγωσιν. 6.37. ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Δότε αὐτοῖς ὑμεῖς φαγεῖν. καὶ λέγουσιν αὐτῷ Ἀπελθόντες ἀγοράσωμεν δηναρίων διακοσίων ἄρτους καὶ δώσομεν αὐτοῖς φαγεῖν; 6.38. ὁ δὲ λέγει αὐτοῖς Πόσους ἔχετε ἄρτους; ὑπάγετε ἴδετε. καὶ γνόντες λέγουσιν Πέντε, καὶ δύο ἰχθύας. 6.39. καὶ ἐπέταξεν αὐτοῖς ἀνακλιθῆναι πάντας συμπόσια συμπόσια ἐπὶ τῷ χλωρῷ χόρτῳ. 6.40. καὶ ἀνέπεσαν πρασιαὶ πρασιαὶ κατὰ ἑκατὸν καὶ κατὰ πεντήκοντα. 6.41. καὶ λαβὼν τοὺς πέντε ἄρτους καὶ τοὺς δύο ἰχθύας ἀναβλέψας εἰς τὸν οὐρανὸν εὐλόγησεν καὶ κατέκλασεν τοὺς ἄρτους καὶ ἐδίδου τοῖς μαθηταῖς ἵνα παρατιθῶσιν αὐτοῖς, καὶ τοὺς δύο ἰχθύας ἐμέρισεν πᾶσιν. 6.42. καὶ ἔφαγον πάντες καὶ ἐχορτάσθησαν· 6.43. καὶ ἦραν κλάσματα δώδεκα κοφίνων πληρώματα καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν ἰχθύων. 6.44. καὶ ἦσαν οἱ φαγόντες τοὺς ἄρτους πεντακισχίλιοι ἄνδρες. 13.35. γρηγορεῖτε οὖν, οὐκ οἴδατε γὰρ πότε ὁ κύριος τῆς οἰκίας ἔρχεται, ἢ ὀψὲ ἢ μεσονύκτιον ἢ ἀλεκτοροφωνίας ἢ πρωί, 4.10. When he was alone, those who were around him with the twelve asked him about the parables. 4.11. He said to them, "To you is given the mystery of the Kingdom of God, but to those who are outside, all things are done in parables, 4.12. that 'seeing they may see, and not perceive; and hearing they may hear, and not understand; lest perhaps they should turn again, and their sins should be forgiven them.'" 6.31. He said to them, "You come apart into a deserted place, and rest awhile." For there were many coming and going, and they had no leisure so much as to eat. 6.32. They went away in the boat to a desert place by themselves. 6.33. They saw them going, and many recognized him and ran there on foot from all the cities. They arrived before them and came together to him. 6.34. Jesus came out, saw a great multitude, and he had compassion on them, because they were like sheep without a shepherd, and he began to teach them many things. 6.35. When it was late in the day, his disciples came to him, and said, "This place is deserted, and it is late in the day. 6.36. Send them away, that they may go into the surrounding country and villages, and buy themselves bread, for they have nothing to eat." 6.37. But he answered them, "You give them something to eat."They asked him, "Shall we go and buy two hundred denarii worth of bread, and give them something to eat?" 6.38. He said to them, "How many loaves do you have? Go see."When they knew, they said, "Five, and two fish." 6.39. He commanded them that everyone should sit down in groups on the green grass. 6.40. They sat down in ranks, by hundreds and by fifties. 6.41. He took the five loaves and the two fish, and looking up to heaven, he blessed and broke the loaves, and he gave to his disciples to set before them, and he divided the two fish among them all. 6.42. They all ate, and were filled. 6.43. They took up twelve baskets full of broken pieces and also of the fish. 6.44. Those who ate the loaves were five thousand men. 13.35. Watch therefore, for you don't know when the lord of the house is coming, whether at evening, or at midnight, or when the rooster crows, or in the morning;
145. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 113
25. Let us consider that wonderful sign [of the resurrection] which takes place in eastern lands, that is, in Arabia and the countries round about. There is a certain bird which is called a phœnix. This is the only one of its kind, and lives five hundred years. And when the time of its dissolution draws near that it must die, it builds itself a nest of frankincense, and myrrh, and other spices, into which, when the time is fulfilled, it enters and dies. But as the flesh decays a certain kind of worm is produced, which, being nourished by the juices of the dead bird, brings forth feathers. Then, when it has acquired strength, it takes up that nest in which are the bones of its parent, and bearing these it passes from the land of Arabia into Egypt, to the city called Heliopolis. And, in open day, flying in the sight of all men, it places them on the altar of the sun, and having done this, hastens back to its former abode. The priests then inspect the registers of the dates, and find that it has returned exactly as the five hundredth year was completed.
146. New Testament, Titus, 3.10-3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 62
3.10. αἱρετικὸν ἄνθρω πον μετὰ μίαν καὶ δευτέραν νουθεσίαν παραιτοῦ, 3.11. εἰδὼς ὅτι ἐξέστραπται ὁ τοιοῦτος καὶ ἁμαρτάνει, ὢν αὐτοκατάκριτος. 3.10. Avoid a factious man after a first and second warning; 3.11. knowing that such a one is perverted, and sins, being self-condemned.
147. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 2.14, 3.13, 4.5, 4.13, 4.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, aristobulus •allegory, allegorical •allegory, allegorical interpretation, beatitudes Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 174, 178, 179, 436; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 453, 596
2.14. ὑμεῖς γὰρ μιμηταὶ ἐγενήθητε, ἀδελφοί, τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν τοῦ θεοῦ τῶν οὐσῶν ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ, ὅτι τὰ αὐτὰ ἐπάθετε καὶ ὑμεῖς ὑπὸ τῶν ἰδίων συμφυλετῶν καθὼς καὶ αὐτοὶ ὑπὸ τῶν Ἰουδαίων, 3.13. εἰς τὸ στηρίξαι ὑμῶν τὰς καρδίας ἀμέμπτους ἐν ἁγιωσύνῃ ἔμπροσθεν τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ πατρὸς ἡμῶν ἐν τῇ παρουσίᾳ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ μετὰ πάντων τῶν ἁγίων αὐτοῦ. 4.5. μὴ ἐν πάθει ἐπιθυμίας καθάπερ καὶτὰ ἔθνη τὰ μὴ εἰδότα τὸν θεόν, 4.13. Οὐ θέλομεν δὲ ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, ἀδελφοί, περὶ τῶν κοιμωμένων, ἵνα μὴ λυπῆσθε καθὼς καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ οἱ μὴ ἔχοντες ἐλπίδα. 4.17. ἔπειτα ἡμεῖς οἱ ζῶντες οἱ περιλειπόμενοι ἅμα σὺν αὐτοῖς ἁρπαγησόμεθα ἐν νεφέλαις εἰς ἀπάντησιν τοῦ κυρίου εἰς ἀέρα· καὶ οὕτως πάντοτε σὺν κυρίῳ ἐσόμεθα. 2.14. For you, brothers, became imitators of the assemblies of God which are in Judea in Christ Jesus; for you also suffered the same things from your own countrymen, even as they did from the Jews; 3.13. to the end he may establish your hearts blameless in holiness before our God and Father, at the coming of our Lord Jesus with all his saints. 4.5. not in the passion of lust, even as the Gentiles who don't know God; 4.13. But we don't want you to be ignorant, brothers, concerning those who have fallen asleep, so that you don't grieve like the rest, who have no hope. 4.17. then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air. So we will be with the Lord forever.
148. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, None (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
1.16. καὶ διʼ ὑμῶν διελθεῖν εἰς Μακεδονίαν, καὶ πάλιν ἀπὸ Μακεδονίας ἐλθεῖν πρὸς ὑμᾶς καὶ ὑφʼ ὑμῶν προπεμφθῆναι εἰς τὴν Ἰουδαίαν.
149. New Testament, 2 Thessalonians, 56.7-56.13, 58.14-58.24 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 349
150. New Testament, Acts, 3.26, 10.9-10.28, 13.14-13.15, 13.27, 13.32-13.35, 23.8 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 99; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 318; Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 11; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 596
3.26. ὑμῖν πρῶτον ἀναστήσας ὁ θεὸς τὸν παῖδα αὐτοῦ ἀπέστειλεν αὐτὸν εὐλογοῦντα ὑμᾶς ἐν τῷ ἀποστρέφειν ἕκαστον ἀπὸ τῶν πονηριῶν [ὑμῶν]. 10.9. Τῇ δὲ ἐπαύριον ὁδοιπορούντων ἐκείνων καὶ τῇ πόλει ἐγγιζόντων ἀνέβη Πέτρος ἐπὶ τὸ δῶμα προσεύξασθαι περὶ ὥραν ἕκτην. 10.10. ἐγένετο δὲ πρόσπεινος καὶ ἤθελεν γεύσασθαι· παρασκευαζόντων δὲ αὐτῶν ἐγένετο ἐπʼ αὐτὸν ἔκστασις, 10.11. καὶ θεωρεῖ τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀνεῳγμένον καὶ καταβαῖνον σκεῦός τι ὡς ὀθόνην μεγάλην τέσσαρσιν ἀρχαῖς καθιέμενον ἐπὶ τῆς γῆς, 10.12. ἐν ᾧ ὑπῆρχεν πάντα τὰ τετράποδα καὶ ἑρπετὰ τῆς γῆς καὶ πετεινὰ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ. 10.13. καὶ ἐγένετο φωνὴ πρὸς αὐτόν Ἀναστάς, Πέτρε, θῦσον καὶ φάγε. 10.14. ὁ δὲ Πέτρος εἶπεν Μηδαμῶς, κύριε, ὅτι οὐδέποτε ἔφαγον πᾶν κοινὸν καὶ ἀκάθαρτον. 10.15. καὶ φωνὴ πάλιν ἐκ δευτέρου πρὸς αὐτόν Ἃ ὁ θεὸς ἐκαθάρισεν σὺ μὴ κοίνου. 10.16. τοῦτο δὲ ἐγένετο ἐπὶ τρίς, καὶ εὐθὺς ἀνελήμφθη τὸ σκεῦος εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν. 10.17. Ὡς δὲ ἐν ἑαυτῷ διηπόρει ὁ Πέτρος τί ἂν εἴη τὸ ὅραμα ὃ εἶδεν, ἰδοὺ οἱ ἄνδρες οἱ ἀπεσταλμένοι ὑπὸ τοῦ Κορνηλίου διερωτήσαντες τὴν οἰκίαν τοῦ Σίμωνος ἐπέστησαν ἐπὶ τὸν πυλῶνα, 10.18. καὶ φωνήσαντες ἐπύθοντο εἰ Σίμων ὁ ἐπικαλούμενος Πέτρος ἐνθάδε ξενίζεται. 10.19. Τοῦ δὲ Πέτρου διενθυμουμένου περὶ τοῦ ὁράματος εἴπεν τὸ πνεῦμα Ἰδοὺ ἄνδρες δύο ζητοῦντές σε· 10.20. ἀλλὰ ἀναστὰς κατάβηθι καὶ πορεύου σὺν αὐτοῖς μηδὲν διακρινόμενος, ὅτι ἐγὼ ἀπέσταλκα αὐτούς. 10.21. καταβὰς δὲ Πέτρος πρὸς τοὺς ἄνδρας εἶπεν Ἰδοὺ ἐγώ εἰμι ὃν ζητεῖτε· τίς ἡ αἰτία διʼ ἣν πάρεστε; 10.22. οἱ δὲ εἶπαν Κορνήλιος ἑκατοντάρχης, ἀνὴρ δίκαιος καὶ φοβούμενος τὸν θεὸν μαρτυρούμενός τε ὑπὸ ὅλου τοῦ ἔθνους τῶν Ἰουδαίων, ἐχρηματίσθη ὑπὸ ἀγγέλου ἁγίου μεταπέμψασθαί σε εἰς τὸν οἶκον αὐτοῦ καὶ ἀκοῦσαι ῥήματα παρὰ σοῦ. 10.23. εἰσκαλεσάμενος οὖν αὐτοὺς ἐξένισεν. Τῇ δὲ ἐπαύριον ἀναστὰς ἐξῆλθεν σὺν αὐτοῖς, καί τινες τῶν ἀδελφῶν τῶν ἀπὸ Ἰόππης συνῆλθαν αὐτῷ. 10.24. τῇ δὲ ἐπαύριον εἰσῆλθεν εἰς τὴν Καισαρίαν· ὁ δὲ Κορνήλιος ἦν προσδοκῶν αὐτοὺς συνκαλεσάμενος τοὺς συγγενεῖς αὐτοῦ καὶ τοὺς ἀναγκαίους φίλους. 10.25. Ὡς δὲ ἐγένετο τοῦ εἰσελθεῖν τὸν Πέτρον, συναντήσας αὐτῷ ὁ Κορνήλιος πεσὼν ἐπὶ τοὺς πόδας προσεκύνησεν. 10.26. ὁ δὲ Πέτρος ἤγειρεν αὐτὸν λέγων Ἀνάστηθι· καὶ ἐγὼ αὐτὸς ἄνθρωπός εἰμι. 10.27. καὶ συνομιλῶν αὐτῷ εἰσῆλθεν, καὶ εὑρίσκει συνεληλυθότας πολλούς, 10.28. ἔφη τε πρὸς αὐτούς Ὑμεῖς ἐπίστασθε ὡς ἀθέμιτόν ἐστιν ἀνδρὶ Ἰουδαίῳ κολλᾶσθαι ἢ προσέρχεσθαι ἀλλοφύλῳ· κἀμοὶ ὁ θεὸς ἔδειξεν μηδένα κοινὸν ἢ ἀκάθαρτον λέγειν ἄνθρωπον· 13.14. Αὐτοὶ δὲ διελθόντες ἀπὸ τῆς Πέργης παρεγένοντο εἰς Ἀντιόχειαν τὴν Πισιδίαν, καὶ ἐλθόντες εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῶν σαββάτων ἐκάθισαν. 13.15. μετὰ δὲ τὴν ἀνάγνωσιν τοῦ νόμου καὶ τῶν προφητῶν ἀπέστειλαν οἱ ἀρχισυνάγωγοι πρὸς αὐτοὺς λέγοντες Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, εἴ τις ἔστιν ἐν ὑμῖν λόγος παρακλήσεως πρὸς τὸν λαόν, λέγετε. 13.27. οἱ γὰρ κατοικουlt*gtντες ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ καὶ οἱ ἄρχοντες αὐτῶν τοῦτον ἀγνοήσαντες καὶ τὰς φωνὰς τῶν προφητῶν τὰς κατὰ πᾶν σάββατον ἀναγινωσκομένας κρίναντες ἐπλήρωσαν, 13.32. καὶ ἡμεῖς ὑμᾶς εὐαγγελιζόμεθα τὴν πρὸς τοὺς πατέρας ἐπαγγελίαν γενομένην 13.33. ὅτι ταύτην ὁ θεὸς ἐκπεπλήρωκεν τοῖς τέκνοις ἡμῶν ἀναστήσας Ἰησοῦν, ὡς καὶ ἐν τῷ ψαλμῶ γέγραπται τῷ δευτέρῳ Υἱός μου εἶ σύ, ἐγὼ σήμ ν γεγέννηκά σε. 13.34. ὅτι δὲ ἀνέστησεν αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν μηκέτι μέλλοντα ὑποστρέφειν εἰς διαφθοράν, οὕτως εἴρηκεν ὅτιΔώσω ὑμῖν τὰ ὅσια Δαυεὶδ τὰ πιστά. 13.35. διότι καὶ ἐν ἑτέρῳ λέγει Οὐ δώσεις τὸν ὅσιόν σου ἰδεῖν διαφθοράν· 23.8. Σαδδουκαῖοι γὰρ λέγουσιν μὴ εἶναι ἀνάστασιν μήτε ἄγγελον μήτε πνεῦμα, Φαρισαῖοι δὲ ὁμολογοῦσιν τὰ ἀμφότερα. 3.26. God, having raised up his servant, Jesus, sent him to you first, to bless you, in turning away everyone of you from your wickedness." 10.9. Now on the next day as they were on their journey, and got close to the city, Peter went up on the housetop to pray at about noon. 10.10. He became hungry and desired to eat, but while they were preparing, he fell into a trance. 10.11. He saw heaven opened and a certain container descending to him, like a great sheet let down by four corners on the earth, 10.12. in which were all kinds of four-footed animals of the earth, wild animals, reptiles, and birds of the sky. 10.13. A voice came to him, "Rise, Peter, kill and eat!" 10.14. But Peter said, "Not so, Lord; for I have never eaten anything that is common or unclean." 10.15. A voice came to him again the second time, "What God has cleansed, you must not make unholy." 10.16. This was done three times, and immediately the vessel was received up into heaven. 10.17. Now while Peter was very perplexed in himself what the vision which he had seen might mean, behold, the men who were sent by Cornelius, having made inquiry for Simon's house, stood before the gate, 10.18. and called and asked whether Simon, who was surnamed Peter, was lodging there. 10.19. While Peter thought about the vision, the Spirit said to him, "Behold, three men seek you. 10.20. But arise, get down, and go with them, doubting nothing; for I have sent them." 10.21. Peter went down to the men, and said, "Behold, I am he whom you seek. Why have you come?" 10.22. They said, "Cornelius, a centurion, a righteous man and one who fears God, and well spoken of by all the nation of the Jews, was directed by a holy angel to invite you to his house, and to listen to what you say. 10.23. So he called them in and lodged them. On the next day Peter arose and went out with them, and some of the brothers from Joppa accompanied him. 10.24. On the next day they entered into Caesarea. Cornelius was waiting for them, having called together his relatives and his near friends. 10.25. When it happened that Peter entered, Cornelius met him, fell down at his feet, and worshiped him. 10.26. But Peter raised him up, saying, "Stand up! I myself am also a man." 10.27. As he talked with him, he went in and found many gathered together. 10.28. He said to them, "You yourselves know how it is an unlawful thing for a man who is a Jew to join himself or come to one of another nation, but God has shown me that I shouldn't call any man unholy or unclean. 13.14. But they, passing through from Perga, came to Antioch of Pisidia. They went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and sat down. 13.15. After the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Brothers, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, speak." 13.27. For those who dwell in Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they didn't know him, nor the voices of the prophets which are read every Sabbath, fulfilled them by condemning him. 13.32. We bring you good news of the promise made to the fathers, 13.33. that God has fulfilled the same to us, their children, in that he raised up Jesus. As it is also written in the second psalm, 'You are my Son. Today I have become your father.' 13.34. "Concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he has spoken thus: 'I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.' 13.35. Therefore he says also in another psalm, 'You will not allow your Holy One to see decay.' 23.8. For the Sadducees say that there is no resurrection, neither angel, nor spirit; but the Pharisees confess all of these.
151. New Testament, Apocalypse, 3.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 246, 258
3.20. Ἰδοὺ ἕστηκα ἐπὶ τὴν θύραν καὶ κρούω· ἐάν τις ἀκούσῃ τῆς φωνῆς μου καὶ ἀνοίξῃ τὴν θύραν, εἰσελεύσομαι πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ δειπνήσω μετʼ αὐτοῦ καὶ αὐτὸς μετʼ ἐμοῦ. 3.20. Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, then I will come in to him, and will dine with him, and he with me.
152. New Testament, James, 1.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
1.11. ἀνέτειλεν γὰρ ὁ ἥλιος σὺν τῷ καύσωνι καὶ ἐξήρανεν τὸν χόρτον, καὶ τὸ ἄνθος αὐτοῦ ἐξέπεσεν καὶ ἡ εὐπρέπεια τοῦ προσώπου αὐτοῦ ἀπώλετο· οὕτως καὶ ὁ πλούσιος ἐν ταῖς πορείαις αὐτοῦ μαρανθήσεται. 1.11. For the sun arises with the scorching wind, and withers the grass, and the flower in it falls, and the beauty of its appearance perishes. So also will the rich man fade away in his pursuits.
153. New Testament, Colossians, 3.9, 3.11, 4.13-4.14 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, aristobulus •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 174, 178; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 58; Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 68
3.9. μὴ ψεύδεσθε εἰς ἀλλήλους· ἀπεκδυσάμενοι τὸν παλαιὸν ἄνθρωπον σὺν ταῖς πράξεσιν αὐτοῦ, 3.11. ὅπου οὐκ ἔνι Ἕλλην καὶ Ἰουδαῖος, περιτομὴ καὶ ἀκροβυστία, βάρβαρος, Σκύθης, δοῦλος, ἐλεύθερος, ἀλλὰ πάντα καὶ ἐν πᾶσιν Χριστός. 4.13. μαρτυρῶ γὰρ αὐτῷ ὅτι ἔχει πολὺν πόνον ὑπὲρ ὑμῶν καὶ τῶν ἐν Λαοδικίᾳ καὶ τῶν ἐν Ἱερᾷ Πόλει. 4.14. ἀσπάζεται ὑμᾶς Λουκᾶς ὁ ἰατρὸς ὁ ἀγαπητὸς καὶ Δημᾶς. 3.9. Don't lie to one another, seeing that you have put off the old man with his doings, 3.11. where there can't be Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondservant, freeman; but Christ is all, and in all. 4.13. For I testify about him, that he has great zeal for you, and for those in Laodicea, and for those in Hierapolis. 4.14. Luke, the beloved physician, and Demas greet you.
154. New Testament, Ephesians, 4.8, 4.22-4.24, 5.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah •allegory/allegorical •allegory/allegorical reading Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 21; Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 68; Trettel (2019), Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14, 171
4.8. διὸ λέγει Ἀναβὰς εἰς ὕψος ᾐχμαλώτευσεν αἰχμαλωσίαν, [καὶ] ἔδωκεν δόματα τοῖς ἀνθρώποις. 4.22. ἀποθέσθαι ὑμᾶς κατὰ τὴν προτέραν ἀναστροφὴν τὸν παλαιὸν ἄνθρωπον τὸν φθειρόμενον κατὰ τὰς ἐπιθυμίας τῆς ἀπάτης, 4.23. ἀνανεοῦσθαι δὲ τῷ πνεύματι τοῦ νοὸς ὑμῶν, 4.24. καὶ ἐνδύσασθαι τὸν καινὸν ἄνθρωπον τὸν κατὰ θεὸν κτισθέντα ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ὁσιότητι τῆς ἀληθείας. 5.25. Οἱ ἄνδρες, ἀγαπᾶτε τὰς γυναῖκας, καθὼς καὶ ὁ χριστὸς ἠγάπησεν τὴν ἐκκλησίαν καὶ ἑαυτὸν παρέδωκεν ὑπὲρ αὐτῆς, 4.8. Therefore he says, "When he ascended on high, he led captivity captive, and gave gifts to men." 4.22. that you put away, as concerning your former way of life, the old man, that grows corrupt after the lusts of deceit; 4.23. and that you be renewed in the spirit of your mind, 4.24. and put on the new man, who in the likeness of God has been created in righteousness and holiness of truth. 5.25. Husbands, love your wives, even as Christ also loved the assembly, and gave himself up for it;
155. Anon., Epistle of Barnabas, 10 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegorical interpretation/allegory Found in books: Wright (2015), The Letter of Aristeas : 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' 284
156. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.18, 4.13, 4.34, 14.2-14.3 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 166; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 438; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 436, 459
1.1. ΕΝ ΑΡΧΗ ἦν ὁ λόγος, καὶ ὁ λόγος ἦν πρὸς τὸν θεόν, καὶ θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος. 1.2. Οὗτος ἦν ἐν ἀρχῇ πρὸς τὸν θεόν. 1.3. πάντα διʼ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο, καὶ χωρὶς αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο οὐδὲ ἕν. 1.4. ὃ γέγονεν ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ἦν, καὶ ἡ ζωὴ ἦν τὸ φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων· 1.5. καὶ τὸ φῶς ἐν τῇ σκοτίᾳ φαίνει, καὶ ἡ σκοτία αὐτὸ οὐ κατέλαβεν. 1.6. Ἐγένετο ἄνθρωπος ἀπεσταλμένος παρὰ θεοῦ, ὄνομα αὐτῷ Ἰωάνης· 1.7. οὗτος ἦλθεν εἰς μαρτυρίαν, ἵνα μαρτυρήσῃ περὶ τοῦ φωτός, ἵνα πάντες πιστεύσωσιν διʼ αὐτοῦ. 1.8. οὐκ ἦν ἐκεῖνος τὸ φῶς, ἀλλʼ ἵνα μαρτυρήσῃ περὶ τοῦ φωτός. 1.9. Ἦν τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀληθινὸν ὃ φωτίζει πάντα ἄνθρωπον ἐρχόμενον εἰς τὸν κόσμον. 1.10. ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ ἦν, καὶ ὁ κόσμος διʼ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο, καὶ ὁ κόσμος αὐτὸν οὐκ ἔγνω. 1.11. Εἰς τὰ ἴδια ἦλθεν, καὶ οἱ ἴδιοι αὐτὸν οὐ παρέλαβον. 1.12. ὅσοι δὲ ἔλαβον αὐτόν, ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ἐξουσίαν τέκνα θεοῦ γενέσθαι, τοῖς πιστεύουσιν εἰς τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ, 1.13. οἳ οὐκ ἐξ αἱμάτων οὐδὲ ἐκ θελήματος σαρκὸς οὐδὲ ἐκ θελήματος ἀνδρὸς ἀλλʼ ἐκ θεοῦ ἐγεννήθησαν. 1.14. Καὶ ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο καὶ ἐσκήνωσεν ἐν ἡμῖν, καὶ ἐθεασάμεθα τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ, δόξαν ὡς μονογενοῦς παρὰ πατρός, πλήρης χάριτος καὶ ἀληθείας·?̔ 1.15. Ἰωάνης μαρτυρεῖ περὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ κέκραγεν λέγων — οὗτος ἦν ὁ εἰπών — Ὁ ὀπίσω μου ἐρχόμενος ἔμπροσθέν μου γέγονεν, ὅτι πρῶτός μου ἦν·̓ 1.16. ὅτι ἐκ τοῦ πληρώματος αὐτοῦ ἡμεῖς πάντες ἐλάβομεν, καὶ χάριν ἀντὶ χάριτος· 1.17. ὅτι ὁ νόμος διὰ Μωυσέως ἐδόθη, ἡ χάρις καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐγένετο. 1.18. θεὸν οὐδεὶς ἑώρακεν πώποτε· μονογενὴς θεὸς ὁ ὢν εἰς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ πατρὸς ἐκεῖνος ἐξηγήσατο. 4.13. ἀπεκρίθη Ἰησοῦς καὶ εἶπεν αὐτῇ Πᾶς ὁ πίνων ἐκ τοῦ ὕδατος τούτου διψήσει πάλιν· 4.34. λέγει αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Ἐμὸν βρῶμά ἐστιν ἵνα ποιήσω τὸ θέλημα τοῦ πέμψαντός με καὶ τελειώσω αὐτοῦ τὸ ἔργον. 14.2. ἐν τῇ οἰκίᾳ τοῦ πατρός μου μοναὶ πολλαί εἰσιν· εἰ δὲ μή, εἶπον ἂν ὑμῖν, ὅτι πορεύομαι ἑτοιμάσαι τόπον ὑμῖν· 14.3. καὶ ἐὰν πορευθῶ καὶ ἑτοιμάσω τόπον ὑμῖν, πάλιν ἔρχομαι καὶ παραλήμψομαι ὑμᾶς πρὸς ἐμαυτόν, ἵνα ὅπου εἰμὶ ἐγὼ καὶ ὑμεῖς ἦτε. 1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.4. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. 1.5. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness hasn't overcome it. 1.6. There came a man, sent from God, whose name was John. 1.7. The same came as a witness, that he might testify about the light, that all might believe through him. 1.8. He was not the light, but was sent that he might testify about the light. 1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. 1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. 1.11. He came to his own, and those who were his own didn't receive him. 1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: 1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God. 1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth. 1.15. John testified about him. He cried out, saying, "This was he of whom I said, 'He who comes after me has surpassed me, for he was before me.'" 1.16. From his fullness we all received grace upon grace. 1.17. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ. 1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. 4.13. Jesus answered her, "Everyone who drinks of this water will thirst again, 4.34. Jesus said to them, "My food is to do the will of him who sent me, and to accomplish his work. 14.2. In my Father's house are many mansions. If it weren't so, I would have told you. I am going to prepare a place for you. 14.3. If I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and will receive you to myself; that where I am, you may be there also.
157. New Testament, Galatians, 1.6, 1.8, 1.13, 1.14, 1.17, 1.18, 1.22, 2.1, 2.3, 2.10, 2.13, 2.14, 2.15, 3.7, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.24, 3.25, 3.28, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.6, 4.21-5.1, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 4.28, 4.29, 4.30, 4.31, 5.6, 6.15 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 18, 29; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 179
158. New Testament, Philippians, 1.13, 3.5, 3.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, beatitudes Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 178, 179, 436
1.13. ὥστε τοὺς δεσμούς μου φανεροὺς ἐν Χριστῷ γενέσθαι ἐν ὅλῳ τῷ πραιτωρίῳ καὶ τοῖς λοιποῖς πᾶσιν, 3.5. περιτομῇ ὀκταήμερος, ἐκ γένους Ἰσραήλ, φυλῆς Βενιαμείν, Ἐβραῖος ἐξ Ἐβραίων, κατὰ νόμον Φαρισαῖος, 3.20. ἡμῶν γὰρ τὸ πολίτευμα ἐν οὐρανοῖς ὑπάρχει, ἐξ οὗ καὶ σωτῆρα ἀπεκδεχόμεθα κύριον Ἰησοῦν Χριστόν, 1.13. so that it became evident to the whole praetorian guard, and to all the rest, that my bonds are in Christ; 3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; 3.20. For our citizenship is in heaven, from where we also wait for a Savior, the Lord Jesus Christ;
159. New Testament, Romans, 1.7, 1.13-1.14, 1.16, 2.9-2.10, 2.14-2.15, 2.17-2.29, 3.9, 3.21-3.24, 3.27, 3.29, 3.31, 5.5, 5.14, 6.3-6.11, 6.15-6.23, 7.1-7.4, 7.6-7.25, 8.2-8.3, 8.29-8.30, 9.24, 10.5-10.13, 11.25, 12.1, 12.21, 13.8-13.11, 14.14, 14.20, 15.4, 15.19, 15.25-15.27, 15.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 419, 420, 431, 588; Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 21, 29, 78, 90, 96, 125, 183; Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 62; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 47, 174, 178, 179, 459; Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 58; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 135, 383, 473, 596
1.7. πᾶσιν τοῖς οὖσιν ἐν Ῥώμῃ ἀγαπητοῖς θεοῦ, κλητοῖς ἁγίοις· χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρὸς ἡμῶν καὶ κυρίου Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ. 1.13. οὐ θέλω δὲ ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, ἀδελφοί, ὅτι πολλάκις προεθέμην ἐλθεῖν πρὸς ὑμᾶς, καὶ ἐκωλύθην ἄχρι τοῦ δεῦρο, ἵνα τινὰ καρπὸν σχῶ καὶ ἐν ὑμῖν καθὼς καὶ ἐν τοῖς λοιποῖς ἔθνεσιν. 1.14. Ἕλλησίν τε καὶ βαρβάροις, σοφοῖς τε καὶ ἀνοήτοις ὀφειλέτης εἰμί· 1.16. οὐ γὰρ ἐπαισχύνομαι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον, δύναμις γὰρ θεοῦ ἐστὶν εἰς σωτηρίαν παντὶ τῷ πιστεύοντι, Ἰουδαίῳ τε [πρῶτον] καὶ Ἕλληνι· 2.9. θλίψις καὶ στενοχωρία, ἐπὶ πᾶσαν ψυχὴν ἀνθρώπου τοῦ κατεργαζομένου τὸ κακόν, Ἰουδαίου τε πρῶτον καὶ Ἕλληνος· 2.10. δόξα δὲ καὶ τιμὴ καὶ εἰρήνη παντὶ τῷ ἐργαζομένῳ τὸ ἀγαθόν, Ἰουδαίῳ τε πρῶτον καὶ Ἕλληνι· 2.14. ὅταν γὰρ ἔθνη τὰ μὴ νόμον ἔχοντα φύσει τὰ τοῦ νόμου ποιῶσιν, οὗτοι νόμον μὴ ἔχοντες ἑαυτοῖς εἰσὶν νόμος· 2.15. οἵτινες ἐνδείκνυνται τὸ ἔργον τοῦ νόμου γραπτὸν ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις αὐτῶν, συνμαρτυρούσης αὐτῶν τῆς συνειδήσεως καὶ μεταξὺ ἀλλήλων τῶν λογισμῶν κατηγορούντων ἢ καὶ ἀπολογουμένων, 2.17. Εἰ δὲ σὺ Ἰουδαῖος ἐπονομάζῃ καὶ ἐπαναπαύῃ νόμῳ καὶ καυχᾶσαι ἐν θεῷ 2.18. καὶ γινώσκεις τὸ θέλημα καὶ δοκιμάζεις τὰ διαφέροντα κατηχούμενος ἐκ τοῦ νόμου, 2.19. πέποιθάς τε σεαυτὸν ὁδηγὸν εἶναι τυφλῶν, φῶς τῶν ἐν σκότει, 2.20. παιδευτὴν ἀφρόνων, διδάσκαλον νηπίων, ἔχοντα τὴν μόρφωσιν τῆς γνώσεως καὶ τῆς ἀληθείας ἐν τῷ νόμῳ,— 2.21. ὁ οὖν διδάσκων ἕτερον σεαυτὸν οὐ διδάσκεις; ὁ κηρύσσων μὴ κλέπτειν κλέπτεις; 2.22. ὁ λέγων μὴ μοιχεύειν μοιχεύεις; ὁ βδελυσσόμενος τὰ εἴδωλα ἱεροσυλεῖς; 2.23. ὃς ἐν νόμῳ καυχᾶσαι, διὰ τῆς παραβάσεως τοῦ νόμου τὸν θεὸν ἀτιμάζεις; 2.24. τὸγὰρὅνομα τοῦ θεοῦ διʼ ὑμᾶς βλασφημεῖται ἐν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν,καθὼς γέγραπται. 2.25. περιτομὴ μὲν γὰρ ὠφελεῖ ἐὰν νόμον πράσσῃς· ἐὰν δὲ παραβάτης νόμου ᾖς, ἡ περιτομή σου ἀκροβυστία γέγονεν. 2.26. ἐὰν οὖν ἡ ἀκροβυστία τὰ δικαιώματα τοῦ νόμου φυλάσσῃ, οὐχ ἡ ἀκροβυστία αὐτοῦ εἰς περιτομὴν λογισθήσεται; 2.27. καὶ κρινεῖ ἡ ἐκ φύσεως ἀκροβυστία τὸν νόμον τελοῦσα σὲ τὸν διὰ γράμματος καὶ περιτομῆς παραβάτην νόμου. 2.28. οὐ γὰρ ὁ ἐν τῷ φανερῷ Ἰουδαῖός ἐστιν, οὐδὲ ἡ ἐν τῷ φανερῷ ἐν σαρκὶ περιτομή· 2.29. ἀλλʼ ὁ ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ Ἰουδαῖος, καὶ περιτομὴ καρδίας ἐν πνεύματι οὐ γράμματι, οὗ ὁ ἔπαινος οὐκ ἐξ ἀνθρώπων ἀλλʼ ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ. 3.9. Τί οὖν; προεχόμεθα; οὐ πάντως, προῃτιασάμεθα γὰρ Ἰουδαίους τε καὶ Ἕλληνας πάντας ὑφʼ ἁμαρτίαν εἶναι, 3.21. νυνὶ δὲ χωρὶς νόμου δικαιοσύνη θεοῦ πεφανέρωται, μαρτυρουμένη ὑπὸ τοῦ νόμου καὶ τῶν προφητῶν, 3.22. δικαιοσύνη δὲ θεοῦ διὰ πίστεως [Ἰησοῦ] Χριστοῦ, εἰς πάντας τοὺς πιστεύοντας, οὐ γάρ ἐστιν διαστολή. 3.23. πάντες γὰρ ἥμαρτον καὶ ὑστεροῦνται τῆς δόξης τοῦ θεοῦ, 3.24. δικαιούμενοι δωρεὰν τῇ αὐτοῦ χάριτι διὰ τῆς ἀπολυτρώσεως τῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ· 3.27. Ποῦ οὖν ἡ καύχησις; ἐξεκλείσθη. διὰ ποίου νόμου; τῶν ἔργων; οὐχί, ἀλλὰ διὰ νόμου πίστεως. 3.29. ἢ Ἰουδαίων ὁ θεὸς μόνον; οὐχὶ καὶ ἐθνῶν; 3.31. νόμον οὖν καταργοῦμεν διὰ τῆς πίστεως; μὴ γένοιτο, ἀλλὰ νόμον ἱστάνομεν. 5.5. ἡ δὲἐλπὶς οὐ καταισχύνει.ὅτι ἡ ἀγάπη τοῦ θεοῦ ἐκκέχυται ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ἡμῶν διὰ πνεύματος ἁγίου τοῦ δοθέντος ἡμῖν· 5.14. ἀλλὰ ἐβασίλευσεν ὁ θάνατος ἀπὸ Ἀδὰμ μέχρι Μωυσέως καὶ ἐπὶ τοὺς μὴ ἁμαρτήσαντας ἐπὶ τῷ ὁμοιώματι τῆς παραβάσεως Ἀδάμ, ὅς ἐστιν τύπος τοῦ μέλλοντος. 6.3. ἢ ἀγνοεῖτε ὅτι ὅσοι ἐβαπτίσθημεν εἰς Χριστὸν [Ἰησοῦν] εἰς τὸν θάνατον αὐτοῦ ἐβαπτίσθημεν; 6.4. συνετάφημεν οὖν αὐτῷ διὰ τοῦ βαπτίσματος εἰς τὸν θάνατον, ἵνα ὥσπερ ἠγέρθη Χριστὸς ἐκ νεκρῶν διὰ τῆς δόξης τοῦ πατρός, οὕτως καὶ ἡμεῖς ἐν καινότητι ζωῆς περιπατήσωμεν. 6.5. εἰ γὰρ σύμφυτοι γεγόναμεν τῷ ὁμοιώματι τοῦ θανάτου αὐτοῦ, ἀλλὰ καὶ τῆς ἀναστάσεως ἐσόμεθα· 6.6. τοῦτο γινώσκοντες ὅτι ὁ παλαιὸς ἡμῶν ἄνθρωπος συνεσταυρώθη, ἵνα καταργηθῇ τὸ σῶμα τῆς ἁμαρτίας, τοῦ μηκέτι δουλεύειν ἡμᾶς τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ, 6.7. ὁ γὰρ ἀποθανὼν δεδικαίωται ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας. 6.8. εἰ δὲ ἀπεθάνομεν σὺν Χριστῷ, πιστεύομεν ὅτι καὶ συνζήσομεν αὐτῷ· 6.9. εἰδότες ὅτι Χριστὸς ἐγερθεὶς ἐκ νεκρῶν οὐκέτι ἀποθνήσκει, θάνατος αὐτοῦ οὐκέτι κυριεύει· 6.10. ὃ γὰρ ἀπέθανεν, τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ ἀπέθανεν ἐφάπαξ· 6.11. ὃ δὲ ζῇ, ζῇ τῷ θεῷ. οὕτως καὶ ὑμεῖς λογίζεσθε ἑαυτοὺς εἶναι νεκροὺς μὲν τῇ ἁμαρτίᾳ ζῶντας δὲ τῷ θεῷ ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ. 6.15. Τί οὖν; ἁμαρτήσωμεν ὅτι οὐκ ἐσμὲν ὑπὸ νόμον ἀλλὰ ὑπὸ χάριν; μὴ γένοιτο· 6.16. οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι ᾧ παριστάνετε ἑαυτοὺς δούλους εἰς ὑπακοήν, δοῦλοί ἐστε ᾧ ὑπακούετε, ἤτοι ἁμαρτίας εἰς θάνατον ἢ ὑπακοῆς εἰς δικαιοσύνην; 6.17. χάρις δὲ τῷ θεῷ ὅτι ἦτε δοῦλοι τῆς ἁμαρτίας ὑπηκούσατε δὲ ἐκ καρδίας εἰς ὃν παρεδόθητε τύπον διδαχῆς, 6.18. ἐλευθερωθέντες δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας ἐδουλώθητε τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ· 6.19. ἀνθρώπινον λέγω διὰ τὴν ἀσθένειαν τῆς σαρκὸς ὑμῶν· ὥσπερ γὰρ παρεστήσατε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν δοῦλα τῇ ἀκαθαρσίᾳ καὶ τῇ ἀνομίᾳ [εἰς τὴν ἀνομίαν], οὕτω νῦν παραστήσατε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν δοῦλα τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ εἰς ἁγιασμόν· 6.20. ὅτε γὰρ δοῦλοι ἦτε τῆς ἁμαρτίας, ἐλεύθεροι ἦτε τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ. 6.21. τίνα οὖν καρπὸν εἴχετε τότε ἐφʼ οἷς νῦν ἐπαισχύνεσθε; τὸ γὰρ τέλος ἐκείνων θάνατος· 6.22. νυνὶ δέ, ἐλευθερωθέντες ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας δουλωθέντες δὲ τῷ θεῷ, ἔχετε τὸν καρπὸν ὑμῶν εἰς ἁγιασμόν, τὸ δὲ τέλος ζωὴν αἰώνιον. 6.23. τὰ γὰρ ὀψώνια τῆς ἁμαρτίας θάνατος, τὸ δὲ χάρισμα τοῦ θεοῦ ζωὴ αἰώνιος ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τῷ κυρίῳ ἡμῶν. 7.1. Ἢ ἀγνοεῖτε, ἀδελφοί, γινώσκουσιν γὰρ νόμον λαλῶ, ὅτι ὁ νόμος κυριεύει τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐφʼ ὅσον χρόνον ζῇ; 7.2. ἡ γὰρ ὕπανδρος γυνὴ τῷ ζῶντι ἀνδρὶ δέδεται νόμῳ· ἐὰν δὲ ἀποθάνῃ ὁ ἀνήρ, κατήργηται ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου τοῦ ἀνδρός. 7.3. ἄρα οὖν ζῶντος τοῦ ἀνδρὸς μοιχαλὶς χρηματίσει ἐὰν γένηται ἀνδρὶ ἑτέρῳ· ἐὰν δὲ ἀποθάνῃ ὁ ἀνήρ, ἐλευθέρα ἐστὶν ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου, τοῦ μὴ εἶναι αὐτὴν μοιχαλίδα γενομένην ἀνδρὶ ἑτέρῳ. 7.4. ὥστε, ἀδελφοί μου, καὶ ὑμεῖς ἐθανατώθητε τῷ νόμῳ διὰ τοῦ σώματος τοῦ χριστοῦ, εἰς τὸ γενέσθαι ὑμᾶς ἑτέρῳ, τῷ ἐκ νεκρῶν ἐγερθέντι ἵνα καρποφορήσωμεν τῷ θεῷ. 7.6. νυνὶ δὲ κατηργήθημεν ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου, ἀποθανόντες ἐν ᾧ κατειχόμεθα, ὥστε δουλεύειν [ἡμᾶς] ἐν καινότητι πνεύματος καὶ οὐ παλαιότητι γράμματος. 7.7. Τί οὖν ἐροῦμεν; ὁ νόμος ἁμαρτία; μὴ γένοιτο· ἀλλὰ τὴν ἁμαρτίαν οὐκ ἔγνων εἰ μὴ διὰ νόμου, τήν τε γὰρ ἐπιθυμίαν οὐκ ᾔδειν εἰ μὴ ὁ νόμος ἔλεγενΟὐκ ἐπιθυμήσεις· 7.8. ἀφορμὴν δὲ λαβοῦσα ἡ ἁμαρτία διὰ τῆς ἐντολῆς κατειργάσατο ἐν ἐμοὶ πᾶσαν ἐπιθυμίαν, χωρὶς γὰρ νόμου ἁμαρτία νεκρά. 7.9. ἐγὼ δὲ ἔζων χωρὶς νόμου ποτέ· ἐλθούσης δὲ τῆς ἐντολῆς ἡ ἁμαρτία ἀνέζησεν, 7.10. ἐγὼ δὲ ἀπέθανον, καὶ εὑρέθη μοι ἡ ἐντολὴ ἡ εἰς ζωὴν αὕτη εἰς θάνατον· 7.11. ἡ γὰρ ἁμαρτία ἀφορμὴν λαβοῦσα διὰ τῆς ἐντολῆς ἐξηπάτησέν με καὶ διʼ αὐτῆς ἀπέκτεινεν. 7.12. ὥστε ὁ μὲν νόμος ἅγιος, καὶ ἡ ἐντολὴ ἁγία καὶ δικαία καὶ ἀγαθή. 7.13. Τὸ οὖν ἀγαθὸν ἐμοὶ ἐγένετο θάνατος; μὴ γένοιτο· ἀλλὰ ἡ ἁμαρτία, ἵνα φανῇ ἁμαρτία διὰ τοῦ ἀγαθοῦ μοι κατεργαζομένη θάνατον· ἵνα γένηται καθʼ ὑπερβολὴν ἁμαρτωλὸς ἡ ἁμαρτία διὰ τῆς ἐντολῆς. 7.14. οἴδαμεν γὰρ ὅτι ὁ νόμος πνευματικός ἐστιν· ἐγὼ δὲ σάρκινός εἰμι, πεπραμένος ὑπὸ τὴν ἁμαρτίαν. 7.15. ὃ γὰρ κατεργάζομαι οὐ γινώσκω· οὐ γὰρ ὃ θέλω τοῦτο πράσσω, ἀλλʼ ὃ μισῶ τοῦτο ποιῶ. 7.16. εἰ δὲ ὃ οὐ θέλω τοῦτο ποιῶ, σύνφημι τῷ νόμῳ ὅτι καλός. 7.17. Νυνὶ δὲ οὐκέτι ἐγὼ κατεργάζομαι αὐτὸ ἀλλὰ ἡ ἐνοικοῦσα ἐν ἐμοὶ ἁμαρτία. 7.18. οἶδα γὰρ ὅτι οὐκ οἰκεῖ ἐν ἐμοί, τοῦτʼ ἔστιν ἐν τῇ σαρκί μου, ἀγαθόν· τὸ γὰρ θέλειν παράκειταί μοι, τὸ δὲ κατεργάζεσθαι τὸ καλὸν οὔ· 7.19. οὐ γὰρ ὃ θέλω ποιῶ ἀγαθόν, ἀλλὰ ὃ οὐ θέλω κακὸν τοῦτο πράσσω. 7.20. εἰ δὲ ὃ οὐ θέλω τοῦτο ποιῶ, οὐκέτι ἐγὼ κατεργάζομαι αὐτὸ ἀλλὰ ἡ οἰκοῦσα ἐν ἐμοὶ ἁμαρτία. 7.21. Εὑρίσκω ἄρα τὸν νόμον τῷ θέλοντι ἐμοὶ ποιεῖν τὸ καλὸν ὅτι ἐμοὶ τὸ κακὸν παράκειται· 7.22. συνήδομαι γὰρ τῷ νόμῳ τοῦ θεοῦ κατὰ τὸν ἔσω ἄνθρωπον, 7.23. βλέπω δὲ ἕτερον νόμον ἐν τοῖς μέλεσίν μου ἀντιστρατευόμενον τῷ νόμῳ τοῦ νοός μου καὶ αἰχμαλωτίζοντά με [ἐν] τῷ νόμῳ τῆς ἁμαρτίας τῷ ὄντι ἐν τοῖς μέλεσίν μου. 7.24. ταλαίπωρος ἐγὼ ἄνθρωπος· τίς με ῥύσεται ἐκ τοῦ σώματος τοῦ θανάτου τούτου; 7.25. χάρις [δὲ] τῷ θεῷ διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ τοῦ κυρίου ἡμῶν. ἄρα οὖν αὐτὸς ἐγὼ τῷ μὲν νοῒ δουλεύω νόμῳ θεοῦ, τῇ δὲ σαρκὶ νόμῳ ἁμαρτίας. 8.2. ὁ γὰρ νόμος τοῦ πνεύματος τῆς ζωῆς ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ ἠλευθέρωσέν σε ἀπὸ τοῦ νόμου τῆς ἁμαρτίας καὶ τοῦ θανάτου. 8.3. τὸ γὰρ ἀδύνατον τοῦ νόμου, ἐν ᾧ ἠσθένει διὰ τῆς σαρκός, ὁ θεὸς τὸν ἑαυτοῦ υἱὸν πέμψας ἐν ὁμοιώματι σαρκὸς ἁμαρτίας καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας κατέκρινε τὴν ἁμαρτίαν ἐν τῇ σαρκί, 8.29. ὅτι οὓς προέγνω, καὶ προώρισεν συμμόρφους τῆς εἰκόνος τοῦ υἱοῦ αὐτοῦ, εἰς τὸ εἶναι αὐτὸν πρωτότοκον ἐν πολλοῖς ἀδελφοῖς· 8.30. οὓς δὲ προώρισεν, τούτους καὶ ἐκάλεσεν· καὶ οὓς ἐκάλεσεν, τούτους καὶ ἐδικαίωσεν· οὓς δὲ ἐδικαίωσεν, τούτους καὶ ἐδόξασεν. 9.24. οὓς καὶ ἐκάλεσεν ἡμᾶς οὐ μόνον ἐξ Ἰουδαίων ἀλλὰ καὶ ἐξ ἐθνῶν; 10.5. Μωυσῆς γὰρ γράφει ὅτι τὴν δικαιοσύνην τὴν ἐκ νόμουὁ ποιήσας ἄνθρωπος ζήσεται ἐναὐτῇ. 10.6. ἡ δὲ ἐκ πίστεως δικαιοσύνη οὕτως λέγειΜὴ εἴπῃςἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ σουΤίς ἀναβήσεται εἰς τὸν οὐρανόν;τοῦτʼ ἔστιν Χριστὸν καταγαγεῖν· 10.7. ἤΤίς καταβήσεται εἰς τὴν ἄβυσσον;τοῦτʼ ἔστιν Χριστὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν ἀναγαγεῖν. 10.8. ἀλλὰ τί λέγει;Ἐγγύς σου τὸ ῥῆμά ἐστιν, ἐν τῷ στόματί σου καὶ ἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ σου·τοῦτʼ ἔστιν τὸ ῥῆμα τῆς πίστεως ὃ κηρύσσομεν. 10.9. ὅτι ἐὰν ὁμολογήσῃςτὸ ῥῆμα ἐν τῷ στόματί σουὅτι ΚΥΡΙΟΣ ΙΗΣΟΥΣ, καὶ πιστεύσῃςἐν τῇ καρδίᾳ σουὅτι ὁ θεὸς αὐτὸν ἤγειρεν ἐκ νεκρῶν, σωθήσῃ· 10.10. καρδίᾳ γὰρ πιστεύεται εἰς δικαιοσύνην, στόματι δὲ ὁμολογεῖται εἰς σωτηρίαν· 10.11. λέγει γὰρ ἡ γραφή Πᾶςὁ πιστεύων ἐπʼ αὐτῷ οὐ καταισχυνθήσεται. 10.12. οὐ γάρ ἐστιν διαστολὴ Ἰουδαίου τε καὶ Ἕλληνος, ὁ γὰρ αὐτὸς κύριος πάντων, πλουτῶν εἰς πάντας τοὺς ἐπικαλουμένους αὐτόν· 10.13. Πᾶς γὰρὃς ἂν ἐπικαλέσηται τὸ ὄνομα Κυρίου σωθήσεται. 11.25. Οὐ γὰρ θέλω ὑμᾶς ἀγνοεῖν, ἀδελφοί, τὸ μυστήριον τοῦτο, ἵνα μὴ ἦτε ἐν ἑαυτοῖς φρόνιμοι, ὅτι πώρωσις ἀπὸ μέρους τῷ Ἰσραὴλ γέγονεν ἄχρι οὗ τὸ πλήρωμα τῶν ἐθνῶν εἰσέλθῃ, καὶ οὕτως πᾶς Ἰσραὴλ σωθήσεται· 12.1. Παρακαλῶ οὖν ὑμᾶς, ἀδελφοί, διὰ τῶν οἰκτιρμῶν τοῦ θεοῦ παραστῆσαι τὰ σώματα ὑμῶν θυσίαν ζῶσαν ἁγίαν τῷ θεῷ εὐάρεστον, τὴν λογικὴν λατρείαν ὑμῶν· 12.21. μὴ νικῶ ὑπὸ τοῦ κακοῦ, ἀλλὰ νίκα ἐν τῷ ἀγαθῷ τὸ κακόν. 13.8. Μηδενὶ μηδὲν ὀφείλετε, εἰ μὴ τὸ ἀλλήλους ἀγαπᾷν· ὁ γὰρ ἀγαπῶν τὸν ἕτερον νόμον πεπλήρωκεν. 13.9. τὸ γάρΟὐ μοιχεύσεις, Οὐ φονεύσεις, Οὐ κλέψεις, Οὐκ ἐπιθυμήσεις,καὶ εἴ τις ἑτέρα ἐντολή, ἐν τῷ λόγῳ τούτῳ ἀνακεφαλαιοῦται, [ἐν τῷ]Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν. 13.10. ἡ ἀγάπη τῷ πλησίον κακὸν οὐκ ἐργάζεται· πλήρωμα οὖν νόμου ἡ ἀγάπη. 13.11. Καὶ τοῦτο εἰδότες τὸν καιρόν, ὅτι ὥρα ἤδη ὑμᾶς ἐξ ὕπνου ἐγερθῆναι, νῦν γὰρ ἐγγύτερον ἡμῶν ἡ σωτηρία ἢ ὅτε ἐπιστεύσαμεν. 14.14. οἶδα καὶ πέπεισμαι ἐν κυρίῳ Ἰησοῦ ὅτι οὐδὲν κοινὸν διʼ ἑαυτοῦ· εἰ μὴ τῷ λογιζομένῳ τι κοινὸν εἶναι, ἐκείνῳ κοινόν. 14.20. μὴ ἕνεκεν βρώματος κατάλυε τὸ ἔργον τοῦ θεοῦ. πάντα μὲν καθαρά, ἀλλὰ κακὸν τῷ ἀνθρώπῳ τῷ διὰ προσκόμματος ἐσθίοντι. 15.4. ὅσα γὰρ προεγράφη, [πάντα] εἰς τὴν ἡμετέραν διδασκαλίαν ἐγράφη, ἵνα διὰ τῆς ὑπομονῆς καὶ διὰ τῆς παρακλήσεως τῶν γραφῶν τὴν ἐλπίδα ἔχωμεν. 15.19. ἐν δυνάμει σημείων καὶ τεράτων, ἐν δυνάμει πνεύματος [ἁγίου]· ὥστε με ἀπὸ Ἰερουσαλὴμ καὶ κύκλῳ μέχρι τοῦ Ἰλλυρικοῦ πεπληρωκέναι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ χριστοῦ, 15.25. νυνὶ δὲ πορεύομαι εἰς Ἰερουσαλὴμ διακονῶν τοῖς ἁγίοις. 15.26. ηὐδόκησαν γὰρ Μακεδονία καὶ Ἀχαία κοινωνίαν τινὰ ποιήσασθαι εἰς τοὺς πτωχοὺς τῶν ἁγίων τῶν ἐν Ἰερουσαλήμ. 15.27. ηὐδόκησαν γάρ, καὶ ὀφειλέται εἰσὶν αὐτῶν· εἰ γὰρ τοῖς πνευματικοῖς αὐτῶν ἐκοινώνησαν τὰ ἔθνη, ὀφείλουσιν καὶ ἐν τοῖς σαρκικοῖς λειτουργῆσαι αὐτοῖς. 15.31. ἵνα ῥυσθῶ ἀπὸ τῶν ἀπειθούντων ἐν τῇ Ἰουδαίᾳ καὶ ἡ διακονία μου ἡ εἰς Ἰερουσαλὴμ εὐπρόσδεκτος τοῖς ἁγίοις γένηται, 1.7. to all who are in Rome, beloved of God, called to be saints: Grace to you and peace from God our Father and the Lord Jesus Christ. 1.13. Now I don't desire to have you unaware, brothers, that I often planned to come to you, and was hindered so far, that I might have some fruit among you also, even as among the rest of the Gentiles. 1.14. I am debtor both to Greeks and to foreigners, both to the wise and to the foolish. 1.16. For I am not ashamed of the gospel of Christ, for it is the power of God for salvation for everyone who believes; for the Jew first, and also for the Greek. 2.9. oppression and anguish, on every soul of man who works evil, on the Jew first, and also on the Greek. 2.10. But glory and honor and peace to every man who works good, to the Jew first, and also to the Greek. 2.14. (for when Gentiles who don't have the law do by nature the things of the law, these, not having the law, are a law to themselves, 2.15. in that they show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience testifying with them, and their thoughts among themselves accusing or else excusing them) 2.17. Indeed you bear the name of a Jew, and rest on the law, and glory in God, 2.18. and know his will, and approve the things that are excellent, being instructed out of the law, 2.19. and are confident that you yourself are a guide of the blind, a light to those who are in darkness, 2.20. a corrector of the foolish, a teacher of babies, having in the law the form of knowledge and of the truth. 2.21. You therefore who teach another, don't you teach yourself? You who preach that a man shouldn't steal, do you steal? 2.22. You who say a man shouldn't commit adultery, do you commit adultery? You who abhor idols, do you rob temples? 2.23. You who glory in the law, through your disobedience of the law do you dishonor God? 2.24. For "the name of God is blasphemed among the Gentiles because of you," just as it is written. 2.25. For circumcision indeed profits, if you are a doer of the law, but if you are a transgressor of the law, your circumcision has become uncircumcision. 2.26. If therefore the uncircumcised keep the ordices of the law, won't his uncircumcision be accounted as circumcision? 2.27. Won't the uncircumcision which is by nature, if it fulfills the law, judge you, who with the letter and circumcision are a transgressor of the law? 2.28. For he is not a Jew who is one outwardly, neither is that circumcision which is outward in the flesh; 2.29. but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God. 3.9. What then? Are we better than they? No, in no way. For we previously charged both Jews and Greeks, that they are all under sin. 3.21. But now apart from the law, a righteousness of God has been revealed, being testified by the law and the prophets; 3.22. even the righteousness of God through faith in Jesus Christ to all and on all those who believe. For there is no distinction, 3.23. for all have sinned, and fall short of the glory of God; 3.24. being justified freely by his grace through the redemption that is in Christ Jesus; 3.27. Where then is the boasting? It is excluded. By what manner of law? of works? No, but by a law of faith. 3.29. Or is God the God of Jews only? Isn't he the God of Gentiles also? Yes, of Gentiles also, 3.31. Do we then nullify the law through faith? May it never be! No, we establish the law. 5.5. and hope doesn't disappoint us, because God's love has been poured out into our hearts through the Holy Spirit who was given to us. 5.14. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those whose sins weren't like Adam's disobedience, who is a foreshadowing of him who was to come. 6.3. Or don't you know that all we who were baptized into Christ Jesus were baptized into his death? 6.4. We were buried therefore with him through baptism to death, that just like Christ was raised from the dead through the glory of the Father, so we also might walk in newness of life. 6.5. For if we have become united with him in the likeness of his death, we will also be part of his resurrection; 6.6. knowing this, that our old man was crucified with him, that the body of sin might be done away with, so that we would no longer be in bondage to sin. 6.7. For he who has died has been freed from sin. 6.8. But if we died with Christ, we believe that we will also live with him; 6.9. knowing that Christ, being raised from the dead, dies no more. Death no more has dominion over him! 6.10. For the death that he died, he died to sin one time; but the life that he lives, he lives to God. 6.11. Thus also consider yourselves also to be dead to sin, but alive to God in Christ Jesus our Lord. 6.15. What then? Shall we sin, because we are not under law, but under grace? May it never be! 6.16. Don't you know that to whom you present yourselves as servants to obedience, his servants you are whom you obey; whether of sin to death, or of obedience to righteousness? 6.17. But thanks be to God, that, whereas you were bondservants of sin, you became obedient from the heart to that form of teaching whereunto you were delivered. 6.18. Being made free from sin, you became bondservants of righteousness. 6.19. I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh, for as you presented your members as servants to uncleanness and to wickedness upon wickedness, even so now present your members as servants to righteousness for sanctification. 6.20. For when you were servants of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness. 6.21. What fruit then did you have at that time in the things of which you are now ashamed? For the end of those things is death. 6.22. But now, being made free from sin, and having become servants of God, you have your fruit of sanctification, and the result of eternal life. 6.23. For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. 7.1. Or don't you know, brothers (for I speak to men who know the law), that the law has dominion over a man for as long as he lives? 7.2. For the woman that has a husband is bound by law to the husband while he lives, but if the husband dies, she is discharged from the law of the husband. 7.3. So then if, while the husband lives, she is joined to another man, she would be called an adulteress. But if the husband dies, she is free from the law, so that she is no adulteress, though she is joined to another man. 7.4. Therefore, my brothers, you also were made dead to the law through the body of Christ, that you would be joined to another, to him who was raised from the dead, that we might bring forth fruit to God. 7.6. But now we have been discharged from the law, having died to that in which we were held; so that we serve in newness of the spirit, and not in oldness of the letter. 7.7. What shall we say then? Is the law sin? May it never be! However, I wouldn't have known sin, except through the law. For I wouldn't have known coveting, unless the law had said, "You shall not covet." 7.8. But sin, finding occasion through the commandment, produced in me all kinds of coveting. For apart from the law, sin is dead. 7.9. I was alive apart from the law once, but when the commandment came, sin revived, and I died. 7.10. The commandment, which was for life, this I found to be for death; 7.11. for sin, finding occasion through the commandment, deceived me, and through it killed me. 7.12. Therefore the law indeed is holy, and the commandment holy, and righteous, and good. 7.13. Did then that which is good become death to me? May it never be! But sin, that it might be shown to be sin, by working death to me through that which is good; that through the commandment sin might become exceeding sinful. 7.14. For we know that the law is spiritual, but I am fleshly, sold under sin. 7.15. For I don't know what I am doing. For I don't practice what I desire to do; but what I hate, that I do. 7.16. But if what I don't desire, that I do, I consent to the law that it is good. 7.17. So now it is no more I that do it, but sin which dwells in me. 7.18. For I know that in me, that is, in my flesh, dwells no good thing. For desire is present with me, but I don't find it doing that which is good. 7.19. For the good which I desire, I don't do; but the evil which I don't desire, that I practice. 7.20. But if what I don't desire, that I do, it is no more I that do it, but sin which dwells in me. 7.21. I find then the law, that, to me, while I desire to do good, evil is present. 7.22. For I delight in God's law after the inward man, 7.23. but I see a different law in my members, warring against the law of my mind, and bringing me into captivity under the law of sin which is in my members. 7.24. What a wretched man I am! Who will deliver me out of the body of this death? 7.25. I thank God through Jesus Christ, our Lord! So then with the mind, I myself serve God's law, but with the flesh, the sin's law. 8.2. For the law of the Spirit of life in Christ Jesus made me free from the law of sin and of death. 8.3. For what the law couldn't do, in that it was weak through the flesh, God did, sending his own Son in the likeness of sinful flesh and for sin, he condemned sin in the flesh; 8.29. For whom he foreknew, he also predestined to be conformed to the image of his Son, that he might be the firstborn among many brothers. 8.30. Whom he predestined, those he also called. Whom he called, those he also justified. Whom he justified, those he also glorified. 9.24. us, whom he also called, not from the Jews only, but also from the Gentiles? 10.5. For Moses writes about the righteousness of the law, "The one who does them will live by them." 10.6. But the righteousness which is of faith says this, "Don't say in your heart, 'Who will ascend into heaven?' (that is, to bring Christ down); 10.7. or, 'Who will descend into the abyss?' (that is, to bring Christ up from the dead.)" 10.8. But what does it say? "The word is near you, in your mouth, and in your heart;" that is, the word of faith, which we preach: 10.9. that if you will confess with your mouth the Lord Jesus, and believe in your heart that God raised him from the dead, you will be saved. 10.10. For with the heart, one believes unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation. 10.11. For the Scripture says, "Whoever believes in him will not be put to shame." 10.12. For there is no distinction between Jew and Greek; for the same Lord is Lord of all, and is rich to all who call on him. 10.13. For, "Whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved." 11.25. For I don't desire, brothers, to have you ignorant of this mystery, so that you won't be wise in your own conceits, that a partial hardening has happened to Israel, until the fullness of the Gentiles has come in, 12.1. Therefore I urge you, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your spiritual service. 12.21. Don't be overcome by evil, but overcome evil with good. 13.8. Owe no one anything, except to love one another; for he who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law. 13.9. For the commandments, "You shall not commit adultery," "You shall not murder," "You shall not steal," "You shall not give false testimony," "You shall not covet," and whatever other commandments there are, are all summed up in this saying, namely, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself." 13.10. Love doesn't harm a neighbor. Love therefore is the fulfillment of the law. 13.11. Do this, knowing the time, that it is already time for you to awaken out of sleep, for salvation is now nearer to us than when we first believed. 14.14. I know, and am persuaded in the Lord Jesus, that nothing is unclean of itself; except that to him who considers anything to be unclean, to him it is unclean. 14.20. Don't overthrow God's work for food's sake. All things indeed are clean, however it is evil for that man who creates a stumbling block by eating. 15.4. For whatever things were written before were written for our learning, that through patience and through encouragement of the Scriptures we might have hope. 15.19. in the power of signs and wonders, in the power of God's Spirit; so that from Jerusalem, and around as far as to Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ; 15.25. But now, I say, I am going to Jerusalem, serving the saints. 15.26. For it has been the good pleasure of Macedonia and Achaia to make a certain contribution for the poor among the saints who are at Jerusalem. 15.27. Yes, it has been their good pleasure, and they are their debtors. For if the Gentiles have been made partakers of their spiritual things, they owe it to them also to serve them in fleshly things. 15.31. that I may be delivered from those who are disobedient in Judea, and that my service which I have for Jerusalem may be acceptable to the saints;
160. Dionysius Aelius, Fragments, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 4
161. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 30.11-30.19 (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 585
30.11.  This place which we call the universe, they tell us, is a prison prepared by the gods, a grievous and ill-ventilated one, which never keeps the same temperature and condition of its air, but at one time is cold and frosty, and infected with wind, mud, snow, and water, and at another time is hot and stifling; for just a very little time of the year it is endurable; it is visited by cyclones, typhoons occur, and sometimes the whole of it quakes to the very bottom. Now all these are terrible punishments. 30.12.  For men are invariably dismayed and terrified by them whenever they occur. Then in addition to all this, because men cannot endure the bad air and changes of temperature, they devise for themselves other small prisons, namely, their houses and cities, which they construct of timber and stone, just as if a person should build other smaller enclosures inside of a large one. And the plants which grow all about us and the fruits of the earth are created, they assure us, simply in order that we may serve out our time here. They are just like the unappetizing and wretched food which is given to prisoners, but we nevertheless put up with it on account of the necessity which is upon us and our helplessness. 30.13.  For in the case of men who are being punished by us, whatever is furnished appears appetizing because they are hungry and used to it. These foods are in reality bad and spoiled, and that they are spoiled is shown by the frailty of our bodies. And, further, it is not even furnished us ready at hand, nor yet supplied in abundance to everyone, but must be won with intolerable toil and hardships."Also, we are composed of the very things which torture us, namely, soul and body. 30.14.  For the one has within it desires, pains, angers, fear, worries, and countless such feelings; and by day and by night it is ever racked and wrenched by them. Even the man who is of a better bodily condition than most, is free from none whatever of these troubles, but has them shut up within him just like wild animals compelled to keep quiet by force and persuasion alike; but if he stops singing charms to them and watching them, for even a short time, they instantly become very active. 30.15.  Our body too is subject to vertigo, convulsions, epilepsy, and other diseases, so numerous that it is not even possible to enumerate them, since it is full of blood and air, and, further, is composed of flesh and sinews and bones, of both soft and hard things, of moist and dry things, complete opposites. Then our foods, as I said, being bad and the weather variable, aggravate some of our diseases and bring us others, which, though they do not seem to be there at first, yet are actually inherent in the nature of our bodies. These are the evils which lie within our own selves. 30.16.  The other chastisements, which come from without, are lighter in comparison with those that come from our own nature. For the effect of fire or steel, of blows, or of other things is sharp and quickly passes from consciousness even if it becomes at any time a little excessive. But in the case of diseases sometimes the effects last for a very long time. 30.17.  "Such, then, are the tortures, and so numerous, by which men are afflicted while they remain in this prison and dungeon, each for his appointed time; and the majority do not get out until they produce another person from their own loins and leave him to succeed to the punishment in their stead, some leaving one and others even more. They do not stay voluntarily, but are all bound fast by one chain, body and soul, just as you may see many persons bound by us by one chain in a row, some of them small, some large, some ugly and some good looking; but none the less all of them are held on equal terms in the same constraint. 30.18.  "And, likewise, men are superior one to the other in their fortunes, reputations, and honours, just as they are in their bodies. Some of them are kings, others are in private station, some are wealthy, and others are without means. Yet no whit less on this account do the fortunate, as they are called, suffer and are held fast in the same bondage, than do the poor and unknown, nay, they suffer more than the others. 30.19.  For since the poor are leaner, the bond which lies about each of them is looser and easier. But as for kings and tyrants, just because they are puffed up in soul and are in exceedingly good bodily condition, so the chains lie heavier upon them and gall them the more; exactly as in the case of persons whose bodies are bound, the fetter pinches the stout and bulky more than it does the thin and under-nourished. However, a very few enjoy some relief by the kindness of God; and while they are indeed bound, yet the bond is very light on account of their goodness — a class of men concerning whom we shall speak again.
162. New Testament, Hebrews, 5.14, 10.5-10.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 337; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 47
5.14. τελείων δέ ἐστιν ἡ στερεὰ τροφή, τῶν διὰ τὴν ἕξιν τὰ αἰσθητήρια γεγυμνασμένα ἐχόντων πρὸς διάκρισιν καλοῦ τε καὶ κακοῦ. 10.5. Διὸ εἰσερχόμενος εἰς τὸν κόσμον λέγει 10.6. 10.7. 10.8. ἀνώτερον λέγων ὅτιΘυσίας καὶ προσφορὰςκαὶὁλοκαυτώματα καὶ περὶ ἁμαρτίας οὐκ ἠθέλησας οὐδὲ εὐδόκησας,αἵτινες κατὰ νόμον προσφέρονται, 10.9. τότεεἴρηκενἸδοὺ ἥκω τοῦ ποιῆσαι τὸ θέλημά σου·ἀναιρεῖ τὸ πρῶτον ἵνα τὸ δεύτερον στήσῃ. 10.10. ἐν ᾧθελήματιἡγιασμένοι ἐσμὲν διὰ τῆςπροσφορᾶςτοῦσώματοςἸησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐφάπαξ. 5.14. But solid food is for those who are full grown, who by reason of use have their senses exercised to discern good and evil. 10.5. Therefore when he comes into the world, he says, "Sacrifice and offering you didn't desire, But a body did you prepare for me; 10.6. In whole burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin you had no pleasure. 10.7. Then I said, 'Behold, I have come (In the scroll of the book it is written of me) To do your will, God.'" 10.8. Previously saying, "Sacrifices and offerings and whole burnt offerings and sacrifices for sin you didn't desire, neither had pleasure in them" (those which are offered according to the law), 10.9. then he has said, "Behold, I have come to do your will." He takes away the first, that he may establish the second, 10.10. by which will we have been sanctified through the offering of the body of Jesus Christ once for all.
163. Nag Hammadi, The Apocryphon of John, 2.30-2.31 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 583
164. Pausanias, Description of Greece, 1.22.7, 4.1.6-4.1.7, 9.27.2, 9.30.12 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 4
1.22.7. ἵππων δέ οἱ νίκης τῆς ἐν Νεμέᾳ ἐστὶ σημεῖα ἐν τῇ γραφῇ· καὶ Περσεύς ἐστιν ἐς Σέριφον κομιζόμενος, Πολυδέκτῃ φέρων τὴν κεφαλὴν τὴν Μεδούσης. καὶ τὰ μὲν ἐς Μέδουσαν οὐκ εἰμὶ πρόθυμος ἐν τοῖς Ἀττικοῖς σημῆναι· ἔτι δὲ τῶν γραφῶν παρέντι τὸν παῖδα τὸν τὰς ὑδρίας φέροντα καὶ τὸν παλαιστὴν ὃν Τιμαίνετος ἔγραψεν, ἐστὶ Μουσαῖος. ἐγὼ δὲ ἔπη μὲν ἐπελεξάμην, ἐν οἷς ἐστι πέτεσθαι Μουσαῖον ὑπὸ Βορέου δῶρον, δοκεῖν δέ μοι πεποίηκεν αὐτὰ Ὀνομάκριτος καὶ ἔστιν οὐδὲν Μουσαίου βεβαίως ὅτι μὴ μόνον ἐς Δήμητρα ὕμνος Λυκομίδαις. 4.1.6. τὴν δὲ τελετὴν τῶν Μεγάλων θεῶν Λύκος ὁ Πανδίονος πολλοῖς ἔτεσιν ὕστερον Καύκωνος προήγαγεν ἐς πλέον τιμῆς· καὶ Λύκου δρυμὸν ἔτι ὀνομάζουσιν ἔνθα ἐκάθηρε τοὺς μύστας. καὶ ὅτι μὲν δρυμός ἐστιν ἐν τῇ γῇ ταύτῃ Λύκου καλούμενος, Ῥιανῷ τῷ Κρητί ἐστι πεποιημένον πάρ τε τρηχὺν Ἐλαιὸν ὑπὲρ δρυμόν τε Λύκοιο· Rhianus of Bene in Crete. See note on Paus. 4.6.1 . 4.1.7. ὡς δὲ ὁ Πανδίονος οὗτος ἦν Λύκος, δηλοῖ τὰ ἐπὶ τῇ εἰκόνι ἔπη τῇ Μεθάπου. μετεκόσμησε γὰρ καὶ Μέθαπος τῆς τελετῆς ἔστιν ἅ· ὁ δὲ Μέθαπος γένος μὲν ἦν Ἀθηναῖος, τελεστὴς δὲ καὶ ὀργίων καὶ παντοίων συνθέτης. οὗτος καὶ Θηβαίοις τῶν Καβείρων τὴν τελετὴν κατεστήσατο, ἀνέθηκε δὲ καὶ ἐς τὸ κλίσιον τὸ Λυκομιδῶν εἰκόνα ἔχουσαν ἐπίγραμμα ἄλλα τε λέγον καὶ ὅσα ἡμῖν ἐς πίστιν συντελεῖ τοῦ λόγου· 9.27.2. Ἔρωτα δὲ ἄνθρωποι μὲν οἱ πολλοὶ νεώτατον θεῶν εἶναι καὶ Ἀφροδίτης παῖδα ἥγηνται· Λύκιος δὲ Ὠλήν, ὃς καὶ τοὺς ὕμνους τοὺς ἀρχαιοτάτους ἐποίησεν Ἕλλησιν, οὗτος ὁ Ὠλὴν ἐν Εἰλειθυίας ὕμνῳ μητέρα Ἔρωτος τὴν Εἰλείθυιάν φησιν εἶναι. Ὠλῆνος δὲ ὕστερον Πάμφως τε ἔπη καὶ Ὀρφεὺς ἐποίησαν· καί σφισιν ἀμφοτέροις πεποιημένα ἐστὶν ἐς Ἔρωτα, ἵνα ἐπὶ τοῖς δρωμένοις Λυκομίδαι καὶ ταῦτα ᾄδωσιν· ἐγὼ δὲ ἐπελεξάμην ἀνδρὶ ἐς λόγους ἐλθὼν δᾳδουχοῦντι. καὶ τῶν μὲν οὐ πρόσω ποιήσομαι μνήμην· Ἡσίοδον δὲ ἢ τὸν Ἡσιόδῳ Θεογονίαν ἐσποιήσαντα οἶδα γράψαντα ὡς Χάος πρῶτον, ἐπὶ δὲ αὐτῷ Γῆ τε καὶ Τάρταρος καὶ Ἔρως γένοιτο· 9.30.12. ὅστις δὲ περὶ ποιήσεως ἐπολυπραγμόνησεν ἤδη, τοὺς Ὀρφέως ὕμνους οἶδεν ὄντας ἕκαστόν τε αὐτῶν ἐπὶ βραχύτατον καὶ τὸ σύμπαν οὐκ ἐς ἀριθμὸν πολὺν πεποιημένους· Λυκομίδαι δὲ ἴσασί τε καὶ ἐπᾴδουσι τοῖς δρωμένοις. κόσμῳ μὲν δὴ τῶν ἐπῶν δευτερεῖα φέροιντο ἂν μετά γε Ὁμήρου τοὺς ὕμνους, τιμῆς δὲ ἐκ τοῦ θείου καὶ ἐς πλέον ἐκείνων ἥκουσι. 1.22.7. and in the picture are emblems of the victory his horses won at Nemea . There is also Perseus journeying to Seriphos, and carrying to Polydectes the head of Medusa, the legend about whom I am unwilling to relate in my description of Attica . Included among the paintings—I omit the boy carrying the water-jars and the wrestler of Timaenetus An unknown painter. —is Musaeus. I have read verse in which Musaeus receives from the North Wind the gift of flight, but, in my opinion, Onomacritus wrote them, and there are no certainly genuine works of Musaeus except a hymn to Demeter written for the Lycomidae. 4.1.6. But the mysteries of the Great Goddesses were raised to greater honor many years later than Caucon by Lycus, the son of Pandion, an oak-wood, where he purified the celebrants, being still called Lycus' wood. That there is a wood in this land so called is stated by Rhianus the Cretan:— By rugged Elaeum above Lycus' wood. Rhianus of Bene in Crete . See note on Paus. 4.6.1 . 4.1.7. That this Lycus was the son of Pandion is made clear by the lines on the statue of Methapus, who made certain improvements in the mysteries. Methapus was an Athenian by birth, an expert in the mysteries and founder of all kinds of rites. It was he who established the mysteries of the Cabiri at Thebes , and dedicated in the hut of the Lycomidae a statue with an inscription that amongst other things helps to confirm my account:— 9.27.2. Most men consider Love to be the youngest of the gods and the son of Aphrodite. But Olen the Lycian, who composed the oldest Greek hymns, says in a hymn to Eileithyia that she was the mother of Love. Later than Olen , both Pamphos and Orpheus wrote hexameter verse, and composed poems on Love, in order that they might be among those sung by the Lycomidae to accompany the ritual. I read them after conversation with a Torchbearer. of these things I will make no further mention. Hesiod, Hes. Th. 116 foll. or he who wrote the Theogony fathered on Hesiod, writes, I know, that Chaos was born first, and after Chaos, Earth, Tartarus and Love. 9.30.12. Whoever has devoted himself to the study of poetry knows that the hymns of Orpheus are all very short, and that the total number of them is not great. The Lycomidae know them and chant them over the ritual of the mysteries. For poetic beauty they may be said to come next to the hymns of Homer, while they have been even more honored by the gods.
165. Palestinian Talmud, Megillah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 93
166. Numenius of Apamea, Fragments, 11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 346
167. Numenius of Apamea, Fragments, 11 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 346
168. Anon., Acts of John, 71-83, 85-86, 84 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 41
84. And John, when he saw the unchanged mind (soul) of Fortunatus, said: O nature that is not changed for the better! O fountain of the soul that abideth in foulness! O essence of corruption full of darkness! O death exulting in them that are thine! O fruitless tree full of fire! O tree that bearest coals for fruit! O matter that dwellest with the madness of matter (al. O wood of trees full of unwholesome shoots) and neighbour of unbelief! Thou hast proved who thou art, and thou art always convicted, with thy children. And thou knowest not how to praise the better things: for thou hast them not. Therefore, such as is thy way (?fruit), such also is thy root and thy nature. Be thou destroyed from among them that trust in the Lord: from their thoughts, from their mind, from their souls, from their bodies, from their acts) their life, their conversation, from their business, their occupations, their counsel, from the resurrection unto (or rest in) God, from their sweet savour wherein thou wilt share, from their faith, their prayers, from the holy bath, from the eucharist, from the food of the flesh, from drink, from clothing, from love, from care, from abstinence, from righteousness: from all these, thou most unholy Satan, enemy of God, shall Jesus Christ our God and of all that are like thee and have thy character, make thee to perish.
169. Anon., Acts of Andrew, None (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 349
170. Maximus of Tyre, Dialexeis, 36.4 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 585
171. Anon., Genesis Rabba, 19.5 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 116
19.5. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי בַּר זִמְרָא אָמַר שְׁלשָׁה דְּבָרִים נֶאֶמְרוּ בְּאוֹתוֹ אִילָן, טוֹב לְמַאֲכָל, יָפֶה לָעֵינַיִם, וּמוֹסִיף חָכְמָה, וּשְׁלָשְׁתָּן נֶאֶמְרוּ בְּפָסוּק אֶחָד, וַתֵּרֶא הָאִשָּׁה כִּי טוֹב, מִכָּאן שֶׁהוּא טוֹב, וְכִי תַאֲוָה הוּא לָעֵינַיִם, מִכָּאן שֶׁהוּא יָפֶה לָעֵינַיִם, וְנֶחְמָד הָעֵץ לְהַשְׂכִּיל, מִכָּאן שֶׁמּוֹסִיף חָכְמָה, הֵיךְ מָה דְאַתְּ אָמַר (תהלים פט, א): מַשְׂכִּיל לְאֵיתָן הָאֶזְרָחִי. וַתִּקַּח מִפִּרְיוֹ וַתֹּאכַל (בראשית ג, ו), אָמַר רַבִּי אַיְבוּ סָחֲטָה עֲנָבִים וְנָתְנָה לוֹ, רַבִּי שִׂמְלָאי אָמַר בְּיִשּׁוּב הַדַּעַת בָּאת עָלָיו, אָמְרָה לֵיהּ מַה אַתָּה סָבוּר שֶׁאֲנִי מֵתָה וְחַוָּה אַחֶרֶת נִבְרֵאת לְךָ (קהלת א, ט): אֵין כָּל חָדָשׁ תַּחַת הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ, אוֹ שֶׁמָּא אֲנִי מֵתָה וְאַתְּ יוֹשֵׁב לְךָ הַטְלִיס, (ישעיה מה, יח): לֹא תֹהוּ בְרָאָהּ לָשֶׁבֶת יְצָרָהּ, רַבָּנָן אָמְרֵי הִתְחִילָה מְיַלֶּלֶת עָלָיו בְּקוֹלָהּ. גַּם, רִבּוּי, הֶאֱכִילָה אֶת הַבְּהֵמָה וְאֶת הַחַיָה וְאֶת הָעוֹפוֹת, הַכֹּל שָׁמְעוּ לָהּ חוּץ מֵעוֹף אֶחָד וּשְׁמוֹ חוֹל, הֲדָא הוּא דִכְתִיב (איוב כט, יח): וְכַחוֹל אַרְבֶּה יָמִים. דְּבֵי רַבִּי יַנַּאי אָמְרֵי אֶלֶף שָׁנָה הוּא חַי, וּבְסוֹף אֶלֶף שָׁנָה אֵשׁ יוֹצְאָה מִקִּנּוֹ וְשׂוֹרַפְתּוֹ, וּמִשְׁתַּיֵּר בּוֹ כְּבֵיצָה וְחוֹזֵר וּמְגַדֵּל אֵבָרִים וָחָי. רַבִּי יוּדָן בְּרַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אֶלֶף שָׁנִים חַי וּלְבַסּוֹף אֶלֶף שָׁנִים גּוּפוֹ כָּלֶה וּכְנָפָיו מִתְמָרְטִין וּמִשְׁתַּיֵּיר בּוֹ כְּבֵיצָה וְחוֹזֵר וּמְגַדֵּל אֵבָרִים.
172. Cassius Dio, Roman History, 80.11 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 74
173. Galen, On Diagnoses From Dreams, 833.7-833.18 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 6
174. Hippolytus, Refutation of All Heresies, 5.7.30-5.7.41, 5.10.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 352
175. Clement of Alexandria, Excerpts From Theodotus, 26.2-27.3, 27.1.4, 27.1.11, 27.1.3, 27.1.2, 27.1.1, 27.1.5, 27.1.6, 27.1.7, 27.1.8, 27.1.9, 27.1.10, 27.1.12, 27.3.1, 27.3.2, 27.3.3, 27.3.4, 27.6.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 347, 356
176. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 3.17.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, augustine •allegory, allegorical interpretation, beatitudes Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 459
177. Athenaeus, The Learned Banquet, None (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 347
178. Clement of Alexandria, Miscellanies, None (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 445
179. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 104, 105, 106, 129
180. Anon., The Acts of John, 71-83, 85-86, 84 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 41
84. And John, when he saw the unchanged mind (soul) of Fortunatus, said: O nature that is not changed for the better! O fountain of the soul that abideth in foulness! O essence of corruption full of darkness! O death exulting in them that are thine! O fruitless tree full of fire! O tree that bearest coals for fruit! O matter that dwellest with the madness of matter (al. O wood of trees full of unwholesome shoots) and neighbour of unbelief! Thou hast proved who thou art, and thou art always convicted, with thy children. And thou knowest not how to praise the better things: for thou hast them not. Therefore, such as is thy way (?fruit), such also is thy root and thy nature. Be thou destroyed from among them that trust in the Lord: from their thoughts, from their mind, from their souls, from their bodies, from their acts) their life, their conversation, from their business, their occupations, their counsel, from the resurrection unto (or rest in) God, from their sweet savour wherein thou wilt share, from their faith, their prayers, from the holy bath, from the eucharist, from the food of the flesh, from drink, from clothing, from love, from care, from abstinence, from righteousness: from all these, thou most unholy Satan, enemy of God, shall Jesus Christ our God and of all that are like thee and have thy character, make thee to perish.
181. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 11.23 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 346
11.23. This done, I gave charge to certain of my companions to buy liberally whatever was necessary and appropriate. Then the priest brought me to the baths nearby, accompanied with all the religious sort. He, demanding pardon of the goddess, washed me and purified my body according to custom. After this, when no one approached, he brought me back again to the temple and presented me before the face of the goddess. He told me of certain secret things that it was unlawful to utter, and he commanded me, and generally all the rest, to fast for the space of ten continual days. I was not allowed to eat any beast or drink any wine. These strictures I observed with marvelous continence. Then behold, the day approached when the sacrifice was to be made. And when night came there arrived on every coast a great multitude of priests who, according to their order, offered me many presents and gifts. Then all the laity and profane people were commanded to depart. When they had put on my back a linen robe, they brought me to the most secret and sacred place of all the temple. You will perhaps ask (o studious reader) what was said and done there. Verily I would tell you if it were lawful for me to tell. You would know if it were appropriate for you to hear. But both your ears and my tongue shall incur similar punishment for rash curiosity. However, I will content your mind for this present time, since it is perhaps somewhat religious and given to devotion. Listen therefore and believe it to be true. You shall understand that I approached near to Hell, and even to the gates of Proserpina. After I was brought through all the elements, I returned to my proper place. About midnight I saw the sun shine, and I saw likewise the celestial and infernal gods. Before them I presented myself and worshipped them. Behold, now have I told you something which, although you have heard it, it is necessary for you to conceal. This much have I declared without offence for the understanding of the profane.
182. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Shimeon Ben Yohai, 17.8 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical, tannaitic allegory •allegory/allegorical, and midrash •allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 106, 107
183. Theophilus, To Autolycus, 2.17, 3.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical •allegory, allegorical interpretation, two jars Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 85; Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 9
2.17. And on the sixth day, God having made the quadrupeds, and wild beasts, and the land reptiles, pronounced no blessing upon them, reserving His blessing for man, whom He was about to create on the sixth day. The quadrupeds, too, and wild beasts, were made for a type of some men, who neither know nor worship God, but mind earthly things, and repent not. For those who turn from their iniquities and live righteously, in spirit fly upwards like birds, and mind the things that are above, and are well-pleasing to the will of God. But those who do not know nor worship God, are like birds which have wings, but cannot fly nor soar to the high things of God. Thus, too, though such persons are called men, yet being pressed down with sins, they mind grovelling and earthly things. And the animals are named wild beasts [θηρία], from their being hunted [θηρεύεσθαι], not as if they had been made evil or venomous from the first - for nothing was made evil by God, but all things good, yea, very good - but the sin in which man was concerned brought evil upon them. For when man transgressed, they also transgressed with him. For as, if the master of the house himself acts rightly, the domestics also of necessity conduct themselves well; but if the master sins, the servants also sin with him; so in like manner it came to pass, that in the case of man's sin, he being master, all that was subject to him sinned with him. When, therefore, man again shall have made his way back to his natural condition, and no longer does evil, those also shall be restored to their original gentleness. 3.2. For it was fit that they who wrote should themselves have been eye-witnesses of those things concerning which they made assertions, or should accurately have ascertained them from those who had seen them; for they who write of things unascertained beat the air. For what did it profit Homer to have composed the Trojan War, and to have deceived many; or Hesiod, the register of the theogony of those whom he calls gods; or Orpheus, the three hundred and sixty-five gods, whom in the end of his life he rejects, maintaining in his precepts that there is one God? What profit did the sph rography of the world's circle confer on Aratus, or those who held the same doctrine as he, except glory among men? And not even that did they reap as they deserved. And what truth did they utter? Or what good did their tragedies do to Euripides and Sophocles, or the other tragedians? Or their comedies to Meder and Aristophanes, and the other comedians? Or their histories to Herodotus and Thucydides? Or the shrines and the pillars of Hercules to Pythagoras, or the Cynic philosophy to Diogenes? What good did it do Epicurus to maintain that there is no providence; or Empedocles to teach atheism; or Socrates to swear by the dog, and the goose, and the plane-tree, and Æsculapius struck by lightning, and the demons whom he invoked? And why did he willingly die? What reward, or of what kind, did he expect to receive after death? What did Plato's system of culture profit him? Or what benefit did the rest of the philosophers derive from their doctrines, not to enumerate the whole of them, since they are numerous? But these things we say, for the purpose of exhibiting their useless and godless opinions.
184. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 165, 343, 357, 45 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 114, 115
185. Anon., Qohelet Rabba, 9.8 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 246
186. Tertullian, On The Soul, 47.1-47.3 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 408
187. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 104, 115, 154, 160-161, 112 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 152, 153, 154
188. Tertullian, Against The Valentinians, 32.1.4-3.19 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 351
189. Tertullian, To The Martyrs, 2.1-2.4 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 585
190. Lucian, The Hall, 3 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 430
191. Anon., Acts of Thomas, 32 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 41
192. Origen, On First Principles, 4.3.8 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 473
193. Origen, On Prayer, 25.3 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 414
194. Origen, Against Celsus, 4.36-4.40, 4.71-4.73, 4.98, 6.29, 6.33, 6.58-6.59, 6.61, 7.39 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis •allegory/allegorical •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 200; Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 241, 337; Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 113
4.36. Celsus in the next place, producing from history other than that of the divine record, those passages which bear upon the claims to great antiquity put forth by many nations, as the Athenians, and Egyptians, and Arcadians, and Phrygians, who assert that certain individuals have existed among them who sprang from the earth, and who each adduce proofs of these assertions, says: The Jews, then, leading a grovelling life in some corner of Palestine, and being a wholly uneducated people, who had not heard that these matters had been committed to verse long ago by Hesiod and innumerable other inspired men, wove together some most incredible and insipid stories, viz., that a certain man was formed by the hands of God, and had breathed into him the breath of life, and that a woman was taken from his side, and that God issued certain commands, and that a serpent opposed these, and gained a victory over the commandments of God; thus relating certain old wives' fables, and most impiously representing God as weak at the very beginning (of things), and unable to convince even a single human being whom He Himself had formed. By these instances, indeed, this deeply read and learned Celsus, who accuses Jews and Christians of ignorance and want of instruction, clearly evinces the accuracy of his knowledge of the chronology of the respective historians, whether Greek or Barbarian, since he imagines that Hesiod and the innumerable others, whom he styles inspired men, are older than Moses and his writings - that very Moses who is shown to be much older than the time of the Trojan War! It is not the Jews, then, who have composed incredible and insipid stories regarding the birth of man from the earth, but these inspired men of Celsus, Hesiod and his other innumerable companions, who, having neither learned nor heard of the far older and most venerable accounts existing in Palestine, have written such histories as their Theogonies, attributing, so far as in their power, generation to their deities, and innumerable other absurdities. And these are the writers whom Plato expels from his State as being corrupters of the youth, - Homer, viz., and those who have composed poems of a similar description! Now it is evident that Plato did not regard as inspired those men who had left behind them such works. But perhaps it was from a desire to cast reproach upon us, that this Epicurean Celsus, who is better able to judge than Plato (if it be the same Celsus who composed two other books against the Christians), called those individuals inspired whom he did not in reality regard as such. 4.37. He charges us, moreover, with introducing a man formed by the hands of God, although the book of Genesis has made no mention of the hands of God, either when relating the creation or the fashioning of the man; while it is Job and David who have used the expression, Your hands have made me and fashioned me; with reference to which it would need a lengthened discourse to point out the sense in which these words were understood by those who used them, both as regards the difference between making and fashioning, and also the hands of God. For those who do not understand these and similar expressions in the sacred Scriptures, imagine that we attribute to the God who is over all things a form such as that of man; and according to their conceptions, it follows that we consider the body of God to be furnished with wings, since the Scriptures, literally understood, attribute such appendages to God. The subject before us, however, does not require us to interpret these expressions; for, in our explanatory remarks upon the book of Genesis, these matters have been made, to the best of our ability, a special subject of investigation. Observe next the malignity of Celsus in what follows. For the Scripture, speaking of the fashioning of the man, says, And breathed into his face the breath of life, and the man became a living soul. Whereon Celsus, wishing maliciously to ridicule the inbreathing into his face of the breath of life, and not understanding the sense in which the expression was employed, states that they composed a story that a man was fashioned by the hands of God, and was inflated by breath blown into him, in order that, taking the word inflated to be used in a similar way to the inflation of skins, he might ridicule the statement, He breathed into his face the breath of life,- terms which are used figuratively, and require to be explained in order to show that God communicated to man of His incorruptible Spirit; as it is said, For Your incorruptible Spirit is in all things. Wisdom 12:1 4.38. In the next place, as it is his object to slander our Scriptures, he ridicules the following statement: And God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof. And the rib, which He had taken from the man, made He a woman, and so on; without quoting the words, which would give the hearer the impression that they are spoken with a figurative meaning. He would not even have it appear that the words were used allegorically, although he says afterwards, that the more modest among Jews and Christians are ashamed of these things, and endeavour to give them somehow an allegorical signification. Now we might say to him, Are the statements of your inspired Hesiod, which he makes regarding the woman in the form of a myth, to be explained allegorically, in the sense that she was given by Jove to men as an evil thing, and as a retribution for the theft of the fire; while that regarding the woman who was taken from the side of the man (after he had been buried in deep slumber), and was formed by God, appears to you to be related without any rational meaning and secret signification? But is it not uncandid, not to ridicule the former as myths, but to admire them as philosophical ideas in a mythical dress, and to treat with contempt the latter, as offending the understanding, and to declare that they are of no account? For if, because of the mere phraseology, we are to find fault with what is intended to have a secret meaning, see whether the following lines of Hesiod, a man, as you say, inspired, are not better fitted to excite laughter:- 'Son of Iapetus!' with wrathful heart Spoke the cloud-gatherer: 'Oh, unmatched in art! Exult in this the flame retrieved, And do you triumph in the god deceived? But you, with the posterity of man, Shall rue the fraud whence mightier ills began; I will send evil for your stealthy fire, While all embrace it, and their bane desire.' The sire, who rules the earth, and sways the pole, Had said, and laughter fill'd his secret soul. He bade the artist-god his hest obey, And mould with tempering waters ductile clay: Infuse, as breathing life and form began, The supple vigour, and the voice of man: Her aspect fair as goddesses above, A virgin's likeness, with the brows of love. He bade Minerva teach the skill that dyes The web with colors, as the shuttle flies; He called the magic of Love's Queen to shed A nameless grace around her courteous head; Instil the wish that longs with restless aim, And cares of dress that feed upon the frame: Bade Hermes last implant the craft refined of artful manners, and a shameless mind. He said; their king th' inferior powers obeyed: The fictile likeness of a bashful maid Rose from the temper'd earth, by Jove's behest, Under the forming god; the zone and vest Were clasp'd and folded by Minerva's hand: The heaven-born graces, and persuasion bland Deck'd her round limbs with chains of gold: the hours of loose locks twined her temples with spring flowers. The whole attire Minerva's curious care Form'd to her shape, and fitted to her air. But in her breast the herald from above, Full of the counsels of deep thundering Jove, Wrought artful manners, wrought perfidious lies, And speech that thrills the blood, and lulls the wise. Her did th' interpreter of gods proclaim, And named the woman with Pandora's name; Since all the gods conferr'd their gifts, to charm, For man's inventive race, this beauteous harm. Moreover, what is said also about the casket is fitted of itself to excite laughter; for example:- Whilome on earth the sons of men abode From ills apart, and labour's irksome load, And sore diseases, bringing age to man; Now the sad life of mortals is a span. The woman's hands a mighty casket bear; She lifts the lid; she scatters griefs in air: Alone, beneath the vessel's rims detained, Hope still within th' unbroken cell remained, Nor fled abroad; so will'd cloud-gatherer Jove: The woman's hand had dropp'd the lid above. Now, to him who would give to these lines a grave allegorical meaning (whether any such meaning be contained in them or not), we would say: Are the Greeks alone at liberty to convey a philosophic meaning in a secret covering? Or perhaps also the Egyptians, and those of the Barbarians who pride themselves upon their mysteries and the truth (which is concealed within them); while the Jews alone, with their lawgiver and historians, appear to you the most unintelligent of men? And is this the only nation which has not received a share of divine power, and which yet was so grandly instructed how to rise upwards to the uncreated nature of God, and to gaze on Him alone, and to expect from Him alone (the fulfilment of) their hopes? 4.39. But as Celsus makes a jest also of the serpent, as counteracting the injunctions given by God to the man, taking the narrative to be an old wife's fable, and has purposely neither mentioned the paradise of God, nor stated that God is said to have planted it in Eden towards the east, and that there afterwards sprang up from the earth every tree that was beautiful to the sight, and good for food, and the tree of life in the midst of the paradise, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, and the other statements which follow, which might of themselves lead a candid reader to see that all these things had not inappropriately an allegorical meaning, let us contrast with this the words of Socrates regarding Eros in the Symposium of Plato, and which are put in the mouth of Socrates as being more appropriate than what was said regarding him by all the others at the Symposium. The words of Plato are as follow: When Aphrodite was born, the gods held a banquet, and there was present, along with the others, Porus the son of Metis. And after they had dined, Penia came to beg for something (seeing there was an entertainment), and she stood at the gate. Porus meantime, having become intoxicated with the nectar (for there was then no wine), went into the garden of Zeus, and, being heavy with liquor, lay down to sleep. Penia accordingly formed a secret plot, with a view of freeing herself from her condition of poverty, to get a child by Porus, and accordingly lay down beside him, and became pregt with Eros. And on this account Eros has become the follower and attendant of Aphrodite, having been begotten on her birthday feast, and being at the same time by nature a lover of the beautiful, because Aphrodite too is beautiful. Seeing, then, that Eros is the son of Porus and Penia, the following is his condition. In the first place, he is always poor, and far from being delicate and beautiful, as most persons imagine; but is withered, and sunburnt, and unshod, and without a home, sleeping always upon the ground, and without a covering; lying in the open air beside gates, and on public roads; possessing the nature of his mother, and dwelling continually with indigence. But, on the other hand, in conformity with the character of his father, he is given to plotting against the beautiful and the good, being courageous, and hasty, and vehement; a keen hunter, perpetually devising contrivances; both much given to forethought, and also fertile in resources; acting like a philosopher throughout the whole of his life; a terrible sorcerer, and dealer in drugs, and a sophist as well; neither immortal by nature nor yet mortal, but on the same day, at one time he flourishes and lives when he has plenty, and again at another time dies, and once more is recalled to life through possessing the nature of his father. But the supplies furnished to him are always gradually disappearing, so that he is never at any time in want, nor yet rich; and, on the other hand, he occupies an intermediate position between wisdom and ignorance. Now, if those who read these words were to imitate the malignity of Celsus - which be it far from Christians to do!- they would ridicule the myth, and would turn this great Plato into a subject of jest; but if, on investigating in a philosophic spirit what is conveyed in the dress of a myth, they should be able to discover the meaning of Plato, (they will admire) the manner in which he was able to conceal, on account of the multitude, in the form of this myth, the great ideas which presented themselves to him, and to speak in a befitting manner to those who know how to ascertain from the myths the true meaning of him who wove them together. Now I have brought forward this myth occurring in the writings of Plato, because of the mention in it of the garden of Zeus, which appears to bear some resemblance to the paradise of God, and of the comparison between Penia and the serpent, and the plot against Porus by Penia, which may be compared with the plot of the serpent against the man. It is not very clear, indeed, whether Plato fell in with these stories by chance, or whether, as some think, meeting during his visit to Egypt with certain individuals who philosophized on the Jewish mysteries, and learning some things from them, he may have preserved a few of their ideas, and thrown others aside, being careful not to offend the Greeks by a complete adoption of all the points of the philosophy of the Jews, who were in bad repute with the multitude, on account of the foreign character of their laws and their peculiar polity. The present, however, is not the proper time for explaining either the myth of Plato, or the story of the serpent and the paradise of God, and all that is related to have taken place in it, as in our exposition of the book of Genesis we have especially occupied ourselves as we best could with these matters. 4.40. But as he asserts that the Mosaic narrative most impiously represents God as in a state of weakness from the very commencement (of things), and as unable to gain over (to obedience) even one single man whom He Himself had formed, we say in answer that the objection is much the same as if one were to find fault with the existence of evil, which God has not been able to prevent even in the case of a single individual, so that one man might be found from the very beginning of things who was born into the world untainted by sin. For as those whose business it is to defend the doctrine of providence do so by means of arguments which are not to be despised, so also the subjects of Adam and his son will be philosophically dealt with by those who are aware that in the Hebrew language Adam signifies man; and that in those parts of the narrative which appear to refer to Adam as an individual, Moses is discoursing upon the nature of man in general. For in Adam (as the Scripture says) all die, and were condemned in the likeness of Adam's transgression, the word of God asserting this not so much of one particular individual as of the whole human race. For in the connected series of statements which appears to apply as to one particular individual, the curse pronounced upon Adam is regarded as common to all (the members of the race), and what was spoken with reference to the woman is spoken of every woman without exception. And the expulsion of the man and woman from paradise, and their being clothed with tunics of skins (which God, because of the transgression of men, made for those who had sinned), contain a certain secret and mystical doctrine (far transcending that of Plato) of the souls losing its wings, and being borne downwards to earth, until it can lay hold of some stable resting-place. 4.71. But as, in what follows, Celsus, not understanding that the language of Scripture regarding God is adapted to an anthropopathic point of view, ridicules those passages which speak of words of anger addressed to the ungodly, and of threatenings directed against sinners, we have to say that, as we ourselves, when talking with very young children, do not aim at exerting our own power of eloquence, but, adapting ourselves to the weakness of our charge, both say and do those things which may appear to us useful for the correction and improvement of the children as children, so the word of God appears to have dealt with the history, making the capacity of the hearers, and the benefit which they were to receive, the standard of the appropriateness of its announcements (regarding Him). And, generally, with regard to such a style of speaking about God, we find in the book of Deuteronomy the following: The Lord your God bare with your manners, as a man would bear with the manners of his son. It is, as it were, assuming the manners of a man in order to secure the advantage of men that the Scripture makes use of such expressions; for it would not have been suitable to the condition of the multitude, that what God had to say to them should be spoken by Him in a manner more befitting the majesty of His own person. And yet he who is anxious to attain a true understanding of holy Scripture, will discover the spiritual truths which are spoken by it to those who are called spiritual, by comparing the meaning of what is addressed to those of weaker mind with what is announced to such as are of acuter understanding, both meanings being frequently found in the same passage by him who is capable of comprehending it. 4.72. We speak, indeed, of the wrath of God. We do not, however, assert that it indicates any passion on His part, but that it is something which is assumed in order to discipline by stern means those sinners who have committed many and grievous sins. For that which is called God's wrath, and anger, is a means of discipline; and that such a view is agreeable to Scripture, is evident from what is said in the sixth Psalm, O Lord, rebuke me not in Your anger, neither chasten me in Your hot displeasure; and also in Jeremiah. O Lord, correct me, but with judgment: not in Your anger, lest You bring me to nothing. Any one, moreover, who reads in the second book of Kings of the wrath of God, inducing David to number the people, and finds from the first book of Chronicles that it was the devil who suggested this measure, will, on comparing together the two statements, easily see for what purpose the wrath is mentioned, of which wrath, as the Apostle Paul declares, all men are children: We were by nature children of wrath, even as others. Moreover, that wrath is no passion on the part of God, but that each one brings it upon himself by his sins, will be clear from the further statement of Paul: Or do you despise the riches of His goodness, and forbearance, and long-suffering, not knowing that the goodness of God leads you to repentance? But after your hardness and impenitent heart, treasure up unto yourself wrath against the day of wrath, and revelation of the righteous judgment of God. How, then, can any one treasure up for himself wrath against a day of wrath, if wrath be understood in the sense of passion? or how can the passion of wrath be a help to discipline? Besides, the Scripture, which tells us not to be angry at all, and which says in the thirty-seventh Psalm, Cease from anger, and forsake wrath, and which commands us by the mouth of Paul to put off all these, anger, wrath, malice, blasphemy, filthy communication, would not involve God in the same passion from which it would have us to be altogether free. It is manifest, further, that the language used regarding the wrath of God is to be understood figuratively from what is related of His sleep, from which, as if awaking Him, the prophet says: Awake, why do You sleep, Lord? and again: Then the Lord awoke as one out of sleep, and like a mighty man that shouts by reason of wine. If, then, sleep must mean something else, and not what the first acceptation of the word conveys, why should not wrath also be understood in a similar way? The threatenings, again, are intimations of the (punishments) which are to befall the wicked: for it is as if one were to call the words of a physician threats, when he tells his patients, I will have to use the knife, and apply cauteries, if you do not obey my prescriptions, and regulate your diet and mode of life in such a way as I direct you. It is no human passions, then, which we ascribe to God, nor impious opinions which we entertain of Him; nor do we err when we present the various narratives concerning Him, drawn from the Scriptures themselves, after careful comparison one with another. For those who are wise ambassadors of the word have no other object in view than to free as far as they can their hearers from weak opinions, and to endue them with intelligence. 4.73. And as a sequel to his non-understanding of the statements regarding the wrath of God, he continues: Is it not ridiculous to suppose that, whereas a man, who became angry with the Jews, slew them all from the youth upwards, and burned their city (so powerless were they to resist him), the mighty God, as they say, being angry, and indigt, and uttering threats, should, (instead of punishing them) send His own Son, who endured the sufferings which He did? If the Jews, then, after the treatment which they dared to inflict upon Jesus, perished with all their youth, and had their city consumed by fire, they suffered this punishment in consequence of no other wrath than that which they treasured up for themselves; for the judgment of God against them, which was determined by the divine appointment, is termed wrath agreeably to a traditional usage of the Hebrews. And what the Son of the mighty God suffered, He suffered voluntarily for the salvation of men, as has been stated to the best of my ability in the preceding pages. He then continues: But that I may speak not of the Jews alone (for that is not my object), but of the whole of nature, as I promised, I will bring out more clearly what has been already stated. Now what modest man, on reading these words, and knowing the weakness of humanity, would not be indigt at the offensive nature of the promise to give an account of the whole of nature, and at an arrogance like that which prompted him to inscribe upon his book the title which he ventured to give it (of a True Discourse)? But let us see what he has to say regarding the whole of nature, and what he is to place in a clearer light. 4.98. I do not know, moreover, how Celsus could hear of the elephants' (fidelity to) oaths, and of their great devotedness to our God, and of the knowledge which they possess of Him. For I know many wonderful things which are related of the nature of this animal, and of its gentle disposition. But I am not aware that any one has spoken of its observance of oaths; unless indeed to its gentle disposition, and its observance of compacts, so to speak, when once concluded between it and man, he give the name of keeping its oath, which statement also in itself is false. For although rarely, yet sometimes it has been recorded that, after their apparent tameness, they have broken out against men in the most savage manner, and have committed murder, and have been on that account condemned to death, because no longer of any use. And seeing that after this, in order to establish (as he thinks he does) that the stork is more pious than any human being, he adduces the accounts which are narrated regarding that creature's display of filial affection in bringing food to its parents for their support, we have to say in reply, that this is done by the storks, not from a regard to what is proper, nor from reflection, but from a natural instinct; the nature which formed them being desirous to show an instance among the irrational animals which might put men to shame, in the matter of exhibiting their gratitude to their parents. And if Celsus had known how great the difference is between acting in this way from reason, and from an irrational natural impulse, he would not have said that storks are more pious than human beings. But further, Celsus, as still contending for the piety of the irrational creation, quotes the instance of the Arabian bird the phœnix, which after many years repairs to Egypt, and bears there its parent, when dead and buried in a ball of myrrh, and deposits its body in the Temple of the Sun. Now this story is indeed recorded, and, if it be true, it is possible that it may occur in consequence of some provision of nature; divine providence freely displaying to human beings, by the differences which exist among living things, the variety of constitution which prevails in the world, and which extends even to birds, and in harmony with which He has brought into existence one creature, the only one of its kind, in order that by it men may be led to admire, not the creature, but Him who created it. 6.29. In the next place, as if it were the Christians whom he was calumniating, he continues his accusations against those who termed the God of Moses and of his law an accursed divinity; and imagining that it is the Christians who so speak, he expresses himself thus: What could be more foolish or insane than such senseless wisdom? For what blunder has the Jewish lawgiver committed? And why do you accept, by means, as you say, of a certain allegorical and typical method of interpretation, the cosmogony which he gives, and the law of the Jews, while it is with unwillingness, O most impious man, that you give praise to the Creator of the world, who promised to give them all things; who promised to multiply their race to the ends of the earth, and to raise them up from the dead with the same flesh and blood, and who gave inspiration to their prophets; and, again, you slander Him! When you feel the force of such considerations, indeed, you acknowledge that you worship the same God; but when your teacher Jesus and the Jewish Moses give contradictory decisions, you seek another God, instead of Him, and the Father! Now, by such statements, this illustrious philosopher Celsus distinctly slanders the Christians, asserting that, when the Jews press them hard, they acknowledge the same God as they do; but that when Jesus legislates differently from Moses, they seek another god instead of Him. Now, whether we are conversing with the Jews, or are alone with ourselves, we know of only one and the same God, whom the Jews also worshipped of old time, and still profess to worship as God, and we are guilty of no impiety towards Him. We do not assert, however, that God will raise men from the dead with the same flesh and blood, as has been shown in the preceding pages; for we do not maintain that the natural body, which is sown in corruption, and in dishonour, and in weakness, will rise again such as it was sown. On such subjects, however, we have spoken at adequate length in the foregoing pages. 6.33. Celsus next relates other fables, to the effect that certain persons return to the shapes of the archontics, so that some are called lions, others bulls, others dragons, or eagles, or bears, or dogs. We found also in the diagram which we possessed, and which Celsus called the square pattern, the statements made by these unhappy beings concerning the gates of Paradise. The flaming sword was depicted as the diameter of a flaming circle, and as if mounting guard over the tree of knowledge and of life. Celsus, however, either would not or could not repeat the harangues which, according to the fables of these impious individuals, are represented as spoken at each of the gates by those who pass through them; but this we have done in order to show to Celsus and those who read his treatise, that we know the depth of these unhallowed mysteries, and that they are far removed from the worship which Christians offer up to God. 6.58. There is next to be answered the following query: And how is it that he repents when men become ungrateful and wicked; and finds fault with his own handwork, and hates, and threatens, and destroys his own offspring? Now Celsus here calumniates and falsities what is written in the book of Genesis to the following effect: And the Lord God, seeing that the wickedness of men upon the earth was increasing, and that every one in his heart carefully meditated to do evil continually, was grieved He had made man upon the earth. And God meditated in His heart, and said, I will destroy man, whom I have made, from the face of the earth, both man and beast, and creeping thing, and fowl of the air, because I am grieved that I made them; quoting words which are not written in Scripture, as if they conveyed the meaning of what was actually written. For there is no mention in these words of the repentance of God, nor of His blaming and hating His own handwork. And if there is the appearance of God threatening the catastrophe of the deluge, and thus destroying His own children in it, we have to answer that, as the soul of man is immortal, the supposed threatening has for its object the conversion of the hearers, while the destruction of men by the flood is a purification of the earth, as certain among the Greek philosophers of no mean repute have indicated by the expression: When the gods purify the earth. And with respect to the transference to God of those anthropopathic phrases, some remarks have been already made by us in the preceding pages. 6.59. Celsus, in the next place, suspecting, or perhaps seeing clearly enough, the answer which might be returned by those who defend the destruction of men by the deluge, continues: But if he does not destroy his own offspring, whither does he convey them out of this world which he himself created? To this we reply, that God by no means removes out of the whole world, consisting of heaven and earth, those who suffered death by the deluge, but removes them from a life in the flesh, and, having set them free from their bodies, liberates them at the same time from an existence upon earth, which in many parts of Scripture it is usual to call the world. In the Gospel according to John especially, we may frequently find the regions of earth termed world, as in the passage, He was the true Light, which lightens every man that comes into the 'world;' as also in this, In the world you shall have tribulation; but be of good cheer, I have overcome the world. If, then, we understand by removing out of the world a transference from regions on earth, there is nothing absurd in the expression. If, on the contrary, the system of things which consists of heaven and earth be termed world, then those who perished in the deluge are by no means removed out of the so-called world. And yet, indeed, if we have regard to the words, Looking not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen; and also to these, For the invisible things of Him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, - we might say that he who dwells amid the invisible things, and what are called generally things not seen, is gone out of the world, the Word having removed him hence, and transported him to the heavenly regions, in order to behold all beautiful things. 6.61. Again, not understanding the meaning of the words, And God ended on the sixth day His works which He had made, and ceased on the seventh day from all His works which He had made: and God blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it, because on it He had ceased from all His works which He had begun to make; and imagining the expression, He ceased on the seventh day, to be the same as this, He rested on the seventh day, he makes the remark: After this, indeed, he is weary, like a very bad workman, who stands in need of rest to refresh himself! For he knows nothing of the day of the Sabbath and rest of God, which follows the completion of the world's creation, and which lasts during the duration of the world, and in which all those will keep festival with God who have done all their works in their six days, and who, because they have omitted none of their duties, will ascend to the contemplation (of celestial things), and to the assembly of righteous and blessed beings. In the next place, as if either the Scriptures made such a statement, or as if we ourselves so spoke of God as having rested from fatigue, he continues: It is not in keeping with the fitness of things that the first God should feel fatigue, or work with His hands, or give forth commands. Celsus says, that it is not in keeping with the fitness of things that the first God should feel fatigue. Now we would say that neither does God the Word feel fatigue, nor any of those beings who belong to a better and diviner order of things, because the sensation of fatigue is peculiar to those who are in the body. You can examine whether this is true of those who possess a body of any kind, or of those who have an earthly body, or one a little better than this. But neither is it consistent with the fitness of things that the first God should work with His own hands. If you understand the words work with His own hands literally, then neither are they applicable to the second God, nor to any other being partaking of divinity. But suppose that they are spoken in an improper and figurative sense, so that we may translate the following expressions, And the firmament shows forth His handywork, and the heavens are the work of Your hands, and any other similar phrases, in a figurative manner, so far as respects the hands and limbs of Deity, where is the absurdity in the words, God thus working with His own hands? And as there is no absurdity in God thus working, so neither is there in His issuing commands; so that what is done at His bidding should be beautiful and praiseworthy, because it was God who commanded it to be performed. 7.39. Now let us hear what it is that he invites us to learn, that we may ascertain from him how we are to know God, although he thinks that his words are beyond the capacity of all Christians. Let them hear, says he, if they are able to do so. We have then to consider what the philosopher wishes us to hear from him. But instead of instructing us as he ought, he abuses us; and while he should have shown his goodwill to those whom he addresses at the outset of his discourse, he stigmatizes as a cowardly race men who would rather die than abjure Christianity even by a word, and who are ready to suffer every form of torture, or any kind of death. He also applies to us that epithet carnal or flesh-indulging, although, as we are wont to say, we have known Christ after the flesh, yet now henceforth we know Him no more, and although we are so ready to lay down our lives for the cause of religion, that no philosopher could lay aside his robes more readily. He then addresses to us these words: If, instead of exercising your senses, you look upwards with the soul; if, turning away the eye of the body, you open the eye of the mind, thus and thus only you will be able to see God. He is not aware that this reference to the two eyes, the eye of the body and the eye of the mind, which he has borrowed from the Greeks, was in use among our own writers; for Moses, in his account of the creation of the world, introduces man before his transgression as both seeing and not seeing: seeing, when it is said of the woman, The woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes, and a tree to be desired to make one wise; and again not seeing, as when he introduces the serpent saying to the woman, as if she and her husband had been blind, God knows that on the day that you eat thereof your eyes shall be opened; and also when it is said, They ate, and the eyes of both of them were opened. The eyes of sense were then opened, which they had done well to keep shut, that they might not be distracted, and hindered from seeing with the eyes of the mind; and it was those eyes of the mind which in consequence of sin, as I imagine, were then closed, with which they had up to that time enjoyed the delight of beholding God and His paradise. This twofold kind of vision in us was familiar to our Saviour, who says, For judgment I have come into this world, that they which see not, might see, and that they which see might be made blind, - meaning, by the eyes that see not, the eyes of the mind, which are enlightened by His teaching; and the eyes which see are the eyes of sense, which His words do render blind, in order that the soul may look without distraction upon proper objects. All true Christians therefore have the eye of the mind sharpened, and the eye of sense closed; so that each one, according to the degree in which his better eye is quickened, and the eye of sense darkened, sees and knows the Supreme God, and His Son, who is the Word, Wisdom, and so forth.
195. Origen, Commentary On John, 2.31, 19.21.139, 32.24.302, 32.24.382 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 438; Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 414
196. Eusebius of Caesarea, Preparation For The Gospel, 8.2-8.5, 8.10, 9.38, 13.12.1 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 84, 85, 86; Wright (2015), The Letter of Aristeas : 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' 30, 34, 282
197. Eusebius of Caesarea, Commentary On Isaiah, 2.9 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 11
198. Origen, Homilies On Numbers, 17.3, 27.11 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 337; Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 13
199. Origen, Commentary On Genesis, a b c d\n0 13.37(241) 13.37(241) 13 37(241)\n1 13.37(236-43) 13.37(236 13 37(236 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 337
200. Origen, Homilies On Luke, None (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 586
201. Origen, Homilies On Leviticus, 7.4 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 11
202. Origen, On Jeremiah (Homilies 1-11), 16.4 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 336
203. Babylonian Talmud, Shabbat, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 246
153a. ונשמתו עולה ושוב אינה יורדת,אמר רב יהודה בריה דרב שמואל בר שילת משמיה דרב מהספדו של אדם ניכר אם בן העוה"ב הוא אם לאו איני והאמר ליה רב לרב שמואל בר שילת אחים בהספידא דהתם קאימנא לא קשיא הא דמחמו ליה ואחים הא דמחמו ליה ולא אחים,א"ל אביי לרבה כגון מר דסנו ליה כולהו פומבדיתאי מאן אחים הספידא א"ל מיסתיא את ורבה בר רב חנן,בעא מניה רבי אלעזר מרב איזהו בן העוה"ב א"ל (ישעיהו ל, כא) ואזניך תשמענה דבר מאחריך לאמר זה הדרך לכו בו כי תאמינו וכי תשמאילו ר' חנינא אמר כל שדעת רבותינו נוחה הימנו (קהלת יב, ה) וסבבו בשוק הסופדים בני גלילא אמרי עשה דברים לפני מטתך בני יהודה אמרי עשה דברים לאחר מטתך ולא פליגי מר כי אתריה ומר כי אתריה,תנן התם רבי אליעזר אומר שוב יום אחד לפני מיתתך שאלו תלמידיו את ר"א וכי אדם יודע איזהו יום ימות אמר להן וכל שכן ישוב היום שמא ימות למחר ונמצא כל ימיו בתשובה ואף שלמה אמר בחכמתו (קהלת ט, ח) בכל עת יהיו בגדיך לבנים ושמן על ראשך אל יחסר,א"ר יוחנן בן זכאי משל למלך שזימן את עבדיו לסעודה ולא קבע להם זמן פיקחין שבהן קישטו את עצמן וישבו על פתח בית המלך אמרו כלום חסר לבית המלך טיפשין שבהן הלכו למלאכתן אמרו כלום יש סעודה בלא טורח,בפתאום ביקש המלך את עבדיו פיקחין שבהן נכנסו לפניו כשהן מקושטין והטיפשים נכנסו לפניו כשהן מלוכלכין שמח המלך לקראת פיקחים וכעס לקראת טיפשים אמר הללו שקישטו את עצמן לסעודה ישבו ויאכלו וישתו הללו שלא קישטו עצמן לסעודה יעמדו ויראו,חתנו של ר"מ משום ר"מ אמר אף הן נראין כמשמשין אלא אלו ואלו יושבין הללו אוכלין והללו רעבין הללו שותין והללו צמאים שנאמר (ישעיהו סה, יג) כה אמר ה' הנה עבדי יאכלו ואתם תרעבו הנה עבדי ישתו ואתם תצמאו הנה עבדי ירונו מטוב לב ואתם תצעקו מכאב לב,ד"א בכל עת יהיו בגדיך לבנים אלו ציצית ושמן על ראשך אל יחסר אלו תפילין:, br br big strongהדרן עלך שואל /strong /big br br,מתני׳ big strongמי /strong /big שהחשיך בדרך נותן כיסו לנכרי ואם אין עמו נכרי מניחו על החמור הגיע לחצר החיצונה נוטל את הכלים הניטלין בשבת ושאינן ניטלין בשבת מתיר החבלים והשקין נופלין מאיליהם:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big מאי טעמא שרו ליה רבנן למיתב כיסיה לנכרי קים להו לרבנן דאין אדם מעמיד עצמו על ממונו אי לא שרית ליה אתי לאיתויי ד' אמות ברה"ר,אמר רבא דוקא כיסו אבל מציאה לא פשיטא כיסו תנן מהו דתימא הוא הדין אפילו מציאה והאי דקתני כיסו אורחא דמילתא קתני קמ"ל ולא אמרן אלא דלא אתי לידיה אבל אתי לידיה ככיסיה דמי,איכא דאמרי בעי רבא מציאה הבאה לידו מהו כיון דאתא לידיה ככיסיה דמי או דילמא כיון דלא טרח בה לאו ככיסיה דמי תיקו:,אין עמו נכרי: טעמא דאין עמו נכרי הא יש עמו נכרי לנכרי יהיב ליה מאי טעמא חמור אתה מצווה על שביתתו נכרי אי אתה מצווה על שביתתו,חמור וחרש שוטה וקטן אחמור מנח ליה לחרש שוטה וקטן לא יהיב ליה מ"ט הני אדם האי לאו אדם חרש ושוטה לשוטה שוטה וקטן לשוטה,איבעיא להו חרש וקטן מאי אליבא דר"א לא תיבעי לך דתניא ר' יצחק אומר משום ר' אליעזר תרומת חרש 153a. b and his soul ascends /b to its place beneath the Throne of Glory, b and does not descend anymore. /b , b Rav Yehuda, son of Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat, said in the name of Rav: From a person’s eulogy it is apparent whether or not he has a share in the World-to-Come. /b If the listeners are pained and brought to tears during the eulogy, it is clear that the person was righteous. The Gemara asks: b Is that so? Didn’t Rav say to Rav Shmuel bar Sheilat: Stir /b the hearts of those gathered b during /b my b eulogy, for I will be standing there /b and listening to your words? Even a person as great as Rav needed to give instructions about his eulogy. The Gemara answers: This is b not difficult, /b for b this /b statement, which maintains that those who merit a share in the World-to-Come can be identified by their eulogies, is referring to a situation in which b they /b attempt to b stir /b the listener b and he is stirred; /b while b that /b statement is referring to a situation in which b they /b attempt to b stir /b the listener b and he is not stirred. /b That is an indication that the deceased person was not righteous., b Abaye said to Rabba: In the case of the Master, /b i.e., Rabba, b whom all of the inhabitants of /b his city, b Pumbedita, hate, who will be stirred during his eulogy? He said to him: It is sufficient for me /b if b you and Rabba bar Rav Ḥa /b are stirred., b Rabbi Elazar raised a dilemma /b before b Rav: Which /b type of person b has a share in the World-to-Come? /b He b said to him: /b We can derive this from the verse: b “And your ears shall hear a word behind you, saying: This is the path, walk on it, when you turn to the right or to the left” /b (Isaiah 30:21). In other words, if people eulogize one by saying that others should follow in his path, he must have a share in the World-to-Come. b Rabbi Ḥanina said: Anyone with whom our Rabbis are pleased /b has a share in the World-to-Come. In interpreting the verse: b “And the eulogizers walk about the marketplace” /b (Ecclesiastes 12:5), b the people of the Galilee say: Do things /b that you will want people to say at your eulogy b in front of your bier. The people of Judea say: Do things /b that you want people to say at your eulogy b behind your bier. /b The Gemara remarks: b And they do not disagree; /b this b Sage /b expressed it according to the norm b in his place, and /b this b Sage /b expressed it differently according to the norm b in his place. /b The custom in the Galilee was that the eulogizers would stand before the bier and the custom in Judea was that eulogizers would stand behind the bier., b We learned there /b in a mishna that b Rabbi Eliezer says: Repent one day before your death. Rabbi Eliezer’s students asked him: But does a person know the day /b on which b he will die? He said to them: All the more so /b this is a good piece of advice, and b one should repent today lest he die tomorrow; and /b by following this advice b one will spend his entire life in /b a state of b repentance. And /b King b Solomon also said in his wisdom: “At all times your clothes should be white, and oil shall not be absent from upon your head” /b (Ecclesiastes 9:8), meaning that a person always needs to be prepared.,Similarly, b Rabban Yoḥa ben Zakkai said /b the following story as b a parable /b to this lesson: The situation is comparable b to a king who invited his servants to a feast and did not set a time for them /b to come. b The wise among them adorned themselves and sat at the entrance to the king’s house. They said: Is the king’s house missing anything /b necessary for the feast? Certainly the king could invite them at any moment. b The fools among them went to /b attend to b their work /b and b said: Is there such thing as a feast without /b the b toil /b of preparing for it? While the feast is being prepared, we will attend to other matters., b Suddenly, the king requested /b that b his servants /b come to the feast. b The wise among them entered before him adorned /b in their finest clothes, b and the fools entered before him dirty. The king was happy to greet /b the b wise ones and angry to greet /b the b fools. /b The king b said: These /b wise servants b who adorned themselves for the feast shall sit and eat and drink, /b but b these /b fools b who did not adorn themselves for the feast shall stand and watch. /b There is a similar outcome for people who think that their day of death and judgment is far away and do not prepare themselves for it., b Rabbi Meir’s son-in-law said in the name of Rabbi Meir: /b If the punishment for those who did not prepare themselves in advance was merely to stand and watch, it would not be severe enough because b they also look like servants /b at the feast, which is not such a disgraceful punishment. b Rather, these and these, /b both groups of people, b sit /b at the feast. b These /b wise and righteous people b eat, and these /b wicked fools b are hungry; these /b righteous people b drink, and these /b wicked people b are thirsty, as it is stated: /b “Therefore, b thus said the Lord, /b God: b Behold, My servants shall eat and you shall be hungry; behold, My servants shall drink and you shall be thirsty; /b behold, My servants shall rejoice and you shall be ashamed. b Behold, My servants shall sing from a joyous heart and you shall scream from a pained heart” /b (Isaiah 65:13–14)., b Alternatively, /b the verse quoted above can be interpreted in the following way: b “At all times let your clothes be white”; this /b is clothing that contains b ritual fringes [ i tzitzit /i ], /b which are white. b “And oil shall not be absent from upon your head”; these /b words hint to b phylacteries, /b which are worn on the head.,, strong MISHNA: /strong b One /b who was traveling on Shabbat eve and b night fell, /b and Shabbat began while he was still b en route, gives his /b money b pouch to a gentile /b traveling with him. b And if there is no gentile with him he places it on the donkey. /b Once b he reached the outer courtyard /b of the city, where belongings can be securely placed, b he takes the vessels that may be moved on Shabbat /b off the donkey. With regard to the vessels b that may not be moved on Shabbat, he unties the ropes /b that attach his bags to the donkey, b and the bags /b of vessels b fall on their own. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong We learned in the mishna: One who was traveling on Shabbat eve and night fell, and Shabbat began while he was still en route, gives his money pouch to a gentile. The Gemara asks: b What is the reason /b that b the Sages permitted him to give his pouch to a gentile? /b Is it not prohibited for a Jew to ask a gentile to perform a prohibited labor on Shabbat? The Gemara answers: b The Sages maintain /b that b a person does not restrain himself /b when faced with losing b his money. If you do not permit him /b to give his pouch to a gentile, b he will come to carry four cubits in a public domain, /b thereby violating a Torah prohibition., b Rava said: /b This allowance to give the pouch to a gentile is b specifically /b with regard to b his /b own b pouch, but /b in the case of b a lost object /b that he found, b no, /b it was not permitted. The Gemara asks: That is b obvious, /b as b we learned /b in the mishna: b His pouch, /b and nothing else. The Gemara answers: Rava specified this b lest you say /b that b the same is true even /b with regard to b a lost object, /b that one may give it to a gentile on Shabbat, and b the /b mishna b taught /b the case of b his pouch /b merely because it is the b manner /b in b which the matter /b typically occurs. Therefore, Rava b teaches us /b that the mishna is in fact establishing a i halakha /i restricted to his pouch. The Gemara comments: b And we only said /b that this allowance does not apply to a lost object when b it did not come into his possession /b before Shabbat. b However, /b if the object already b came into his possession /b before Shabbat, b its /b legal status is b like /b that of b his pouch. /b , b Some state /b this dilemma in a different manner. b Rava raised a dilemma: /b With regard to b a lost object that came into his possession /b before Shabbat, b what is /b the ruling? Is the i halakha /i that b since it /b already b came into his possession, its /b legal status is b like /b that of b his pouch? Or perhaps, since he did not exert /b himself to acquire b it, its /b legal status is b not like /b that of b his pouch. /b Since he expended no effort, he would be capable of restraining himself even when faced with losing it. Therefore, there is no need for the Sages to permit him to give it to a gentile. The Gemara concludes: b Let /b this dilemma b stand /b unresolved.,We learned in the mishna: b And if there is no gentile with him /b he places it on the donkey. The Gemara infers: b The reason /b is specifically because b there is no gentile with him; /b if b there is a gentile with him, he gives it to the gentile /b and does not place it on a donkey. The Gemara asks: b What is the reason /b for this i halakha /i ? The Gemara answers: With regard to b a donkey /b belonging to a Jew, b you are commanded with regard to its rest /b on Shabbat. With regard to b a gentile, you are not commanded with regard to his rest /b and no Torah prohibition is being violated.,The Gemara teaches an additional i halakha /i : If there was no gentile with him but there was b a donkey, a deaf-mute, an imbecile, and a minor, /b meaning someone under thirteen years old, b one places it on the donkey, /b but b one neither gives it to the deaf-mute, nor the imbecile, nor the minor. What is the reason /b for this? Although they are not obligated to fulfill mitzvot, b these /b are b people, /b but b this /b donkey b is not a person. /b It is preferable to place it on the donkey rather than give it to a person. And if b a deaf-mute and an imbecile /b were with him, he gives it to b the imbecile. /b If b an imbecile and a minor /b were with him, he gives it to b the imbecile. /b , b A dilemma was raised /b before the Sages: If b a deaf-mute and a minor /b were with him, b what /b is the ruling? To whom does he give his pouch? The Gemara answers: b According to /b the opinion b of Rabbi Eliezer you have no dilemma. /b Rabbi Eliezer holds that a deaf-mute has a greater degree of halakhic intelligence than does a minor, b as it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Yitzḥak says in the name of Rabbi Eliezer: The i teruma /i of a deaf-mute /b that he separated from his produce
204. Babylonian Talmud, Sanhedrin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 116
108b. א"כ לא נפנה דרך כרמים,דרש רבא מאי דכתיב (איוב יב, ה) לפיד בוז לעשתות שאנן נכון למועדי רגל מלמד שהיה נח הצדיק מוכיח אותם ואמר להם דברים שהם קשים כלפידים והיו (בוזים) [מבזין] אותו אמרו לו זקן תיבה זו למה אמר להם הקב"ה מביא עליכם את המבול אמרו מבול של מה אם מבול של אש יש לנו דבר אחר ועליתה שמה ואם של מים הוא מביא אם מן הארץ הוא מביא יש לנו עששיות של ברזל שאנו מחפין בהם את הארץ ואם מן השמים הוא מביא יש לנו דבר ועקב שמו ואמרי לה עקש שמו,אמר להם הוא מביא מבין עקבי רגליכם שנאמר (איוב יב, ה) נכון למועדי רגל תניא מימי המבול קשים כשכבת זרע שנאמר נכון למועדי רגל אמר רב חסדא ברותחין קלקלו בעבירה וברותחין נידונו כתיב הכא (בראשית ח, א) וישכו המים וכתיב התם (אסתר ז, י) וחמת המלך שככה,(בראשית ז, י) ויהי לשבעת הימים ומי המבול היו על הארץ מה טיבם של שבעת הימים,אמר רב אלו ימי אבילות של מתושלח ללמדך שהספדן של צדיקים מעכבין את הפורענות לבא דבר אחר לשבעת ששינה עליהם הקב"ה סדר בראשית שהיתה חמה יוצאת ממערב ושוקעת במזרח דבר אחר שקבע להם הקב"ה זמן גדול ואח"כ זמן קטן ד"א לשבעת הימים שהטעימם מעין העולם הבא כדי שידעו מה טובה מנעו מהן,(בראשית ז, ב) מכל הבהמה הטהורה תקח לך שבעה שבעה איש ואשתו אישות לבהמה מי אית לה א"ר שמואל בר נחמני א"ר יונתן מאותם שלא נעבדה בהם עבירה,מנא ידע אמר רב חסדא שהעבירן לפני התיבה כל שהתיבה קולטתו בידוע שלא נעבדה בהם עבירה וכל שאין התיבה קולטתו בידוע שנעבדה בה עבירה רבי אבהו אמר מאותן הבאין מאיליהן,(בראשית ו, יד) עשה לך תיבת עצי גופר מאי גופר אמר רב אדא אמרי דבי ר' שילא זו מבליגה ואמרי לה גולמיש,צוהר תעשה לתיבה א"ר יוחנן אמר לו הקב"ה לנח קבע בה אבנים טובות ומרגליות כדי שיהיו מאירות לכם כצהרים,(בראשית ו, טז) ואל אמה תכלנה מלמעלה דבהכי [הוא] דקיימא,(בראשית ו, טז) תחתיים שנים ושלישים תעשה תנא תחתיים לזבל אמצעיים לבהמה עליונים לאדם,(בראשית ח, ז) וישלח את העורב אמר ר"ל תשובה ניצחת השיבו עורב לנח אמר לו רבך שונאני ואתה שנאתני רבך שונאני מן הטהורין שבעה מן הטמאים שנים ואתה שנאתני שאתה מניח ממין שבעה ושולח ממין שנים אם פוגע בי שר חמה או שר צנה לא נמצא עולם חסר בריה אחת או שמא לאשתי אתה צריך,אמר לו רשע במותר לי נאסר לי בנאסר לי לא כ"ש,ומנלן דנאסרו דכתיב (בראשית ו, יח) ובאת אל התיבה אתה ובניך ואשתך ונשי בניך אתך וכתיב (בראשית ח, טז) צא מן התיבה אתה ואשתך ובניך ונשי בניך אתך וא"ר יוחנן מיכן אמרו שנאסרו בתשמיש המטה,ת"ר שלשה שמשו בתיבה וכולם לקו כלב ועורב וחם כלב נקשר עורב רק חם לקה בעורו,(בראשית ח, ח) וישלח את היונה מאתו לראות הקלו המים א"ר ירמיה מכאן שדירתן של עופות טהורים עם הצדיקים,(בראשית ח, יא) והנה עלה זית טרף בפיה א"ר אלעזר אמרה יונה לפני הקב"ה רבש"ע יהיו מזונותי מרורים כזית ומסורים בידך ואל יהיו מתוקים כדבש ומסורים ביד בשר ודם מאי משמע דהאי טרף לישנא דמזוני הוא דכתיב (משלי ל, ח) הטריפני לחם חוקי,(בראשית ח, יט) למשפחותיהם יצאו מן התיבה א"ר יוחנן למשפחותם ולא הם,אמר רב חנא בר ביזנא אמר ליה אליעזר לשם רבא כתיב למשפחותיהם יצאו מן התיבה אתון היכן הויתון א"ל צער גדול היה לנו בתיבה בריה שדרכה להאכילה ביום האכלנוה ביום שדרכה להאכילה בלילה האכלנוה בלילה האי זקיתא לא הוה ידע אבא מה אכלה יומא חד הוה יתיב וקא פאלי רמונא נפל תולעתא מינה אכלה מיכן ואילך הוה גביל לה חיזרא כי מתלע אכלה,אריא אישתא זינתיה דאמר רב לא בציר משיתא ולא טפי מתריסר זינא אישתא אורשינה אשכחיניה אבא דגני בספנא דתיבותא א"ל לא בעית מזוני א"ל חזיתיך דהות טרידא אמינא לא אצערך א"ל יהא רעוא דלא תמות שנאמר (איוב כט, יח) ואומר עם קני אגוע וכחול ארבה ימים,אמר רב חנה בר לואי אמר שם רבא לאליעזר כי אתו עלייכו מלכי מזרח ומערב אתון היכי עבידיתו אמר ליה אייתי הקב"ה לאברהם ואותביה מימיניה והוה שדינן עפרא והוו חרבי גילי והוי גירי שנאמר (תהלים קי, א) מזמור לדוד נאם ה' לאדוני שב לימיני עד אשית אויביך הדום לרגליך וכתיב (ישעיהו מא, ב) מי העיר ממזרח צדק יקראהו לרגלו יתן לפניו גוים ומלכים ירד יתן כעפר חרבו כקש נדף קשתו,נחום איש גם זו הוה רגיל דכל דהוה סלקא ליה אמר גם זו לטובה יומא חד בעו [ישראל] לשדורי דורון לקיסר אמרי בהדי 108b. They said to him: b If so we will not clear a path through vineyards, /b i.e., we will continue to sin., b Rava taught: What /b is the meaning of that b which is written: “A contemptible torch [ i lapid /i ] in the thought of him that is at ease, a thing ready for them whose foot slips” /b (Job 12:5)? This b teaches that Noah the righteous would rebuke /b the people of his generation, b and he said to them statements that are harsh as torches [ i kelapidim /i ], and they would treat him with contempt. They said to him: Old man, why /b are you building b this ark? /b Noah b said to them: The Holy One, Blessed be He, is bringing a flood upon you. They said to him: A flood of what? If it is a flood of fire, we have another item and it is called i alita /i , /b and it is fireproof. b And if /b it is a flood b of water /b that b He brings, if He brings /b the water b from the earth, we have iron plates with which we /b can b plate the earth /b to prevent the water from rising. b And if He brings /b the water b from the heavens, we have an item and it is called i ekev /i , and some say it is called i ikkesh /i , /b which will absorb the water.,Noah b said to them: /b If He wishes b He will bring /b the water b from between your feet /b and you can do nothing to prevent it, b as it is stated: “For them whose foot slips.” It is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b The waters of the flood were /b as b hard /b and thick b as semen, as it is stated: “For them whose foot slips”; /b foot is a euphemism. b Rav Ḥisda says: With hot /b semen b they sinned, and with hot /b water b they were punished. /b As b it is written here, /b at the conclusion of the flood: b “And the waters assuaged” /b (Genesis 8:1), b and it is written there: “Then the king’s wrath was assuaged” /b (Esther 7:10). Just as the term “assuaged” there is referring to the heat of Ahasuerus’s wrath, so too, “assuaged” with regard to the flood is referring to the heat of the waters.,With regard to the verse: b “And it came to pass that after seven days the waters of the flood were upon the earth” /b (Genesis 7:10), the Gemara asks: b What is the nature of /b these b seven /b additional b days? /b , b Rav says: These were the days of mourning /b for the death b of Methuselah; /b and this is b to teach you that eulogies for the righteous prevent calamities from ensuing. Alternatively, “after seven /b days” means b that the Holy One, Blessed be He, altered the order of Creation for /b that generation, i.e., in seven days He reversed the process of Creation, so b that the sun would emerge in the west and set in the east. Alternatively, /b it means b that the Holy One, Blessed be He, designated a substantial period for them, /b one hundred and twenty years, to repent, b and thereafter /b designated b a brief period /b for them, an additional seven days, as a final opportunity for them to repent. b Alternatively, “after seven days” /b means b that /b during those seven days, God b gave them a foretaste /b of the delights b of the World-to-Come, /b which will be actualized during the seventh millennium, b so that they would know what munificence /b their sins b prevented them from /b receiving.,§ With regard to the verse: b “of every kosher animal you shall take to you by sevens, husband and wife” /b (Genesis 7:2), the Gemara asks: b Is there marriage for animals? Rabbi Shmuel bar Naḥmani says /b that b Rabbi Yonatan says: /b The reference is to b those /b animals b with which /b the b transgression /b of relations with another species b was not performed. /b Therefore, the Torah underscores that the animals that entered the ark were husband and wife.,The Gemara asks: b From where did /b Noah b know /b which animals were not involved in that transgression? b Rav Ḥisda says: He passed them before the ark. All /b animals b that the ark accepted, it was known that a transgression had not been performed with them. And any /b animal b that the ark did not accept, it was known that a transgression had been performed with it. Rabbi Abbahu says: /b Noah took onto the ark only b from those /b animals b that came on their own, /b as it appeared that they were sent from Heaven, and they were certainly fit for this purpose.,With regard to the verse: b “Make you an ark of gopher wood” /b (Genesis 6:14), the Gemara asks: b What /b is b gopher /b wood? b Rav Adda says /b that b they say in the school of Rabbi Sheila: This /b is wood from the b i mavliga /i /b tree; b and some say /b that it is wood from the b willow [ i gulamish /i ] /b tree.,With regard to the verse: b “A i tzohar /i you shall make for the ark” /b (Genesis 6:16), b Rabbi Yoḥa says /b that b the Holy One, Blessed be He, said to Noah: Set precious stones and jewels in /b the ark b so that they will shine for you as the afternoon [ i tzohorayim /i ] /b sun.,With regard to the verse: b “And to a cubit you shall finish it above” /b (Genesis 6:16), the Gemara explains b that in that manner, /b having been built wide at its base and narrow at its top, the ark would b stand /b upright and would not capsize.,With regard to the verse: b “With lower, second and third stories shall you make it” /b (Genesis 6:16), it was b taught /b in a i baraita /i : b The bottom /b story was b for manure, the middle /b story was b for animals, and the top /b story was b for people. /b ,With regard to the verse: b “And he sent forth the raven, /b which went forth to and fro, until the waters were dried up from the earth” (Genesis 8:7), b Reish Lakish says: The raven /b provided b a convincing response to Noah; /b when it did not wish to leave the ark the raven b said to him: Your Master, /b God, b hates me, and you hate me. Your Master hates me, /b as He commanded to take b from the kosher /b species b seven /b and b from the non-kosher /b species b two. And you hate me, as you disregard /b those b from the species of seven, /b i.e., the kosher birds, b and /b instead b dispatch /b one b from the species of two, /b i.e., the non-kosher birds. b If the angel of heat or the angel of cold harms me /b and kills me, b will the world not be lacking one /b species of b creature, /b as there was only one pair of ravens? b Or perhaps /b you are sending me because it is b my wife /b that b you need, /b in order to engage in intercourse with her.,Noah b said to /b the raven: b Wicked one! /b If b with /b the woman b who is /b generally b permitted to me, /b my wife, intercourse b is forbidden to me, /b then b with /b regard to domesticated and undomesticated animals, b which are /b generally b forbidden to me, /b is it b not all the more so /b the case that they are forbidden to me?,The Gemara asks: b And from where do we /b derive b that it was prohibited /b for them to engage in intercourse while in the ark? The Gemara answers: It is derived from that b which is written: “And you shall come into the ark, you, and your sons, and your wife, and your sons’ wives with you” /b (Genesis 6:18); b and it is written: “Emerge from the ark, you and your wife, and your sons and your sons’ wives with you” /b (Genesis 8:16). b And Rabbi Yoḥa says: From here, /b the Sages derived and b said that it was prohibited /b to engage b in intercourse /b while in the ark, as when Noah and his family entered, the husbands and wives were listed separately, and when they emerged, the husbands were listed with their wives., b The Sages taught: Three /b violated that directive and b engaged in intercourse /b while b in the ark, and all of them were punished /b for doing so. They are: The b dog, and /b the b raven, and Ham, /b son of Noah. The b dog /b was punished in that it b is bound; /b the b raven /b was punished in that it b spits, /b and b Ham was afflicted in /b that b his skin /b turned black.,With regard to the verse: b “And he sent forth the dove from him, to see if the waters abated” /b (Genesis 8:8), b Rabbi Yirmeya says: From here /b it is derived b that the dwelling place of kosher birds /b in the ark was b with the righteous /b people, as the verse emphasizes that Noah dispatched the dove from his place.,With regard to the verse: b “And in her mouth was an olive branch plucked off [ i taraf /i ]” /b (Genesis 8:11), b Rabbi Elazar says: /b The b dove said before the Holy One, Blessed be He: Master of the Universe, may my sustece be bitter as the olive and dependent on Your hands, and not sweet as honey and dependent on the hands of flesh and blood. /b The Gemara asks: b From where may /b it b be inferred that i taraf /i is a term /b that indicates b sustece? /b The Gemara answers: It is inferred from that b which is written: “Feed me [ i hatrifeni /i ] with my allotted portion” /b (Proverbs 30:8).,With regard to the verse: b “After their kinds [ i lemishpeḥoteihem /i ], they emerged from the ark” /b (Genesis 8:19), b Rabbi Yoḥa says: After their kinds [ i lemishpeḥotam /i ] /b the animals emerged, b but not them [ i hem /i ] /b themselves, as some of the animals that entered the ark died during that year and it was their descendants who emerged., b Rav Ḥana bar Bizna says: Eliezer, /b servant of Abraham, b said to Shem the Great, /b son of Noah: b It is written: “After their kinds, they emerged from the ark,” /b indicating that the different types of animals were not intermingled while in the ark. b Where were you /b and what did you do to care for them while they were in the ark? Shem b said to him: We /b experienced b great suffering in the ark /b caring for the animals. Where there was b a creature that one typically feeds during the day, we fed it during the day, /b and where there was a creature b that one typically feeds at night, we fed it at night. /b With regard to b that chameleon, my father did not know what it eats. One day, /b my father b was sitting and peeling a pomegranate. A worm fell from it /b and the chameleon b ate it. From that point forward /b my father b would knead bran /b with water, and b when it became overrun with worms, /b the chameleon would b eat /b it.,With regard to b the lion, a fever sustained it, /b since when it suffered from a fever, it did not need to eat; b as Rav said: /b For b no fewer than six /b days b and no more than twelve /b days, b fever sustains /b a person; he need not eat and is sustained from his own fats. Shem continued: With regard to the b phoenix [ i avarshina /i ], my father found it lying in /b its compartment on b the side of the ark. He said to /b the bird: b Do you not want food? /b The bird b said to him: I saw that you were busy, /b and b I said I would not trouble you /b by requesting food. Noah b said to /b the bird: b May it be /b God’s b will that you shall not die, /b and through that bird the verse was fulfilled, b as it is stated: “And I said, I shall die in my nest, and I shall multiply my days as the phoenix” /b (Job 29:18).,§ b Rav Ḥana bar Leva’ei says /b that b Shem the Great said to Eliezer, /b servant of Abraham: b When /b the four great b kings of the east and the west came upon you /b to wage war with Abraham, b what did you do? /b Eliezer b said to him: The Holy One, Blessed be He, brought Abraham and placed him to His right, and we would throw dust and it became swords, /b and we threw b straw and it became arrows, as it is stated: “A Psalm of David. The Lord says to my master: Sit to My right, until I make your enemies your footstool” /b (Psalms 110:1), b and it is written: “Who has raised up one from the east at whose steps victory attends? He gives nations before him, and makes him rule over kings; his sword makes them as the dust, his bow as driven straw” /b (Isaiah 41:2).,Apropos Abraham’s miraculous weapons, the Gemara relates: b Naḥum of Gam Zo was accustomed that /b in response to b any /b circumstance b that arose in his /b regard, he b would say: This too [ i gam zo /i ] is for the best. One day the Jewish people sought to send a gift [ i doron /i ] to the emperor. They said: With /b
205. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 93
33b. אין תלמיד חכם רשאי לעמוד מפני רבו אלא שחרית וערבית כדי שלא יהיה כבודו מרובה מכבוד שמים מיתיבי ר' שמעון בן אלעזר אומר מנין לזקן שלא יטריח ת"ל זקן ויראת,ואי אמרת שחרית וערבית בלבד אמאי לא ניטרח חיובא הוא אלא לאו כולי יומא לא לעולם שחרית וערבית בלבד ואפ"ה כמה דאפשר ליה לא ניטרח,אמר ר' אלעזר כל ת"ח שאין עומד מפני רבו נקרא רשע ואינו מאריך ימים ותלמודו משתכח שנאמר (קהלת ח, יג) וטוב לא יהיה לרשע ולא יאריך ימים כצל אשר איננו ירא מלפני האלהים מורא זו איני יודע מהו כשהוא אומר (ויקרא יט, יד) ויראת מאלהיך הרי מורא זו קימה,ואימא מוראת רבית ומוראת משקלות ר' אלעזר פני פני גמר,איבעיא להו בנו והוא רבו מהו לעמוד מפני אביו ת"ש דאמר ליה שמואל לרב יהודה שיננא קום מקמי אבוך שאני רב יחזקאל דבעל מעשים הוה דאפילו מר שמואל נמי קאים מקמיה,אלא מאי קאמר ליה הכי קאמר ליה זימנין דאתי מאחורי קום את מקמיה ולא תיחוש ליקרא דידי,איבעיא להו בנו והוא רבו מהו שיעמוד אביו מפניו ת"ש דאמר ר' יהושע בן לוי אני איני כדי לעמוד מפני בני אלא משום כבוד בית נשיא,טעמא דאנא רביה הא איהו רבאי קאימנא מקמיה ה"ק אני איני כדי לעמוד מפני בני ואפילו הוא רבאי דהא אנא אבוה אלא משום כבוד בית נשיא,איבעיא להו רכוב כמהלך דמי או לא אמר אביי ת"ש טמא יושב תחת האילן וטהור עומד טמא,טמא עומד תחת האילן וטהור יושב טהור ואם ישב הטמא הטהור טמא,וכן באבן המנוגעת ואמר רב נחמן בר כהן זאת אומרת רכוב כמהלך דמי ש"מ,איבעיא להו מהו לעמוד מפני ספר תורה ר' חלקיה ור' סימון ור' אלעזר אמרי קל וחומר מפני לומדיה עומדים מפניה לא כל שכן,ר' אלעי ור' יעקב בר זבדי הוו יתבי חליף ואזיל ר' שמעון בר אבא וקמו מקמיה אמר להו חדא דאתון חכימי ואנא חבר ועוד כלום תורה עומדת מפני לומדיה,סבר לה כר' אלעזר דאמר ר' אלעזר אין ת"ח רשאי לעמוד מפני רבו בשעה שעוסק בתורה לייט עלה אביי,(שמות לג, ח) והביטו אחרי משה עד בואו האהלה ר' אמי ור' יצחק נפחא חד אמר לגנאי וחד אמר לשבח מאן דאמר לגנאי כדאיתא מ"ד לשבח אמר חזקיה,אמר לי ר' חנינא בריה דר' אבהו א"ר אבהו א"ר אבדימי דמן חיפא חכם עובר עומד מלפניו ד' אמות וכיון שעבר ד' אמות יושב אב ב"ד עובר עומד מלפניו מלא עיניו וכיון שעבר ד' אמות יושב נשיא עובר עומד מלפניו מלא עיניו ואינו יושב עד שישב במקומו שנאמר והביטו אחרי משה עד בואו האהלה,כל מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא וכו': ת"ר איזוהי מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא סוכה ולולב שופר וציצית 33b. b A Torah scholar is permitted to stand before his teacher only /b once b in the morning and /b once in the b evening, so that /b the teacher’s b honor should not be greater than the honor of Heaven, /b as one recites the i Shema /i , which is tantamount to greeting God, once in the morning and once in the evening. The Gemara b raises an objection /b from an aforementioned opinion. b Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: From where /b is it derived that b an elder should not trouble /b others to honor him? b The verse states: “An elder, and you shall fear” /b (Leviticus 19:32). The collocation of these words comes to teach that the elder, too, must fear God.,The Gemara explains the objection: b And if you say /b one may stand b only /b in the b morning and evening, why /b does the i baraita /i say an elder b should not trouble /b others? Standing for an elder only twice a day b is an obligation /b for the people, not an imposition. b Rather, /b is it b not /b correct to say b that /b one is obligated to stand before one’s teacher at b any /b point b during the day? /b The Gemara answers: b No; actually /b one is obligated to stand b only /b in b the morning and evening, and even so, as much as it is possible for /b the elder, b he should not trouble /b the people to stand.,§ b Rabbi Elazar said: Any Torah scholar who does not stand before his teacher is called wicked, and he will not live a long life, and his studies will be forgotten, as it is stated: “But it shall not be well for the wicked, neither shall he prolong his days, which are as a shadow, because he does not fear before [ i millifnei /i ] God” /b (Ecclesiastes 8:13). b This fear /b mentioned in the verse, b I do not know what it is. When /b the verse b states: /b “And you shall revere the face [ i penei /i ] of an elder, b and you shall fear your God” /b (Leviticus 19:32), one can deduce b that this fear /b mentioned in the verse b is /b referring to b standing. /b Consequently, this verse teaches with regard to one who does not stand that he is called wicked, he will not live a long life, and his studies will be forgotten, as indicated by the phrase: “It shall not be well.”,The Gemara asks: b But /b why not b say /b that this is referring to b fear of /b God stated with regard to b interest /b (Leviticus 25:36), b or /b the b fear of /b God stated with regard to b weights /b (Deuteronomy 25:13–16), as the fear of God is mentioned with regard to these prohibitions as well. The Gemara answers: b Rabbi Elazar derives /b this i halakha /i through a verbal analogy of b “ i penei /i ” and “ i penei /i ,” /b as explained previously, not from a verbal analogy of the term “fear.”, b A dilemma was raised before them: /b With regard to one who is both a man’s b son and his teacher, what is /b the i halakha /i as to whether that son must b stand before his father? /b The Gemara answers: b Come /b and b hear, as Shmuel said to Rav Yehuda: Big-toothed /b one, b stand before your father. /b Although Rav Yehuda was a great Torah scholar and taught his father, he was still required to stand before him. The Gemara answers: b Rav Yeḥezkel, /b Rav Yehuda’s father, b is different, as he was a man of /b good b deeds, /b and b even Mar Shmuel /b himself b would stand before him. /b ,The Gemara asks: b Rather, what is /b Shmuel b saying /b to Rav Yehuda? If he is not teaching him that one who is his father’s teacher must stand before his father, why did Shmuel say this to Rav Yehuda? The Gemara answers that b this is what /b Shmuel b said to him: Sometimes /b your father b comes from behind me /b and I do not see him or stand before him. Nevertheless, b you should stand before him and do not be concerned about my honor. /b ,Another b dilemma was raised before them, /b with regard to one who is both a man’s b son and his teacher, what is /b the i halakha /i as b to /b whether b the father /b must b stand before /b his son? The Gemara answers: b Come /b and b hear, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: It is not appropriate for me to stand before my son /b solely due to his greatness in Torah, as I am greater than him. b But due to the honor of the household of the i Nasi /i /b I do stand before him, as his son was a son-in-law of the i Nasi /i .,It may be inferred from here that if his son were not in the household of the i Nasi /i he would not stand for him, and b the reason /b was b that /b he could claim: b I am his teacher /b and therefore I am not obligated to stand before him. Accordingly, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi is indicating that if b he were my teacher I would stand before him. /b The Gemara rejects this proof: b This is what /b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi b is saying: It is not appropriate for me to stand before my son, even /b if b he /b were b my teacher, as I am his father. But due to the honor of the household of the i Nasi /i /b I do stand before him., b A dilemma was raised before them: /b If one’s teacher is b riding /b on an animal, is that considered b like walking, /b and therefore one must stand before him, b or /b is he b not /b obligated to stand before him, since he is stationary relative to the animal? b Abaye said: Come /b and b hear /b a resolution from a different issue ( i Nega’im /i 13:7): If a leper, who is b ritually impure /b and transfers impurity through a tent, i.e., anyone who enters the location of the leper is rendered impure, b is sitting under /b the branches of b a tree, /b which form a tent over him, b and a pure /b person b is standing /b under that tree, the pure person is rendered b impure. /b ,If the b impure /b person b is standing under the tree and the pure /b person b is sitting /b there, he remains b pure. /b In this case, as the impure person is not settled there, he does not impart ritual impurity in a tent. b But if the impure /b person b sat /b and established his place there, b the pure /b individual is rendered b impure. /b ,That mishna adds: b And the same /b i halakha /i applies b with regard to a stone afflicted /b with a leprous b sore /b (see Leviticus, chapter 14), which also imparts impurity of a tent. If one carrying a stone of this kind sits under a tree, a pure person standing under the tree is rendered impure, whereas if the person carrying the stone stands, he does not render the other individual impure. b And Rav Naḥman bar Kohen says: That is to say /b that b riding is /b considered b like walking, /b as although the stone is stationary relative to the person, it is considered to be moving. b Conclude from it /b that in all cases riding is like walking., b A dilemma was raised before them: What is /b the i halakha /i as b to /b whether one should b stand before a Torah scroll? Rabbi Ḥilkiya and Rabbi Simon and Rabbi Elazar say /b that this dilemma can be resolved by b an i a fortiori /i /b inference: If b one stands before those who study /b the Torah, is it b not all the more so /b true that one should stand b before /b the Torah itself?,The Gemara relates: b Rabbi Elai and Rabbi Ya’akov bar Zavdi were sitting /b and studying Torah. b Rabbi Shimon bar Abba passed before them and they stood before him. /b Rabbi Shimon bar Abba b said to them: /b You are not obligated to do this, for two reasons. b One /b reason is b that that you are /b ordained b scholars and I /b am only b an associate, /b i.e., he had not been ordained. b And furthermore, does the Torah stand before those who study it? /b Since you are engaged in Torah study at the present moment you are not required to stand before a Torah scholar.,The Gemara comments: Rabbi Shimon bar Abba b holds in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Elazar, as Rabbi Elazar says: A Torah scholar may not stand before his teacher when he is studying Torah, /b because he is engaged in honoring the Torah itself. The Gemara adds: Even so, b Abaye cursed /b anyone who acted in accordance with this ruling, as he would give the appearance of one who disrespected his teacher.,§ The Gemara continues to discuss the mitzva of standing before a Torah scholar. With regard to the verse: b “And they looked after Moses until he was gone into the tent” /b (Exodus 33:8), b Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa /b disputed its correct interpretation. b One said /b that this is stated b unfavorably, and one said /b that it is meant b favorably. The one who said /b it was stated b unfavorably /b explains the verse b as it is /b interpreted in the midrash. b The one who said /b it was stated b favorably /b interprets the verse in accordance with that which b Ḥizkiyya says. /b ,As Ḥizkiyya says: b Rabbi Ḥanina, son of Rabbi Abbahu, said to me /b that b Rabbi Abbahu says /b that b Rabbi Avdimi of Haifa says: /b If a Torah b scholar /b is b passing, one stands before him /b if he passes within b four cubits /b of him, b and once he passes four cubits /b from him b he sits. /b If the b president of the court /b is b passing, one stands before him /b as soon as he comes b within his range of vision. And once he passes four cubits /b from him, b he sits. /b If the b i Nasi /i /b is b passing, one stands before him /b as soon as he comes b within his range of vision, and he does not sit until /b the i Nasi /i b sits in his place, as it is stated: “And they looked after Moses until he was gone into the tent,” /b and only afterward did they sit. According to this interpretation, the verse is praising the behavior of the Jews.,§ The mishna teaches that women are exempt from b all positive, time-bound mitzvot. The Sages taught: What is a positive, time-bound mitzva? /b Examples include residing in b a i sukka /i , and /b taking the b i lulav /i , /b and blowing the b shofar /b on Rosh HaShana, all of which can be performed only at specific times of the year. b And /b another example is donning b ritual fringes, /b as the mitzva applies only during the daytime due to the verse which states: “Fringes, that you may look upon them” (Numbers 15:39), indicating that the fringes should be seen.
206. Babylonian Talmud, Pesahim, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 439
70a. לאו חובה היא דאי סלקא דעתך חובה היא תיתי בשבת ותיתי במרובה ותיתי בטומאה,ובמועט מיהו מ"ט אתיא כדתניא חגיגה הבאה עם הפסח נאכלת תחילה כדי שיהא פסח נאכל על השבע:,ונאכלת לשני ימים וכו': מתני' דלא כבן תימא דתניא בן תימא אומר חגיגה הבאה עם הפסח הרי היא כפסח ואינה נאכלת אלא ליום ולילה וחגיגת חמשה עשר נאכלת לשני ימים ולילה אחד,וחגיגת ארבעה עשר יוצא בה משום שמחה ואין יוצא בה משום חגיגה,מ"ט דבן תימא כדמתני רב לחייא בריה (שמות לד, כה) ולא ילין לבקר זבח חג הפסח זבח חג זה חגיגה הפסח כמשמעו ואמר רחמנא לא ילין,איבעיא להו לבן תימא נאכלת צלי או אין נאכלת צלי כי אקשיה רחמנא לפסח ללינה אבל לצלי לא או דילמא לא שנא,ת"ש הלילה הזה כולו צלי ואמר רב חסדא זו דברי בן תימא שמע מינה,איבעיא להו לבן תימא באה מן הבקר או אינה באה מן הבקר באה מן הנקבות או אינה באה מן הנקבות באה בת שתי שנים או אינה באה בת שתי שנים,כי אקשיה רחמנא לפסח למידי דאכילה אבל לכל מילי לא או דילמא לא שנא,ת"ש חגיגה הבאה עם הפסח הרי היא כפסח באה מן הצאן ואינה באה מן הבקר באה מן הזכרים ואינה באה מן הנקבות באה בת שנתה ואינה באה בת שתי שנים ואינה נאכלת אלא ליום ולילה ואינה נאכלת אלא צלי ואינה נאכלת אלא למנויו,מאן שמעת ליה דאית ליה האי סברא בן תימא שמע מינה כולהו מילתא בעינן ש"מ,איבעיא להו לבן תימא יש בה משום שבירת עצם או אין בה משום שבירת העצם אע"ג דכי אקשיה רחמנא לפסח אמר קרא בו בו ולא בחגיגה או דילמא האי בו בכשר ולא בפסול הוא דאתא,ת"ש סכין שנמצאת בארבעה עשר שוחט בה מיד בשלשה עשר שונה ומטביל קופיץ בין בזה ובין בזה שונה ומטביל,מני אילימא רבנן מאי שנא סכין דמטביל דחזיא לפסח קופיץ נמי הא חזי לחגיגה,אלא לאו דבן תימא היא ושמע מינה יש בה משום שבירת העצם,לא לעולם רבנן וכגון שבא בשבת,והא מדקתני סיפא חל ארבעה עשר להיות בשבת שוחט בה מיד ובחמשה עשר שוחט בה מיד נמצאת קופיץ קשורה לסכין הרי היא כסכין מכלל דרישא לאו בשבת עסקינן,ואלא שבא 70a. b is not an obligation, /b meaning there is no Torah obligation to bring this offering. b For if it should enter your mind /b to say that b it is an obligation, it should come /b even b on Shabbat, and it should come /b even when each member of the group will receive b a large /b portion of the Paschal lamb, b and it should come /b even b in /b a state of b ritual impurity. /b ,The Gemara asks: If there is no obligation to bring this offering, b what is the reason that it nevertheless comes /b when each person’s portion of the Paschal lamb is b small? /b The Gemara explains that the reason is b as it was taught /b in a i baraita /i : b The Festival peace-offering that comes with the Paschal lamb is eaten first; /b the reason for this is b so that the Paschal lamb will be eaten when /b one is already b satiated. /b The Paschal lamb should not be eaten in a needy manner, but rather in joy and when one is already filled to satisfaction.,The mishna taught that the Festival peace-offering of the fourteenth b is eaten for two days /b and the intervening night. The Gemara notes that b the mishna is not in accordance with /b the opinion of b ben Teima, for it was taught /b in a i baraita /i that b ben Teima says: The Festival peace-offering that comes with the Paschal lamb /b on the fourteenth of Nisan b is like the Paschal lamb and is eaten for only a day and a night, /b whereas b the Festival peace-offering of the fifteenth, /b i.e., the Festival peace-offering brought on the first day of Passover, just as it is brought on the first day of each of the other Festivals, is treated like a regular peace-offering and b is eaten for two days and one, /b i.e., the intervening, b night. /b , b And /b if one consecrated an animal to be used as b a Festival peace-offering of the fourteenth, /b but it was not slaughtered on that day, on the next day b he can fulfill with it /b his obligation to bring a peace-offering of b rejoicing, /b as it is stated: “And you shall rejoice on your Festival,” but b he cannot fulfill with it /b his obligation to bring a b Festival peace-offering /b of the fifteenth.,The Gemara asks: b What is the reason /b and scriptural basis b for ben Teima’s /b opinion? The Gemara explains: b As Rav taught his son Ḥiyya /b based on the following verse: b “Neither shall the offering of the feast of the Passover be left to the morning” /b (Exodus 34:25). b “The offering of the feast,” this /b is referring to b the Festival peace-offering; “the Passover,” as per its plain meaning, /b i.e., this is referring to the Paschal lamb itself. b And /b with regard to both sacrifices, b the Merciful One states /b in the Torah: b “It shall not be left /b to the morning.” This proves that the Festival peace-offering may be eaten for only a day and a night., b A dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: b According to /b the opinion of b ben Teima, is /b the Festival peace-offering that is brought with the Paschal lamb b eaten roasted /b like the Paschal lamb itself b or is it not eaten roasted? /b The possible considerations are as follows: b When the Merciful One compares /b the Festival peace-offering b to the Paschal lamb /b in the Torah, was that only b with regard to leaving /b it b over /b until the morning, b but with regard to /b the mitzva of b roasting, no /b such comparison is made? b Or perhaps there is no difference; /b the comparison was complete, and the Festival peace-offering is roasted just like the Paschal lamb.,The Gemara suggests: b Come /b and b hear /b a solution from what was taught in a mishna: In the time of the Temple, one of the questions that the children would ask on the night of Passover was: How is this night different from all other nights? For on all other nights we eat meat that is roasted, stewed, or boiled, whereas b on this night it is all roasted. And Rav Ḥisda said: This is the statement of ben Teima, /b indicating that even the Festival peace-offering of the fourteenth must be roasted. The Gemara concludes: b Learn from this /b that the Festival peace-offering must be roasted just like the Paschal lamb.,Another b dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: b According to /b the opinion of b ben Teima, does /b the Festival peace-offering of the fourteenth b come from the herd or does it not come from the herd, /b like the Paschal offering, which must be brought from the flock? b Does it come /b even b from females or does it not come from females, /b just like the Paschal offering comes only from males? b Does it come /b even from b a two-year-old /b animal b or does it not come /b from b a two-year-old /b animal, but rather only from a one-year-old animal, like the Paschal offering itself?,The Gemara explains that this dilemma is based on a fundamental question similar to the one raised earlier: b When the Merciful One compares /b the Festival peace-offering b to the Paschal lamb /b in the Torah, was that only b with regard to matters /b pertaining to b eating /b and the time during which the Paschal lamb must be eaten, b but for everything /b else there is b no /b comparison? b Or perhaps there is no difference /b and the Torah compared these two offerings in every way., b Come /b and b hear /b an answer to these questions from what was taught in a i baraita /i : b The Festival peace-offering that comes with the Paschal offering /b on the fourteenth of Nisan b is like the Paschal offering /b in every respect. b It comes from the flock and does not come from the herd, it comes from males and does not come from females, it comes /b from an animal that is b a year old and does not come /b from an animal that is b two years old, and it is eaten for only a day and a night, and it is eaten only roasted, and it is eaten only by those who registered for it /b in advance.,The Gemara explains how this i baraita /i answers the questions raised above: b Who have you heard adopts this reasoning, /b comparing the Paschal offering and the Festival peace-offering of the fourteenth? Surely it is b ben Teima. Learn from this /b that b we require everything, /b that the Festival peace-offering of the fourteenth must parallel the Paschal offering in all its details. The Gemara concludes: Indeed, b learn from this /b that they are comparable in every way.,Yet another b dilemma was raised before /b the Sages: b According to /b the opinion of b ben Teima, is /b the Festival peace-offering of the fourteenth b subject to /b the prohibition against b breaking a bone, /b as is the Paschal lamb, with regard to which the Torah explicitly states: “And you shall not break a bone in it” (Exodus 12:46), b or is it not subject to /b the prohibition against b breaking a bone? /b The possible considerations are as follows: Do we say that b even though the Merciful One compares /b the Festival peace-offering b to the Paschal lamb, the verse /b that teaches the prohibition against breaking a bone b says “in it,” /b and these words serve as a qualifying statement, indicating that the prohibition applies only b in it, /b the Paschal lamb, b and not in the Festival peace-offering /b that comes with it? b Or perhaps this /b term, b “in it,” /b teaches that the prohibition applies only b to a fit /b Paschal lamb b but not to a disqualified /b one.,The Gemara proposes: b Come /b and b hear /b a solution based on the following mishna: If b a /b slaughtering b knife was found on the fourteenth /b day of Nisan in Jerusalem, b one may slaughter with it immediately /b without concern that perhaps it is ritually impure, for presumably any knife that is valid for slaughtering had already been immersed on the previous day so that it could be used for slaughtering the Paschal lamb. But if it was found b on the thirteenth /b day of Nisan, b he must immerse /b it b again /b due to the possibility that it had not yet been immersed and purified.As for b a cleaver [ i kofitz /i ], /b a large knife that is used primarily for chopping bones, b whether /b it was found b on this /b day, the fourteenth, b or on the other /b day, the thirteenth, b he must immerse /b it b again. /b ,The Gemara clarifies: b Whose /b opinion is taught in this mishna? b If you say it is /b the opinion of b the Rabbis, /b who permit breaking the bones of the Festival peace-offering of the fourteenth, b what is different /b about a slaughtering b knife /b found on the fourteenth b that /b we say its owner presumably b immersed /b it on the previous day? Is it b because it is fit for /b slaughtering b the Paschal lamb? /b If so, b a cleaver /b found on the fourteenth should b also /b not require immersion before being used, for presumably its owner already immersed it, as b it is fit for /b chopping the bones of b the Festival peace-offering. /b , b Rather, is it not /b the opinion of b ben Teima, and learn from this /b that even the Festival peace-offering of the fourteenth b is subject to /b the prohibition against b breaking a bone, /b and therefore a cleaver must be immersed again even if it was found on the fourteenth. Since no bones may be broken on the fourteenth of Nisan, neither those of the Paschal lamb nor those of the Festival peace-offering, it is possible that the knife was not immersed in preparation for the Festival.,The Gemara rejects this proof: b No, actually /b one can explain that the mishna reflects the opinion of b the Rabbis, and /b it is referring to a case b where /b the time to slaughter the Paschal lamb b comes on Shabbat. /b In this circumstance, all agree that the Festival peace-offering of the fourteenth is not sacrificed. Since there is no need for a cleaver, there is no reason to assume that the knife had been immersed in preparation for the Festival.,The Gemara asks: b But from the fact that the latter clause /b of that same mishna b teaches /b that b if the fourteenth /b of Nisan b occurred on Shabbat he may slaughter with /b the knife b immediately, /b without immersing it, and similarly, if he found it b on the fifteenth, /b i.e., on the first day of the Festival, b he may slaughter with it immediately, /b as it was certainly immersed the day before, and b if a cleaver was found tied to /b a slaughtering b knife, /b then even if it was found on the fourteenth on a weekday, b it is like the /b slaughtering b knife, /b as they were certainly immersed together, it follows b by inference that /b in b the first clause /b of the mishna b we are not dealing with /b a case where the fourteenth of Nisan occurred on b Shabbat. /b , b Rather, /b this understanding must be rejected and instead we should say that the mishna is talking about a case where the Paschal lamb b came /b
207. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 104
24a. כל לנטורינהו טפי עדיף והיכא מנח להו אמר ר' ירמיה בין כר לכסת שלא כנגד ראשו,והא תני רבי חייא מניחן בכובע תחת מראשותיו דמפיק ליה למורשא דכובע לבר,בר קפרא צייר להו בכילתא ומפיק למורשהון לבר רב שישא בריה דרב אידי מנח להו אשרשיפא ופריס סודרא עלוייהו,אמר רב המנונא בריה דרב יוסף זימנא חדא הוה קאימנא קמיה דרבא ואמר לי זיל אייתי לי תפילין ואשכחתינהו בין כר לכסת שלא כנגד ראשו והוה ידענא דיום טבילה הוה ולאגמורן הלכה למעשה הוא דעבד,בעי מיניה רב יוסף בריה דרב נחוניא מרב יהודה שנים שישנים במטה אחת מהו שזה יחזיר פניו ויקרא ק"ש וזה יחזיר פניו ויקרא ק"ש א"ל הכי אמר שמואל ואפילו אשתו עמו,מתקיף לה רב יוסף אשתו ולא מיבעיא אחר אדרבה אשתו כגופו אחר לאו כגופו,מיתיבי שנים שישנים במטה אחת זה מחזיר פניו וקורא וזה מחזיר פניו וקורא ותניא אחריתי הישן במטה ובניו ובני ביתו בצדו הרי זה לא יקרא ק"ש אא"כ היתה טלית מפסקת ביניהן ואם היו בניו ובני ביתו קטנים מותר,בשלמא לרב יוסף לא קשיא הא באשתו הא באחר אלא לשמואל קשיא,אמר לך שמואל לרב יוסף מי ניחא והתניא היה ישן במטה ובניו ובני ביתו במטה לא יקרא ק"ש אא"כ היתה טליתו מפסקת ביניהן אלא מאי אית לך למימר אשתו לרב יוסף תנאי היא לדידי נמי תנאי היא:,אמר מר זה מחזיר פניו וקורא ק"ש והא איכא עגבות מסייע ליה לרב הונא דא"ר הונא עגבות אין בהם משום ערוה לימא מסייע ליה לרב הונא האשה יושבת וקוצה לה חלתה ערומה מפני שיכולה לכסות פניה בקרקע אבל לא האיש,תרגמה רב נחמן בר יצחק כגון שהיו פניה טוחות בקרקע:,אמר מר אם היו בניו ובני ביתו קטנים מותר ועד כמה אמר רב חסדא תינוקת בת שלש שנים ויום אחד ותינוק בן ט' שנים ויום אחד איכא דאמרי תינוקת בת י"א שנה ויום אחד ותינוק בן שתים עשרה שנה ויום אחד אידי ואידי עד כדי (יחזקאל טז, ז) שדים נכונו ושערך צמח,א"ל רב כהנא לרב אשי התם אמר רבא אע"ג דתיובתא דשמואל הלכתא כוותיה דשמואל הכא מאי אמר ליה אטו כולהו בחדא מחתא מחתינהו אלא היכא דאיתמר איתמר והיכא דלא איתמר לא איתמר,א"ל רב מרי לרב פפא שער יוצא בבגדו מהו קרא עליה שער שער:,א"ר יצחק טפח באשה ערוה למאי אילימא לאסתכולי בה והא א"ר ששת למה מנה הכתוב תכשיטין שבחוץ עם תכשיטין שבפנים לומר לך כל המסתכל באצבע קטנה של אשה כאילו מסתכל במקום התורף,אלא באשתו ולק"ש,אמר רב חסדא שוק באשה ערוה שנאמר (ישעיהו מז, ב) גלי שוק עברי נהרות וכתיב (ישעיהו מז, ג) תגל ערותך וגם תראה חרפתך אמר שמואל קול באשה ערוה שנא' (שיר השירים ב, יד) כי קולך ערב ומראך נאוה אמר רב ששת שער באשה ערוה שנא' (שיר השירים ד, א) שערך כעדר העזים:,אמר ר' חנינא אני ראיתי את רבי שתלה תפיליו מיתיבי התולה תפיליו יתלו לו חייו,דורשי חמורות אמרו (דברים כח, סו) והיו חייך תלואים לך מנגד זה התולה תפיליו,לא קשיא הא ברצועה הא בקציצה,ואיבעית אימא לא שנא רצועה ולא שנא קציצה אסור וכי תלה רבי בכיסתא תלה,אי הכי מאי למימרא מהו דתימא תיבעי הנחה כספר תורה קמ"ל:,ואמר ר' חנינא אני ראיתי את רבי שגיהק ופיהק ונתעטש ורק 24a. Because b whatever /b offers more b protection is preferable /b even at the cost of deprecation. b And where /b under his head b does he place them? Rabbi Yirmeya said: /b He places them b between the pillow and the mattress, not /b directly b aligned with his head /b but rather a bit to the side.,The Gemara asks: b Didn’t Rabbi Ḥiyya teach a /b i baraita /i that in that case b he places them in a pouch /b used for phylacteries, directly b under his head? /b The Gemara replies: He does so in a manner b that the bulge /b in the b pouch, /b where the phylacteries are, b protrudes out /b and is not beneath his head.,On this note, the Gemara relates that b Bar Kappara would tie them in /b his b bed curtain and project their bulge outward. Rav Sheisha, son of Rav Idi, would place them on a bench and spread a cloth over them. /b , b Rav Hamnuna, son of Rav Yosef, said: I was once standing before Rava and he told me: Go /b and b bring me /b my b phylacteries. And I found them /b in his bed, b between the mattress and the pillow, not aligned with his head. And I knew /b that b it was the day of /b his wife’s b immersion /b in the ritual bath for purification from the ritual impurity of a menstruating woman, and he certainly engaged in marital relations in order to fulfill the mitzva, b and he did so, /b he sent me to bring him his phylacteries, b to teach us the practical i halakha /i /b in that case., b Rav Yosef, son of Rav Neḥunya, /b who raised a dilemma above, b raised a dilemma before Rav Yehuda: Two individuals sleeping in a single bed, /b given that it was standard practice to sleep without clothing, b what is /b the i halakha /i ; is it permissible b for this /b one b to turn his head /b aside b and recite i Shema /i and for that /b one b turns his head and recites i Shema /i ; /b or is it prohibited because they are unclothed and are considered unfit to recite i Shema /i even though they are covered with a blanket? b He said to him: Shmuel said as follows: /b This is permitted b even /b if b his wife /b is in bed b with him. /b , b Rav Yosef strongly objects to /b this response: You say that he is permitted to recite i Shema /i in bed with b his wife, and needless to say /b he is permitted to do so when in bed with b another. On the contrary, /b since b his wife is like his own flesh, /b and he will not have lustful thoughts of her, it is permitted; b another is not like his own flesh /b and it is prohibited.,The Gemara b raises an objection /b to this from the resolution of an apparent contradiction between two i baraitot /i . It was taught in one i baraita /i : b Two /b unclothed b individuals who are sleeping in a single bed, this /b one b turns his head /b aside b and recites /b i Shema /i b and that /b one b turns his head /b aside b and recites /b i Shema /i . b And it was taught in another /b i baraita /i : b One who is sleeping in bed and his /b unclothed b children and members of his household are beside him, may not recite i Shema /i unless a garment separates between them. If his children and the members of his household were minors, it is permitted /b to recite i Shema /i even without a garment separating between them., b Granted, according to Rav Yosef, /b the apparent contradiction between the two i baraitot /i b is not difficult, /b as b this /b i baraita /i is referring to a case b where his wife /b is in the bed with him, b while this /b other i baraita /i is referring to a case b where another /b person is in bed with him and there is concern lest he will have lustful thoughts. b However, according to Shmuel, /b who permits one to recite i Shema /i regardless of who is in bed with him, b it is /b indeed b difficult. /b How would he interpret the i baraita /i that prohibits?,The Gemara replies: b Shmuel /b could have b said to you: And according to Rav Yosef’s /b opinion, b does it /b work out b well? Wasn’t it taught /b in that same i baraita /i that b one who is sleeping in bed and his children and members of his household are beside him, may not recite i Shema /i unless a garment separates between them? /b Doesn’t Rav Yosef hold that his wife is like his own flesh and no separation is necessary? b Rather, what have you to say /b in response? b Rav Yosef holds that there is a tannaitic /b dispute in the case of b one’s wife; I, too, hold that it is a tannaitic /b dispute, and I accept the ruling of one of the i baraitot /i .,The Gemara reverts to clarify something mentioned above. b The Master said /b in a i baraita /i : b This /b one b turns his head /b aside b and recites i Shema. /i /b The Gemara notes a difficulty: b Aren’t there /b bare b buttocks? /b This b supports /b the opinion of b Rav Huna, as Rav Huna said: Buttocks do not constitute nakedness. Let us say /b that the following mishna b supports Rav Huna’s /b opinion: b A woman sits and separates her i ḥalla /i naked, /b despite the fact that she must recite a blessing over the separation of the i ḥalla /i , b because she can cover her face, /b a euphemism for her genitals, b in the ground, but a male, /b whose genitals are not covered when he sits, may b not /b do so. The mishna teaches that exposed buttocks do not constitute nakedness., b Rav Naḥman bar Yitzḥak interpreted /b the mishna as referring to b a case where her face, /b genitals, b was completely covered in the ground /b such that her posterior was covered by the ground. Therefore, proof for Rav Huna’s opinion cannot be brought from this mishna., b The Master said /b in a i baraita /i : b If his children and the members of his household were minors, /b even though they are unclothed, b it is permitted /b to recite i Shema /i even without a garment separating between them. The Gemara asks: b Until what /b age is one still considered a minor? b Rav Ḥisda said: A girl /b until she is b three years and one day old, and a boy /b until b he is nine years and one day old, /b for these are the ages from which a sexual act in which they participate is considered a sexual act. b Some say: A girl eleven years and one day old and a boy of twelve years and one day old, /b as that is the age at which they are considered adults in this regard. This age is only approximate, as the age of majority for both b this, /b the boy, b and that, /b the girl, is b at /b the onset of puberty in accordance with the verse: b “Your breasts were formed and your hair was grown” /b (Ezekiel 16:7)., b Rav Kahana said to Rav Ashi: There, /b with regard to the law of phylacteries, b Rava said: Despite a conclusive refutation /b of the opinion b of Shmuel, the i halakha /i is in accordance with /b the opinion b of Shmuel. Here, what /b is the ruling? b He said to him: Were all of them woven in the same /b act of b weaving? /b Are there no distinctions between different cases? b Rather, where it is stated, it is stated, and where it is not stated, it is not stated, /b and there is no comparison., b Rav Mari said to Rav Pappa: /b Does it constitute nakedness b if one’s /b pubic b hair protruded from his garment? /b Rav Pappa said b about him: A hair, a hair. /b You are splitting hairs and being pedantic over trivialities., b Rabbi Yitzḥak stated: An /b exposed b handbreadth in a woman /b constitutes b nakedness. /b The Gemara asks: Regarding b which /b i halakha /i was this said? b If you say /b that it comes to prohibit b looking at /b an exposed handbreadth in b her, didn’t Rav Sheshet say: Why did the verse enumerate /b “anklets and bracelets, rings, earrings and girdles” (Numbers 31:50), b jewelry that is /b worn b externally, /b over her clothing, e.g., bracelets, b together with jewelry /b worn b internally, /b beneath her clothing, near her nakedness, e.g., girdles? This was b to tell you: Anyone who gazes upon a woman’s little finger /b is considered b as if he gazed upon her /b naked b genitals, /b for if his intentions are impure, it makes no difference where he looks or how much is exposed; even less than a handbreadth., b Rather, /b it is referring even to b his wife, with regard to /b the b recitation of i Shema /i . /b One may not recite i Shema /i before an exposed handbreadth of his wife.,Along these lines, b Rav Ḥisda said: /b Even b a woman’s /b exposed b leg /b is considered b nakedness, as it is stated: “Uncover the leg and pass through the rivers” /b (Isaiah 47:2), b and it is written /b in the following verse: b “Your nakedness shall be revealed and your shame shall be seen” /b (Isaiah 47:3). b Shmuel /b further b stated: A woman’s /b singing b voice is /b considered b nakedness, /b which he derives from the praise accorded a woman’s voice, b as it is stated: “Sweet is your voice and your countece is alluring” /b (Song of Songs 2:14). Similarly, b Rav Sheshet stated: /b Even b a woman’s hair is /b considered b nakedness, /b for it too is praised, b as it is written: “Your hair is like a flock of goats, /b trailing down from Mount Gilead” (Song of Songs 4:1).,The Gemara resumes its discussion of phylacteries. b Rabbi Ḥanina said: I saw Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b hang his phylacteries. /b The Gemara b raises an objection: /b It was taught in a i baraita /i that b one who hangs his phylacteries will have his life hang /b in the balance.,Moreover, b the Symbolic Interpreters /b of the Torah b said /b that the verse: b “And your life shall hang in doubt before you [ i minneged /i ]” /b (Deuteronomy 28:66), that is the punishment of b one who hangs his phylacteries. /b ,The Gemara replies: This apparent contradiction b is not difficult, as this /b i baraita /i , which condemns one who hangs his phylacteries, refers to one who hangs them b by the strap, /b allowing the leather boxes into which the parchment is placed to dangle in a deprecating way, which is certainly prohibited. b That /b i baraita /i , which relates that Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi would hang his phylacteries and that it is clearly permitted, refers to when one hangs them b from the box /b with the straps dangling., b And if you wish, say /b another explanation instead: b There is no difference /b whether he hangs the phylacteries from the b strap and there is no difference /b whether he hangs the phylacteries from b the box; /b both b are prohibited. And when Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b hung /b his phylacteries, b he hung them in /b their b pouch. /b ,The Gemara asks: b If so, what /b is the purpose b to relate /b that incident? The Gemara replies: b Lest you say /b that phylacteries b would require placement /b atop a surface, b as /b is the custom with b a Torah scroll. /b Therefore, b it teaches us /b that this is unnecessary.,Since Rabbi Ḥanina related a story involving Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi, the Gemara cites another such story. b Rabbi Ḥanina said: I saw Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi, while he was praying, b belch, yawn, sneeze, spit, /b
208. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 80
81b. ולא ממקום שהוא רואה את החמה שנאמר (דברים לג, יד) וממגד תבואות שמש:,ומעין היוצא תחילה בני העיר מסתפקין ממנו אמר רבה בר רב הונא ונותן לו דמים ולית הלכתא כוותיה:,ומחכין בימה של טבריא ובלבד שלא יפרוס קלע ויעמיד את הספינה אבל צד הוא ברשתות ובמכמרות ת"ר בראשונה התנו שבטים זה עם זה שלא יפרוס קליעה ויעמיד את הספינה אבל צד הוא ברשתות ובמכמרות,תנו רבנן ימה של טבריא בחלקו של נפתלי היתה ולא עוד אלא שנטל מלא חבל חרם בדרומה לקיים מה שנאמר (דברים לג, כג) ים ודרום ירשה,תניא רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר תלושין שבהרים בחזקת כל השבטים הן עומדים ומחוברים בחזקת אותו השבט,ואין לך כל שבט ושבט מישראל שאין לו בהר ובשפלה ובנגב ובעמק שנאמר (דברים א, ז) פנו וסעו לכם ובאו הר האמורי ואל כל שכניו בערבה בהר בשפלה ובנגב ובחוף הים וגו' וכן אתה מוצא בכנענים ובפריזים ובאמוריים שלפניהם שנאמר ואל כל שכניו אלמא שכניו הכי הוו:,ונפנין לאחורי הגדר ואפילו בשדה שהיא מלאה כרכום אמר רב אחא בר יעקב לא נצרכה אלא ליטול הימנו צרור אמר רב חסדא ואפילו בשבת מר זוטרא חסידא שקיל ומהדר וא"ל לשמעיה (למחר) זיל שירקיה:,ומהלכין בשבילי הרשות עד שתרד רביעה שניה אמר רב פפא והאי דידן אפילו טל קשי לה:,ומסלקין לצידי הדרכים מפני יתידות הדרכים שמואל ורב יהודה הוו שקלי ואזלי באורחא הוה מסתלק שמואל לצידי הדרכים א"ל רב יהודה תנאין שהתנה יהושע אפילו בבבל א"ל שאני אומר אפילו בחוצה לארץ,רבי ורבי חייא הוו שקלי ואזלי באורחא אסתלקו לצידי הדרכים הוה קא מפסיע ואזיל ר' יהודה בן קנוסא קמייהו א"ל רבי לרבי חייא מי הוא זה שמראה גדולה בפנינו,א"ל ר' חייא שמא ר' יהודה בן קנוסא תלמידי הוא וכל מעשיו לשם שמים כי מטו לגביה חזייה א"ל אי לאו יהודה בן קנוסא את גזרתינהו לשקך בגיזרא דפרזלא:,התועה בין הכרמים מפסיג ויורד מפסיג ועולה: ת"ר הרואה חבירו תועה בין הכרמים מפסיג ועולה מפסיג ויורד עד שמעלהו לעיר או לדרך וכן הוא שתועה בין הכרמים מפסיג ועולה מפסיג ויורד עד שיעלה לעיר או לדרך,מאי וכן מהו דתימא חבירו הוא דידע להיכא מסלק דניפסוג אבל הוא דלא ידע להיכא קא סליק לא ניפסוג נהדריה נהדר בי מיצרי קמ"ל,הא דאורייתא הוא דתניא השבת גופו מניין ת"ל (דברים כב, ב) והשבותו,דאורייתא הוא דקאי בי מיצרי אתא הוא תקין דמפסיג ועולה מפסיג ויורד:,ומת מצוה קנה מקומו: ורמינהי המוצא מת מוטל באיסרטיא מפנהו לימין איסרטיא או לשמאל איסרטיא שדה בור ושדה ניר מפנהו לשדה בור,שדה ניר ושדה זרע מפנהו לשדה ניר היו שתיהן בורות שתיהן נירות שתיהן זרועות מפנהו למקום שירצה,אמר רב ביבי במוטל על המיצר מתוך שניתן לפנותו מפנהו לכל מקום שירצה,אמרי עשרה הני חד סרי הויין מהלכין בשבילי הרשות שלמה אמרה,כדתניא הרי שכלו פירותיו מן השדה ואינו מניח בני אדם ליכנס בתוך שדהו מה הבריות אומרות עליו מה הנאה יש לפלוני ומה הבריות מזיקות לו עליו הכתוב אומר מהיות טוב אל תקרי רע ומי כתיב מהיות טוב אל תקרי רע אין כתיב כי האי גוונא (משלי ג, כז) אל תמנע טוב מבעליו בהיות לאל ידך לעשות,ותו ליכא והא איכא דרבי יהודה דתניא רבי יהודה אומר בשעת הוצאת זבלים אדם מוציא זבלו לרה"ר וצוברו כל שלשים כדי שיהא נישוף ברגלי אדם וברגלי בהמה שעל מנת כן הנחיל יהושע לישראל את הארץ,והא איכא דר' ישמעאל בנו של ר' יוחנן בן ברוקה דתניא רבי ישמעאל בנו של ר' יוחנן בן ברוקה אומר תנאי ב"ד הוא שיהא זה יורד לתוך שדה חבירו וקוצץ שוכו של חבירו להציל נחיל שלו ונותן לו דמי שוכו של חבירו,ותנאי ב"ד הוא שיהא זה שופך יינו ומציל דובשנו של חבירו ונוטל דמי יינו מתוך דובשנו של חבירו ותנאי ב"ד הוא שיהא זה מפרק את עציו וטוען פשתנו של חבירו ונוטל דמי עציו מתוך פשתנו של חבירו שעל מנת כן הנחיל יהושע לישראל את הארץ,ביחידאי לא קאמרינן 81b. b but not from a place that faces the sun, /b where the fruits grow copiously, b as it is stated: “And for the precious things of the fruits of the sun” /b (Deuteronomy 33:14).,The i baraita /i further states: b And the people of the city /b shall have the right to b take supplies /b of water from a spring on private property, even b from a spring that emerges for the first time. Rabba bar Rav Huna says: And /b although one may draw water from that spring, b he /b must b give money to /b reimburse the owner of the property. The Gemara concludes: b But the i halakha /i is not in accordance with his /b opinion, as the water may be taken without payment.,The next of Joshua’s conditions is: b And /b that b they /b shall have the right to b fish in the Sea of Tiberias, provided that /b the fisherman b does not build an /b underwater b fence /b to catch fish, thereby b causing an impediment to boats. /b The Gemara comments: b But one may fish with nets and with traps. The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Initially, the tribes stipulated with each other that one may not build /b an underwater b fence /b to catch fish, thereby b causing an impediment to boats, but one may fish with nets and with traps. /b , b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b The Sea of Tiberias was /b located b in the portion of /b the tribe of b Naphtali. Moreover, /b the tribe of Naphtali b received /b in addition a small stretch of land equal to b the full /b length of the b rope of /b a fish b trap. /b This stretch of land was located b to the south /b of the sea, where the members of this tribe could spread out their fishing nets, b to fulfill that which is stated: /b “And of Naphtali he said: O Naphtali, satisfied with favor, and full with the blessing of the Lord; b possess the sea and the south” /b (Deuteronomy 33:23)., b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Detached /b items b that are /b found b in the mountains /b at the time of conquest b are /b considered to be b in the possession of all the tribes /b equally, as spoils of war; b but /b that which is b attached, /b e.g., trees, b are /b considered to be b in the /b sole b possession of that tribe /b that would receive the land where the tree was found.,The i baraita /i adds: b And you do not have a single tribe of Israel that did not have /b in its portion at least some land b in the mountains, and /b some b in the lowland, and /b some b in the countryside, and /b some b in the valley, as it is stated: “Turn and take your journey, and go to the hill-country of the Amorites and to all their neighbors, in the Arabah, in the hill-country, and in the lowland, and in the countryside, and by the seashore” /b (Deuteronomy 1:7). b And you find similarly with regard to the Canaanites and Perizzites and Amorites who /b inhabited the land b before /b the Jews, b as it stated /b in the above verse: “The Amorites b and to all their neighbors.” Apparently, /b the Amorites and b their neighbors /b all b had this /b variety of types of land in their respective territories.,§ The Gemara discusses the next of Joshua’s conditions: b And /b people shall have the right to b relieve themselves /b outdoors b behind a fence, even in a field /b that is b full of saffron. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: /b It goes without saying that one may relieve himself when necessary; this stipulation b is necessary only /b to permit the one relieving himself b to take a stone out of /b a wall in the field with which to clean himself. b Rav Ḥisda said: And /b it is permitted to remove a stone from a wall for this purpose b even on Shabbat. Mar Zutra the Pious would take /b a stone in this manner on Shabbat b and replace /b it in the wall, b and say to his attendant /b after Shabbat: b Go and plaster it over, /b so that it would fit securely back in the wall.,The i baraita /i further states: b And they /b shall have the right to b walk in permitted paths, /b i.e., those paths that cut through a private field, throughout the summer b until the second rainfall, /b when crops begin to sprout. b Rav Pappa said: And /b with regard to b these /b fields that we have in Babylonia, b even dew /b that settled the previous night b is bad for them. /b Even after a night of dew, the field is sufficiently moistened that trampling on it will cause damage, and therefore this condition does not apply if there was dew the previous night.,The next item on the list of conditions is: b And they /b shall have the right to b veer off to the sides of the roads /b onto private property b because of hard protrusions of the road. /b The Gemara relates: b Shmuel and Rav Yehuda, /b who lived in Babylonia, b were /b once b walking along the road, /b and b Shmuel veered off to the sides of the road /b onto private property. b Rav Yehuda said to him: /b Do the b conditions that Joshua stipulated /b apply b even in Babylonia? /b Shmuel b said to him: /b Indeed so, b as I say /b that they apply b even outside of Eretz /b Yisrael., b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b and Rabbi Ḥiyya were /b once b walking along the road, /b and b they veered off to the sides of the road. Rabbi Yehuda ben Kanosa was taking broad steps /b on the road, to avoid the protrusions without going off to the side of the road, b while walking in front of them. Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b said to Rabbi Ḥiyya: Who is this /b man b who is showing off /b his supposed b greatness in our presence? /b By acting more stringently than required by i halakha /i , he is displaying insolence., b Rabbi Ḥiyya said to /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: b Perhaps it is my student Rabbi Yehuda ben Kanosa. And /b if so, b all of his actions are /b undertaken b for the sake of Heaven; /b he is not acting out of haughtiness. b When they reached him /b and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b saw him, he said to him: If you were not Yehuda ben Kanosa I would have cut off your legs with iron shears, /b i.e., I would have excommunicated you for your impudence.,The i baraita /i further teaches: b And one who becomes lost among the vineyards /b shall have the right to b cut down [ i mefaseig /i ] branches and enter /b an area of the vineyard, or b cut down branches and exit /b an area of the vineyard, until he finds his way back to the road. b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i that this stipulation extends further: With regard to b one who sees another /b person b lost among the vineyards, he may cut down branches and enter /b an area of the vineyard, or b cut down branches and exit /b an area of the vineyard b until he /b reaches him and b brings him /b back b up to the city or to the road. And similarly, /b if b he /b himself is the one b who is lost among the vineyards, he may cut down branches and enter /b an area of the vineyard, or b cut down branches and exit /b an area of the vineyard b until he comes /b back b up to the city or to the road. /b ,The Gemara asks a question with regard to this i baraita /i : b What /b is the point of the clause that begins with: b And similarly? /b It is obvious that a lost individual himself has the same right to cut down branches as one who assists him to find his way out. The Gemara answers: That is taught b lest you say /b that it is only b another /b person who is permitted to cut down branches, b as, /b having seen the lost party, b he knows /b exactly b where he is going /b to rescue the other and help him leave the vineyard, and b that /b is why b he may cut down branches; but /b with regard to the lost person himself, b who does not know where he is going, /b one might have said that b he may not cut down branches /b but must b go /b all the way b back to the boundary /b of the vineyard. The i baraita /i therefore b teaches us /b that one who is lost may cut down branches in his quest to find his own way to the nearby town or road.,The Gemara asks a further question: Why was it necessary for Joshua to stipulate that one may find his way out in this manner? After all, b this /b i halakha /i applies b by Torah law. /b When one is lost, whoever can assist in helping him find his way must do so by Torah law, b as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : There is a mitzva to return lost items to their owner. b From where /b is it derived that the requirement applies even to b returning his body, /b i.e., helping a lost person find his way? b The verse states: “And you shall restore it /b to him” (Deuteronomy 22:2), which can also be translated as: And you shall restore himself to him. If this is required by Torah law, why did Joshua stipulate a condition to this effect?,The Gemara answers: b By Torah law /b one is required only to walk in a roundabout path b along the boundaries, /b without damaging another’s vines by cutting off branches. Joshua b came and instituted /b the stipulation b that one may /b go even further and b cut off branches and ascend /b or b cut off branches and descend, /b thereby leaving through the most direct route.,The Gemara addresses the last stipulation in the i baraita /i : b And /b that b a corpse with no one to bury it [ i met mitzva /i ] acquires its place /b and is buried where it was found. The Gemara b raises a contradiction /b from a i baraita /i : b One who finds a corpse laid out on a main street [ i isratya /i ] evacuates it /b for burial either b to the right of the street or to the left of the street, /b but it may not be buried under the main street itself. If one can move the corpse either to b a fallow field or /b to b a plowed field, he evacuates it to the fallow field. /b ,If the choice is between b a plowed field and a sown field, he evacuates it to the plowed field. /b If b both /b fields b were fallow, /b or if b both /b were b plowed, /b or if b both /b were b sown, he evacuates it to any side where he wishes /b to move it. According to this i baraita /i , a i met mitzva /i is not necessarily buried where it is found. It may be moved elsewhere., b Rav Beivai said: /b The ruling of this i baraita /i is stated b with regard to /b a corpse b laid out on the pathway. /b Were the corpse buried there, it would prohibit passage by priests. b Since permission was /b already b granted to evacuate it /b from there, b one may evacuate it to any place he wishes. /b If, however, the corpse was in a field, it would be prohibited to move it.,§ The Gemara returns to the opening statement of the i baraita /i , that Joshua stipulated ten conditions. The Gemara b says: /b Are there really only b ten? These /b conditions enumerated in the i baraita /i b are /b actually b eleven. /b The Gemara answers: The condition that b one may walk in permitted paths /b that cut through a private field in the summer was not instituted by Joshua; rather, King b Solomon said it. /b , b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : If b one’s produce was completely /b harvested b from the field, but he does not allow people to enter into his field /b to shorten their route, b what do people say about him? /b They say: b What benefit does so-and-so have /b by denying entry into his field? b And what harm are people causing him /b by traversing his field? b Concerning him, the verse says: Do not be called wicked /b by refraining b from being good. /b The Gemara asks: b Is it /b really b written: Do not be called wicked /b by refraining b from being good? /b There is no such verse in the Bible. The Gemara answers: b Yes, /b an idea b like this /b is found in the Bible, albeit in a slightly different form, as b it is written like this: “Withhold not good from him to whom it is due, when it is in the power of your hand to do it” /b (Proverbs 3:27).,The Gemara further questions the statement of the i baraita /i that Joshua instituted ten stipulations: b And is there nothing more /b that Joshua instituted? b But there is /b also the stipulation mentioned b by Rabbi Yehuda. As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Yehuda says: During the time of manure removal, a person may remove his manure /b from his property b into the public thoroughfare and pile it up /b there for b a full thirty /b days, b so that it should be trodden by the feet of people and by the feet of animals, /b thereby improving its quality, as it was b on this condition /b that b Joshua apportioned Eretz /b Yisrael b to the Jewish people. /b ,The Gemara continues this line of questioning: b And /b furthermore, b there are /b the stipulations mentioned b by Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka, says: It is a stipulation of the court, /b i.e., it is an automatic right even when not explicitly granted, b that this /b owner of a bee colony b may enter the field of another and chop off the other’s branch /b in order b to save his /b bee b colony, and /b afterward b he gives him /b the b value of the other’s /b severed b branch. /b That is, if a beekeeper finds that one of his colonies has relocated to a tree in a neighboring field, he may bring it back to his own property together with the branch, provided that he later reimburses the owner of the tree.,The i baraita /i continues: b And it is /b also b a stipulation of the court that this /b bearer of wine b pours out his wine /b from his barrel b and /b uses the barrel b to save another’s /b spilling b honey, /b which is more valuable than the wine, b and /b then b he takes /b the b value of his wine from the /b saved b honey of the other, /b as reimbursement. b And it is /b likewise b a stipulation of the court that this /b owner of wood b unloads his wood /b from his donkey b and loads another’s flax, /b which is more valuable than wood, if the load of flax is stranded on the road due to a mishap, b and /b later b he takes /b the b value of his wood from the /b saved b flax of that other /b individual. Once again, the reason is that it was b on this condition /b that b Joshua apportioned Eretz /b Yisrael b to the Jewish people. /b ,The Gemara explains why the stipulations mentioned by Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yishmael are omitted by the earlier i baraita /i : In the i baraita /i , b we are not speaking of individual /b opinions, but only of those that are accepted by all the Sages.
209. Origen, Homilies On Psalms, 28.2 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 13
210. Victorinus, Adversus Arium, 3.14, 4.16 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 419, 420, 430, 431, 588
211. Plotinus, Enneads, 1.6, 2.9, 3.1, 4.7-4.8 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 346, 347, 349, 350, 353, 354, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 362, 429, 583, 585
212. Porphyry, On Abstinence, 2.52.4 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 350
213. Porphyry, Letter To Anebo, None (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 429
214. Porphyry, Life of Plotinus, 3.32-3.35, 10.20-10.21, 16.1 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 346, 354, 362
215. Origen, Homilies On The Song of Songs, None (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 240
216. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical, and typology •allegory/allegorical, in alexandria •allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 102
217. Pseudo-Justinus, Exhortation To The Greeks, 59 (3rd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 95
218. Pseudo Clementine Literature, Recognitiones (E Pseudocaesario), 1.66-1.73 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 133
219. Nag Hammadi, The Dialogue of The Saviour, None (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 349
220. Iamblichus, Protrepticus, a b c d\n0 21(133.17=107.5) 21(133.17=107.5) 21(133 17=107\n1 21(138.27-32=112.18-23) 21(138.27 21(138 27 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 429
221. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Philip, 56.26-57.22, 69.14-70.9, 70.3, 70.4, 70.5, 70.6, 70.7, 70.8, 70.9, 73.33-74.12 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 200
222. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Thomas, a b c d\n0 37(39.27-40.2) 37(39.27 37(39 27 \n1 21 21 21 None (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 349
223. Iamblichus, Concerning The Mysteries, a b c d\n0 3.2 3.2 3 2 \n1 3.1 3.1 3 1 \n2 1.15(46.17-19) 1.15(46.17 1 15(46 \n3 1.15(47.5-8) 1.15(47.5 1 15(47 \n4 5.26(238.11-12) 5.26(238.11 5 26(238 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 408
224. Nag Hammadi, A Valentinian Exposition, 25.30-26.22, 26.18, 26.19, 26.20, 26.21 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 350
225. Nag Hammadi, On Baptism A, 40.37-40.38, 41.31-41.38 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 231, 255
226. Nag Hammadi, Allogenes, 47.38, 58, 58.26-59.26, 59, 59.9, 59.10, 59.11, 59.12, 59.13, 59.14, 59.15, 59.16, 59.17, 59.18, 59.19, 59.20, 59.21, 59.22, 59.23, 59.24, 59.25, 59.26, 60, 60.19, 60.20, 60.21, 60.22, 60.30, 60.31, 60.32, 60.33, 60.34, 60.35, 60.36, 60.37, 61, 64.5, 64.6, 65.18 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 355, 356, 357, 358
227. Nag Hammadi, Apocalypse of James, 60.20-60.23 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 133
228. Nag Hammadi, The Gospel of Truth, 17.10, 17.11, 17.12, 17.13, 17.14, 17.15, 18.21, 18.22, 18.23, 18.24, 18.25, 18.26, 18.27, 18.28, 18.29, 18.30, 18.31, 20.28, 20.29, 20.30, 20.31, 20.32, 20.33, 20.34, 28.32-30.12, 32.32, 32.33, 32.37, 32.38, 32.39 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 349
229. Nag Hammadi, Zostrianos, 4.21-5.17, 10.4, 10.5, 15.4, 15.5, 15.6, 15.7, 15.8, 15.9 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 358, 359
230. Nag Hammadi, The Teachings of Silvanus, 89.10-89.30, 105.13-105.19 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 349
231. Nag Hammadi, Trimorphic Protennoia, 46.29-46.31, 48.12-48.15, 49.28-49.32 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 349, 438
232. Nag Hammadi, The Testimony of Truth, 30.29, 30.30, 31.2, 31.3, 31.4, 31.5, 44.23-45.6, 45.3, 45.23-48.15, 47.14-48.7, 47.14-48.2, 55.1-56.9, 74.20 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 255
233. Nag Hammadi, On The Origin of The World, 2.5 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 116
234. Nag Hammadi, Authoritative Teaching, 32.2-32.11 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 352, 359
235. Nag Hammadi, The Three Steles of Seth, 125.28-125.32 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 354
236. Nag Hammadi, The Tripartite Tractate, 97.33, 97.34, 97.35, 106.25-107.18 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 200
237. Nag Hammadi, The Paraphrase of Shem, 38.32-39.24 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 349
238. Augustine, De Diversis Quaestionibus Ad Simplicianum, 1.1-1.2, 1.1.17 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 420, 588
239. Augustine, Confessions, 2.6, 5.24, 6.6 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical reading •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 419, 588; Trettel (2019), Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14, 148
2.6. 12. What was it, then, that I, miserable one, so doted on in you, you theft of mine, you deed of darkness, in that sixteenth year of my age? Beautiful you were not, since you were theft. But are you anything, that so I may argue the case with you? Those pears that we stole were fair to the sight, because they were Your creation, You fairest of all, Creator of all, You good God - God, the highest good, and my true good. Those pears truly were pleasant to the sight; but it was not for them that my miserable soul lusted, for I had abundance of better, but those I plucked simply that I might steal. For, having plucked them, I threw them away, my sole gratification in them being my own sin, which I was pleased to enjoy. For if any of these pears entered my mouth, the sweetener of it was my sin in eating it. And now, O Lord my God, I ask what it was in that theft of mine that caused me such delight; and behold it has no beauty in it - not such, I mean, as exists in justice and wisdom; nor such as is in the mind, memory, senses, and animal life of man; nor yet such as is the glory and beauty of the stars in their courses; or the earth, or the sea, teeming with incipient life, to replace, as it is born, that which decays; nor, indeed, that false and shadowy beauty which pertains to deceptive vices. 13. For thus does pride imitate high estate, whereas You alone art God, high above all. And what does ambition seek but honours and renown, whereas You alone are to be honoured above all, and renowned for evermore? The cruelty of the powerful wishes to be feared; but who is to be feared but God only, out of whose power what can be forced away or withdrawn - when, or where, or whither, or by whom? The enticements of the wanton would fain be deemed love; and yet is naught more enticing than Your charity, nor is anything loved more healthfully than that, Your truth, bright and beautiful above all. Curiosity affects a desire for knowledge, whereas it is You who supremely knows all things. Yea, ignorance and foolishness themselves are concealed under the names of ingenuousness and harmlessness, because nothing can be found more ingenuous than You; and what is more harmless, since it is a sinner's own works by which he is harmed? And sloth seems to long for rest; but what sure rest is there besides the Lord? Luxury would fain be called plenty and abundance; but You are the fullness and unfailing plenteousness of unfading joys. Prodigality presents a shadow of liberality; but You are the most lavish giver of all good. Covetousness desires to possess much; and You are the Possessor of all things. Envy contends for excellence; but what so excellent as You? Anger seeks revenge; who avenges more justly than You? Fear starts at unwonted and sudden chances which threaten things beloved, and is wary for their security; but what can happen that is unwonted or sudden to You? Or who can deprive You of what You love? Or where is there unshaken security save with You? Grief languishes for things lost in which desire had delighted itself, even because it would have nothing taken from it, as nothing can be from You. 14. Thus does the soul commit fornication when she turns away from You, and seeks without You what she cannot find pure and untainted until she returns to You. Thus all pervertedly imitate You who separate themselves far from You and raise themselves up against You. But even by thus imitating You they acknowledge You to be the Creator of all nature, and so that there is no place whither they can altogether retire from You. What, then, was it that I loved in that theft? And wherein did I, even corruptedly and pervertedly, imitate my Lord? Did I wish, if only by artifice, to act contrary to Your law, because by power I could not, so that, being a captive, I might imitate an imperfect liberty by doing with impunity things which I was not allowed to do, in obscured likeness of Your omnipotency? Behold this servant of Yours, fleeing from his Lord, and following a shadow! O rottenness! O monstrosity of life and profundity of death! Could I like that which was unlawful only because it was unlawful? 6.6. 9. I longed for honours, gains, wedlock; and You mocked me. In these desires I underwent most bitter hardships, Thou being the more gracious the less You suffered anything which was not Thou to grow sweet to me. Behold my heart, O Lord, who wouldest that I should recall all this, and confess unto You. Now let my soul cleave to You, which You have freed from that fast-holding bird-lime of death. How wretched was it! And You irritated the feeling of its wound, that, forsaking all else, it might be converted unto You - who art above all, and without whom all things would be naught - be converted and be healed. How wretched was I at that time, and how You dealt with me, to make me sensible of my wretchedness on that day wherein I was preparing to recite a panegyric on the Emperor, wherein I was to deliver many a lie, and lying was to be applauded by those who knew I lied; and my heart panted with these cares, and boiled over with the feverishness of consuming thoughts. For, while walking along one of the streets of Milan, I observed a poor mendicant - then, I imagine, with a full belly - joking and joyous; and I sighed, and spoke to the friends around me of the many sorrows resulting from our madness, for that by all such exertions of ours - as those wherein I then laboured, dragging along, under the spur of desires, the burden of my own unhappiness, and by dragging increasing it, we yet aimed only to attain that very joyousness which that mendicant had reached before us, who, perchance, never would attain it! For what he had obtained through a few begged pence, the same was I scheming for by many a wretched and tortuous turning - the joy of a temporary felicity. For he verily possessed not true joy, but yet I, with these my ambitions, was seeking one much more untrue. And in truth he was joyous, I anxious; he free from care, I full of alarms. But should any one inquire of me whether I would rather be merry or fearful, I would reply, Merry. Again, were I asked whether I would rather be such as he was, or as I myself then was, I should elect to be myself, though beset with cares and alarms, but out of perversity; for was it so in truth? For I ought not to prefer myself to him because I happened to be more learned than he, seeing that I took no delight therein, but sought rather to please men by it; and that not to instruct, but only to please. Wherefore also Thou broke my bones with the rod of Your correction. Proverbs 22:15 10. Away with those, then, from my soul, who say unto it, It makes a difference from whence a man's joy is derived. That mendicant rejoiced in drunkenness; you longed to rejoice in glory. What glory, O Lord? That which is not in You. For even as his was no true joy, so was mine no true glory; and it subverted my soul more. He would digest his drunkenness that same night, but many a night had I slept with mine, and risen again with it, and was to sleep again and again to rise with it, I know not how oft. It does indeed make a difference whence a man's joy is derived. I know it is so, and that the joy of a faithful hope is incomparably beyond such vanity. Yea, and at that time was he beyond me, for he truly was the happier man; not only for that he was thoroughly steeped in mirth, I torn to pieces with cares, but he, by giving good wishes, had gotten wine, I, by lying, was following after pride. Much to this effect said I then to my dear friends, and I often marked in them how it fared with me; and I found that it went ill with me, and fretted, and doubled that very ill. And if any prosperity smiled upon me, I loathed to seize it, for almost before I could grasp it flew away.
240. Augustine, Enarrationes In Psalmos, 64.18, 67.38 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 11, 13
241. Augustine, On The Holy Trinity, 15.27 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 166
242. Augustine, De Sermone Domini In Monte Secundum Matthaeum, 1.2.3-1.2.6, 1.5.15, 2.11.38 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, augustine •allegory, allegorical interpretation, beatitudes •allegory, allegorical interpretation, ambrose Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 458, 459, 463
243. Julian (Emperor), Against The Galileans, None (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 200
244. Paulinus of Nola, Carmina, 32.143-32.146 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 41
245. Augustine, De Peccatorum Meritis Et Remissione Et De Baptismo Parvulorum, 2, 1 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Cheuk-Yin Yam (2019), Trinity and Grace in Augustine, 588
246. Didymus, In Genesim, 81.19, 83.1 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 337
247. Augustine, On Genesis Against The Manichaeans, 3.21.33, 8.2.5 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical reading Found in books: Trettel (2019), Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14, 98, 169
248. Augustine, On The Good of Marriage, 3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical reading Found in books: Trettel (2019), Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14, 169
249. Hilary of Poitiers, On Psalms, 64.17 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 13
250. Augustine, De Nuptiis Et Concupiscentia, 1.6, 2.30 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical reading Found in books: Trettel (2019), Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14, 148
1.6. Now, this being the real state of the question, they undoubtedly err who suppose that, when fleshly lust is censured, marriage is condemned; as if the malady of concupiscence was the outcome of marriage and not of sin. Were not those first spouses, whose nuptials God blessed with the words, Be fruitful and multiply, Genesis 1:28 naked, and yet not ashamed? Why, then, did shame arise out of their members after sin, except because an indecent motion arose from them, which, if men had not sinned, would certainly never have existed in marriage? Or was it, forsooth, as some hold (who give little heed to what they read), that human beings were, like dogs, at first created blind; and - absurder still - obtained sight, not as dogs do, by growing, but by sinning? Far be it from us to entertain such an opinion. But they gather that opinion of theirs from reading: She took of the fruit thereof, and did eat; and gave also unto her husband with her, and he did eat: and the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked. Genesis 3:6-7 This accounts for the opinion of unintelligent persons, that the eyes of the first man and woman were previously closed, because Holy Scripture testifies that they were then opened. Well, then, were Hagar's eyes, the handmaid of Sarah, previously shut, when, with her thirsty and sobbing child, she opened her eyes Genesis 21:17-19 and saw the well? Or did those two disciples, after the Lord's resurrection, walk in the way with Him with their eyes shut, since the evangelist says of them that in the breaking of bread their eyes were opened, and they knew Him? Luke 24:31 What, therefore, is written concerning the first man and woman, that the eyes of them both were opened, Genesis 3:7 we ought to understand as that they gave attention to perceiving and recognising the new state which had befallen their body. Now that their eyes were opened, their body appeared to them naked, and they knew it. If this were not the meaning, how, when the beast of the field and the fowls of the air were brought unto him, Genesis 2:19 could Adam have given them names if his eyes were shut? He could not have done this without distinguishing them; and he could not distinguish them without seeing them. How, too, could the woman herself have been beheld so clearly by him when he said, This is now bone of my bone, and flesh of my flesh? Genesis 2:23 If, indeed, any one shall be so determined on cavilling as to insist that Adam might have acquired a discernment of these objects, not by sight but by touch, what explanation will he have to give of the passage wherein we are told how the woman saw that the tree, from which she was about to pluck the forbidden fruit, was pleasant for the eyes to behold? Genesis 3:6 No; they were both naked, and were not ashamed, Genesis 2:25 not because they had no eyesight, but because they perceived no reason to be ashamed in their members, which had all along been seen by them. For it is not said: They were both naked, and knew it not; but they were not ashamed. Because, indeed, nothing had previously happened which was not lawful, so nothing had ensued which could cause them shame. 2.30. Then, again, as to the passage which he has adduced from the inspired history concerning Abimelech, and God's choosing to close up every womb in his household that the women should not bear children, and afterwards opening them that they might become fruitful, what is all this to the point? What has it to do with that shameful concupiscence which is now the question in dispute? Did God, then, deprive those women of this feeling, and give it to them again just when He liked? The punishment however, was that they were unable to bear children, and the blessing that they were able to bear them, after the manner of this corruptible flesh. For God would not confer such a blessing upon this body of death, as only that body of life in paradise could have had before sin entered; that is, the process of conceiving without the prurience of lust, and of bearing children without excruciating pain. But why should we not suppose, since, indeed, Scripture says that every womb was closed, that this took place with something of pain, so that the women were unable to bear cohabitation, and that God inflicted this pain in His wrath, and removed it in His mercy? For if lust was to be taken away as an impediment to begetting offspring, it ought to have been taken away from the men, not from the women. For a woman might perform her share in cohabitation by her will, even if the lust ceased by which she is stimulated, provided it were not absent from the man for exciting him; unless, perhaps (as Scripture informs us that even Abimelech himself was healed), he would tell us that virile concupiscence was restored to him. If, however, it were true that he had lost this, what necessity was there that he should be warned by God to hold no connection with Abraham's wife? The truth is, Abimelech is said to have been healed, because his household was cured of the affliction which smote it.
251. Claudianus, Carmina Minora\Carminum Minorum Corpusculum, 27.1-27.16 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 111
252. Nonnus, Dionysiaca, 48.491 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 430
253. Marinus, Vita Proclus, 23.22-23.29 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 430
254. Synesius of Cyrene, On Dreams, 4.1, 6, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 11.1, 13.5, 14.5-15.1, 15 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 10
255. Macrobius, Commentary On The Dream of Scipio, 1.3.3 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 5
256. Macrobius, Saturnalia, 1.22.7 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 430, 438
257. Ambrose, De Excesu Fratris Suis Satyri Libri Duo, 2.58 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 113
258. Macrobius, Saturnalia, 1.22.7 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 430, 438
259. Ambrose, Homilies On Luke, 3 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 150
260. Ambrose, Hexameron, 5.23.79 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 113
261. Epiphanius, Panarion, 66.29.1 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 240
262. Eucherius of Lyon, Formulae Spiritalis Intellegentiae, 4 (4th cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 13
263. Paulinus of Nola, Letters, 18.9 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 585
264. Hegomonius, Acta Archelai, 11.1 (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 76, 240
265. Augustine, The City of God, 14.7, 14.10-14.25 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical reading Found in books: Trettel (2019), Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14, 98, 148, 169, 170, 171
14.7. He who resolves to love God, and to love his neighbor as himself, not according to man but according to God, is on account of this love said to be of a good will; and this is in Scripture more commonly called charity, but it is also, even in the same books, called love. For the apostle says that the man to be elected as a ruler of the people must be a lover of good. And when the Lord Himself had asked Peter, Have you a regard for me (diligis) more than these? Peter replied, Lord, You know that I love (amo) You. And again a second time the Lord asked not whether Peter loved (amaret) Him, but whether he had a regard (diligeret)for Him, and, he again answered, Lord, You know that I love (amo) You. But on the third interrogation the Lord Himself no longer says, Have you a regard (diligis) for me,but Do you love (amas) me? And then the evangelist adds, Peter was grieved because He said to him the third time, Do you love (amas) me? though the Lord had not said three times but only once, Do you love (amas) me? and twice Diligis me? from which we gather that, even when the Lord said diligis, He used an equivalent for amas. Peter, too, throughout used one word for the one thing, and the third time also replied, Lord, You know all things, You know that I love (amo) You. I have judged it right to mention this, because some are of opinion that charity or regard (dilectio) is one thing, love (amor) another. They say that dilectio is used of a good affection, amor of an evil love. But it is very certain that even secular literature knows no such distinction. However, it is for the philosophers to determine whether and how they differ, though their own writings sufficiently testify that they make great account of love (amor) placed on good objects, and even on God Himself. But we wished to show that the Scriptures of our religion, whose authority we prefer to all writings whatsoever, make no distinction between amor, dilectio, and caritas; and we have already shown that amor is used in a good connection. And if any one fancy that amor is no doubt used both of good and bad loves, but that dilectio is reserved for the good only, let him remember what the psalm says, He that loves (diligit) iniquity hates his own soul; and the words of the Apostle John, If any man love (diligere) the world, the love (dilectio) of the Father is not in him. 1 John 2:15 Here you have in one passage dilectio used both in a good and a bad sense. And if any one demands an instance of amor being used in a bad sense (for we have already shown its use in a good sense), let him read the words, For men shall be lovers (amantes) of their own selves, lovers (amatores) of money. 2 Timothy 3:2 The right will is, therefore, well-directed love, and the wrong will is ill-directed love. Love, then, yearning to have what is loved, is desire; and having and enjoying it, is joy; fleeing what is opposed to it, it is fear; and feeling what is opposed to it, when it has befallen it, it is sadness. Now these motions are evil if the love is evil; good if the love is good. What we assert let us prove from Scripture. The apostle desires to depart, and to be with Christ. Philippians 1:23 And, My soul desired to long for Your judgments; or if it is more appropriate to say, My soul longed to desire Your judgments. And, The desire of wisdom brings to a kingdom. Wisdom 6:20 Yet there has always obtained the usage of understanding desire and concupiscence in a bad sense if the object be not defined. But joy is used in a good sense: Be glad in the Lord, and rejoice, you righteous. And, You have put gladness in my heart. And, You will fill me with joy with Your countece. Fear is used in a good sense by the apostle when he says, Work out your salvation with fear and trembling. Philippians 2:12 And, Be not high-minded, but fear. Romans 11:20 And, I fear, lest by any means, as the serpent beguiled Eve through his subtlety, so your minds should be corrupted from the simplicity that is in Christ. 2 Corinthians 11:3 But with respect to sadness, which Cicero prefer to calls sickness (œgritudo), and Virgil pain (dolor) (as he says, Dolent gaudentque ), but which I prefer to call sorrow, because sickness and pain are more commonly used to express bodily suffering - with respect to this emotion, I say, the question whether it can be used in a good sense is more difficult. 14.10. But it is a fair question, whether our first parent or first parents (for there was a marriage of two), before they sinned, experienced in their animal body such emotions as we shall not experience in the spiritual body when sin has been purged and finally abolished. For if they did, then how were they blessed in that boasted place of bliss, Paradise? For who that is affected by fear or grief can be called absolutely blessed? And what could those persons fear or suffer in such affluence of blessings, where neither death nor ill-health was feared, and where nothing was wanting which a good will could desire, and nothing present which could interrupt man's mental or bodily enjoyment? Their love to God was unclouded, and their mutual affection was that of faithful and sincere marriage; and from this love flowed a wonderful delight, because they always enjoyed what was loved. Their avoidance of sin was tranquil; and, so long as it was maintained, no other ill at all could invade them and bring sorrow. Or did they perhaps desire to touch and eat the forbidden fruit, yet feared to die; and thus both fear and desire already, even in that blissful place, preyed upon those first of mankind? Away with the thought that such could be the case where there was no sin! And, indeed, this is already sin, to desire those things which the law of God forbids, and to abstain from them through fear of punishment, not through love of righteousness. Away, I say, with the thought, that before there was any sin, there should already have been committed regarding that fruit the very sin which our Lord warns us against regarding a woman: Whosoever looks on a woman to lust after her, has committed adultery with her already in his heart. Matthew 5:28 As happy, then, as were these our first parents, who were agitated by no mental perturbations, and annoyed by no bodily discomforts, so happy should the whole human race have been, had they not introduced that evil which they have transmitted to their posterity, and had none of their descendants committed iniquity worthy of damnation; but this original blessedness continuing until, in virtue of that benediction which said, Increase and multiply, Genesis 1:28 the number of the predestined saints should have been completed, there would then have been bestowed that higher felicity which is enjoyed by the most blessed angels - a blessedness in which there should have been a secure assurance that no one would sin, and no one die; and so should the saints have lived, after no taste of labor, pain, or death, as now they shall live in the resurrection, after they have endured all these things. 14.11. But because God foresaw all things, and was therefore not ignorant that man also would fall, we ought to consider this holy city in connection with what God foresaw and ordained, and not according to our own ideas, which do not embrace God's ordination. For man, by his sin, could not disturb the divine counsel, nor compel God to change what He had decreed; for God's foreknowledge had anticipated both - that is to say, both how evil the man whom He had created good should become, and what good He Himself should even thus derive from him. For though God is said to change His determinations (so that in a tropical sense the Holy Scripture says even that God repented ), this is said with reference to man's expectation, or the order of natural causes, and not with reference to that which the Almighty had foreknown that He would do. Accordingly God, as it is written, made man upright, Ecclesiastes 7:29 and consequently with a good will. For if he had not had a good will, he could not have been upright. The good will, then, is the work of God; for God created him with it. But the first evil will, which preceded all man's evil acts, was rather a kind of falling away from the work of God to its own works than any positive work. And therefore the acts resulting were evil, not having God, but the will itself for their end; so that the will or the man himself, so far as his will is bad, was as it were the evil tree bringing forth evil fruit. Moreover, the bad will, though it be not in harmony with, but opposed to nature, inasmuch as it is a vice or blemish, yet it is true of it as of all vice, that it cannot exist except in a nature, and only in a nature created out of nothing, and not in that which the Creator has begotten of Himself, as He begot the Word, by whom all things were made. For though God formed man of the dust of the earth, yet the earth itself, and every earthly material, is absolutely created out of nothing; and man's soul, too, God created out of nothing, and joined to the body, when He made man. But evils are so thoroughly overcome by good, that though they are permitted to exist, for the sake of demonstrating how the most righteous foresight of God can make a good use even of them, yet good can exist without evil, as in the true and supreme God Himself, and as in every invisible and visible celestial creature that exists above this murky atmosphere; but evil cannot exist without good, because the natures in which evil exists, in so far as they are natures, are good. And evil is removed, not by removing any nature, or part of a nature, which had been introduced by the evil, but by healing and correcting that which had been vitiated and depraved. The will, therefore, is then truly free, when it is not the slave of vices and sins. Such was it given us by God; and this being lost by its own fault, can only be restored by Him who was able at first to give it. And therefore the truth says, If the Son shall make you free, you shall be free indeed; 1 John 8:36 which is equivalent to saying, If the Son shall save you, you shall be saved indeed. For He is our Liberator, inasmuch as He is our Saviour. Man then lived with God for his rule in a paradise at once physical and spiritual. For neither was it a paradise only physical for the advantage of the body, and not also spiritual for the advantage of the mind; nor was it only spiritual to afford enjoyment to man by his internal sensations, and not also physical to afford him enjoyment through his external senses. But obviously it was both for both ends. But after that proud and therefore envious angel (of whose fall I have said as much as I was able in the eleventh and twelfth books of this work, as well as that of his fellows, who, from being God's angels, became his angels), preferring to rule with a kind of pomp of empire rather than to be another's subject, fell from the spiritual Paradise, and essaying to insinuate his persuasive guile into the mind of man, whose unfallen condition provoked him to envy now that himself was fallen, he chose the serpent as his mouthpiece in that bodily Paradise in which it and all the other earthly animals were living with those two human beings, the man and his wife, subject to them, and harmless; and he chose the serpent because, being slippery, and moving in tortuous windings, it was suitable for his purpose. And this animal being subdued to his wicked ends by the presence and superior force of his angelic nature, he abused as his instrument, and first tried his deceit upon the woman, making his assault upon the weaker part of that human alliance, that he might gradually gain the whole, and not supposing that the man would readily give ear to him, or be deceived, but that he might yield to the error of the woman. For as Aaron was not induced to agree with the people when they blindly wished him to make an idol, and yet yielded to constraint; and as it is not credible that Solomon was so blind as to suppose that idols should be worshipped, but was drawn over to such sacrilege by the blandishments of women; so we cannot believe that Adam was deceived, and supposed the devil's word to be truth, and therefore transgressed God's law, but that he by the drawings of kindred yielded to the woman, the husband to the wife, the one human being to the only other human being. For not without significance did the apostle say, And Adam was not deceived, but the woman being deceived was in the transgression; 1 Timothy 2:14 but he speaks thus, because the woman accepted as true what the serpent told her, but the man could not bear to be severed from his only companion, even though this involved a partnership in sin. He was not on this account less culpable, but sinned with his eyes open. And so the apostle does not say, He did not sin, but He was not deceived. For he shows that he sinned when he says, By one man sin entered into the world, Romans 5:12 and immediately after more distinctly, In the likeness of Adam's transgression. But he meant that those are deceived who do not judge that which they do to be sin; but he knew. Otherwise how were it true Adam was not deceived? But having as yet no experience of the divine severity, he was possibly deceived in so far as he thought his sin venial. And consequently he was not deceived as the woman was deceived, but he was deceived as to the judgment which would be passed on his apology: The woman whom you gave to be with me, she gave me, and I did eat. Genesis 3:12 What need of saying more? Although they were not both deceived by credulity, yet both were entangled in the snares of the devil, and taken by sin. 14.12. If any one finds a difficulty in understanding why other sins do not alter human nature as it was altered by the transgression of those first human beings, so that on account of it this nature is subject to the great corruption we feel and see, and to death, and is distracted and tossed with so many furious and contending emotions, and is certainly far different from what it was before sin, even though it were then lodged in an animal body - if, I say, any one is moved by this, he ought not to think that that sin was a small and light one because it was committed about food, and that not bad nor noxious, except because it was forbidden; for in that spot of singular felicity God could not have created and planted any evil thing. But by the precept He gave, God commended obedience, which is, in a sort, the mother and guardian of all the virtues in the reasonable creature, which was so created that submission is advantageous to it, while the fulfillment of its own will in preference to the Creator's is destruction. And as this commandment enjoining abstinence from one kind of food in the midst of great abundance of other kinds was so easy to keep - so light a burden to the memory, - and, above all, found no resistance to its observance in lust, which only afterwards sprung up as the penal consequence of sin, the iniquity of violating it was all the greater in proportion to the ease with which it might have been kept. 14.13. Our first parents fell into open disobedience because already they were secretly corrupted; for the evil act had never been done had not an evil will preceded it. And what is the origin of our evil will but pride? For pride is the beginning of sin. Sirach 10:13 And what is pride but the craving for undue exaltation? And this is undue exaltation, when the soul abandons Him to whom it ought to cleave as its end, and becomes a kind of end to itself. This happens when it becomes its own satisfaction. And it does so when it falls away from that unchangeable good which ought to satisfy it more than itself. This falling away is spontaneous; for if the will had remained steadfast in the love of that higher and changeless good by which it was illumined to intelligence and kindled into love, it would not have turned away to find satisfaction in itself, and so become frigid and benighted; the woman would not have believed the serpent spoke the truth, nor would the man have preferred the request of his wife to the command of God, nor have supposed that it was a venial trangression to cleave to the partner of his life even in a partnership of sin. The wicked deed, then - that is to say, the trangression of eating the forbidden fruit - was committed by persons who were already wicked. That evil fruit Matthew 7:18 could be brought forth only by a corrupt tree. But that the tree was evil was not the result of nature; for certainly it could become so only by the vice of the will, and vice is contrary to nature. Now, nature could not have been depraved by vice had it not been made out of nothing. Consequently, that it is a nature, this is because it is made by God; but that it falls away from Him, this is because it is made out of nothing. But man did not so fall away as to become absolutely nothing; but being turned towards himself, his being became more contracted than it was when he clave to Him who supremely is. Accordingly, to exist in himself, that is, to be his own satisfaction after abandoning God, is not quite to become a nonentity, but to approximate to that. And therefore the holy Scriptures designate the proud by another name, self-pleasers. For it is good to have the heart lifted up, yet not to one's self, for this is proud, but to the Lord, for this is obedient, and can be the act only of the humble. There is, therefore, something in humility which, strangely enough, exalts the heart, and something in pride which debases it. This seems, indeed, to be contradictory, that loftiness should debase and lowliness exalt. But pious humility enables us to submit to what is above us; and nothing is more exalted above us than God; and therefore humility, by making us subject to God, exalts us. But pride, being a defect of nature, by the very act of refusing subjection and revolting from Him who is supreme, falls to a low condition; and then comes to pass what is written: You cast them down when they lifted up themselves. For he does not say, when they had been lifted up, as if first they were exalted, and then afterwards cast down; but when they lifted up themselves even then they were cast down - that is to say, the very lifting up was already a fall. And therefore it is that humility is specially recommended to the city of God as it sojourns in this world, and is specially exhibited in the city of God, and in the person of Christ its King; while the contrary vice of pride, according to the testimony of the sacred writings, specially rules his adversary the devil. And certainly this is the great difference which distinguishes the two cities of which we speak, the one being the society of the godly men, the other of the ungodly, each associated with the angels that adhere to their party, and the one guided and fashioned by love of self, the other by love of God. The devil, then, would not have ensnared man in the open and manifest sin of doing what God had forbidden, had man not already begun to live for himself. It was this that made him listen with pleasure to the words, You shall be as gods, Genesis 3:5 which they would much more readily have accomplished by obediently adhering to their supreme and true end than by proudly living to themselves. For created gods are gods not by virtue of what is in themselves, but by a participation of the true God. By craving to be more, man becomes less; and by aspiring to be self-sufficing, he fell away from Him who truly suffices him. Accordingly, this wicked desire which prompts man to please himself as if he were himself light, and which thus turns him away from that light by which, had he followed it, he would himself have become light - this wicked desire, I say, already secretly existed in him, and the open sin was but its consequence. For that is true which is written, Pride goes before destruction, and before honor is humility; Proverbs 18:12 that is to say, secret ruin precedes open ruin, while the former is not counted ruin. For who counts exaltation ruin, though no sooner is the Highest forsaken than a fall is begun? But who does not recognize it as ruin, when there occurs an evident and indubitable transgression of the commandment? And consequently, God's prohibition had reference to such an act as, when committed, could not be defended on any pretense of doing what was righteous. And I make bold to say that it is useful for the proud to fall into an open and indisputable transgression, and so displease themselves, as already, by pleasing themselves, they had fallen. For Peter was in a healthier condition when he wept and was dissatisfied with himself, than when he boldly presumed and satisfied himself. And this is averred by the sacred Psalmist when he says, Fill their faces with shame, that they may seek Your name, O Lord; that is, that they who have pleased themselves in seeking their own glory may be pleased and satisfied with You in seeking Your glory. 14.14. But it is a worse and more damnable pride which casts about for the shelter of an excuse even in manifest sins, as these our first parents did, of whom the woman said, The serpent beguiled me, and I did eat; and the man said, The woman whom You gave to be with me, she gave me of the tree, and I did eat. Genesis 3:12-13 Here there is no word of begging pardon, no word of entreaty for healing. For though they do not, like Cain, deny that they have perpetrated the deed, yet their pride seeks to refer its wickedness to another - the woman's pride to the serpent, the man's to the woman. But where there is a plain trangression of a divine commandment, this is rather to accuse than to excuse oneself. For the fact that the woman sinned on the serpent's persuasion, and the man at the woman's offer, did not make the transgression less, as if there were any one whom we ought rather to believe or yield to than God. 14.15. Therefore, because the sin was a despising of the authority of God - who had created man; who had made him in His own image; who had set him above the other animals; who had placed him in Paradise; who had enriched him with abundance of every kind and of safety; who had laid upon him neither many, nor great, nor difficult commandments, but, in order to make a wholesome obedience easy to him, had given him a single very brief and very light precept by which He reminded that creature whose service was to be free that He was Lord, - it was just that condemnation followed, and condemnation such that man, who by keeping the commandments should have been spiritual even in his flesh, became fleshly even in his spirit; and as in his pride he had sought to be his own satisfaction, God in His justice abandoned him to himself, not to live in the absolute independence he affected, but instead of the liberty he desired, to live dissatisfied with himself in a hard and miserable bondage to him to whom by sinning he had yielded himself, doomed in spite of himself to die in body as he had willingly become dead in spirit, condemned even to eternal death (had not the grace of God delivered him) because he had forsaken eternal life. Whoever thinks such punishment either excessive or unjust shows his inability to measure the great iniquity of sinning where sin might so easily have been avoided. For as Abraham's obedience is with justice pronounced to be great, because the thing commanded, to kill his son, was very difficult, so in Paradise the disobedience was the greater, because the difficulty of that which was commanded was imperceptible. And as the obedience of the second Man was the more laudable because He became obedient even unto death, Philippians 2:8 so the disobedience of the first man was the more detestable because he became disobedient even unto death. For where the penalty annexed to disobedience is great, and the thing commanded by the Creator is easy, who can sufficiently estimate how great a wickedness it is, in a matter so easy, not to obey the authority of so great a power, even when that power deters with so terrible a penalty? In short, to say all in a word, what but disobedience was the punishment of disobedience in that sin? For what else is man's misery but his own disobedience to himself, so that in consequence of his not being willing to do what he could do, he now wills to do what he cannot? For though he could not do all things in Paradise before he sinned, yet he wished to do only what he could do, and therefore he could do all things he wished. But now, as we recognize in his offspring, and as divine Scripture testifies, Man is like to vanity. For who can count how many things he wishes which he cannot do, so long as he is disobedient to himself, that is, so long as his mind and his flesh do not obey his will? For in spite of himself his mind is both frequently disturbed, and his flesh suffers, and grows old, and dies; and in spite of ourselves we suffer whatever else we suffer, and which we would not suffer if our nature absolutely and in all its parts obeyed our will. But is it not the infirmities of the flesh which hamper it in its service? Yet what does it matter how its service is hampered, so long as the fact remains, that by the just retribution of the sovereign God whom we refused to be subject to and serve, our flesh, which was subjected to us, now torments us by insubordination, although our disobedience brought trouble on ourselves, not upon God? For He is not in need of our service as we of our body's; and therefore what we did was no punishment to Him, but what we receive is so to us. And the pains which are called bodily are pains of the soul in and from the body. For what pain or desire can the flesh feel by itself and without the soul? But when the flesh is said to desire or to suffer, it is meant, as we have explained, that the man does so, or some part of the soul which is affected by the sensation of the flesh, whether a harsh sensation causing pain, or gentle, causing pleasure. But pain in the flesh is only a discomfort of the soul arising from the flesh, and a kind of shrinking from its suffering, as the pain of the soul which is called sadness is a shrinking from those things which have happened to us in spite of ourselves. But sadness is frequently preceded by fear, which is itself in the soul, not in the flesh; while bodily pain is not preceded by any kind of fear of the flesh, which can be felt in the flesh before the pain. But pleasure is preceded by a certain appetite which is felt in the flesh like a craving, as hunger and thirst and that generative appetite which is most commonly identified with the name lust, though this is the generic word for all desires. For anger itself was defined by the ancients as nothing else than the lust of revenge; although sometimes a man is angry even at iimate objects which cannot feel his vengeance, as when one breaks a pen, or crushes a quill that writes badly. Yet even this, though less reasonable, is in its way a lust of revenge, and is, so to speak, a mysterious kind of shadow of [the great law of] retribution, that they who do evil should suffer evil. There is therefore a lust for revenge, which is called anger; there is a lust of money, which goes by the name of avarice; there is a lust of conquering, no matter by what means, which is called opinionativeness; there is a lust of applause, which is named boasting. There are many and various lusts, of which some have names of their own, while others have not. For who could readily give a name to the lust of ruling, which yet has a powerful influence in the soul of tyrants, as civil wars bear witness? 14.16. Although, therefore, lust may have many objects, yet when no object is specified, the word lust usually suggests to the mind the lustful excitement of the organs of generation. And this lust not only takes possession of the whole body and outward members, but also makes itself felt within, and moves the whole man with a passion in which mental emotion is mingled with bodily appetite, so that the pleasure which results is the greatest of all bodily pleasures. So possessing indeed is this pleasure, that at the moment of time in which it is consummated, all mental activity is suspended. What friend of wisdom and holy joys, who, being married, but knowing, as the apostle says, how to possess his vessel in santification and honor, not in the disease of desire, as the Gentiles who know not God, 1 Thessalonians 4:4 would not prefer, if this were possible , to beget children without this lust, so that in this function of begetting offspring the members created for this purpose should not be stimulated by the heat of lust, but should be actuated by his volition, in the same way as his other members serve him for their respective ends? But even those who delight in this pleasure are not moved to it at their own will, whether they confine themselves to lawful or transgress to unlawful pleasures; but sometimes this lust importunes them in spite of themselves, and sometimes fails them when they desire to feel it, so that though lust rages in the mind, it stirs not in the body. Thus, strangely enough, this emotion not only fails to obey the legitimate desire to beget offspring, but also refuses to serve lascivious lust; and though it often opposes its whole combined energy to the soul that resists it, sometimes also it is divided against itself, and while it moves the soul, leaves the body unmoved. 14.17. Justly is shame very specially connected with this lust; justly, too, these members themselves, being moved and restrained not at our will, but by a certain independent autocracy, so to speak, are called shameful. Their condition was different before sin. For as it is written, They were naked and were not ashamed, Genesis 2:25 - not that their nakedness was unknown to them, but because nakedness was not yet shameful, because not yet did lust move those members without the will's consent; not yet did the flesh by its disobedience testify against the disobedience of man. For they were not created blind, as the unenlightened vulgar fancy; for Adam saw the animals to whom he gave names, and of Eve we read, The woman saw that the tree was good for food, and that it was pleasant to the eyes. Genesis 3:6 Their eyes, therefore were open, but were not open to this, that is to say, were not observant so as to recognize what was conferred upon them by the garment of grace, for they had no consciousness of their members warring against their will. But when they were stripped of this grace, that their disobedience might be punished by fit retribution, there began in the movement of their bodily members a shameless novelty which made nakedness indecent: it at once made them observant and made them ashamed. And therefore, after they violated God's command by open transgression, it is written: And the eyes of them both were opened, and they knew that they were naked; and they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons. Genesis 3:7 The eyes of them both were opened, not to see, for already they saw, but to discern between the good they had lost and the evil into which they had fallen. And therefore also the tree itself which they were forbidden to touch was called the tree of the knowledge of good and evil from this circumstance, that if they ate of it it would impart to them this knowledge. For the discomfort of sickness reveals the pleasure of health. They knew, therefore, that they were naked,- naked of that grace which prevented them from being ashamed of bodily nakedness while the law of sin offered no resistance to their mind. And thus they obtained a knowledge which they would have lived in blissful ignorance of, had they, in trustful obedience to God, declined to commit that offense which involved them in the experience of the hurtful effects of unfaithfulness and disobedience. And therefore, being ashamed of the disobedience of their own flesh, which witnessed to their disobedience while it punished it, they sewed fig leaves together, and made themselves aprons, that is, cinctures for their privy parts; for some interpreters have rendered the word by succinctoria. Campestria is, indeed, a Latin word, but it is used of the drawers or aprons used for a similar purpose by the young men who stripped for exercise in the campus; hence those who were so girt were commonly called campestrati. Shame modestly covered that which lust disobediently moved in opposition to the will, which was thus punished for its own disobedience. Consequently all nations, being propagated from that one stock, have so strong an instinct to cover the shameful parts, that some barbarians do not uncover them even in the bath, but wash with their drawers on. In the dark solitudes of India also, though some philosophers go naked, and are therefore called gymnosophists, yet they make an exception in the case of these members and cover them. 14.18. Lust requires for its consummation darkness and secrecy; and this not only when un lawful intercourse is desired, but even such fornication as the earthly city has legalized. Where there is no fear of punishment, these permitted pleasures still shrink from the public eye. Even where provision is made for this lust, secrecy also is provided; and while lust found it easy to remove the prohibitions of law, shamelessness found it impossible to lay aside the veil of retirement. For even shameless men call this shameful; and though they love the pleasure, dare not display it. What! Does not even conjugal intercourse, sanctioned as it is by law for the propagation of children, legitimate and honorable though it be, does it not seek retirement from every eye? Before the bridegroom fondles his bride, does he not exclude the attendants, and even the paranymphs, and such friends as the closest ties have admitted to the bridal chamber? The greatest master of Roman eloquence says, that all right actions wish to be set in the light, i.e., desire to be known. This right action, however, has such a desire to be known, that yet it blushes to be seen. Who does not know what passes between husband and wife that children may be born? Is it not for this purpose that wives are married with such ceremony? And yet, when this well-understood act is gone about for the procreation of children, not even the children themselves, who may already have been born to them, are suffered to be witnesses. This right action seeks the light, in so far as it seeks to be known, but yet dreads being seen. And why so, if not because that which is by nature fitting and decent is so done as to be accompanied with a shame-begetting penalty of sin? 14.19. Hence it is that even the philosophers who have approximated to the truth have avowed that anger and lust are vicious mental emotions, because, even when exercised towards objects which wisdom does not prohibit, they are moved in an ungoverned and inordinate manner, and consequently need the regulation of mind and reason. And they assert that this third part of the mind is posted as it were in a kind of citadel, to give rule to these other parts, so that, while it rules and they serve, man's righteousness is preserved without a breach. These parts, then, which they acknowledge to be vicious even in a wise and temperate man, so that the mind, by its composing and restraining influence, must bridle and recall them from those objects towards which they are unlawfully moved, and give them access to those which the law of wisdom sanctions - that anger, e.g., may be allowed for the enforcement of a just authority, and lust for the duty of propagating offspring - these parts, I say, were not vicious in Paradise before sin, for they were never moved in opposition to a holy will towards any object from which it was necessary that they should be withheld by the restraining bridle of reason. For though now they are moved in this way, and are regulated by a bridling and restraining power, which those who live temperately, justly, and godly exercise, sometimes with ease, and sometimes with greater difficulty, this is not the sound health of nature, but the weakness which results from sin. And how is it that shame does not hide the acts and words dictated by anger or other emotions, as it covers the motions of lust, unless because the members of the body which we employ for accomplishing them are moved, not by the emotions themselves, but by the authority of the consenting will? For he who in his anger rails at or even strikes some one, could not do so were not his tongue and hand moved by the authority of the will, as also they are moved when there is no anger. But the organs of generation are so subjected to the rule of lust, that they have no motion but what it communicates. It is this we are ashamed of; it is this which blushingly hides from the eyes of onlookers. And rather will a man endure a crowd of witnesses when he is unjustly venting his anger on some one, than the eye of one man when he innocently copulates with his wife. 14.20. It is this which those canine or cynic philosophers have overlooked, when they have, in violation of the modest instincts of men, boastfully proclaimed their unclean and shameless opinion, worthy indeed of dogs, viz., that as the matrimonial act is legitimate, no one should be ashamed to perform it openly, in the street or in any public place. Instinctive shame has overborne this wild fancy. For though it is related that Diogenes once dared to put his opinion in practice, under the impression that his sect would be all the more famous if his egregious shamelessness were deeply graven in the memory of mankind, yet this example was not afterwards followed. Shame had more influence with them, to make them blush before men, than error to make them affect a resemblance to dogs. And possibly, even in the case of Diogenes, and those who did imitate him, there was but an appearance and pretence of copulation, and not the reality. Even at this day there are still Cynic philosophers to be seen; for these are Cynics who are not content with being clad in the pallium, but also carry a club; yet no one of them dares to do this that we speak of. If they did, they would be spat upon, not to say stoned, by the mob. Human nature, then, is without doubt ashamed of this lust; and justly so, for the insubordination of these members, and their defiance of the will, are the clear testimony of the punishment of man's first sin. And it was fitting that this should appear specially in those parts by which is generated that nature which has been altered for the worse by that first and great sin - that sin from whose evil connection no one can escape, unless God's grace expiate in him individually that which was perpetrated to the destruction of all in common, when all were in one man, and which was avenged by God's justice. 14.21. Far be it, then, from us to suppose that our first parents in Paradise felt that lust which caused them afterwards to blush and hide their nakedness, or that by its means they should have fulfilled the benediction of God, Increase and multiply and replenish the earth; Genesis 1:28 for it was after sin that lust began. It was after sin that our nature, having lost the power it had over the whole body, but not having lost all shame, perceived, noticed, blushed at, and covered it. But that blessing upon marriage, which encouraged them to increase and multiply and replenish the earth, though it continued even after they had sinned, was yet given before they sinned, in order that the procreation of children might be recognized as part of the glory of marriage, and not of the punishment of sin. But now, men being ignorant of the blessedness of Paradise, suppose that children could not have been begotten there in any other way than they know them to be begotten now, i.e., by lust, at which even honorable marriage blushes; some not simply rejecting, but sceptically deriding the divine Scriptures, in which we read that our first parents, after they sinned, were ashamed of their nakedness, and covered it; while others, though they accept and honor Scripture, yet conceive that this expression, Increase and multiply, refers not to carnal fecundity, because a similar expression is used of the soul in the words, You will multiply me with strength in my soul; and so, too, in the words which follow in Genesis, And replenish the earth, and subdue it, they understand by the earth the body which the soul fills with its presence, and which it rules over when it is multiplied in strength. And they hold that children could no more then than now be begotten without lust, which, after sin, was kindled, observed, blushed for, and covered; and even that children would not have been born in Paradise, but only outside of it, as in fact it turned out. For it was after they were expelled from it that they came together to beget children, and begot them. 14.22. But we, for our part, have no manner of doubt that to increase and multiply and replenish the earth in virtue of the blessing of God, is a gift of marriage as God instituted it from the beginning before man sinned, when He created them male and female - in other words, two sexes manifestly distinct. And it was this work of God on which His blessing was pronounced. For no sooner had Scripture said, Male and female created He them, Genesis 1:27-28 than it immediately continues, And God blessed them, and God said to them, Increase, and multiply, and replenish the earth, and subdue it, etc. And though all these things may not unsuitably be interpreted in a spiritual sense, yet male and female cannot be understood of two things in one man, as if there were in him one thing which rules, another which is ruled; but it is quite clear that they were created male and female, with bodies of different sexes, for the very purpose of begetting offspring, and so increasing, multiplying, and replenishing the earth; and it is great folly to oppose so plain a fact. It was not of the spirit which commands and the body which obeys, nor of the rational soul which rules and the irrational desire which is ruled, nor of the contemplative virtue which is supreme and the active which is subject, nor of the understanding of the mind and the sense of the body, but plainly of the matrimonial union by which the sexes are mutually bound together, that our Lord, when asked whether it were lawful for any cause to put away one's wife (for on account of the hardness of the hearts of the Israelites Moses permitted a bill of divorcement to be given), answered and said, Have you not read that He which made them at the beginning made them male and female, and said, For this cause shall a man leave father and mother, and shall cleave to his wife, and they two shall be one flesh? Wherefore they are no more two, but one flesh. What, therefore, God has joined together, let not man put asunder. Matthew 19:4-5 It is certain, then, that from the first men were created, as we see and know them to be now, of two sexes, male and female, and that they are called one, either on account of the matrimonial union, or on account of the origin of the woman, who was created from the side of the man. And it is by this original example, which God Himself instituted, that the apostle admonishes all husbands to love their own wives in particular. Ephesians 5:25 14.23. But he who says that there should have been neither copulation nor generation but for sin, virtually says that man's sin was necessary to complete the number of the saints. For if these two by not sinning should have continued to live alone, because, as is supposed, they could not have begotten children had they not sinned, then certainly sin was necessary in order that there might be not only two but many righteous men. And if this cannot be maintained without absurdity, we must rather believe that the number of the saints fit to complete this most blessed city would have been as great though no one had sinned, as it is now that the grace of God gathers its citizens out of the multitude of sinners, so long as the children of this world generate and are generated. Luke 20:34 And therefore that marriage, worthy of the happiness of Paradise, should have had desirable fruit without the shame of lust, had there been no sin. But how that could be, there is now no example to teach us. Nevertheless, it ought not to seem incredible that one member might serve the will without lust then, since so many serve it now. Do we now move our feet and hands when we will to do the things we would by means of these members? Do we meet with no resistance in them, but perceive that they are ready servants of the will, both in our own case and in that of others, and especially of artisans employed in mechanical operations, by which the weakness and clumsiness of nature become, through industrious exercise, wonderfully dexterous? And shall we not believe that, like as all those members obediently serve the will, so also should the members have discharged the function of generation, though lust, the award of disobedience, had been awanting? Did not Cicero, in discussing the difference of governments in his De Republica, adopt a simile from human nature, and say that we command our bodily members as children, they are so obedient; but that the vicious parts of the soul must be treated as slaves, and be coerced with a more stringent authority? And no doubt, in the order of nature, the soul is more excellent than the body; and yet the soul commands the body more easily than itself. Nevertheless this lust, of which we at present speak, is the more shameful on this account, because the soul is therein neither master of itself, so as not to lust at all, nor of the body, so as to keep the members under the control of the will; for if they were thus ruled, there should be no shame. But now the soul is ashamed that the body, which by nature is inferior and subject to it, should resist its authority. For in the resistance experienced by the soul in the other emotions there is less shame, because the resistance is from itself, and thus, when it is conquered by itself, itself is the conqueror, although the conquest is inordinate and vicious, because accomplished by those parts of the soul which ought to be subject to reason, yet, being accomplished by its own parts and energies, the conquest is, as I say, its own. For when the soul conquers itself to a due subordination, so that its unreasonable motions are controlled by reason, while it again is subject to God, this is a conquest virtuous and praiseworthy. Yet there is less shame when the soul is resisted by its own vicious parts than when its will and order are resisted by the body, which is distinct from and inferior to it, and dependent on it for life itself. But so long as the will retains under its authority the other members, without which the members excited by lust to resist the will cannot accomplish what they seek, chastity is preserved, and the delight of sin foregone. And certainly, had not culpable disobedience been visited with penal disobedience, the marriage of Paradise should have been ignorant of this struggle and rebellion, this quarrel between will and lust, that the will may be satisfied and lust restrained, but those members, like all the rest, should have obeyed the will. The field of generation should have been sown by the organ created for this purpose, as the earth is sown by the hand. And whereas now, as we essay to investigate this subject more exactly, modesty hinders us, and compels us to ask pardon of chaste ears, there would have been no cause to do so, but we could have discoursed freely, and without fear of seeming obscene, upon all those points which occur to one who meditates on the subject. There would not have been even words which could be called obscene, but all that might be said of these members would have been as pure as what is said of the other parts of the body. Whoever, then, comes to the perusal of these pages with unchaste mind, let him blame his disposition, not his nature; let him brand the actings of his own impurity, not the words which necessity forces us to use, and for which every pure and pious reader or hearer will very readily pardon me, while I expose the folly of that scepticism which argues solely on the ground of its own experience, and has no faith in anything beyond. He who is not scandalized at the apostle's censure of the horrible wickedness of the women who changed the natural use into that which is against nature, Romans 1:26 will read all this without being shocked, especially as we are not, like Paul, citing and censuring a damnable uncleanness, but are explaining, so far as we can, human generation, while with Paul we avoid all obscenity of language. 14.24. The man, then, would have sown the seed, and the woman received it, as need required, the generative organs being moved by the will, not excited by lust. For we move at will not only those members which are furnished with joints of solid bone, as the hands, feet, and fingers, but we move also at will those which are composed of slack and soft nerves: we can put them in motion, or stretch them out, or bend and twist them, or contract and stiffen them, as we do with the muscles of the mouth and face. The lungs, which are the very tenderest of the viscera except the brain, and are therefore carefully sheltered in the cavity of the chest, yet for all purposes of inhaling and exhaling the breath, and of uttering and modulating the voice, are obedient to the will when we breathe, exhale, speak, shout, or sing, just as the bellows obey the smith or the organist. I will not press the fact that some animals have a natural power to move a single spot of the skin with which their whole body is covered, if they have felt on it anything they wish to drive off - a power so great, that by this shivering tremor of the skin they can not only shake off flies that have settled on them, but even spears that have fixed in their flesh. Man, it is true, has not this power; but is this any reason for supposing that God could not give it to such creatures as He wished to possess it? And therefore man himself also might very well have enjoyed absolute power over his members had he not forfeited it by his disobedience; for it was not difficult for God to form him so that what is now moved in his body only by lust should have been moved only at will. We know, too, that some men are differently constituted from others, and have some rare and remarkable faculty of doing with their body what other men can by no effort do, and, indeed, scarcely believe when they hear of others doing. There are persons who can move their ears, either one at a time, or both together. There are some who, without moving the head, can bring the hair down upon the forehead, and move the whole scalp backwards and forwards at pleasure. Some, by lightly pressing their stomach, bring up an incredible quantity and variety of things they have swallowed, and produce whatever they please, quite whole, as if out of a bag. Some so accurately mimic the voices of birds and beasts and other men, that, unless they are seen, the difference cannot be told. Some have such command of their bowels, that they can break wind continuously at pleasure, so as to produce the effect of singing. I myself have known a man who was accustomed to sweat whenever he wished. It is well known that some weep when they please, and shed a flood of tears. But far more incredible is that which some of our brethren saw quite recently. There was a presbyter called Restitutus, in the parish of the Calamensian Church, who, as often as he pleased (and he was asked to do this by those who desired to witness so remarkable a phenomenon), on some one imitating the wailings of mourners, became so insensible, and lay in a state so like death, that not only had he no feeling when they pinched and pricked him, but even when fire was applied to him, and he was burned by it, he had no sense of pain except afterwards from the wound. And that his body remained motionless, not by reason of his self-command, but because he was insensible, was proved by the fact that he breathed no more than a dead man; and yet he said that, when any one spoke with more than ordinary distinctness, he heard the voice, but as if it were a long way off. Seeing, then, that even in this mortal and miserable life the body serves some men by many remarkable movements and moods beyond the ordinary course of nature, what reason is there for doubting that, before man was involved by his sin in this weak and corruptible condition, his members might have served his will for the propagation of offspring without lust? Man has been given over to himself because he abandoned God, while he sought to be self-satisfying; and disobeying God, he could not obey even himself. Hence it is that he is involved in the obvious misery of being unable to live as he wishes. For if he lived as he wished, he would think himself blessed; but he could not be so if he lived wickedly. 14.25. However, if we look at this a little more closely, we see that no one lives as he wishes but the blessed, and that no one is blessed but the righteous. But even the righteous himself does not live as he wishes, until he has arrived where he cannot die, be deceived, or injured, and until he is assured that this shall be his eternal condition. For this nature demands; and nature is not fully and perfectly blessed till it attains what it seeks. But what man is at present able to live as he wishes, when it is not in his power so much as to live? He wishes to live, he is compelled to die. How, then, does he live as he wishes who does not live as long as he wishes? Or if he wishes to die, how can he live as he wishes, since he does not wish even to live? Or if he wishes to die, not because he dislikes life, but that after death he may live better, still he is not yet living as he wishes, but only has the prospect of so living when, through death, he reaches that which he wishes. But admit that he lives as he wishes, because he has done violence to himself, and forced himself not to wish what he cannot obtain, and to wish only what he can (as Terence has it, Since you cannot do what you will, will what you can ), is he therefore blessed because he is patiently wretched? For a blessed life is possessed only by the man who loves it. If it is loved and possessed, it must necessarily be more ardently loved than all besides; for whatever else is loved must be loved for the sake of the blessed life. And if it is loved as it deserves to be - and the man is not blessed who does not love the blessed life as it deserves - then he who so loves it cannot but wish it to be eternal. Therefore it shall then only be blessed when it is eternal.
266. Ambrosiaster, Commentary On Galatia, None (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 435
267. Jerome, Adversus Jovinianum, 1.4 (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical reading Found in books: Trettel (2019), Desires in Paradise: An Interpretative Study of Augustine's City of God 14, 169
268. Jerome, Commentary On Galatians, None (5th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 435
269. Cosmas Indicopleustes, Topographia Christiana, 11.1 (5th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 74
270. Gregory The Great, Libri Moralium In Job Xxxv, 5.46-5.48, 5.50-5.55, 5.67, 8.19-8.20, 23.38, 35.8.14, 35.10 (6th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 57, 58, 59, 60; Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 13
271. Gregory The Great, Libri Duo In Ezechielem, 2.2.13 (6th cent. CE - 7th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 61
272. Valentinus, Fragments, 7  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 438
274. Strabo, Geography, 1.1.6, 1.2  Tagged with subjects: •alexandria, alexandrian scholarship, allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory/allegorical, jewish-hellenistic allegory •allegory/allegorical, a short history of •allegory/allegorical, allegorical text or interpretation •allegory/allegorical, etymology of the word •allegory/allegorical, in alexandria •allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah •allegory/allegorical, of homer Found in books: Finkelberg (2019), Homer and Early Greek Epic: Collected Essays, 338; Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 81, 88
1.1.6. He tells us also, that the Ethiopians are far removed, and bounded by the ocean: far removed, — The Ethiopians, utmost of mankind, These eastward situate, those toward the west. [Od. i. 23] Nor was he mistaken in calling them separated into two divisions, as we shall presently show: and next to the ocean, — For to the banks of the Oceanus, Where Ethiopia holds a feast to Jove, He journey'd yesterday. Speaking of the Bear, he implies that the most northern part of the earth is bounded by the ocean: Only star of these denied To slake his beams in Ocean's briny baths. Iliad xviii. 489; [Od. v. 275.] Now, by the Bear and the Wain, he means the Arctic Circle; otherwise he would never have said, It alone is deprived of the baths of the ocean, when such an infinity of stars is to be seen continually revolving in that part of the hemisphere. Let no one any longer blame his ignorance for being merely acquainted with one Bear, when there are two. It is probable that the second was not considered a constellation until, on the Phoenicians specially designating it, and employing it in navigation, it became known as one to the Greeks. Such is the case with the Hair of Berenice, and Canopus, whose names are but of yesterday; and, as Aratus remarks, there are numbers which have not yet received any designation. Crates, therefore, is mistaken when, endeavouring to amend what is correct, he reads the verse thus: οἷος δ᾽ ἄμμορός ἐστι λοετρῶν, replacing οἴη by οἶς, with a view to make the adjective agree with the Arctic Circle, which is masculine; instead of the Arctic Constellation, which is feminine. The expression of Heraclitus is far more preferable and Homeric, who thus figuratively describes the Arctic Circle as the Bear, — The Bear is the limit of the dawn and of the evening, and from the region of the Bear we have fine weather. Now it is not the constellation of the Bear, but the Arctic Circle, which is the limit of the rising and the setting stars. By the Bear, then, which he elsewhere calls the Wain, and describes as pursuing Orion, Homer means us to understand the Arctic Circle; and by the ocean, that horizon into which, and out of which, the stars rise and set. When he says that the Bear turns round and is deprived of the ocean, he was aware that the Arctic Circle [always] extended to the sign opposite the most northern point of the horizon. Adapting the words of the poet to this view, by that part of the earth nearest to the ocean we must understand the horizon, and by the Arctic Circle that which extends to the signs which seem to our senses to touch in succession the most northern point of the horizon. Thus, according to him, this portion of the earth is washed by the ocean. With the nations of the North he was well acquainted, although he does not mention them by name, and indeed at the present day there is no regular title by which they are all distinguished. He informs us of their mode of life, describing them as wanderers, noble milkers of mares, living on cheese, and without wealth. 1.2. 1. No one can [justly] blame us for having undertaken to write on a subject already often treated of, unless it appears that we have done nothing more than copy the works of former writers. In our opinion, though they may have perfectly treated some subjects, in others they have still left much to be completed; and we shall be justified in our performance, if we can add to their information even in a trifling degree. At the present moment the conquests of the Romans and Parthians have added much to our knowledge, which (as was well observed by Eratosthenes) had been considerably increased by the expedition of Alexander. This prince laid open to our view the greater part of Asia, and the whole north of Europe as far as the Danube. And the Romans [have discovered to us] the entire west of Europe as far as the river Elbe, which divides Germany, and the country beyond the Ister to the river Dniester. The country beyond this to the Maeotis, and the coasts extending along Colchis, was brought to light by Mithridates, surnamed Eupator, and his generals. To the Parthians we are indebted for a better acquaintance with Hyrcania, Bactriana, and the land of the Scythians lying beyond, of which before we knew but little. Thus we can add much information not supplied by former writers, but this will best be seen when we come to treat on the writers who have preceded us; and this method we shall pursue, not so much in regard to the primitive geographers, as to Eratosthenes and those subsequent to him. As these writers far surpassed the generality in the amount of their knowledge, so naturally it is more difficult to detect their errors when such occur. If I seem to contradict those most whom I take chiefly for my guides, I must claim indulgence on the plea, that it was never intended to criticise the whole body of geographers, the larger number of whom are not worthy of consideration, but to give an opinion of those only who are generally found correct. Still, while many are beneath discussion, such men as Eratosthenes, Posidonius, Hipparchus, Polybius, and others of their stamp, deserve our highest consideration.,2. Let us first examine Eratosthenes, reviewing at the same time what Hipparchus has advanced against him. Eratosthenes is much too creditable an historian for us to believe what Polemon endeavours to charge against him, that he had not even seen Athens. At the same time he does not merit that unbounded confidence which some seem to repose in him, although, as he himself tells us, he passed much of his time with first-rate [characters]. Never, says he, at one period, and in one city, were there so many philosophers flourishing together as in my time. In their number was Ariston and Arcesilaus. This, however, it seems is not sufficient, but you must also be able to choose who are the real guides whom it is your interest to follow. He considers Arcesilaus and Ariston to be the coryphaei of the philosophers who flourished in his time, and is ceaseless in his eulogies of Apelles and Bion, the latter of whom, says he, was the first to deck himself in the flowers of philosophy, but concerning whom one is often likewise tempted to exclaim, How great is Bion in spite of his rags! It is in such instances as the following that the mediocrity of his genius shows itself. Although at Athens he became a disciple of Zeno of Citium, he makes no mention of his followers; while those who opposed that philosopher, and of whose sect not a trace remains, he thinks fit to set down amongst the [great characters] who flourished in his time. His real character appears in his Treatise on Moral Philosophy, his Meditations, and some similar productions. He seems to have held a middle course between the man who devotes himself to philosophy, and the man who cannot make up his mind to dedicate himself to it: and to have studied the science merely as a relief from his other pursuits, or as a pleasing and instructive recreation. In his other writings he is just the same; but let these things pass. We will now proceed as well as we can to the task of rectifying his geography. First, then, let us return to the point which we lately deferred.,3. Eratosthenes says that the poet directs his whole attention to the amusement of the mind, and not at all to its instruction. In opposition to his idea, the ancients define poesy as a primitive philosophy, guiding our life from infancy, and pleasantly regulating our morals, our tastes, and our actions. The [Stoics] of our day affirm that the only wise man is the poet. On this account the earliest lessons which the citizens of Greece convey to their children are from the poets; certainly not alone for the purpose of amusing their minds, but for their instruction. Nay, even the professors of music, who give lessons on the harp, lyre, and pipe, lay claim to our consideration on the same account, since they say that [the accomplishments which they teach] are calculated to form and improve the character. It is not only among the Pythagoreans that one hears this claim supported, for Aristoxenus is of that opinion, and Homer too regarded the bards as amongst the wisest of mankind. of this number was the guardian of Clytemnestra, to whom the son of Atreus, when he set out for Troy, gave earnest charge to preserve his wife, whom Aegisthus was unable to seduce, until leading the bard to a desert island, he left him, and then The queen he led, not willing less than he, To his own mansion. Ib. iii. 272. But apart from all such considerations, Eratosthenes contradicts himself; for a little previously to the sentence which we have quoted, at the commencement of his Essay on Geography, he says, that all the ancient poets took delight in showing their knowledge of such matters. Homer inserted into his poetry all that he knew about the Ethiopians, Egypt, and Libya. of all that related to Greece and the neighbouring places he entered even too minutely into the details, describing Thisbe as abounding in doves, Haliartus, grassy, Anthedon, the far distant, Lilaea, situated on the sources of the Cephissus, and none of his epithets are without their meaning. But in pursuing this method, what object has he in view, to amuse [merely], or to instruct? The latter, doubtless. Well, perhaps he has told the truth in these instances, but in what was beyond his observation both he and the other writers have indulged in all the marvels of fable. If such be the case the statement should have been, that the poets relate some things for mere amusement, others for instruction; but he affirms that they do it altogether for amusement, without any view to information; and by way of climax, inquires, What can it add to Homer's worth to be familiar with many lands, and skilled in strategy, agriculture, rhetoric, and similar information, which some persons seem desirous to make him possessed of. To seek to invest him with all this knowledge is most likely the effect of too great a zeal for his honour. Hipparchus observes, that to assert he was acquainted with every art and science, is like saying that an Attic eiresione bears pears and apples. As far as this goes, Eratosthenes, you are right enough; not so, however, when you not only deny that Homer was possessed of these vast acquirements, but represent poetry in general as a tissue of old wives' fables, where, to use your own expression, every thing thought likely to amuse is cooked up. I ask, is it of no value to the auditors of the poets to be made acquainted with [the history of] different countries, with strategy, agriculture, and rhetoric, and suchlike things, which the lecture generally contains.,4. One thing is certain, that the poet has bestowed all these gifts upon Ulysses, whom beyond any of his other [heroes] he loves to adorn with every virtue. He says of him, that he Discover'd various cities, and the mind And manners learn'd of men in lands remote. [Od. i 3.] That he was of a piercing wit and deeply wise. Iliad iii. 202. He is continually described as the destroyer of cities, and as having vanquished Troy, by his counsels, his advice, and his deceptive art. Diomedes says of him, Let him attend me, and through fire itself We shall return; for none is wise as he. Ib. x. 246. He prides himself on his skill in husbandry, for at the harvest [he says], I with my well-bent sickle in my hand, Thou arm'd with one as keen. [Od. xviii. 367.] And also in tillage, Then shouldst thou see How straight my furrow should be cut and true. Ib. xviii. 374. And Homer was not singular in his opinion regarding these matters, for all educated people appeal to him in favour of the idea that such practical knowledge is one of the chief means of acquiring understanding.,5. That eloquence is regarded as the wisdom of speech, Ulysses manifests throughout the whole poem, both in the Trial, the Petitions, and the Embassy. of him it is said by Antenor, But when he spake, forth from his breast did flow A torrent swift as winter's feather'd snow. Iliad iii. 221. Who can suppose that a poet capable of effectively introducing into his scenes rhetoricians, generals, and various other characters, each displaying some peculiar excellence, was nothing more than a droll or juggler, capable only of cheating or flattering his hearer, and not of instructing him. Are we not all agreed that the chief merit of a poet consists in his accurate representation of the affairs of life? Can this be done by a mere driveller, unacquainted with the world? The excellence of a poet is not to be measured by the same standard as that of a mechanic or a blacksmith, where honour and virtue have nothing to do with our estimate. But the poet and the individual are connected, and he only can become a good poet, who is in the first instance a worthy man.,6. To deny that our poet possesses the Graces of oratory is using us hardly indeed. What is so befitting an orator, what so poetical as eloquence, and who so sweetly eloquent as Homer? But, by heaven! you'll say, there are other styles of eloquence than those peculiar to poetry. of course [I admit this]; in poetry itself there is the tragic and the comic style; in prose, the historic and the forensic. But is not language a generality, of which poetry and prose are forms? Yes, language is; but are not the rhetorical, the eloquent, and the florid styles also? I answer, that flowery prose is nothing but an imitation of poetry. Ornate poetry was the first to make its appearance, and was well received. Afterwards it was closely imitated by writers in the time of Cadmus, Pherecydes, and Hecataeus. The metre was the only thing dispensed with, every other poetic grace being carefully preserved. As time advanced, one after another of its beauties was discarded, till at last it came down from its glory into our common prose. In the same way we may say that comedy took its rise from tragedy, but descended from its lofty grandeur into what we now call the common parlance of daily life. And when [we find] the ancient writers making use of the expression to sing, to designate eloquence of style, this in itself is an evidence that poetry is the source and origin of all ornamented and rhetorical language. Poetry in ancient days was on every occasion accompanied by melody. The song or ode was but a modulated speech, from whence the words rhapsody, tragedy, comedy, are derived; and since originally eloquence was the term made use of for the poetical effusions which were always of the nature of a song, it soon happened [that in speaking of poetry] some said, to sing, others, to be eloquent; and as the one term was early misapplied to prose compositions, the other also was soon applied in the same way. Lastly, the very term prose, which is applied to language not clothed in metre, seems to indicate, as it were, its descent from an elevation or chariot to the ground.,7. Homer accurately describes many distant countries, and not only Greece and the neighbouring places, as Eratosthenes asserts. His romance, too, is in better style than that of his successors. He does not make up wondrous tales on every occasion, but to instruct us the better often, and especially in the Odyssey, adds to the circumstances which have come under his actual observation, allegories, wise harangues, and enticing narrations. Concerning which, Eratosthenes is much mistaken when he says that both Homer and his commentators are a pack of fools. But this subject demands a little more of our attention.,8. To begin. The poets were by no means the first to avail themselves of myths. States and lawgivers had taken advantage of them long before, having observed the constitutional bias of mankind. Man is eager after knowledge, and the love of legend is but the prelude thereto. This is why children begin to listen [to fables], and are acquainted with them before any other kind of knowledge; the cause of this is that the myth introduces them to a new train of ideas, relating not to every-day occurrences, but something in addition to these. A charm hangs round whatever is new and hitherto unknown, inspiring us with a desire to become acquainted with it, but when the wonderful and the marvellous are likewise present, our delight is increased until at last it becomes a philtre of study. To children we are obliged to hold out such enticements, in order that in riper years, when the mind is powerful, and no longer needs such stimulants, it may be prepared to enter on the study of actual realities. Every illiterate and uninstructed man is yet a child, and takes delight in fable. With the partially informed it is much the same; reason is not all-powerful within him, and he still possesses the tastes of a child. But the marvellous, which is capable of exciting fear as well as pleasure, influences not childhood only, but age as well. As we relate to children pleasing tales to incite them [to any course] of action, and frightful ones to deter them, such as those of Lamia, Gorgo, Ephialtes, and Mormolyca. So numbers of our citizens are incited to deeds of virtue by the beauties of fable, when they hear the poets in a strain of enthusiasm recording noble actions, such as the labours of Hercules or Theseus, and the honours bestowed on them by the gods, or even when they see paintings, sculptures, or figures bearing their romantic evidence to such events. In the same way they are restrained from vicious courses, when they think they have received from the gods by oracles or some other invisible intimations, threats, menaces, or chastisements, or even if they only believe they have befallen others. The great mass of women and common people, cannot be induced by mere force of reason to devote themselves to piety, virtue, and honesty; superstition must therefore be employed, and even this is insufficient without the aid of the marvellous and the terrible. For what are the thunderbolts, the aegis, the trident, the torches, the dragons, the barbed thyrses, the arms of the gods, and all the paraphernalia of antique theology, but fables employed by the founders of states, as bugbears to frighten timorous minds. Such was mythology; and when our ancestors found it capable of subserving the purposes of social and political life, and even contributing to the knowledge of truth, they continued the education of childhood to maturer years, and maintained that poetry was sufficient to form the understanding of every age. In course of time history and our present philosophy were introduced; these, however, suffice but for the chosen few, and to the present day poetry is the main agent which instructs our people and crowds our theatres. Homer here stands pre-eminent, but in truth all the early historians and natural philosophers were mythologists as well.,9. Thus it is that our poet, though he sometimes employs fiction for the purposes of instruction, always gives the preference to truth; he makes use of what is false, merely tolerating it in order the more easily to lead and govern the multitude. As a man Binds with a golden verge Bright silver, so Homer, heightening by fiction actual occurrences, adorns and embellishes his subject; but his end is always the same as that of the historian, who relates nothing but facts. In this manner he undertook the narration of the Trojan war, gilding it with the beauties of fancy and the wanderings of Ulysses; but we shall never find Homer inventing an empty fable apart from the inculcation of truth. It is ever the case that a person lies most successfully, when he intermingles [into the falsehood] a sprinkling of truth. Such is the remark of Polybius in treating of the wanderings of Ulysses; such is also the meaning of the verse, He fabricated many falsehoods, relating them like truths: [Od. xix. 203.] not all, but many falsehoods, otherwise it would not have looked like the truth. Homer's narrative is founded on history. He tells us that king Aeolus governed the Lipari Islands, that around Mount Aetna and Leontini dwelt the Cyclopae, and certain Laestrygonians inhospitable to strangers. That at that time the districts surrounding the strait were unapproachable; and Scylla and Charybdis were infested by banditti. In like manner in the writings of Homer we are informed of other freebooters, who dwelt in divers regions. Being aware that the Cimmerians dwelt on the Cimmerian Bosphorus, a dark northern country, he felicitously locates them in a gloomy region close by Hades, a fit theatre for the scene in the wanderings of Ulysses. That he was acquainted with these people we may satisfy ourselves from the chroniclers, who report an incursion made by the Cimmerians either during his life-time or just before.,10. Being acquainted with Colchis, and the voyage of Jason to Aea, and also with the historical and fabulous relations concerning Circe and Medea, their enchantments and their various other points of resemblance, he feigns there was a relationship between them, notwithstanding the vast distance by which they were separated, the one dwelling in an inland creek of the Euxine, and the other in Italy, and both of them beyond the ocean. It is possible that Jason himself wandered as far as Italy, for traces of the Argonautic expedition are pointed out near the Ceraunian mountains, by the Adriatic, at the Posidonian Gulf, and the isles adjacent to Tyrrhenia. The Cyaneae, called by some the Symplegades, or Jostling Rocks, which render the passage through the Strait of Constantinople so difficult, also afforded matter to our poet. The actual existence of a place named Aea, stamped credibility upon his Aeaea; so did the Symplegades upon the Planctae, (the Jostling Rocks upon the Wandering Rocks) and the passage of Jason through the midst of them; in the same way Scylla and Charybdis accredited the passage [of Ulysses] past those rocks. In his time people absolutely regarded the Euxine as a kind of second ocean, and placed those who had crossed it in the same list with navigators who had passed the Pillars. It was looked upon as the largest of our seas, and was therefore par excellence styled the Sea, in the same way as Homer [is called] the Poet. In order therefore to be well received, it is probable he transferred the scenes from the Euxine to the ocean, so as not to stagger the general belief. And in my opinion those Solymi who possess the highest ridges of Taurus, lying between Lycia and Pisidia, and those who in their southern heights stand out most conspicuously to the dwellers on this side Taurus, and the inhabitants of the Euxine by a figure of speech, he describes as being beyond the ocean. For narrating the voyage of Ulysses in his ship, he says, But Neptune, traversing in his return From Ethiopia's sons, the mountain heights of Solyme, descried him from afar. [Od. v. 282.] It is probable he took his account of the one-eyed Cyclopae from Scythian history, for the Arimaspi, whom Aristaeus of Proconnesus describes in his Tales of the Arimaspi, are said to be distinguished by this peculiarity.,11. Having premised thus much, we must now take into consideration the reasons of those who assert that Homer makes Ulysses wander to Sicily or Italy, and also of those who denied this. The truth is, he may be equally interpreted on this subject either way, according as we take a correct or incorrect view of the case. Correct, if we understand that he was convinced of the reality of Ulysses' wanderings there, and taking this truth as a foundation, raised thereon a poetical superstructure. And so far this description of him is right; for not about Italy only, but to the farthest extremities of Spain, traces of his wanderings and those of similar adventurers may still be found. Incorrect, if the scene-painting is received as fact, his Ocean, and Hades, the oxen of the sun, his hospitable reception by the goddesses, the metamorphoses, the gigantic size of the Cyclopae and Laestrygonians, the monstrous appearance of Scylla, the distance of the voyage, and other similar particulars, all alike manifestly fabulous. It is as idle to waste words with a person who thus openly maligns our poet, as it would be with one who should assert as true all the particulars of Ulysses' return to Ithaca, the slaughter of the suitors, and the pitched battle between him and the Ithacans in the field. But nothing can be said against the man who understands the words of the poet in a rational way.,12. Eratosthenes, though on no sufficient grounds for so doing, rejects both these opinions, endeavouring in his attack on the latter, to refute by lengthened arguments what is manifestly absurd and unworthy of consideration, and in regard to the former, maintaining a poet to be a mere gossip, to whose worth an acquaintance with science or geography could not add in the least degree: since the scenes of certain of Homer's fables are cast in actual localities, as Ilium, Pelion, and Ida; others in purely imaginary regions, such as those of the Gorgons and Geryon. of this latter class, he says, are the places mentioned in the wanderings of Ulysses, and those who pretend that they are not mere fabrications of the poet, but have an actual existence, are proved to be mistaken by the differences of opinion existing among themselves: for some of them assert that the Sirenes of Homer are situated close to Pelorus, and others that they are more than two thousand stadia distant, near the Sirenussae, a three-peaked rock which separates the Gulfs of Cumaea and Posidonium. Now, in the first place, this rock is not three-peaked, nor does it form a crest at the summit at all, but a long and narrow angle reaching from the territory of Surrentum to the Strait of Capria, having on one side of the mountain the sanctuary of the Sirens, and on the other side, next the Gulf of Posidonium, three little rocky and uninhabited islands, named the Sirenes; upon the strait, is situated the Athenaion, from which the rocky angle itself takes its name.,13. Further, if those who describe the geography of certain places do not agree in every particular, are we justified in at once rejecting their whole narration? Frequently this is a reason why it should receive the greater credit. For example, in the investigation whether the scene of Ulysses' wanderings were Sicily or Italy, and the proper position of the Sirenes, they differ in so far that one places them at Pelorus, and the other at Sirenussae, but neither of them dissents from the idea that it was some where near Sicily or Italy. They add thereby strength to this view, inasmuch as though they are not agreed as to the exact locality, neither of them makes any question but that it was some where contiguous to Italy or Sicily. If a third party should add, that the monument of Parthenope, who was one of the Sirens, is shown at Naples, this only confirms us the more in our belief, for though a third place is introduced to our notice, still as Naples is situated in the gulf called by Eratosthenes the Cumaean, and which is formed by the Sirenussae, we are more confident still that the position of the Sirenes was some where close by. That the poet did not search for accuracy in every minor detail we admit, but neither ought we to expect this of him; at the same time we are not to believe that he composed his poem without inquiring into the history of the Wandering, nor where and how it occurred.,14. Eratosthenes thinks it probable that Hesiod, having heard of the wanderings of Ulysses, and of their having taken place near to Sicily and Italy, embraced this view of the case, and not only describes the places spoken of by Homer, but also Aetna, the Isle of Ortygia, near to Syracuse, and Tyrrhenia. As for Homer, he was altogether unacquainted with these places, and further, had no wish to lay the scene of the wanderings in any well-known locality. What! are then Aetna and Tyrrhenia such well-known places, and Scyllaion, Charybdis, Circaion, and the Sirenussae, so obscure? Or is Hesiod so correct as never to write nonsense, but always follow in the wake of received opinions, while Homer blurts out whatever comes uppermost? Without taking into consideration our remarks on the character and aptitude of Homer's myths, a large array of writers who bear evidence to his statements, and the additional testimony of local tradition, are sufficient proof that his are not the inventions of poets or contemporary scribblers, but the record of real actors and real scenes.,15. The conjecture of Polybius in regard to the particulars of the wandering of Ulysses is excellent. He says that Aeolus instructed sailors how to navigate the strait, a difficult matter on account of the currents occasioned by the ebb and flow. and was therefore called the dispenser of the winds, and reputed their king. In like manner Danaus for pointing out the springs of water that were in Argos, and Atreus for showing the retrograde movement of the sun in the heavens, from being mere soothsayers and diviners, were raised to the dignity of kings. And the priests of the Egyptians, the Chaldeans, and Magi, distinguished for their wisdom above those around them, obtained from our predecessors honour and authority; and so it is that in each of the gods, we worship the discoverer of some useful art. Having thus introduced his subject, he does not allow us to consider the account of Aeolus, nor yet the rest of the Odyssey, as altogether mythical. There is a spice of the fabulous here, as well as in the Trojan War, but as respects Sicily, the poet accords entirely with the other historians who have written on the local traditions of Sicily and Italy. He altogether denies the justness of Eratosthenes' dictum, that we may hope to discover the whereabout of Ulysses' wanderings, when we can find the cobbler who sewed up the winds in the leathern sack. And [adds Polybius] his description of the hunt of the galeotes at Scylla, 'Plunged to her middle in the horrid den She lurks, protruding from the black abyss Her heads, with which the ravening monster dives In quest of dolphins, Dogfish, or of prey More bulky, [Od. xii. 95.] accords well with what takes place around Scyllaion: for the tunny-fish, carried in shoals by Italy, and not being able to reach Sicily, fall into [the Strait], where they become the prey of larger fish, such as dolphins, Dogfish, and other cetacea, and it is by this means that the galeotes (which are also called sword-fish) and dogs fatten themselves. For the same thing occurs here, and at the rising of the Nile and other rivers, as takes place when a forest is on fire. Vast crowds of animals, in flying from the fire or the water, become the prey of beasts more powerful than themselves.,16. He then goes on to describe the manner in which they catch the sword-fish at Scyllaion. One look-out directs the whole body of fishers, who are in a vast number of small boats, each furnished with two oars, and two men to each boat. One man rows, the other stands on the prow, spear in hand, while the look-out has to signal the appearance of a sword-fish. (This fish, when swimming, has about a third of its body above water.) As it passes the boat, the fisher darts the spear from his hand, and when this is withdrawn, it leaves the sharp point with which it is furnished sticking in the flesh of the fish: this point is barbed, and loosely fixed to the spear for the purpose; it has a long end fastened to it; this they pay out to the wounded fish, till it is exhausted with its struggling and endeavours at escape. Afterwards they trail it to the shore, or, unless it is too large and full-grown, haul it into the boat. If the spear should fall into the sea, it is not lost, for it is jointed of oak and pine, so that when the oak sinks on account of its weight, it causes the other end to rise, and thus is easily recovered. It sometimes happens that the rower is wounded, even through the boat, and such is the size of the sword with which the galeote is armed, such the strength of the fish, and the method of the capture, that [in danger] it is not surpassed by the chase of the wild boar. From these facts (he says) we may conclude that Ulysses' wanderings were close to Sicily, since Homer describes Scylla as engaging in a pursuit exactly similar to that which is carried on at Scyllaion. As to Charybdis, he describes just what takes place at the Strait of Messina: Each day she thrice disgorges, [Od. xii. 105.] instead of twice, being only a mistake, either of the scribe or the historian.,17. The customs of the inhabitants of Meninx closely correspond to the description of the Lotophagi. If any thing does not correspond, it should be attributed to change, or to misconception, or to poetical licence, which is made up of history, rhetoric, and fiction. Truth is the aim of the historical portion, as for instance in the Catalogue of Ships, where the poet informs us of the peculiarities of each place, that one is rocky, another the furthest city, that this abounds in doves. and that is maritime. A lively interest is the end of the rhetorical, as when he points to us the combat; and of the fiction, pleasure and astonishment. A mere fabrication would neither be persuasive nor Homeric; and we know that his poem is generally considered a scientific treatise, notwithstanding what Eratosthenes may say, when he bids us not to judge poems by the standard of intellect, nor yet look to them for history. It is most probable that the line Nine days by cruel storms thence was I borne Athwart the fishy deep, [Od. ix. 82.] should be understood of merely a short distance, (for cruel storms do not blow in a right course,) and not of being carried beyond the ocean, as if impelled by favourable winds. And, says Polybius, allowing the distance from Malea to the Pillars to be 22,500 stadia, and supposing the rate of passage was the same throughout the nine days, the voyage must have been accomplished at the speed of 2500 stadia per diem: now who has ever recorded that the passage from Lycia or Rhodes to Alexandria, a distance of 4000 stadia, has been made in two days? To those who demand how it was that Ulysses, though he journeyed thrice to Sicily, never once navigated the Strait, we reply that, long after his time, voyagers always sedulously avoided that route.,18. Such are the sentiments of Polybius; and in many respects they are correct enough; but when he discusses the voyage beyond the ocean, and enters on minute calculations of the proportion borne by the distance to the number of days, he is greatly mistaken. He alleges perpetually the words of the poet, Nine days by cruel storms thence was I borne; but at the same time he takes no notice of this expression, which is his as well, And now borne sea-ward from the river stream of the Oceanus; and this, In the island of Ogygia, the centre of the sea, and that the daughter of Atlas dwells there. And the following concerning the Phaeacians, Remote amid the billowy deep, we hold Our dwelling, utmost of all human kind, And free from mixture with a foreign race. These passages clearly refer to the Atlantic Ocean, but though so plainly expressed, Polybius slily manages to overlook them. Here he is altogether wrong, though quite correct about the wandering of Ulysses having taken place round Sicily and Italy, a fact which Homer establishes himself. Otherwise, what poet or writer could have persuaded the Neapolitans to assert that they possessed the tomb of Parthenope the Siren, or the inhabitants of Cumae, Dicaearchia, and Vesuvius [to bear their testimony] to Pyriphlegethon, the Marsh of Acherusia, to the oracle of the dead which was near Aornus, and to Baius and Misenus, the companions of Ulysses. The same is the case with the Sirenussae, and the Strait of Messina, and Scylla, and Charybdis, and Aeolus, all which things should neither be examined into too rigorously, nor yet [despised] as groundless and without foundation, alike remote from truth and historic value.,19. Eratosthenes seems to have had something like this view of the case himself, when he says, Any one would believe that the poet intended the western regions as the scene of Ulysses' wanderings, but that he has departed from fact, sometimes through want of perfect information, at other times because he wished to give to scenes a more terrific and marvellous appearance than they actually possessed. So far this is true, but his idea of the object which the poet had in view while composing, is false; real advantage, not trifling, being his aim. We may justly reprehend his assertion on this point, as also where he says, that Homer places the scene of his marvels in distant lands that he may lie the more easily. Remote localities have not furnished him with near so many wonderful narrations as Greece, and the countries thereto adjacent; witness the labours of Hercules, and Theseus, the fables concerning Crete, Sicily, and the other islands; besides those connected with Cithaerum, Helicon, Parnassus, Pelion, and the whole of Attica and the Peloponnesus. Let us not therefore tax the poets with ignorance on account of the myths which they employ, and since, so far from myth being the staple, they for the most part avail themselves of actual occurrences, (and Homer does this in a remarkable degree,) the inquirer who will seek how far these ancient writers have wandered into fiction, ought not to scrutinize to what extent the fiction was carried, but rather what is the truth concerning those places and persons to which the fictions have been applied; for instance, whether the wanderings of Ulysses did actually occur, and where.,20. On the whole, however, it is not proper to place the works of Homer in the common catalogue of other poets, without challenging for him a superiority both in respect of his other [excellences] and also for the geography on which our attention is now engaged. If any one were to do no more than merely read through the Triptolemus of Sophocles, or the prologue to the Bacchae of Euripides, and then compare them with the care taken by Homer in his geographical descriptions, he would at once perceive both the difference and superiority of the latter, for wherever there is necessity for arrangement in the localities he has immortalized, he is careful to preserve it as well in regard to Greece, as to foreign countries. They On the Olympian summit thought to fix Huge Ossa, and on Ossa's towering head Pelion with all his forests. And Juno starting from the Olympian height O'erflew Pieria and the lovely plains of broad Emathia; soaring thence she swept The snow-clad summit of the Thracian hills Steed-famed, nor printed, as she pass'd, the soil, From Athos the foaming billows borne. In the Catalogue he does not describe his cities in regular order, because here there was no necessity, but both the people and foreign countries he arranges correctly. Having wandered to Cyprus, and Phoenice, and the Egyptians, I came to the Ethiopians, and Sidonians, and Erembi, and Libya. Hipparchus has drawn attention to this. But the two tragedians where there was great necessity for proper arrangement, one where he introduces Bacchus visiting the nations, the other Triptolemus sowing the earth, have brought in juxta-position places far remote, and separated those which were near. And having left the wealthy lands of the Lydians and Phrygians, and the sunny plains of the Persians and the Bactrian walls, and having come over the stormy land of the Medes, and the Happy Arabia. And the Triptolemus is just as inaccurate. Further, in respect to the winds and climates, Homer shows the wide extent of his geographical knowledge, for in his topographical descriptions he not unfrequently informs us of both these matters. Thus, My abode Is sun-burnt Ithaca. Flat on the deep she lies, farthest removed Toward the west, while situate apart, Her sister islands face the rising day. [Od. ix. 25.] And, It has a two-fold entrance, One towards the north, the other south. [Od. xiii.] 109, 111. And again, Which I alike despise, speed they their course With right-hand flight towards the ruddy east, Or leftward down into the shades of eve. Iliad xii. 239. Ignorance of such matters he reckons no less than confusion. Alas! my friends, for neither west Know we, nor east; where rises or where sets The all-enlightening sun. [Od. x. 190.] Where the poet has said properly enough, As when two adverse winds, blowing from Thrace, Boreas and Zephyrus, Iliad ix.5. Eratosthenes ill-naturedly misrepresents him as saying in an absolute sense, that the west wind blows from Thrace; whereas he is not speaking in an absolute sense at all, but merely of the meeting of contrary winds near the bay of Melas, on the Thracian sea, itself a part of the Aegean. For where Thrace forms a kind of promontory, where it borders on Macedonia, it takes a turn to the south-west, and projects into the ocean, and from this point it seems to the inhabitants of Thasos, Lemnos, Imbros, Samothrace, and the surrounding sea, that the west winds blow. So in regard to Attica, they seem to come from the rocks of Sciros, and this is the reason why all the westerly winds, the north-west more particularly, are called the Scirones. of this Eratosthenes was not aware, though he suspected as much, for it was he who described this bending of the land [towards the south-west] which we have mentioned. But he interprets our poet in an absolute sense, and then taxes him with ignorance, because, says he, Zephyr blows from the west, and off Spain, and Thrace does not extend so far. Does he then think that Homer was not aware that Zephyr came from the west, notwithstanding the careful manner in which he distinguishes its position when he writes as follows: The east, the south, the heavy-blowing Zephyr, And the cold north-wind clear. (Odyssey v. 295). Or was he ignorant that Thrace did not extend beyond the Paeonian and Thessalian mountains. To be sure he was well acquainted with the position of the countries adjoining Thrace in that direction, and does he not mention by name both the maritime and inland districts, and tells us of the Magnetae, the Malians, and other Grecian [territories], all in order, as far as Thesprotis; also of the Dolopes bordering on Paeonia, and the Sellae who inhabit the territory around Dodona as far as the [river] Achelous, but he never mentions Thrace, as being beyond these. He has evidently a predilection for the sea which is nearest to him, and with which he is most familiar, as where he says, Commotion shook The whole assembly, such as heaves the flood of the Icarian deep. Iliad ii. 144.,21. Some writers tell us there are but two principal winds, the north and south, and that the other winds are only a slight difference in the direction of these two. That is, (supposing only two winds, the north and south,) the south wind from the commencement of the summer quarter blows in a south-easterly direction; and from the commencement of the winter quarter from the east. The north wind from the decline of the summer, blows in a westerly direction, and from the decline of the winter, in a north-westerly direction. In support of this opinion of the two winds they adduce Thrasyalces and our poet himself, forasmuch as he mentions the north-west with the south, From the north-west south, Iliad xi. 306, xxi. 334. and the west with the north, As when two adverse winds, blowing from Thrace, Boreas and Zephyrus. Iliad ix. 5. But Posidonius remarks that none of those who are really acquainted with these subjects, such as Aristotle, Timosthenes, and Bion the astronomer, entertain so mistaken an opinion in regard to the winds. They say that the north-east (Caecias) blows from the commencement of summer, and that the southwest wind (Libs), which is exactly opposite to this, blows from the decline of winter. And again, the south-east wind (Eurus), which is opposite to the north-west wind (Argestes), from the commencement of winter. The east and west winds being intermediate. When our poet makes use of the expression stormy zephyr, he means the wind which is now called by us the north-west; and by the clear-blowing zephyr our west wind; our Leuconotus is his Argestes-notus, or clearing south wind, for this wind brings but few clouds, all the other southern winds bringing clouds and rain, As when whirlwinds of the west A storm encounter from the clearing south. Iliad xi. 305. Here he alludes to the stormy zephyr, which very frequently scatters the feathery clouds brought up by the Leuconotus, or, as it is called by way of epithet, the clearing south. The statements made by Eratosthenes in the first book of his Geography, require some such correction as this.,22. Persisting in his false views in relation to Homer, he goes on to say, He was ignorant that the Nile separated into many mouths, nay, he was not even acquainted with the name of the river, though Hesiod knew it well, for he even mentions it. In respect of the name, it is probable that it had not then been given to the river, and as to the mouths, if they were obscure and little known, will not every one excuse him for not being aware whether there were several or merely one? At that time, the river, its rising, and its mouths were considered, as they are at the present day, amongst the most remarkable, the most wonderful, and most worthy of recording of all the peculiarities of Egypt: who can suppose that those who told our poet of the country and river of Egypt, of Egyptian Thebes, and of Pharos, were unaware of the many embouchures of the Nile; or that being aware, they would not have described them, were it not that they were too generally known? But is it not inconceivable that Homer should describe Ethiopia, and the Sidonians, the Erembi, and the Exterior Sea, — should tell us that Ethiopia was divided into two parts, and yet nothing about those things which were nearer and better known? Certainly not, his not describing these things is no proof that he was not acquainted with them. He does not tell us of his own country, nor yet many other things. The most probable reason is, they were so generally known that they did not appear to him worth recording.,23. Again, they are entirely wrong when they allege as a mark of Homer's ignorance, that he describes the island of Pharos as entirely surrounded by the sea. On the contrary, it might be taken advantage of as a proof that our poet was not unacquainted with a single one of the points concerning Egypt which we have just been speaking of: and thus we demonstrate it: — Every one is prone to romance a little in narrating his travels, and Menelaus was no exception to the rule. He had been to Ethiopia, and there heard much discussion concerning the sources of the Nile, and the alluvium which it deposited, both along its course, and also at its mouths, and the large additions which it had thereby made to the main-land, so as fully to justify the remark of Herodotus that the whole of Egypt was a gift from the river; or if not the whole, at all events that part of it below the Delta, called Lower Egypt. He had heard too that Pharos was entirely surrounded by sea, and therefore misrepresented it as entirely surrounded by the sea, although it had long ago ceased so to be. Now the author of all this was Homer, and we therefore infer that he was not ignorant concerning either the sources or the mouths of the Nile.,24. They are again mistaken when they say that he was not aware of the isthmus between the sea of Egypt and the Arabian Gulf, and that his description is false, The Ethiopians, utmost of mankind, These eastward situate, those toward the west. [Od. i. 23.] Nevertheless he is correct, and the criticism of the moderns is quite out of place: indeed, there is so little truth in the assertion that Homer was ignorant of this isthmus, that I will venture to affirm he was not only acquainted with it, but has also accurately defined it. But none of the grammarians, not even the chiefs of their number, Aristarchus and Crates, have understood the words of our poet on this subject. For they disagree as to the words which follow this expression of Homer, The Ethiopians, utmost of mankind, These eastward situate, those towards the west, [Od. i. 23.] Aristarchus writing, These towards the west, and those towards the east, and Crates, As well in the west as also in the east. However, in regard to their hypotheses, it makes no difference whether the passage were written this way or that. One of them, in fact, takes what he considers the mathematical view of the case, and says that the torrid zone is occupied by the ocean, and that on each side of this there is a temperate zone, one inhabited by us and another opposite thereto. And as we call the Ethiopians, who are situated to the south, and dwell along the shores of the ocean, the most distant on the face of the inhabited globe; so he supposed that on the other side of the ocean, there were certain Ethiopians dwelling along the shores, who would in like manner be considered the most distant by the inhabitants of the other temperate zone; and thus that the Ethiopians were double, separated into two divisions by the ocean. He adds, as well in the west as also in the east, because as the celestial zodiac always corresponds to the terrestrial, and never exceeds in its obliquity the space occupied by the two Ethiopias, the sun's entire course must necessarily be within this space, and also his rising and setting, as it appears to different nations according to the sign which he may be in. He (Crates) adopted this version, because he considered it the more astronomical. But it would have maintained his opinion of the division of the Ethiopians into two parts, and at the same time have been much more simple, had he said that the Ethiopians dwelt on either side of the ocean from the rising to the setting of the sun. In this case what difference does it make whether we follow his version, or adopt the reading of Aristarchus, These towards the west, and those towards the east? which also means, that whether east or west, on either side of the ocean, Ethiopians dwell. But Aristarchus rejects this hypothesis. He says, The Ethiopians with whom we are acquainted, and who are farthest south from the Greeks, are those described by the poet as being separated into two divisions. But Ethiopia is not so separated as to form two countries, one situated towards the west, the other towards the east, but only one, that which lies south of the Greeks and adjoins Egypt; but of this the poet was ignorant, as well as of other matters enumerated by Apollodorus, which he has falsely stated concerning various places in his second book, containing the catalogue of the ships.,25. To refute Crates would require a lengthened argument, which here perhaps may be considered out of place. Aristarchus we commend for rejecting the hypothesis of Crates, which is open to many objections, and for referring the expression of the poet to our Ethiopia. But the remainder of his statement we must discuss. First, his minute examination of the reading is altogether fruitless, for whichever way it may have been written, his interpretation is equally applicable to both; for what difference is there whether you say thus — In our opinion there are two Ethiopias, one towards the east, the other to the west; or thus — For they are as well towards the east as the west? Secondly, He makes false assumptions. For admitting that the poet was ignorant of the isthmus, and that he alludes to the Ethiopia contiguous to Egypt, when he says, The Ethiopians separated into two divisions; [Od. i. 23.] what then? Are they not separated into two divisions, and could the poet have thus expressed himself if he had been in ignorance? Is not Egypt, nay, are not the Egyptians, separated into two divisions by the Nile from the Delta to Syene, These towards the west, those towards the east? And what else is Egypt, with the exception of the island formed by the river and overflowed by its waters; does it not lie on either side of the river both east and west? Ethiopia runs in the same direction as Egypt, and resembles it both in its position with respect to the Nile, and in its other geographical circumstances. It is narrow, long, and subject to inundation; beyond the reach of this inundation it is desolate and parched, and unfitted for the habitation of man; some districts lying to the east and some to the west of [the river]. How then can we deny that it is separated into two divisions? Shall the Nile, which is looked upon by some people as the proper boundary line between Asia and Libya, and which extends southward in length more than 10,000 stadia, embracing in its breadth islands which contain populations of above ten thousand men, the largest of these being Meroe, the seat of empire and metropolis of the Ethiopians, be regarded as too insignificant to divide Ethiopia into two parts? The greatest obstacle which they who object to the river being made the line of demarcation between the two continents are able to allege, is, that Egypt and Ethiopia are by this means divided, one part of each being assigned to Libya, and the other to Asia, or, if this will not suit, the continents cannot be divided at all, or at least not by the river.,26. But besides these there is another method of dividing Ethiopia. All those who have sailed along the coasts of Libya, whether starting from the Arabian Gulf, or the Pillars, after proceeding a certain distance, have been obliged to turn back again on account of a variety of accidents; and thus originated a general belief that it was divided midway by some isthmus, although the whole of the Atlantic Ocean is confluent, more especially towards the south. Besides, all of these navigators called the final country which they reached, Ethiopia, and described it under that name. Is it therefore at all incredible, that Homer, misled by such reports, separated them into two divisions, one towards the east and the other west, not knowing whether there were any intermediate countries or not? But there is another ancient tradition related by Ephorus, which Homer had probably fallen in with. He tells us it is reported by the Tartessians, that some of the Ethiopians, on their arrival in Libya, penetrated into the extreme west, and settled down there, while the rest occupied the greater part of the sea-coast; and in support of this statement he quotes the passage of Homer, The Ethiopians, the farthest removed of men, separated into two divisions.,27. These and other more stringent arguments may be urged against Aristarchus and those of his school, to clear our poet from the charge of such gross ignorance. I assert that the ancient Greeks, in the same way as they classed all the northern nations with which they were familiar under the one name of Scythians, or, according to Homer, Nomades, and afterwards becoming acquainted with those towards the west, styled them Kelts and Iberians; sometimes compounding the names into Keltiberians, or Keltoscythians, thus ignorantly uniting various distinct nations; so I affirm they designated as Ethiopia the whole of the southern countries towards the ocean. of this there is evidence, for Aeschylus, in the Prometheus Loosed, thus speaks: There [is] the sacred wave, and the coralled bed of the Erythraean Sea, and [there] the luxuriant marsh of the Ethiopians, situated near the ocean, glitters like polished brass; where daily in the soft and tepid stream, the all-seeing sun bathes his undying self, and refreshes his weary steeds. And as the ocean holds the same position in respect to the sun, and serves the same purpose throughout the whole southern region, he therefore concludes that the Ethiopians inhabited the whole of the region. And Euripides in his Phaeton says that Clymene was given To Merops, sovereign of that land Which from his four-horsed chariot first The rising sun strikes with his golden rays; And which its swarthy neighbours call The radiant stable of the Morn and Sun. Here the poet merely describes them as the common stables of the Morning and of the Sun; but further on he tells us they were near to the dwellings of Merops, and in fact the whole plot of the piece has reference to this. This does not therefore refer alone to the [land] next to Egypt, but rather to the whole southern country extending along the sea-coast.,28. Ephorus likewise shows us the opinion of the ancients respecting Ethiopia, in his Treatise on Europe. He says, If the whole celestial and terrestrial globe were divided into four parts, the Indians would possess that towards the east, the Ethiopians towards the south, the Kelts towards the west, and the Scythians towards the north. He adds that Ethiopia is larger than Scythia; for, says he, it appears that the country of the Ethiopians extends from the rising to the setting of the sun in winter; and Scythia is opposite to it. It is evident this was the opinion of Homer, since he places Ithaca Towards the gloomy region, that is, towards the north, but the others apart, Towards the morning and the sun, by which he means the whole southern hemisphere: and again when he says, speed they their course With right-hand flight towards the ruddy east, Or leftward down into the shades of eve. Iliad xii. 239. And again, Alas! my friends, for neither west Know we, nor east, where rises or where sets The all-enlightening sun. [Od. x. 190.] Which we shall explain more fully when we come to speak of Ithaca. When therefore he says, For to the banks of the Oceanus, Where Ethiopia holds a feast to Jove, He journey'd yesterday, Iliad i. 423. we should take this in a general sense, and understand by it the whole of the ocean which washes Ethiopia and the southern region, for to whatever part of this region you direct your attention, you will there find both the ocean and Ethiopia. It is in a similar style he says, But Neptune, traversing in his return From Ethiopia's sons the mountain heights of Solyme, descried him from afar. [Od. v. 282.] which is equal to saying, in his return from the southern regions, meaning by the Solymi, as I remarked before, not those of Pisidia, but certain others merely imaginary, having the same name, and bearing the like relation to the navigators in [Ulysses'] ship, and the southern inhabitants there called Ethiopians, as those of Pisidia do in regard to Pontus and the inhabitants of Egyptian Ethiopia. What he says about the cranes must likewise be understood in a general sense. Such clang is heard Along the skies, when from incessant showers Escaping, and from winter's cold, the cranes Take wing, and over ocean speed away. Woe to the land of dwarfs! prepared they fly For slaughter of the small Pygmaean race. Iliad iii. 3. For it is not in Greece alone that the crane is observed to emigrate to more southern regions, but likewise from Italy and Iberia, from [the shores of] the Caspian, and from Bactriana. But since the ocean extends along the whole southern coast, and the cranes fly to all parts of it indiscriminately at the approach of winter, we must likewise believe that the Pygmies were equally considered to inhabit the whole of it. And if the moderns have confined the term of Ethiopians to those only who dwell near to Egypt, and have also restricted the Pygmies in like manner, this must not be allowed to interfere with the meaning of the ancients. We do not speak of all the people who fought against Troy as merely Achaeans and Argives, though Homer describes the whole under those two names. Similar to this is my remark concerning the separation of the Ethiopians into two divisions, that under that designation we should understand the whole of the nations inhabiting the sea-board from east to west. The Ethiopians taken in this sense are naturally separated into two parts by the Arabian Gulf, which occupies a considerable portion of a meridian circle, and resembles a river, being in length nearly 15,000 stadia, and in breadth not above 1000 at the widest point. In addition to the length, the recess of the Gulf is distant from the sea at Pelusium only three or four days' journey across the isthmus. On this account those who are most felicitous in their division of Asia and Africa, prefer the Gulf as a better boundary line for the two continents than the Nile, since it extends almost entirely from sea to sea, whereas the Nile is so remote from the ocean that it does not by any means divide the whole of Asia from Africa. On this account I believe it was the Gulf which the poet looked upon as dividing into two portions the whole southern regions of the inhabited earth. Is it possible, then, that he was unacquainted with the isthmus which separates this Gulf from the Egyptian Sea?,29. It is quite irrational to suppose that he could be accurately acquainted with Egyptian Thebes, which is separated from our sea by a little less than 5000 stadia; and yet ignorant of the recess of the Arabian Gulf, and of the isthmus there, whose breadth is not more than 1000 stadia. Still more, would it not be ridiculous to believe that Homer was aware the Nile was called by the same name as the vast country [of Egypt], and yet unacquainted with the reason why? Especially since the saying of Herodotus would occur to him, that the country was a gift from the river, and it ought therefore to bear its name. Further, the best known peculiarities of a country are those which have something of the nature of a paradox, and are likely to arrest general attention. of this kind are the rising of the Nile, and the alluvial deposition at its mouth. There is nothing in the whole country to which travellers in Egypt so immediately direct their inquiries, as the character of the Nile; nor do the inhabitants possess anything else equally wonderful and curious, of which to inform foreigners; for in fact, to give them a description of the river, is to lay open to their view every main characteristic of the country. It is the question put before every other by those who have never seen Egypt themselves. To these considerations we must add Homer's thirst after knowledge, and his delight in visiting foreign lands, (tastes which we are assured both by those who have written histories of his life, and also by innumerable testimonies throughout his own poems, he possessed in an eminent degree,) and we shall have abundant evidence both of the extent of his information, and the felicity with which he described objects he deemed important, and passed over altogether, or with slight allusion, matters which were generally known.,30. These Egyptians and Syrians whom we have been criticising fill one with amazement. They do not understand [Homer], even when he is describing their own countries, but accuse him of ignorance where, as our argument proves, they are open to the charge themselves. Not to mention a thing is clearly no evidence that a person is not acquainted with it. Homer does not tell us of the change in the current of the Euripus, nor of Thermopylae, nor of many other remarkable things well known to the Greeks; but was he therefore unacquainted with them? He describes to us, although these men, who are obstinately deaf, will not hear: they have themselves to blame. Our poet applies to rivers the epithet of heaven-sent. And this not only to mountain torrents, but to all rivers alike, since they are all replenished by the showers. But even what is general becomes particular when it is bestowed on any object par excellence. Heaven-sent, when applied to a mountain torrent, means something else than when it is the epithet of the ever-flowing river; but the force of the term is doubly felt when attributed to the Nile. For as there are hyperboles of hyperboles, for instance, to be lighter than the shadow of a cork, more timid than a Phrygian hare, to possess an estate shorter than a Lacedemonian epistle; so excellence becomes more excellent, when the title of heaven-sent is given to the Nile. The mountain torrent has a better claim to be called heaven-sent than other rivers, but the Nile exceeds the mountain torrents, both in its size and the lengthened period of its overflow. Since, then, the wonders of this river were known to our poet, as we have shown in this defence, when he applies this epithet to the Nile, it must only be understood in the way we have explained. Homer did not think it worth mentioning, especially to those who were acquainted with the fact, that the Nile had many mouths, since this is a common feature of numerous other rivers. Alcaeus does not mention it, although he tells us he had been in Egypt. One might infer the fact of its alluvial deposit, both From the rising [of the river] and what Homer tells us concerning Pharos. For his account, or rather the vulgar report concerning Pharos, that it was distant from the mainland a whole day's voyage, ought not to be looked upon as a downright falsehood. It is clear that Homer was only acquainted with the rising and deposit of the river in a general way, and concluding from what he heard that the island had been further removed in the time of Menelaus from the mainland, than it was in his own, he magnified the distance, simply that he might heighten the fiction. Fictions however are not the offspring of ignorance, as is sufficiently plain from those concerning Proteus, the Pygmies, the efficacy of charms, and many others similar to these fabricated by the poets. They narrate these things not through ignorance of the localities, but for the sake of giving pleasure and enjoyment. But [some one may inquire], how could he describe [Pharos], which is without water as possessed of that necessary? The haven there is good, and many a ship Finds watering there from rivulets on the coast. [Od. iv. 358.] [I answer, ] It is not impossible that the sources of water may since have failed. Besides, he does not say that the water was procured from the island, but that they went thither on account of the safety of the harbour; the water was probably obtained from the mainland, and by the expression the poet seems to admit that what he had before said of its being wholly surrounded by sea was not the actual fact, but a hyperbole or fiction.,31. As his description of the wanderings of Menelaus may seem to authenticate the charge of ignorance made against him in respect to those regions, it will perhaps be best to point out the difficulties of the narrative, and their explanation, and at the same time enter into a fuller defence of our poet. Menelaus thus addresses Telemachus, who is admiring the splendour of his palace: After numerous toils And perilous wanderings o'er the stormy deep, In the eighth year at last I brought them home. Cyprus, Phoenicia, Sidon, and the shores of Egypt, roaming without hope, I reach'd, In distant Ethiopia thence arrived, And Libya. [Od. iv. 81.] It is asked, What Ethiopians could he have met with on his voyage from Egypt? None are to be found dwelling by our sea, and with his vessels he could never have reached the cataracts of the Nile. Next, who are the Sidonians? Certainly not the inhabitants of Phoenicia; for leaving mentioned the genus, he would assuredly not particularize the species. And then the Erembi; this is altogether a new name. Our contemporary Aristonicus, the grammarian, in his [observations] on the wanderings of Menelaus, has recorded the opinions of numerous writers on each of the heads under discussion. It will be sufficient for us to refer to them very briefly. They who assert that Menelaus went by sea to Ethiopia, tell us he directed his course past Cadiz into the Indian Ocean; with which, say they, the long duration of his wanderings agrees, since he did not arrive there till the eighth year. Others, that he passed through the isthmus which enters the Arabian Gulf; and others again, through one of the canals. At the same time the idea of this circumnavigation, which owes its origin to Crates, is not necessary; we do not mean it was impossible, (for the wanderings of Ulysses are not impossible,) but neither the mathematical hypothesis, not yet the duration of the wandering, require such an explanation; for he was both retarded against his will by accidents in the voyage, as by [the tempest] which he narrates five only of his sixty ships survived; and also by voluntary delays for the sake of amassing wealth. Nestor says [of him], Thus he, provision gathering as he went, And gold abundant, roam'd to distant lands. [Od. iii. 301.] [And Menelaus himself], Cyprus, Phoenicia, and the Egyptians' land I wandered through. [Od. iv. 83.] As to the navigation of the isthmus, or one of the canals, if it had been related by Homer himself, we should have counted it a myth; but as he does not relate it, we regard it as entirely extravagant and unworthy of belief. We say unworthy of belief, because at the time of the Trojan war no canal was in existence. It is recorded that Sesostris, who had planned the formation of one, apprehending that the level of the sea was too high to admit of it, desisted from the undertaking. Moreover the isthmus itself was not passable for ships, and Eratosthenes is unfortunate in his conjecture, for he considers that the strait at the Pillars was not then formed, so that the Atlantic should by that channel communicate with the Mediterranean, and that this sea being higher than the Isthmus [of Suez], covered it; but when the Strait [of Gibraltar] was formed, the sea subsided considerably; and left the land about Casium and Pelusium dry as far over as the Red Sea. But what account have we of the formation of this strait, supposing it were not in existence prior to the Trojan war? Is it likely that our poet would make Ulysses sail out through the Strait [of Gibraltar] into the Atlantic Ocean, as if that strait already existed, and at the same time describe Menelaus conducting his ships from Egypt to the Red Sea, as if it did not exist. Further, the poet introduces Proteus as saying to him, Thee the gods Have destined to the blest Elysian Isles, Earth's utmost boundaries. [Od. iv. 563.] And what this place was, namely, some far western region, is evident from [the mention of] the Zephyr in connexion with it: But Zephyr always gently from the sea Breathes on them. [Od. iv. 567.] This, however, is very enigmatical.,32. But if our poet speaks of the Isthmus of Suez as ever having been the strait of confluence between the Mediterranean and the Red Sea s, how much more credit may we attribute to his division of the Ethiopians into two portions, being thus separated by so grand a strait! And what commerce could he have carried on with the Ethiopians who dwelt by the shores of the exterior sea and the ocean? Telemachus and his companions admire the multitude of ornaments that were in the palace, of gold, electrum, silver, ivory. [Od. iv. 73.] Now the Ethiopians are possessed of none of these productions in any abundance, excepting ivory, being for the most part a needy and nomad race. True, [you say, ] but adjoining them is Arabia, and the whole country as far as India. One of these is distinguished above all other lands by the title of Felix, and the other, though not dignified by that name, is both generally believed and also said to be preeminently Blessed. But [we reply], Homer was not acquainted with India, or he would have described it. And though he knew of the Arabia which is now named Felix, at that time it was by no means wealthy, but a wild country, the inhabitants of which dwelt for the most part in tents. It is only a small district which produces the aromatics from which the whole territory afterwards received its name, owing to the rarity of the commodity amongst us, and the value set upon it. That the Arabians are now flourishing and wealthy is due to their vast and extended traffic, but formerly it does not appear to have been considerable. A merchant or camel-driver might attain to opulence by the sale of these aromatics and similar commodities; but Menelaus could only become so either by plunder, or presents conferred on him by kings and nobles, who had the means at their disposal, and wished to gratify one so distinguished by glory and renown. The Egyptians, it is true, and the neighbouring Ethiopians and Arabians, were not so entirely destitute of the luxuries of civilization, nor so unacquainted with the fame of Agamemnon, especially after the termination of the Trojan war, but that Menelaus might have expected some benefits from their generosity, even as the breastplate of Agamemnon is said to be The gift of Cinyras long since; for rumour loud Had Cyprus reached. Iliad xi. 20. And we are told that the greater part of his wanderings were in Phoenicia, Syria, Egypt, Africa, around Cyprus, and, in fact, the whole of our coasts and islands. Here, indeed, he might hope to enrich himself both by the gifts of friendship and by violence, and especially by the plunder of those who had been the allies of Troy. They however who dwelt on the exterior ocean, and the distant barbarians, held out no such encouragement: and when Menelaus is said to have been in Ethiopia, it is because he had reached the frontiers of that country next Egypt. But perhaps at that time the frontiers lay more contiguous to Thebes than they do now. At the present day the nearest are the districts adjacent to Syene and Philae, the former town being entirely in Egypt, while Philae is inhabited by a mixed population of Ethiopians and Egyptians. Supposing therefore he had arrived at Thebes, and thus reached the boundary-line of Ethiopia, where he experienced the munificence of the king, we must not be surprised if he is described as having passed through the country. On no better authority Ulysses declares he has been to the land of the Cyclops, although he merely left the sea to enter a cavern which he himself tells us was situated on the very borders of the country: and, in fact, wherever he came to anchor, whether at Aeolia, Laestrygonia, or elsewhere, he is stated to have visited those places. In the same manner Menelaus is said to have been to Ethiopia and Libya, because here and there he touched at those places, and the port near Ardania above Paraetonium is called after him the port of Menelaus.,33. When, after mentioning Phoenicia, he talks of Sidon, its metropolis, he merely employs a common form of expression, for example, He urged the Trojans and Hector to the ships. (Iliad xiii.1) For the sons of magimous Oeneus were no more, nor was he himself surviving; moreover, fair-haired Meleager was dead. He came to Ida — and to Gargarus. Iliad viii.47 He possessed Euboea, Chalcis, and Eretria. Iliad ii. 536. Sappho likewise [says], Whether Cyprus, or the well-harboured Paphos. But he had some other cause besides this for mentioning Sidon immediately after having spoken of the Phoenicians: for had he merely desired to recount the nations in order, it would have been quite sufficient to say, Having wandered to Cyprus, Phoenice, and the Egyptians, I came to the Ethiopians. But that he might record his sojourn amongst the Sidonians, which was considerably prolonged, he thought it well to refer to it repeatedly. Thus he praises their prosperity and skill in the arts, and alludes to the hospitality the citizens had shown to Helen and Alexander. Thus he tells us of the many [treasures]of this nature laid up in store by Alexander. There his treasures lay, Works of Sidonian women, whom her son, The godlike Paris, when he crossed the seas With Jove-begotten Helen, brought to Troy. Iliad vi. 289. And also by Menelaus, who says to Telemachus, 'I give thee this bright beaker, argent all, But round encircled with a lip of gold. It is the work of Vulcan, which to me The hero Phaedimus presented, king of the Sidonians, when on my return Beneath his roof I lodged. I make it thine.' [Od. xv. 115.] Here the expression, work of Vulcan, must be looked upon as a hyperbole: in the same way all elegant productions are said to be the work of Minerva, of the Graces, or of the Muses. But that the Sidonians were skilful artists, is clear from the praises bestowed [by Homer] on the bowl which Euneos gave in exchange for Lycaon: Earth Own'd not its like for elegance of form. Skilful Sidonian artists had around Embellish'd it, and o'er the sable deep Phoenician merchants into Lemnos' port Had borne it. Iliad xxiii.742.,34. Many conjectures have been hazarded as to who the Erembi were: they who suppose the Arabs are intended, seem to deserve the most credit. Our Zeno reads the passage thus: — I came to the Ethiopians, the Sidonians, and the Arabians. But there is no occasion to tamper with the text, which is of great antiquity; it is a far preferable course to suppose a change in the name itself, which is of frequent and ordinary occurrence in every nation: and in fact certain grammarians establish this view by a comparison of the radical letters. Posidonius seems to me to adopt the better plan after all, in looking for the etymology of names in nations of one stock and community; thus between the Armenians, Syrians, and Arabians there is a strong affinity both in regard to dialect, mode of life, peculiarities of physical conformation, and above all in the contiguity of the countries. Mesopotamia, which is a motley of the three nations, is a proof of this; for the similarity amongst these three is very remarkable. And though in consequence of the various latitudes there may be some difference between those who dwell in the north and those of the south, and again between each of these and the inhabitants of the middle region, still the same characteristics are domit in all. Also the Assyrians and Arians have a great affinity both to these people and to each other. And [Posidonius] believes there is a similarity in the names of these different nations. Those whom we call Syrians style themselves Armenians and Arammaeans, names greatly like those of the Armenians, Arabs, and Erembi. Perhaps this [last] term is that by which the Greeks anciently designated the Arabs; the etymon of the word certainly strengthens the idea. Many deduce the etymology of the Erembi from ἔραν ἐμβαίνειν, (to go into the earth,) which [they say] was altered by the people of a later generation into the more intelligible name of Troglodytes, by which are intended those Arabs who dwell on that side of the Arabian Gulf next to Egypt and Ethiopia. It is probable then that the poet describes Menelaus as having visited these people in the same way that he says he visited the Ethiopians; for they are likewise near to the Thebaid; and he mentions them not on account of any commerce or gain, (for of these there was not much,) but probably to enhance the length of the journey and his meed of praise: for such distant travelling was highly thought of. For example, — Discover'd various cities, and the mind And manners learn'd of men in lands remote. [Od. i. 3.] And again: After numerous toils And perilous wanderings o'er the stormy deep, In the eighth year at last I brought them home. [Od. iv. 81.] Hesiod, in his Catalogue, writes, And the daughter of Arabus, whom gracious Hermes and Thronia, descended from king Belus, brought forth. Thus, too, says Stesichorus. Whence it seems that at that time the country was from him named Arabia, though it is not likely this was the case in the heroic period.,35. There are many who would make the Erembi a tribe of the Ethiopians, or of the Cephenes, or again of the Pygmies, and a thousand other fancies. These ought to be regarded with little trust; since their opinion is not only incredible, but they evidently labour under a certain confusion as to the different characters of history and fable. In the same category must be reckoned those who place the Sidonians and Phoenicians in the Persian Gulf, or somewhere else in the Ocean, and make the wanderings of Menelaus to have happened there. Not the least cause for mistrusting these writers is the manner in which they contradict each other. One half would have us believe that the Sidonians are a colony from the people whom they describe as located on the shores of the [Indian] Ocean, and who they say were called Phoenicians from the colour of the Erythraean Sea, while the others declare the opposite. Some again would transport Ethiopia into our Phoenicia, and make Joppa the scene of the adventures of Andromeda; and this not from any ignorance of the topography of those places, but by a kind of mythic fiction similar to those of Hesiod and other writers censured by Apollodorus, who, however, couples Homer with them, without, as it appears, any cause. He cites as instances what Homer relates of the Euxine and Egypt, and accuses him of ignorance for pretending to speak the actual truth, and then recounting fable, all the while ignorantly mistaking it for fact. Will anyone then accuse Hesiod of ignorance on account of his Hemicynes, his Macrocephali, and his Pygmies; or Homer for his like fables, and amongst others the Pygmies themselves; or Alcman for describing the Steganopodes; or Aeschylus for his Cynocephali, Sternophthalmi, and Monommati; when amongst prose writers, and in works bearing the appearance of veritable history, we frequently meet with similar narrations, and that without any admission of their having inserted such myths. Indeed it becomes immediately evident that they have woven together a tissue of myths not through ignorance of the real facts, but merely to amuse by a deceptive narration of the impossible and marvellous. If they appear to do this in ignorance, it is because they can romance more frequently and with greater plausibility on those things which are uncertain and unknown. This Theopompus plainly confesses in the announcement of his intention to relate the fables in his history in a better style than Herodotus, Ctesias, Hellanicus, and those who had written on the affairs of India.,36. Homer has described to us the phenomena of the ocean under the form of a myth; this [art] is very desirable in a poet; the idea of his Charybdis was taken from the ebb and flow of the tide, and was by no means a pure invention of his own, but derived from what he knew concerning the Strait of Sicily. And although he states that the ebb and flow occurred thrice during the four and twenty hours, instead of twice, (Each day she thrice disgorges, and each day Thrice swallows it) we must suppose that he said this not through any ignorance of the fact, but for tragic effect, and to excite the fear which Circe endeavours to infuse into her arguments to deter Ulysses from departing, even at a little expense of truth. The following is the language Circe makes use of in her speech to him: Each day she thrice disgorges, and each day Thrice swallows it. Ah! well-forewarn'd beware What time she swallows, that thou come not nigh, For not himself, Neptune, could snatch thee thence. [Od. xii. 105.] And yet when Ulysses was ingulfed in the eddy he was not lost. He tells us himself, 'It was the time when she absorb'd profound The briny flood, but by a wave upborne, I seized the branches fast of the wild fig, To which bat-like I clung. And then having waited for the timbers of the wreck he seized hold of them, and thus saved himself. Circe, therefore, had exaggerated both the peril, and also the fact of its vomiting forth thrice a day instead of twice. However, this latter is a hyperbole which every one makes use of; thus we say thricehappy and thrice-miserable. So the poet, Thrice-happy Greeks! [Od. v. 306.] Again, O delightful, thrice-wished for! Iliad viii. 488. And again, O thrice and four times. Iliad iii. 363. Any one, too, might conclude from the passage itself that Homer even here hinted at the truth, for the long time which the remains of the wreck lay under water, which Ulysses, who was all the while hanging suspended to the branches, so anxiously desired to rise, accords much better with the ebb and flow taking place but twice during the night and day instead of thrice. Therefore hard I clench'd the boughs, till she disgorged again Both keel and mast. Not undesired by me They came, though late; for at what hour the judge, After decision made of numerous strifes Between young candidates for honour, leaves The forum, for refreshment's sake at home, Then was it that the mast and keel emerged. [Od. xii. 437.] Every word of this indicates a considerable length of time, especially when he prolongs it to the evening, not merely saying at that time when the judge has risen, but having adjudicated on a vast number of cases, and therefore detained longer than usual. Otherwise his account of the return of the wreck would not have appeared likely, if he had brought it back again with the return of the wave, before it had been first carried a long way off.,37. Apollodorus, who agrees with Eratosthenes, throws much blame upon Callimachus for asserting, in spite of his character as a grammarian, that Gaudus and Corcyra were among the scenes of Ulysses' wandering, such an opinion being altogether in defiance of Homer's statement, and his description of the places as situated in the exterior ocean. This criticism is just if we suppose the wandering to have never actually occurred, and to be merely the result of Homer's imagination; but if it did take place, although in other regions, Apollodorus ought plainly to have stated which they were, and thus set right the mistake of Callimachus. Since, however, after such evidence as we have produced, we cannot believe the whole account to be a fiction, and since no other more likely places have as yet been named, we hold that the grammarian is absolved from blame.,38. Demetrius of Skepsis is also wrong, and, in fact, the cause of some of the mistakes of Apollodorus. He eagerly objects to the statement of Neanthes of Cyzicus, that the Argonauts, when they sailed to the Phasis, instituted at Cyzicus the rites of the Idaean Mother. Though their voyage is attested both by Homer and other writers, he denies that Homer had any knowledge whatever of the departure of Jason to the Phasis. In so doing, he not only contradicts the very words of Homer, but even his own assertions. The poet informs us that Achilles, having ravaged Lesbos and other districts, spared Lemnos and the adjoining islands, on account of his relationship with Jason and his son Euneos, who then had possession of the island. How should he know of a relationship, identity of race, or other connexion existing between Achilles and Jason, which, after all, was nothing else than that they were both Thessalians, one being of Iolcos, the other of the Achaean Phthiotis, and yet was not aware how it happened that Jason, who was a Thessalian of Iolcos, should leave no descendants in the land of his nativity, but establish his son as ruler of Lemnos? Homer then was familiar with the history of Pelias and the daughters of Pelias, of Alcestis, who was the most charming of them all, and of her son Eumelus, whom Alcestis, praised For beauty above all her sisters fair, In Thessaly to king Admetus bore, Iliad ii. 714. and was yet ignorant of all that befell Jason, and Argo, and the Argonauts, matters on the actual occurrence of which all the world is agreed. The tale then of their voyage in the ocean from Aeeta, was a mere fiction, for which he had no authority in history.,39. If, however, the expedition to the Phasis, fitted out by Pelias, its return, and the conquest of several islands, have at the bottom any truth whatever, as all say they have, so also has the account of their wanderings, no less than those of Ulysses and Menelaus; monuments of the actual occurrence of which remain to this day elsewhere than in the writings of Homer. The city of Aea, close by the Phasis, is still pointed out. Aeetes is generally believed to have reigned in Colchis, the name is still common throughout the country, tales of the sorceress Medea are yet abroad, and the riches of the country in gold, silver, and iron, proclaim the motive of Jason's expedition, as well as of that which Phrixus had formerly undertaken. Traces both of one and the other still remain. Such is Phrixium, midway between Colchis and Iberia, and the Jasonia, or towns of Jason, which are everywhere met with in Armenia, Media, and the surrounding countries. Many are the witnesses to the reality of the expeditions of Jason and Phrixus at Sinope and its shore, at Propontis, at the Hellespont, and even at Lemnos. of Jason and his Colchian followers there are traces even as far as Crete, Italy, and the Adriatic. Callimachus himself alludes to it where he says, Aigleten Anaphe, Near to Laconian Thera. In the verses which commence, I sing how the heroes from Cytaean Aeeta, Return'd again to ancient Aemonia. And again concerning the Colchians, who, Ceasing to plough with oars the Illyrian Sea,Near to the tomb of fair Harmonia,Who was transform'd into a dragon's shape,Founded their city, which a Greek would callThe Town of Fugitives, but in their tongueIs Pola named. Some writers assert that Jason and his companions sailed high up the Ister, others say he sailed only so far as to be able to gain the Adriatic: the first statement results altogether from ignorance; the second, which supposes there is a second Ister having its source from the larger river of the same name, and discharging its waters into the Adriatic, is neither incredible nor even improbable.,40. Starting from these premises, the poet, in conformity both with general custom and his own practice, narrates some circumstances as they actually occurred, and paints others in the colours of fiction. He follows history when he tells us of Aeetes and Jason also, when he talks of Argo, and on the authority of [the actual city of Aea], feigns his city of Aeaea, when he settles Euneos in Lemnos, and makes that island friendly to Achilles, and when, in imitation of Medea, he makes the sorceress Circe Sister by birth of the all-wise Aeetes, [Od. x. 137.] he adds the fiction of the entrance of the Argonauts into the exterior ocean as the sequel to their wanderings on their return home. Here, supposing the previous statements admitted, the truth of the phrase the renowned Argo, is evident, since, in that case, the expedition was directed to a populous and well-known country. But if, as [Demetrius] the Skepsian asserts, on the authority of Mimnermus, Aeetes dwelt by the Ocean, and Jason was sent thither far east by Pelias, to bring back the fleece, it neither seems probable that such an expedition would have been undertaken into unknown and obscure countries after the Fleece, nor could a voyage to lands desert, uninhabited, and so far remote from us, be considered either glorious or renowned. [Here follow the words of Demetrius.] Nor as yet had Jason, having accomplished the arduous journey, carried off the splendid fleece from Aea, fulfilling the dangerous mission of the insolent Pelias, nor had they ploughed the glorious wave of the ocean. And again: The city of Aeetes, where the rays of the swift sun recline on their golden bed by the shore of the ocean, which the noble Jason visited.
275. Prodicus, Fragments, None  Tagged with subjects: •alexandria, alexandrian scholarship, allegory, allegorical interpretation Found in books: Finkelberg (2019), Homer and Early Greek Epic: Collected Essays, 225
276. Mimnermus, Fragments, 2.15  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, two jars Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 142
278. Anon., Pesikta Rabbati, 1.1-1.3, 5.6-5.9  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 238
279. Hippocrates, De Victu 4, 87.1, 92.11-92.13  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 6, 10
280. Hebrew Bible, Qoh, 5.2.6, 12.7  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 5, 6
282. Anon., Additions To Esther, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021), Interactions in Interpretation: The Pilgrimage of Meaning through Biblical Texts and Contexts, 34
283. Vergil, Aeneis, 3.112, 6.258  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 4
3.112. and Myconos uptower, and bade it rest 6.258. “0, guide me on, whatever path there be!
284. Anon., Quaestiones Bartholomaei, 7  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical Found in books: Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 41
285. Anon., Tanhuma, None  Tagged with subjects: •allegory/allegorical, of hagar/sarah Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 97
286. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 46, 48; Schaaf (2019), Animal Kingdom of Heaven: Anthropozoological Aspects in the Late Antique World. 9, 63; Wright (2015), The Letter of Aristeas : 'Aristeas to Philocrates' or 'On the Translation of the Law of the Jews' 34, 54
122. carefully that of the Greeks as well. They were specially qualified therefore for serving on embassies and they undertook this duty whenever it was necessary. They possessed a great facility for conferences and the discussion of problems connected with the law. They espoused the middle course - and this is always the best course to pursue. They abjured the rough and uncouth manner, but they were altogether above pride and never assumed an air of superiority over others, and in conversation they were ready to listen and give an appropriate answer to every question. And all of them carefully observed this rule and were anxious above everything else to excel each other in
287. Gregory of Nazianzus, Orations, 7.21.2-7.21.12  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 586
288. Papyri, Derveni Papyrus, 4, 13  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 83
289. Anon., Chaldean Oracles, 116  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 346
290. Mani, Kephalaia, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Pedersen (2004), Demonstrative Proof in Defence of God: A Study of Titus of Bostra’s Contra Manichaeos. 240, 241
296. Vergil, Georgics, 4.626-4.627  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 348
297. Anon., Testament of Abraham, 4.5, 12.10  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical Found in books: Tomson (2019), Studies on Jews and Christians in the First and Second Centuries. 596
298. Heraclitus Lesbius, Fragments, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: de Jáuregui (2010), Orphism and Christianity in Late Antiquity, 388
300. Ezekiel The Tragedian, Fragments, 4, 9  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 51
301. Anon., Scholia D In Iliadem (Van Thiel), 18.488  Tagged with subjects: •alexandria, alexandrian scholarship, allegory, allegorical interpretation Found in books: Finkelberg (2019), Homer and Early Greek Epic: Collected Essays, 338
302. Homer, Homeric Hymns, 2.147, 2.216  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, two jars Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 142
310. Aristobulus, T., 10, 12-14, 2-4, 8, 15  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 171
312. Gregory of Nyssa, Homilies On The Beatitudes, 1.77.4, 2.94.16, 2.96, 2.97.13, 2.99, 3.104, 3.104.8, 3.106, 3.108  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 447
313. Ambrose, Exposition of Luke, 5  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical interpretation •allegory, allegorical interpretation, ambrose Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021), Hellenistic Jewish Literature and the New Testament: Collected Essays, 458
314. Anon., Gospel of Thomas, a b c d\n0 37(39.27-40.2) 37(39.27 37(39 27 \n1 21 21 21 None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 349
315. Anon., Parthian Manichaean Fragments, None  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 349
316. Thesallus of Tralles, De Virtutibus Herbarum, 22.4  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 346
317. Proclus, In Cratylum, 155.4-5 (88.4-6)  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 346
318. Proclus, Excerpta Chaldaica In Alcibiadem, None  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 346
319. Heracleon, Fragmenta (Apud Origen, Comm. Jo.), 8  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 253
320. Marius Victorinus, Ad Galatas, 4.24-4.25  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 435
322. Anon., 2 Enoch, 22.8-22.9  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 349
323. Anon., 3 Enoch, 10.1  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 349
335. Anon., Odes of Solomon, None  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 349
350. Anon., Joseph And Aseneth, 15.6-15.7  Tagged with subjects: •allegory, allegorical exegesis Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013), Gnosticism, Platonism and the Late Ancient World, 435
354. [Plutarch], De Homero, 106  Tagged with subjects: •alexandria, alexandrian scholarship, allegory, allegorical interpretation Found in books: Finkelberg (2019), Homer and Early Greek Epic: Collected Essays, 338