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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.



All subjects (including unvalidated):
subject book bibliographic info
allegoresis, of theological myths, allegorical, interpretation, stoic Černušková (2016) 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109
allegorical Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner (2009) 72, 75, 77, 79, 227, 445
allegorical, allegory, interpretation, ambrose Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 456, 458, 475
allegorical, allegory, interpretation, aristobulus Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 48, 49, 139, 171, 172, 173, 174
allegorical, allegory, interpretation, augustine Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 459, 463
allegorical, allegory, interpretation, beatitudes Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 434, 436, 456, 459, 463, 475
allegorical, allegory, interpretation, jewish Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 171
allegorical, allegory, interpretation, jewish exegetical school Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 173
allegorical, allegory, interpretation, letter of aristeas Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 46, 47
allegorical, allegory, interpretation, luke Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 318
allegorical, allegory, interpretation, philo Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 209, 210, 214, 215, 216, 218, 220, 221, 224, 226, 227
allegorical, allegory, interpretation, plato’s cave Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 434, 445, 447, 453
allegorical, allegory, interpretation, ps.-hecataeus Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 166
allegorical, allegory, interpretation, stoicism Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 139
allegorical, allegory, interpretation, two jars Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 85, 142
allegorical, and literal mingled in grooms qedushta, the, qallir Lieber (2014) 346, 349, 350
allegorical, and symbolic uses of mountains Konig (2022) 3, 74, 75, 77, 79, 86, 88, 96, 115, 116, 117, 118, 144, 146, 147, 148, 150, 151, 152, 153, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 163, 164, 165, 166, 167, 168, 174, 175, 176, 303
allegorical, approach to song of songs in song of songs piyyutim Lieber (2014) 57
allegorical, approach, egyptian Griffiths (1975) 28
allegorical, commentary Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 1, 4, 33, 41, 189, 194, 198, 310, 384
Geljon and Runia (2013) 1, 4, 5, 7, 40, 265
Geljon and Runia (2019) 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 171, 253
Niehoff (2011) 96, 97, 126, 127, 134, 135, 137, 139, 145, 150, 151, 152, 154, 155, 156, 157, 158, 159, 160, 161, 162, 163, 170, 171, 172, 173, 174, 175, 177, 178, 179, 183
Witter et al. (2021) 176, 177, 178, 179, 180, 181
allegorical, commentary, de plantatione, place in Geljon and Runia (2019) 2, 3, 4
allegorical, commentary, parallels between de abrahamo and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 75, 76, 77
allegorical, commentary, philo of alexandria Taylor and Hay (2020) 5, 30, 61
allegorical, commentary, reader, of Niehoff (2011) 135
allegorical, commentary, relation of to other philonic series Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 1, 13, 14, 15, 16
allegorical, conception of language Dawson (2001) 29
allegorical, depiction of provinces Rutledge (2012) 199, 203, 207, 208
allegorical, dream Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 14, 16, 17, 18, 27, 31, 52
allegorical, dreams Thonemann (2020) 34, 35, 36, 37, 38, 39, 40, 46, 47, 152, 153, 154, 156, 157, 182, 184, 185
allegorical, dreams, dreams Russell and Nesselrath (2014) 83
allegorical, exegesis Boulluec (2022) 22, 30, 31, 61, 143, 195, 202, 211, 214, 231, 239, 240, 243, 244, 254, 255, 290, 291, 292, 293, 305, 334, 342, 343, 344, 393, 394, 408, 409, 425, 538
Erler et al (2021) 142, 232, 236, 237, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244
Joosse (2021) 27, 122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 169, 170, 171, 172, 173, 176, 177, 178, 199
Černušková (2016) 3, 12, 13, 20, 23, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109
allegorical, exegesis in sabbath and the therapeutae, scriptural Taylor and Hay (2020) 311, 312, 313, 314, 316, 317, 320, 329
allegorical, exegesis in song of songs targum Lieber (2014) 400
allegorical, exegesis of ot, aristobulus Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 139, 171, 173, 178, 179
allegorical, exegesis of scripture, allēgoria Černušková (2016) 3, 12, 13, 20, 21, 22, 23, 26, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109, 113, 114
allegorical, exegesis of stoics Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 240
allegorical, exegesis of the song of songs Hasan Rokem (2003) 19
allegorical, exegesis, allegory Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 171, 200, 202, 203, 206, 231, 253, 255, 346, 347, 348, 349, 350, 351, 352, 353, 354, 355, 356, 357, 358, 359, 360, 361, 362, 429, 430, 435, 438, 540, 583, 585, 586
allegorical, exegesis, aristobulus, jewish school of Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 173
allegorical, exegesis, baptism, in Yates and Dupont (2020) 203
allegorical, exegesis/interpretation Ramelli (2013) 17, 50, 55, 107, 150, 163, 196, 230, 233, 237, 238, 263, 269, 270, 283, 288, 289, 305, 306, 344, 357, 366, 382, 392, 397, 447, 482, 527, 528, 529, 565, 566, 578, 581, 591, 599, 603, 618, 619, 620, 627, 635, 637, 662, 689, 696, 700, 714, 728, 741, 742, 749, 752, 778, 782, 786, 808
allegorical, exegesis/interpretation, stoic Ramelli (2013) 117
allegorical, hermeneutic of alexandria, school of Dawson (2001) 227
allegorical, hermeneutic, Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 175, 180, 181, 184, 185, 189, 190, 191, 193, 194, 200, 201, 202
allegorical, hermeneutics of paul, the apostle Dawson (2001) 229
allegorical, intention, of author Niehoff (2011) 145
allegorical, interpretation Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 25, 28, 30, 31, 73
Gray (2021) 174, 212, 239, 241
Kraemer (2020) 311, 312, 314
Najman (2010) 103, 104, 105, 208, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217, 255
Pollmann and Vessey (2007) 207, 224
Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 50, 51, 58, 188
d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 35, 39, 40, 215, 221, 222, 277, 278, 279, 280, 285, 286
Černušková (2016) 23, 80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 105, 106, 107, 108, 109
allegorical, interpretation in paul and pauline epistles Yates and Dupont (2020) 92, 234, 235
allegorical, interpretation of choirs by red sea, on the contemplative life Kraemer (2010) 84, 94, 95, 96, 98, 107, 108, 109
allegorical, interpretation of cult Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 34, 41
allegorical, interpretation of demiurge O, Brien (2015) 33
allegorical, interpretation of dispute between abraham and lot Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 342, 343, 344, 345, 346, 347, 348, 366, 396, 403
allegorical, interpretation of egypt Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 110, 238, 239, 240, 241, 242, 243, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248, 249, 250
allegorical, interpretation of five, the number Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 184, 186, 187
allegorical, interpretation of his beating of python/typhon Brouwer (2013) 163
allegorical, interpretation of homer d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 31, 35, 39, 40, 276, 277, 285
allegorical, interpretation of kingly power Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 5, 74, 76, 129, 130, 301, 359, 360, 361, 362, 363, 364, 365, 366, 367
allegorical, interpretation of marriage Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 110, 238, 239, 240, 244, 245, 246, 247, 248
allegorical, interpretation of migrations of abraham Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 106, 107, 214, 215, 216, 217, 218, 219, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 230, 231
allegorical, interpretation of sacrifice of isaac Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 5, 123, 124, 326, 327, 328, 329, 330, 331, 332
allegorical, interpretation of scripture, christianity Hayes (2022) 146, 151, 157, 158
allegorical, interpretation of scripture, church fathers Hayes (2022) 146, 151, 157, 158
allegorical, interpretation of sodom Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 5, 117, 119, 290, 291, 292, 293, 294, 295, 296, 297, 298, 299, 300, 301
allegorical, interpretation of song of songs Lieber (2014) 19, 28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 34, 48, 57, 109, 110
allegorical, interpretation of stoicism Simmons(1995) 59
allegorical, interpretation of the three visitors Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 77, 112, 114, 260, 261, 262, 263, 264, 265, 266, 267, 268, 269, 270, 271, 272, 273, 274, 275, 276, 277
allegorical, interpretation of typhon Brouwer (2013) 162
allegorical, interpretation, alexandria, alexandrian scholarship, allegory Finkelberg (2019) 225, 338
allegorical, interpretation, allegory Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 46, 47, 48, 49, 51, 95, 96, 139, 142, 166, 171, 173, 178, 179, 209, 210, 214, 215, 216, 218, 220, 221, 224, 226, 227, 318, 434, 436, 445, 447, 453, 456, 458, 459, 463, 475
allegorical, interpretation, allegory, wesley, j. Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 475
allegorical, interpretation, aristeas, letter of Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 46, 47
allegorical, interpretation, greek Geljon and Runia (2013) 9, 182
allegorical, interpretation, in de abrahamo vs. other works Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 74
allegorical, interpretation, jewish-alexandrian Geljon and Runia (2013) 10
allegorical, interpretation, literal interpretation Nisula (2012) 63, 86, 143, 144, 195, 200, 205, 206, 207, 210, 211, 218, 228, 229, 230, 231, 262, 271, 291
allegorical, interpretation, literal interpretation and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 30
allegorical, interpretation, of apollo beating python/typhon Brouwer (2013) 163
allegorical, interpretation, of myth Brouwer (2013) 151
allegorical, interpretation, of popular religion Brouwer (2013) 66
allegorical, interpretation, of typhon Brouwer (2013) 162
allegorical, interpretation, of zeus Brouwer (2013) 162
allegorical, interpretation, of zeus beating typhon Brouwer (2013) 162
allegorical, interpretation, omission of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 371, 372
allegorical, interpretation, paul, and Pierce et al. (2022) 236
allegorical, interpretation, philo and Hayes (2022) 151, 157, 158
allegorical, interpretation, philo of alexandria Najman (2010) 208, 210, 211, 212, 213, 214, 215, 216, 217
allegorical, interpretation, philonic Geljon and Runia (2013) 7, 8, 9, 10, 27, 37
allegorical, interpretation, platonism and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 64
allegorical, interpretation, reality and Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 25, 245, 362, 363
allegorical, interpretation, scripture Geljon and Runia (2013) 122, 123, 189, 217, 219, 244
Geljon and Runia (2019) 1, 9, 26, 27, 51, 63, 141, 145, 146, 147, 189, 230, 231
allegorical, interpretation, the laws of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 216
allegorical, interpretation, universal significance of Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 25, 28
allegorical, interpretation, “suited to the few” Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 290, 292, 327
allegorical, interpretations Hellholm et al. (2010) 1750, 1755, 1761
allegorical, interpretations of sotah, sotah pericope Rosen-Zvi (2012) 128
allegorical, interpretations, gods Wolfsdorf (2020) 366, 367, 368, 369, 370
allegorical, interpretations, of greek novels Cueva et al. (2018b) 109
allegorical, level Hasan Rokem (2003) 47
allegorical, meaning in scripture Dawson (2001) 71, 72, 73
allegorical, meaning of song of songs, bible O, Daly (2020) 209, 210, 211
allegorical, method Grypeou and Spurling (2009) 91, 107, 139, 177, 194, 246, 249, 250
allegorical, method of exegesis Taylor and Hay (2020) 183, 311, 312
allegorical, narrative Verhelst and Scheijnens (2022) 163
allegorical, philo and interpretation, concept of law Hayes (2022) 361
allegorical, philo and interpretation, on narrative and law Hayes (2022) 466
allegorical, philos colleagues Niehoff (2011) 144, 156
allegorical, reader Niehoff (2011) 116, 140, 157, 165, 175
allegorical, reader, jewish Niehoff (2011) 156
allegorical, readers Dawson (2001) 55, 56, 59, 60, 61
allegorical, readers, origens idea of Dawson (2001) 79
allegorical, readers, spiritual progress of Dawson (2001) 76
allegorical, reading Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 313, 326
Repath and Whitmarsh (2022) 17, 215, 263
allegorical, reading of biblical law, leviticus rabba Hayes (2022) 603
allegorical, reading of biblical law, leviticus rabba, and metaphor, as opposed to metonymy Hayes (2022) 15, 151
allegorical, reading of biblical law, leviticus rabba, hellenistic/christian approach to text Hayes (2022) 142, 146, 151, 157, 158
allegorical, reading of origen of alexandria Dawson (2001) 9, 51, 52, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 62, 63, 65, 186, 227
allegorical, reading, figural reading, and Dawson (2001) 12
allegorical, readings of timaeus, platonic dialogue, literal versus Marmodoro and Prince (2015) 39, 56
allegorical, representation of god in the song of songs, solomon, in aggadic tradition, as Lieber (2014) 28, 30, 31, 157, 361
allegorical, scholarship Niehoff (2011) 157
allegorical, scripture interpretation, deeper meaning Geljon and Runia (2019) 141, 146, 189, 244
allegorical, scripture interpretation, literal interpretation Geljon and Runia (2019) 9, 12, 50, 63, 141, 142, 145, 189, 230, 231
allegorical, use of exodus from egypt, philos Taylor and Hay (2020) 336, 337, 338, 339, 344
allegorization, of heracles/hercules Malherbe et al (2014) 651, 652, 653, 654, 667, 668
allegorization, stoicism Malherbe et al (2014) 655, 668, 852, 853
allegorized, paternity Lavee (2017) 221
allegorizing, of homer Taylor and Hay (2020) 154
allegory, allegorical, Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 5, 6, 10, 34, 57, 58, 59, 60, 61, 91, 133, 146, 148, 150
de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 4, 223, 348, 388, 390, 408
allegory/allegorization Malherbe et al (2014) 45, 46, 145, 153, 622, 623, 626, 651, 652, 653, 654, 655, 667, 668, 671, 826, 850, 852, 853, 854, 855, 862, 909
allegory/allegorizing d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 39, 40
allegory/allegorizing, against theurgy d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 202, 223, 227, 228
allegory/allegorizing, on logic d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 185
allegory/allegorizing, on mathematics d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 170
allegory/allegorizing, on soul d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 133, 202

List of validated texts:
118 validated results for "allegorical"
1. Hebrew Bible, Song of Songs, 1.2, 1.9, 4.12, 4.16, 5.1-5.2, 5.10-5.16, 7.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • Aramaic Piyyut for Passover, An (anonymous), allegory minimal in • Exegesis,, Allegory • Grooms Qedushta, The (Qallir), allegorical and literal mingled in • King, Allegory • Maimonides, Allegories • Myth,, as Allegory • Shivata Shir ha-Shirim (Yannai), allegory in • Solomon, in aggadic tradition, as allegorical representation of God in the Song of Songs • Song of Songs, allegorical interpretation of • allegorical • allegory • allegory, allegorical • allegory, in An Aramaic Piyyut for Passover • allegory, in The Grooms Qedushta • allegory, philosophical

 Found in books: Damm (2018) 48; Fishbane (2003) 234; Kaplan (2015) 18; Lieber (2014) 30, 32, 109, 110, 113, 201, 202, 350; Lorberbaum (2015) 38; Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner (2009) 72, 75; Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 59; Rowland (2009) 530, 531

1.2. יִשָּׁקֵנִי מִנְּשִׁיקוֹת פִּיהוּ כִּי־טוֹבִים דֹּדֶיךָ מִיָּיִן׃
1.9. לְסֻסָתִי בְּרִכְבֵי פַרְעֹה דִּמִּיתִיךְ רַעְיָתִי׃
4.12. גַּן נָעוּל אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה גַּל נָעוּל מַעְיָן חָתוּם׃
4.16. עוּרִי צָפוֹן וּבוֹאִי תֵימָן הָפִיחִי גַנִּי יִזְּלוּ בְשָׂמָיו יָבֹא דוֹדִי לְגַנּוֹ וְיֹאכַל פְּרִי מְגָדָיו׃
5.1. בָּאתִי לְגַנִּי אֲחֹתִי כַלָּה אָרִיתִי מוֹרִי עִם־בְּשָׂמִי אָכַלְתִּי יַעְרִי עִם־דִּבְשִׁי שָׁתִיתִי יֵינִי עִם־חֲלָבִי אִכְלוּ רֵעִים שְׁתוּ וְשִׁכְרוּ דּוֹדִים׃
5.1. דּוֹדִי צַח וְאָדוֹם דָּגוּל מֵרְבָבָה׃ 5.2. אֲנִי יְשֵׁנָה וְלִבִּי עֵר קוֹל דּוֹדִי דוֹפֵק פִּתְחִי־לִי אֲחֹתִי רַעְיָתִי יוֹנָתִי תַמָּתִי שֶׁרֹּאשִׁי נִמְלָא־טָל קְוֻּצּוֹתַי רְסִיסֵי לָיְלָה׃' '
5.11. רֹאשׁוֹ כֶּתֶם פָּז קְוּצּוֹתָיו תַּלְתַּלִּים שְׁחֹרוֹת כָּעוֹרֵב׃
5.12. עֵינָיו כְּיוֹנִים עַל־אֲפִיקֵי מָיִם רֹחֲצוֹת בֶּחָלָב יֹשְׁבוֹת עַל־מִלֵּאת׃
5.13. לְחָיָו כַּעֲרוּגַת הַבֹּשֶׂם מִגְדְּלוֹת מֶרְקָחִים שִׂפְתוֹתָיו שׁוֹשַׁנִּים נֹטְפוֹת מוֹר עֹבֵר׃
5.14. יָדָיו גְּלִילֵי זָהָב מְמֻלָּאִים בַּתַּרְשִׁישׁ מֵעָיו עֶשֶׁת שֵׁן מְעֻלֶּפֶת סַפִּירִים׃
5.15. שׁוֹקָיו עַמּוּדֵי שֵׁשׁ מְיֻסָּדִים עַל־אַדְנֵי־פָז מַרְאֵהוּ כַּלְּבָנוֹן בָּחוּר כָּאֲרָזִים׃
5.16. חִכּוֹ מַמְתַקִּים וְכֻלּוֹ מַחֲּמַדִּים זֶה דוֹדִי וְזֶה רֵעִי בְּנוֹת יְרוּשָׁלִָם׃
7.4. שְׁנֵי שָׁדַיִךְ כִּשְׁנֵי עֳפָרִים תָּאֳמֵי צְבִיָּה׃''. None
1.2. Let him kiss me with the kisses of his mouth— For thy love is better than wine.
1.9. I have compared thee, O my love, To a steed in Pharaoh’s chariots.
4.12. A garden shut up is my sister, my bride; A spring shut up, a fountain sealed.
4.16. Awake, O north wind; And come, thou south; Blow upon my garden, That the spices thereof may flow out. Let my beloved come into his garden, And eat his precious fruits.
5.1. I am come into my garden, my sister, my bride; I have gathered my myrrh with my spice; I have eaten my honeycomb with my honey; I have drunk my wine with my milk. Eat, O friends; Drink, yea, drink abundantly, O beloved. 5.2. I sleep, but my heart waketh; Hark! my beloved knocketh: ‘Open to me, my sister, my love, my dove, my undefiled; For my head is filled with dew, My locks with the drops of the night.’

5.10. ’My beloved is white and ruddy, Pre-eminent above ten thousand.
5.11. His head is as the most fine gold, His locks are curled, And black as a raven.
5.12. His eyes are like doves Beside the water-brooks; Washed with milk, And fitly set.
5.13. His cheeks are as a bed of spices, As banks of sweet herbs; His lips are as lilies, Dropping with flowing myrrh.
5.14. His hands are as rods of gold Set with beryl; His body is as polished ivory Overlaid with sapphires.
5.15. His legs are as pillars of marble, Set upon sockets of fine gold; His aspect is like Lebanon, Excellent as the cedars.
5.16. His mouth is most sweet; Yea, he is altogether lovely. This is my beloved, and this is my friend, O daughters of Jerusalem.’
7.4. Thy two breasts are like two fawns that are twins of a gazelle.''. None
2. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 4.19, 22.5, 23.4 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • Sodom, allegorical interpretation of • allegory • allegory, allegorical • allegory/-ies • hermeneutic, allegorical

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 297; Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 200; Rosenblum (2016) 70; Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 148; Sly (1990) 47; Černušková (2016) 27

4.19. וּפֶן־תִּשָּׂא עֵינֶיךָ הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְאֶת־הַיָּרֵחַ וְאֶת־הַכּוֹכָבִים כֹּל צְבָא הַשָּׁמַיִם וְנִדַּחְתָּ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לָהֶם וַעֲבַדְתָּם אֲשֶׁר חָלַק יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֹתָם לְכֹל הָעַמִּים תַּחַת כָּל־הַשָּׁמָיִם׃
22.5. לֹא־יִהְיֶה כְלִי־גֶבֶר עַל־אִשָּׁה וְלֹא־יִלְבַּשׁ גֶּבֶר שִׂמְלַת אִשָּׁה כִּי תוֹעֲבַת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כָּל־עֹשֵׂה אֵלֶּה׃
23.4. לֹא־יָבֹא עַמּוֹנִי וּמוֹאָבִי בִּקְהַל יְהוָה גַּם דּוֹר עֲשִׂירִי לֹא־יָבֹא לָהֶם בִּקְהַל יְהוָה עַד־עוֹלָם׃''. None
4.19. and lest thou lift up thine eyes unto heaven, and when thou seest the sun and the moon and the stars, even all the host of heaven, thou be drawn away and worship them, and serve them, which the LORD thy God hath allotted unto all the peoples under the whole heaven.
22.5. A woman shall not wear that which pertaineth unto a man, neither shall a man put on a woman’s garment; for whosoever doeth these things is an abomination unto the LORD thy God.
23.4. An Ammonite or a Moabite shall not enter into the assembly of the LORD; even to the tenth generation shall none of them enter into the assembly of the LORD for ever;''. None
3. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 2.21, 3.14, 15.1, 15.3, 15.21, 20.5, 20.15, 20.17, 23.19, 24.7, 25.31, 25.40, 31.2-31.3, 33.18, 33.22 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical, exegesis of the Song of Songs • Allegory • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Philo • Allegory, An Eye for an Eye – Pecuniary Compensation • Allegory, allegorical exegesis • Exegesis, allegorical • Exegesis,, Allegory • King, Allegory • Myth,, as Allegory • On the Contemplative Life, allegorical interpretation of choirs by Red sea • Philo and allegorical interpretation, on narrative and law • Song of Songs piyyutim, allegorical approach to Song of Songs in • Song of Songs, allegorical interpretation of • allegorical and symbolic uses of mountains • allegorical interpretation • allegorical interpretation, stoic allegoresis of theological myths • allegorists • allegory • allegory, Timaeus’s, ontological/epistemological • allegory, figurative • allegory, philosophical • allegory/-ies • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • dispute between Abraham and Lot, allegorical interpretation of • exegesis, allegorical • migrations of Abraham, allegorical interpretation of • reader, allegorical • scripture allegorical interpretation, literal interpretation • the three visitors, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 112, 220, 264, 268, 271, 403; Bloch (2022) 75; Boulluec (2022) 343; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 200, 348; Estes (2020) 206, 274; Fishbane (2003) 379; Geljon and Runia (2019) 12; Hasan Rokem (2003) 19; Hayes (2022) 466; Hoenig (2018) 279; Kaplan (2015) 18, 19; Konig (2022) 79; Kraemer (2010) 84, 94, 95, 96, 98, 107, 108, 109; Lieber (2014) 57; Lorberbaum (2015) 8, 219; Niehoff (2011) 140; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 216, 218; Rosenblum (2016) 27, 69; Rowland (2009) 539; Sly (1990) 140; Černušková (2016) 13, 21, 27, 70, 101

2.21. וַיּוֹאֶל מֹשֶׁה לָשֶׁבֶת אֶת־הָאִישׁ וַיִּתֵּן אֶת־צִפֹּרָה בִתּוֹ לְמֹשֶׁה׃
3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־מֹשֶׁה אֶהְיֶה אֲשֶׁר אֶהְיֶה וַיֹּאמֶר כֹּה תֹאמַר לִבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶהְיֶה שְׁלָחַנִי אֲלֵיכֶם׃
15.1. אָז יָשִׁיר־מֹשֶׁה וּבְנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת לַיהוָה וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֵאמֹר אָשִׁירָה לַיהוָה כִּי־גָאֹה גָּאָה סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם׃
15.1. נָשַׁפְתָּ בְרוּחֲךָ כִּסָּמוֹ יָם צָלֲלוּ כַּעוֹפֶרֶת בְּמַיִם אַדִּירִים׃
15.3. יְהוָה אִישׁ מִלְחָמָה יְהוָה שְׁמוֹ׃
15.21. וַתַּעַן לָהֶם מִרְיָם שִׁירוּ לַיהוָה כִּי־גָאֹה גָּאָה סוּס וְרֹכְבוֹ רָמָה בַיָּם׃
20.5. לֹא־תִשְׁתַּחְוֶה לָהֶם וְלֹא תָעָבְדֵם כִּי אָנֹכִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֵל קַנָּא פֹּקֵד עֲוֺן אָבֹת עַל־בָּנִים עַל־שִׁלֵּשִׁים וְעַל־רִבֵּעִים לְשֹׂנְאָי׃
20.15. וְכָל־הָעָם רֹאִים אֶת־הַקּוֹלֹת וְאֶת־הַלַּפִּידִם וְאֵת קוֹל הַשֹּׁפָר וְאֶת־הָהָר עָשֵׁן וַיַּרְא הָעָם וַיָּנֻעוּ וַיַּעַמְדוּ מֵרָחֹק׃
20.17. וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֶל־הָעָם אַל־תִּירָאוּ כִּי לְבַעֲבוּר נַסּוֹת אֶתְכֶם בָּא הָאֱלֹהִים וּבַעֲבוּר תִּהְיֶה יִרְאָתוֹ עַל־פְּנֵיכֶם לְבִלְתִּי תֶחֱטָאוּ׃
23.19. רֵאשִׁית בִּכּוּרֵי אַדְמָתְךָ תָּבִיא בֵּית יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא־תְבַשֵּׁל גְּדִי בַּחֲלֵב אִמּוֹ׃
24.7. וַיִּקַּח סֵפֶר הַבְּרִית וַיִּקְרָא בְּאָזְנֵי הָעָם וַיֹּאמְרוּ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר־דִּבֶּר יְהוָה נַעֲשֶׂה וְנִשְׁמָע׃
25.31. וְעָשִׂיתָ מְנֹרַת זָהָב טָהוֹר מִקְשָׁה תֵּעָשֶׂה הַמְּנוֹרָה יְרֵכָהּ וְקָנָהּ גְּבִיעֶיהָ כַּפְתֹּרֶיהָ וּפְרָחֶיהָ מִמֶּנָּה יִהְיוּ׃' '
31.2. רְאֵה קָרָאתִי בְשֵׁם בְּצַלְאֵל בֶּן־אוּרִי בֶן־חוּר לְמַטֵּה יְהוּדָה׃ 31.3. וָאֲמַלֵּא אֹתוֹ רוּחַ אֱלֹהִים בְּחָכְמָה וּבִתְבוּנָה וּבְדַעַת וּבְכָל־מְלָאכָה׃
33.18. וַיֹּאמַר הַרְאֵנִי נָא אֶת־כְּבֹדֶךָ׃
33.22. וְהָיָה בַּעֲבֹר כְּבֹדִי וְשַׂמְתִּיךָ בְּנִקְרַת הַצּוּר וְשַׂכֹּתִי כַפִּי עָלֶיךָ עַד־עָבְרִי׃''. None
2.21. And Moses was content to dwell with the man; and he gave Moses Zipporah his daughter.
3.14. And God said unto Moses: ‘I AM THAT I AM’; and He said: ‘Thus shalt thou say unto the children of Israel: I AM hath sent me unto you.’
15.1. Then sang Moses and the children of Israel this song unto the LORD, and spoke, saying: I will sing unto the LORD, for He is highly exalted; The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea.
15.3. The LORD is a man of war, The LORD is His name.
15.21. And Miriam sang unto them: Sing ye to the LORD, for He is highly exalted: The horse and his rider hath He thrown into the sea.
20.5. thou shalt not bow down unto them, nor serve them; for I the LORD thy God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children unto the third and fourth generation of them that hate Me;
20.15. And all the people perceived the thunderings, and the lightnings, and the voice of the horn, and the mountain smoking; and when the people saw it, they trembled, and stood afar off.
20.17. And Moses said unto the people: ‘Fear not; for God is come to prove you, and that His fear may be before you, that ye sin not.’
23.19. The choicest first-fruits of thy land thou shalt bring into the house of the LORD thy God. Thou shalt not seethe a kid in its mother’s milk.
24.7. And he took the book of the covet, and read in the hearing of the people; and they said: ‘All that the LORD hath spoken will we do, and obey.’
25.31. And thou shalt make a candlestick of pure gold: of beaten work shall the candlestick be made, even its base, and its shaft; its cups, its knops, and its flowers, shall be of one piece with it.
25.40. And see that thou make them after their pattern, which is being shown thee in the mount.
31.2. ’See, I have called by name Bezalel the son of Uri, the son of Hur, of the tribe of Judah; 31.3. and I have filled him with the spirit of God, in wisdom, and in understanding, and in knowledge, and in all manner of workmanship,
33.18. And he said: ‘Show me, I pray Thee, Thy glory.’
33.22. And it shall come to pass, while My glory passeth by, that I will put thee in a cleft of the rock, and will cover thee with My hand until I have passed by.' '. None
4. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 1.4, 1.26-1.27, 2.1, 2.7-2.9, 2.18, 2.21-2.22, 3.8, 3.14, 4.8-4.9, 4.14, 4.16-4.17, 5.21-5.24, 6.6, 7.11, 9.20, 12.1-12.6, 14.14-14.16, 15.5-15.8, 15.12, 15.15-15.18, 16.1-16.4, 16.6-16.14, 17.1, 17.4-17.5, 17.15, 20.7, 21.5, 22.18, 23.6, 24.1, 26.17-26.33, 28.10-28.19, 31.11-31.13, 32.28-32.29, 32.31, 37.7, 38.14-38.15, 38.20-38.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • Allegorical Commentary, parallels between De Abrahamo and • Allegorical Commentary, relation of, to other Philonic series • Allegorical method • Allegory • Allegory of the Law • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Philo • Allegory, Protestantisms assault on • Allegory, allegorical exegesis • De Plantatione, place in Allegorical Commentary • Egypt, allegorical interpretation of • Eusebius of Caesarea’s Gospel Problems and Aristarchus on Homer,, etymological and allegorical arguments • Exegesis, allegorical • Heraclitus the Allegorist • Heraclitus the Allegorist, van den Hoek, Annewies • Kingly Power, Lot omitted from allegory of • Kingly Power, allegorical interpretation of • Philo of Alexandria, allegorical interpretation • Philos colleagues, allegorical • Protestantism, assault on allegory • Sodom, allegorical interpretation of • allegorical and etymological argumentation • allegorical dream • allegorical interpretation • allegorical interpretation, Greek • allegorical interpretation, Jewish-Alexandrian • allegorical interpretation, Philonic • allegorical interpretation, in De Abrahamo vs. other works • allegorical interpretation, omission of • allegorical interpretation, reality and • allegorical interpretation, stoic allegoresis of theological myths • allegorical interpretation, universal significance of • allegorical interpretation, “suited to the few” • allegorists • allegory • allegory, Greek terms for • allegory, allegorical • allegory, figurative • allegory, philosophical • allegory/-ies • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • biblical interpretation, Celsus’ attack on allegorical interpretation • biblical interpretation, allegorical/Alexandrian • dispute between Abraham and Lot, allegorical interpretation of • etymological and allegorical argumentation • exegesis, allegorical • five, the number, allegorical interpretation of • grammatical archive, commentarial strategies, allegory (ἀλληγορία) • marriage, allegorical interpretation of • migrations of Abraham, allegorical interpretation of • reader, Jewish allegorical • sacrifice of Isaac, allegorical interpretation of • scripture allegorical interpretation • scripture allegorical interpretation, deeper meaning • scripture allegorical interpretation, literal interpretation • scripture, allegorical interpretation

 Found in books: Ayres and Ward (2021) 207; Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 327; Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 1, 14, 25, 31, 33, 41, 74, 75, 106, 117, 129, 184, 186, 187, 198, 214, 215, 217, 220, 221, 222, 223, 224, 225, 226, 227, 228, 238, 243, 248, 249, 250, 290, 293, 296, 297, 298, 310, 332, 344, 345, 347, 361, 365, 367, 371, 403; Bloch (2022) 75, 104, 157, 159; Boulluec (2022) 143, 290; Brouwer and Vimercati (2020) 80, 81; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 200, 586; Dawson (2001) 234; Esler (2000) 676, 846; Estes (2020) 208, 237, 240, 252; Garcia (2021) 68; Geljon and Runia (2013) 1, 4, 5, 7, 8, 9, 10, 27, 37, 40, 122, 123, 182, 187, 189, 199, 217, 219, 244, 265; Geljon and Runia (2019) 2, 6, 7, 8, 12, 26, 50, 51, 141, 142, 145, 146, 147, 196, 253; Grypeou and Spurling (2009) 177; Iricinschi et al. (2013) 143; Kaplan (2015) 16, 17, 30; Lieu (2015) 358; Niehoff (2011) 118, 128, 142, 146, 148, 155, 156, 163, 173, 179; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 214; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 210, 214, 215, 218, 220, 221, 226, 227; Rosenblum (2016) 74, 146; Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 5, 14, 16, 17, 31, 146; Rowland (2009) 543; Sly (1990) 88, 99, 138, 147, 150, 151, 157; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020) 9, 10, 12, 19; Ward (2022) 38, 39, 158; Witter et al. (2021) 180; Černušková (2016) 19, 20, 27, 70, 93

1.4. וַיַּרְא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאוֹר כִּי־טוֹב וַיַּבְדֵּל אֱלֹהִים בֵּין הָאוֹר וּבֵין הַחֹשֶׁךְ׃
1.26. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים נַעֲשֶׂה אָדָם בְּצַלְמֵנוּ כִּדְמוּתֵנוּ וְיִרְדּוּ בִדְגַת הַיָּם וּבְעוֹף הַשָּׁמַיִם וּבַבְּהֵמָה וּבְכָל־הָאָרֶץ וּבְכָל־הָרֶמֶשׂ הָרֹמֵשׂ עַל־הָאָרֶץ׃ 1.27. וַיִּבְרָא אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם בְּצַלְמוֹ בְּצֶלֶם אֱלֹהִים בָּרָא אֹתוֹ זָכָר וּנְקֵבָה בָּרָא אֹתָם׃
2.1. וְנָהָרּ יֹצֵא מֵעֵדֶן לְהַשְׁקוֹת אֶת־הַגָּן וּמִשָּׁם יִפָּרֵד וְהָיָה לְאַרְבָּעָה רָאשִׁים׃
2.1. וַיְכֻלּוּ הַשָּׁמַיִם וְהָאָרֶץ וְכָל־צְבָאָם׃
2.7. וַיִּיצֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הָאָדָם עָפָר מִן־הָאֲדָמָה וַיִּפַּח בְּאַפָּיו נִשְׁמַת חַיִּים וַיְהִי הָאָדָם לְנֶפֶשׁ חַיָּה׃ 2.8. וַיִּטַּע יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים גַּן־בְעֵדֶן מִקֶּדֶם וַיָּשֶׂם שָׁם אֶת־הָאָדָם אֲשֶׁר יָצָר׃ 2.9. וַיַּצְמַח יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִן־הָאֲדָמָה כָּל־עֵץ נֶחְמָד לְמַרְאֶה וְטוֹב לְמַאֲכָל וְעֵץ הַחַיִּים בְּתוֹךְ הַגָּן וְעֵץ הַדַּעַת טוֹב וָרָע׃

2.18. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים לֹא־טוֹב הֱיוֹת הָאָדָם לְבַדּוֹ אֶעֱשֶׂהּ־לּוֹ עֵזֶר כְּנֶגְדּוֹ׃
2.21. וַיַּפֵּל יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים תַּרְדֵּמָה עַל־הָאָדָם וַיִּישָׁן וַיִּקַּח אַחַת מִצַּלְעֹתָיו וַיִּסְגֹּר בָּשָׂר תַּחְתֶּנָּה׃ 2.22. וַיִּבֶן יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶת־הַצֵּלָע אֲשֶׁר־לָקַח מִן־הָאָדָם לְאִשָּׁה וַיְבִאֶהָ אֶל־הָאָדָם׃
3.8. וַיִּשְׁמְעוּ אֶת־קוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים מִתְהַלֵּךְ בַּגָּן לְרוּחַ הַיּוֹם וַיִּתְחַבֵּא הָאָדָם וְאִשְׁתּוֹ מִפְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהִים בְּתוֹךְ עֵץ הַגָּן׃
3.14. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהֹוָה אֱלֹהִים אֶל־הַנָּחָשׁ כִּי עָשִׂיתָ זֹּאת אָרוּר אַתָּה מִכָּל־הַבְּהֵמָה וּמִכֹּל חַיַּת הַשָּׂדֶה עַל־גְּחֹנְךָ תֵלֵךְ וְעָפָר תֹּאכַל כָּל־יְמֵי חַיֶּיךָ׃
4.8. וַיֹּאמֶר קַיִן אֶל־הֶבֶל אָחִיו וַיְהִי בִּהְיוֹתָם בַּשָּׂדֶה וַיָּקָם קַיִן אֶל־הֶבֶל אָחִיו וַיַּהַרְגֵהוּ׃ 4.9. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־קַיִן אֵי הֶבֶל אָחִיךָ וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא יָדַעְתִּי הֲשֹׁמֵר אָחִי אָנֹכִי׃
4.14. הֵן גֵּרַשְׁתָּ אֹתִי הַיּוֹם מֵעַל פְּנֵי הָאֲדָמָה וּמִפָּנֶיךָ אֶסָּתֵר וְהָיִיתִי נָע וָנָד בָּאָרֶץ וְהָיָה כָל־מֹצְאִי יַהַרְגֵנִי׃
4.16. וַיֵּצֵא קַיִן מִלִּפְנֵי יְהוָה וַיֵּשֶׁב בְּאֶרֶץ־נוֹד קִדְמַת־עֵדֶן׃ 4.17. וַיֵּדַע קַיִן אֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וַתַּהַר וַתֵּלֶד אֶת־חֲנוֹךְ וַיְהִי בֹּנֶה עִיר וַיִּקְרָא שֵׁם הָעִיר כְּשֵׁם בְּנוֹ חֲנוֹךְ׃
5.21. וַיְחִי חֲנוֹךְ חָמֵשׁ וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד אֶת־מְתוּשָׁלַח׃ 5.22. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים אַחֲרֵי הוֹלִידוֹ אֶת־מְתוּשֶׁלַח שְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה וַיּוֹלֶד בָּנִים וּבָנוֹת׃ 5.23. וַיְהִי כָּל־יְמֵי חֲנוֹךְ חָמֵשׁ וְשִׁשִּׁים שָׁנָה וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה׃ 5.24. וַיִּתְהַלֵּךְ חֲנוֹךְ אֶת־הָאֱלֹהִים וְאֵינֶנּוּ כִּי־לָקַח אֹתוֹ אֱלֹהִים׃
6.6. וַיִּנָּחֶם יְהוָה כִּי־עָשָׂה אֶת־הָאָדָם בָּאָרֶץ וַיִּתְעַצֵּב אֶל־לִבּוֹ׃
7.11. בִּשְׁנַת שֵׁשׁ־מֵאוֹת שָׁנָה לְחַיֵּי־נֹחַ בַּחֹדֶשׁ הַשֵּׁנִי בְּשִׁבְעָה־עָשָׂר יוֹם לַחֹדֶשׁ בַּיּוֹם הַזֶּה נִבְקְעוּ כָּל־מַעְיְנֹת תְּהוֹם רַבָּה וַאֲרֻבֹּת הַשָּׁמַיִם נִפְתָּחוּ׃' '
2.1. וַיְהִי רָעָב בָּאָרֶץ וַיֵּרֶד אַבְרָם מִצְרַיְמָה לָגוּר שָׁם כִּי־כָבֵד הָרָעָב בָּאָרֶץ׃
2.1. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם לֶךְ־לְךָ מֵאַרְצְךָ וּמִמּוֹלַדְתְּךָ וּמִבֵּית אָבִיךָ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַרְאֶךָּ׃ 12.2. וְאֶעֶשְׂךָ לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל וַאֲבָרֶכְךָ וַאֲגַדְּלָה שְׁמֶךָ וֶהְיֵה בְּרָכָה׃ 12.2. וַיְצַו עָלָיו פַּרְעֹה אֲנָשִׁים וַיְשַׁלְּחוּ אֹתוֹ וְאֶת־אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶת־כָּל־אֲשֶׁר־לוֹ׃ 12.3. וַאֲבָרֲכָה מְבָרְכֶיךָ וּמְקַלֶּלְךָ אָאֹר וְנִבְרְכוּ בְךָ כֹּל מִשְׁפְּחֹת הָאֲדָמָה׃ 12.4. וַיֵּלֶךְ אַבְרָם כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֶּר אֵלָיו יְהוָה וַיֵּלֶךְ אִתּוֹ לוֹט וְאַבְרָם בֶּן־חָמֵשׁ שָׁנִים וְשִׁבְעִים שָׁנָה בְּצֵאתוֹ מֵחָרָן׃ 12.5. וַיִּקַּח אַבְרָם אֶת־שָׂרַי אִשְׁתּוֹ וְאֶת־לוֹט בֶּן־אָחִיו וְאֶת־כָּל־רְכוּשָׁם אֲשֶׁר רָכָשׁוּ וְאֶת־הַנֶּפֶשׁ אֲשֶׁר־עָשׂוּ בְחָרָן וַיֵּצְאוּ לָלֶכֶת אַרְצָה כְּנַעַן וַיָּבֹאוּ אַרְצָה כְּנָעַן׃ 12.6. וַיַּעֲבֹר אַבְרָם בָּאָרֶץ עַד מְקוֹם שְׁכֶם עַד אֵלוֹן מוֹרֶה וְהַכְּנַעֲנִי אָז בָּאָרֶץ׃
4.14. וַיִּשְׁמַע אַבְרָם כִּי נִשְׁבָּה אָחִיו וַיָּרֶק אֶת־חֲנִיכָיו יְלִידֵי בֵיתוֹ שְׁמֹנָה עָשָׂר וּשְׁלֹשׁ מֵאוֹת וַיִּרְדֹּף עַד־דָּן׃ 14.15. וַיֵּחָלֵק עֲלֵיהֶם לַיְלָה הוּא וַעֲבָדָיו וַיַּכֵּם וַיִּרְדְּפֵם עַד־חוֹבָה אֲשֶׁר מִשְּׂמֹאל לְדַמָּשֶׂק׃ 1
4.16. וַיָּשֶׁב אֵת כָּל־הָרְכֻשׁ וְגַם אֶת־לוֹט אָחִיו וּרְכֻשׁוֹ הֵשִׁיב וְגַם אֶת־הַנָּשִׁים וְאֶת־הָעָם׃
15.5. וַיּוֹצֵא אֹתוֹ הַחוּצָה וַיֹּאמֶר הַבֶּט־נָא הַשָּׁמַיְמָה וּסְפֹר הַכּוֹכָבִים אִם־תּוּכַל לִסְפֹּר אֹתָם וַיֹּאמֶר לוֹ כֹּה יִהְיֶה זַרְעֶךָ׃ 15.6. וְהֶאֱמִן בַּיהוָה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ לּוֹ צְדָקָה׃ 15.7. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אֲנִי יְהוָה אֲשֶׁר הוֹצֵאתִיךָ מֵאוּר כַּשְׂדִּים לָתֶת לְךָ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת לְרִשְׁתָּהּ׃ 15.8. וַיֹּאמַר אֲדֹנָי יֱהוִה בַּמָּה אֵדַע כִּי אִירָשֶׁנָּה׃
15.12. וַיְהִי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ לָבוֹא וְתַרְדֵּמָה נָפְלָה עַל־אַבְרָם וְהִנֵּה אֵימָה חֲשֵׁכָה גְדֹלָה נֹפֶלֶת עָלָיו׃
15.15. וְאַתָּה תָּבוֹא אֶל־אֲבֹתֶיךָ בְּשָׁלוֹם תִּקָּבֵר בְּשֵׂיבָה טוֹבָה׃ 15.16. וְדוֹר רְבִיעִי יָשׁוּבוּ הֵנָּה כִּי לֹא־שָׁלֵם עֲוֺן הָאֱמֹרִי עַד־הֵנָּה׃ 15.17. וַיְהִי הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ בָּאָה וַעֲלָטָה הָיָה וְהִנֵּה תַנּוּר עָשָׁן וְלַפִּיד אֵשׁ אֲשֶׁר עָבַר בֵּין הַגְּזָרִים הָאֵלֶּה׃ 15.18. בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כָּרַת יְהוָה אֶת־אַבְרָם בְּרִית לֵאמֹר לְזַרְעֲךָ נָתַתִּי אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת מִנְּהַר מִצְרַיִם עַד־הַנָּהָר הַגָּדֹל נְהַר־פְּרָת׃
16.1. וְשָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת אַבְרָם לֹא יָלְדָה לוֹ וְלָהּ שִׁפְחָה מִצְרִית וּשְׁמָהּ הָגָר׃
16.1. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה הַרְבָּה אַרְבֶּה אֶת־זַרְעֵךְ וְלֹא יִסָּפֵר מֵרֹב׃ 16.2. וַתֹּאמֶר שָׂרַי אֶל־אַבְרָם הִנֵּה־נָא עֲצָרַנִי יְהוָה מִלֶּדֶת בֹּא־נָא אֶל־שִׁפְחָתִי אוּלַי אִבָּנֶה מִמֶּנָּה וַיִּשְׁמַע אַבְרָם לְקוֹל שָׂרָי׃ 16.3. וַתִּקַּח שָׂרַי אֵשֶׁת־אַבְרָם אֶת־הָגָר הַמִּצְרִית שִׁפְחָתָהּ מִקֵּץ עֶשֶׂר שָׁנִים לְשֶׁבֶת אַבְרָם בְּאֶרֶץ כְּנָעַן וַתִּתֵּן אֹתָהּ לְאַבְרָם אִישָׁהּ לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 16.4. וַיָּבֹא אֶל־הָגָר וַתַּהַר וַתֵּרֶא כִּי הָרָתָה וַתֵּקַל גְּבִרְתָּהּ בְּעֵינֶיהָ׃
6.6. וַיֹּאמֶר אַבְרָם אֶל־שָׂרַי הִנֵּה שִׁפְחָתֵךְ בְּיָדֵךְ עֲשִׂי־לָהּ הַטּוֹב בְּעֵינָיִךְ וַתְּעַנֶּהָ שָׂרַי וַתִּבְרַח מִפָּנֶיהָ׃ 16.7. וַיִּמְצָאָהּ מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה עַל־עֵין הַמַּיִם בַּמִּדְבָּר עַל־הָעַיִן בְּדֶרֶךְ שׁוּר׃ 16.8. וַיֹּאמַר הָגָר שִׁפְחַת שָׂרַי אֵי־מִזֶּה בָאת וְאָנָה תֵלֵכִי וַתֹּאמֶר מִפְּנֵי שָׂרַי גְּבִרְתִּי אָנֹכִי בֹּרַחַת׃ 16.9. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה שׁוּבִי אֶל־גְּבִרְתֵּךְ וְהִתְעַנִּי תַּחַת יָדֶיהָ׃
16.11. וַיֹּאמֶר לָהּ מַלְאַךְ יְהוָה הִנָּךְ הָרָה וְיֹלַדְתְּ בֵּן וְקָרָאת שְׁמוֹ יִשְׁמָעֵאל כִּי־שָׁמַע יְהוָה אֶל־עָנְיֵךְ׃
16.12. וְהוּא יִהְיֶה פֶּרֶא אָדָם יָדוֹ בַכֹּל וְיַד כֹּל בּוֹ וְעַל־פְּנֵי כָל־אֶחָיו יִשְׁכֹּן׃
16.13. וַתִּקְרָא שֵׁם־יְהוָה הַדֹּבֵר אֵלֶיהָ אַתָּה אֵל רֳאִי כִּי אָמְרָה הֲגַם הֲלֹם רָאִיתִי אַחֲרֵי רֹאִי׃
16.14. עַל־כֵּן קָרָא לַבְּאֵר בְּאֵר לַחַי רֹאִי הִנֵּה בֵין־קָדֵשׁ וּבֵין בָּרֶד׃
17.1. וַיְהִי אַבְרָם בֶּן־תִּשְׁעִים שָׁנָה וְתֵשַׁע שָׁנִים וַיֵּרָא יְהוָה אֶל־אַבְרָם וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו אֲנִי־אֵל שַׁדַּי הִתְהַלֵּךְ לְפָנַי וֶהְיֵה תָמִים׃
17.1. זֹאת בְּרִיתִי אֲשֶׁר תִּשְׁמְרוּ בֵּינִי וּבֵינֵיכֶם וּבֵין זַרְעֲךָ אַחֲרֶיךָ הִמּוֹל לָכֶם כָּל־זָכָר׃
17.4. אֲנִי הִנֵּה בְרִיתִי אִתָּךְ וְהָיִיתָ לְאַב הֲמוֹן גּוֹיִם׃ 17.5. וְלֹא־יִקָּרֵא עוֹד אֶת־שִׁמְךָ אַבְרָם וְהָיָה שִׁמְךָ אַבְרָהָם כִּי אַב־הֲמוֹן גּוֹיִם נְתַתִּיךָ׃

17.15. וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־אַבְרָהָם שָׂרַי אִשְׁתְּךָ לֹא־תִקְרָא אֶת־שְׁמָהּ שָׂרָי כִּי שָׂרָה שְׁמָהּ׃
20.7. וְעַתָּה הָשֵׁב אֵשֶׁת־הָאִישׁ כִּי־נָבִיא הוּא וְיִתְפַּלֵּל בַּעַדְךָ וֶחְיֵה וְאִם־אֵינְךָ מֵשִׁיב דַּע כִּי־מוֹת תָּמוּת אַתָּה וְכָל־אֲשֶׁר־לָךְ׃
21.5. וְאַבְרָהָם בֶּן־מְאַת שָׁנָה בְּהִוָּלֶד לוֹ אֵת יִצְחָק בְּנוֹ׃ 2

2.18. וְהִתְבָּרֲכוּ בְזַרְעֲךָ כֹּל גּוֹיֵי הָאָרֶץ עֵקֶב אֲשֶׁר שָׁמַעְתָּ בְּקֹלִי׃
23.6. שְׁמָעֵנוּ אֲדֹנִי נְשִׂיא אֱלֹהִים אַתָּה בְּתוֹכֵנוּ בְּמִבְחַר קְבָרֵינוּ קְבֹר אֶת־מֵתֶךָ אִישׁ מִמֶּנּוּ אֶת־קִבְרוֹ לֹא־יִכְלֶה מִמְּךָ מִקְּבֹר מֵתֶךָ׃
24.1. וְאַבְרָהָם זָקֵן בָּא בַּיָּמִים וַיהוָה בֵּרַךְ אֶת־אַבְרָהָם בַּכֹּל׃
24.1. וַיִּקַּח הָעֶבֶד עֲשָׂרָה גְמַלִּים מִגְּמַלֵּי אֲדֹנָיו וַיֵּלֶךְ וְכָל־טוּב אֲדֹנָיו בְּיָדוֹ וַיָּקָם וַיֵּלֶךְ אֶל־אֲרַם נַהֲרַיִם אֶל־עִיר נָחוֹר׃
26.17. וַיֵּלֶךְ מִשָּׁם יִצְחָק וַיִּחַן בְּנַחַל־גְּרָר וַיֵּשֶׁב שָׁם׃ 26.18. וַיָּשָׁב יִצְחָק וַיַּחְפֹּר אֶת־בְּאֵרֹת הַמַּיִם אֲשֶׁר חָפְרוּ בִּימֵי אַבְרָהָם אָבִיו וַיְסַתְּמוּם פְּלִשְׁתִּים אַחֲרֵי מוֹת אַבְרָהָם וַיִּקְרָא לָהֶן שֵׁמוֹת כַּשֵּׁמֹת אֲשֶׁר־קָרָא לָהֶן אָבִיו׃ 26.19. וַיַּחְפְּרוּ עַבְדֵי־יִצְחָק בַּנָּחַל וַיִּמְצְאוּ־שָׁם בְּאֵר מַיִם חַיִּים׃ 26.21. וַיַּחְפְּרוּ בְּאֵר אַחֶרֶת וַיָּרִיבוּ גַּם־עָלֶיהָ וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמָהּ שִׂטְנָה׃ 26.22. וַיַּעְתֵּק מִשָּׁם וַיַּחְפֹּר בְּאֵר אַחֶרֶת וְלֹא רָבוּ עָלֶיהָ וַיִּקְרָא שְׁמָהּ רְחֹבוֹת וַיֹּאמֶר כִּי־עַתָּה הִרְחִיב יְהוָה לָנוּ וּפָרִינוּ בָאָרֶץ׃ 26.23. וַיַּעַל מִשָּׁם בְּאֵר שָׁבַע׃ 26.24. וַיֵּרָא אֵלָיו יְהוָה בַּלַּיְלָה הַהוּא וַיֹּאמֶר אָנֹכִי אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אָבִיךָ אַל־תִּירָא כִּי־אִתְּךָ אָנֹכִי וּבֵרַכְתִּיךָ וְהִרְבֵּיתִי אֶת־זַרְעֲךָ בַּעֲבוּר אַבְרָהָם עַבְדִּי׃ 26.25. וַיִּבֶן שָׁם מִזְבֵּחַ וַיִּקְרָא בְּשֵׁם יְהוָה וַיֶּט־שָׁם אָהֳלוֹ וַיִּכְרוּ־שָׁם עַבְדֵי־יִצְחָק בְּאֵר׃ 26.26. וַאֲבִימֶלֶךְ הָלַךְ אֵלָיו מִגְּרָר וַאֲחֻזַּת מֵרֵעֵהוּ וּפִיכֹל שַׂר־צְבָאוֹ׃ 26.27. וַיֹּאמֶר אֲלֵהֶם יִצְחָק מַדּוּעַ בָּאתֶם אֵלָי וְאַתֶּם שְׂנֵאתֶם אֹתִי וַתְּשַׁלְּחוּנִי מֵאִתְּכֶם׃ 26.28. וַיֹּאמְרוּ רָאוֹ רָאִינוּ כִּי־הָיָה יְהוָה עִמָּךְ וַנֹּאמֶר תְּהִי נָא אָלָה בֵּינוֹתֵינוּ בֵּינֵינוּ וּבֵינֶךָ וְנִכְרְתָה בְרִית עִמָּךְ׃ 26.29. אִם־תַּעֲשֵׂה עִמָּנוּ רָעָה כַּאֲשֶׁר לֹא נְגַעֲנוּךָ וְכַאֲשֶׁר עָשִׂינוּ עִמְּךָ רַק־טוֹב וַנְּשַׁלֵּחֲךָ בְּשָׁלוֹם אַתָּה עַתָּה בְּרוּךְ יְהוָה׃" 26.31. וַיַּשְׁכִּימוּ בַבֹּקֶר וַיִּשָּׁבְעוּ אִישׁ לְאָחִיו וַיְשַׁלְּחֵם יִצְחָק וַיֵּלְכוּ מֵאִתּוֹ בְּשָׁלוֹם׃ 26.32. וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא וַיָּבֹאוּ עַבְדֵי יִצְחָק וַיַּגִּדוּ לוֹ עַל־אֹדוֹת הַבְּאֵר אֲשֶׁר חָפָרוּ וַיֹּאמְרוּ לוֹ מָצָאנוּ מָיִם׃ 26.33. וַיִּקְרָא אֹתָהּ שִׁבְעָה עַל־כֵּן שֵׁם־הָעִיר בְּאֵר שֶׁבַע עַד הַיּוֹם הַזֶּה׃ 28.11. וַיִּפְגַּע בַּמָּקוֹם וַיָּלֶן שָׁם כִּי־בָא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וַיִּקַּח מֵאַבְנֵי הַמָּקוֹם וַיָּשֶׂם מְרַאֲשֹׁתָיו וַיִּשְׁכַּב בַּמָּקוֹם הַהוּא׃ 28.12. וַיַּחֲלֹם וְהִנֵּה סֻלָּם מֻצָּב אַרְצָה וְרֹאשׁוֹ מַגִּיעַ הַשָּׁמָיְמָה וְהִנֵּה מַלְאֲכֵי אֱלֹהִים עֹלִים וְיֹרְדִים בּוֹ׃ 28.13. וְהִנֵּה יְהוָה נִצָּב עָלָיו וַיֹּאמַר אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אַבְרָהָם אָבִיךָ וֵאלֹהֵי יִצְחָק הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר אַתָּה שֹׁכֵב עָלֶיהָ לְךָ אֶתְּנֶנָּה וּלְזַרְעֶךָ׃ 28.14. וְהָיָה זַרְעֲךָ כַּעֲפַר הָאָרֶץ וּפָרַצְתָּ יָמָּה וָקֵדְמָה וְצָפֹנָה וָנֶגְבָּה וְנִבְרֲכוּ בְךָ כָּל־מִשְׁפְּחֹת הָאֲדָמָה וּבְזַרְעֶךָ׃ 28.15. וְהִנֵּה אָנֹכִי עִמָּךְ וּשְׁמַרְתִּיךָ בְּכֹל אֲשֶׁר־תֵּלֵךְ וַהֲשִׁבֹתִיךָ אֶל־הָאֲדָמָה הַזֹּאת כִּי לֹא אֶעֱזָבְךָ עַד אֲשֶׁר אִם־עָשִׂיתִי אֵת אֲשֶׁר־דִּבַּרְתִּי לָךְ׃ 28.16. וַיִּיקַץ יַעֲקֹב מִשְּׁנָתוֹ וַיֹּאמֶר אָכֵן יֵשׁ יְהוָה בַּמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וְאָנֹכִי לֹא יָדָעְתִּי׃ 28.17. וַיִּירָא וַיֹּאמַר מַה־נּוֹרָא הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה אֵין זֶה כִּי אִם־בֵּית אֱלֹהִים וְזֶה שַׁעַר הַשָּׁמָיִם׃ 28.18. וַיַּשְׁכֵּם יַעֲקֹב בַּבֹּקֶר וַיִּקַּח אֶת־הָאֶבֶן אֲשֶׁר־שָׂם מְרַאֲשֹׁתָיו וַיָּשֶׂם אֹתָהּ מַצֵּבָה וַיִּצֹק שֶׁמֶן עַל־רֹאשָׁהּ׃ 28.19. וַיִּקְרָא אֶת־שֵׁם־הַמָּקוֹם הַהוּא בֵּית־אֵל וְאוּלָם לוּז שֵׁם־הָעִיר לָרִאשֹׁנָה׃
31.11. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלַי מַלְאַךְ הָאֱלֹהִים בַּחֲלוֹם יַעֲקֹב וָאֹמַר הִנֵּנִי׃ 31.12. וַיֹּאמֶר שָׂא־נָא עֵינֶיךָ וּרְאֵה כָּל־הָעַתֻּדִים הָעֹלִים עַל־הַצֹּאן עֲקֻדִּים נְקֻדִּים וּבְרֻדִּים כִּי רָאִיתִי אֵת כָּל־אֲשֶׁר לָבָן עֹשֶׂה לָּךְ׃ 31.13. אָנֹכִי הָאֵל בֵּית־אֵל אֲשֶׁר מָשַׁחְתָּ שָּׁם מַצֵּבָה אֲשֶׁר נָדַרְתָּ לִּי שָׁם נֶדֶר עַתָּה קוּם צֵא מִן־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת וְשׁוּב אֶל־אֶרֶץ מוֹלַדְתֶּךָ׃
32.28. וַיֹּאמֶר אֵלָיו מַה־שְּׁמֶךָ וַיֹּאמֶר יַעֲקֹב׃ 32.29. וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא יַעֲקֹב יֵאָמֵר עוֹד שִׁמְךָ כִּי אִם־יִשְׂרָאֵל כִּי־שָׂרִיתָ עִם־אֱלֹהִים וְעִם־אֲנָשִׁים וַתּוּכָל׃
32.31. וַיִּקְרָא יַעֲקֹב שֵׁם הַמָּקוֹם פְּנִיאֵל כִּי־רָאִיתִי אֱלֹהִים פָּנִים אֶל־פָּנִים וַתִּנָּצֵל נַפְשִׁי׃
37.7. וְהִנֵּה אֲנַחְנוּ מְאַלְּמִים אֲלֻמִּים בְּתוֹךְ הַשָּׂדֶה וְהִנֵּה קָמָה אֲלֻמָּתִי וְגַם־נִצָּבָה וְהִנֵּה תְסֻבֶּינָה אֲלֻמֹּתֵיכֶם וַתִּשְׁתַּחֲוֶיןָ לַאֲלֻמָּתִי׃
38.14. וַתָּסַר בִּגְדֵי אַלְמְנוּתָהּ מֵעָלֶיהָ וַתְּכַס בַּצָּעִיף וַתִּתְעַלָּף וַתֵּשֶׁב בְּפֶתַח עֵינַיִם אֲשֶׁר עַל־דֶּרֶךְ תִּמְנָתָה כִּי רָאֲתָה כִּי־גָדַל שֵׁלָה וְהִוא לֹא־נִתְּנָה לוֹ לְאִשָּׁה׃ 38.15. וַיִּרְאֶהָ יְהוּדָה וַיַּחְשְׁבֶהָ לְזוֹנָה כִּי כִסְּתָה פָּנֶיהָ׃ 38.21. וַיִּשְׁאַל אֶת־אַנְשֵׁי מְקֹמָהּ לֵאמֹר אַיֵּה הַקְּדֵשָׁה הִוא בָעֵינַיִם עַל־הַדָּרֶךְ וַיֹּאמְרוּ לֹא־הָיְתָה בָזֶה קְדֵשָׁה׃ 38.22. וַיָּשָׁב אֶל־יְהוּדָה וַיֹּאמֶר לֹא מְצָאתִיהָ וְגַם אַנְשֵׁי הַמָּקוֹם אָמְרוּ לֹא־הָיְתָה בָזֶה קְדֵשָׁה׃ 38.23. וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוּדָה תִּקַּח־לָהּ פֶּן נִהְיֶה לָבוּז הִנֵּה שָׁלַחְתִּי הַגְּדִי הַזֶּה וְאַתָּה לֹא מְצָאתָהּ׃''. None
1.4. And God saw the light, that it was good; and God divided the light from the darkness.
1.26. And God said: ‘Let us make man in our image, after our likeness; and let them have dominion over the fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over the cattle, and over all the earth, and over every creeping thing that creepeth upon the earth.’ 1.27. And God created man in His own image, in the image of God created He him; male and female created He them.
2.1. And the heaven and the earth were finished, and all the host of them.
2.7. Then the LORD God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. 2.8. And the LORD God planted a garden eastward, in Eden; and there He put the man whom He had formed. 2.9. And out of the ground made the LORD God to grow every tree that is pleasant to the sight, and good for food; the tree of life also in the midst of the garden, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil.

2.18. And the LORD God said: ‘It is not good that the man should be alone; I will make him a help meet for him.’
2.21. And the LORD God caused a deep sleep to fall upon the man, and he slept; and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the place with flesh instead thereof. 2.22. And the rib, which the LORD God had taken from the man, made He a woman, and brought her unto the man.
3.8. And they heard the voice of the LORD God walking in the garden toward the cool of the day; and the man and his wife hid themselves from the presence of the LORD God amongst the trees of the garden.
3.14. And the LORD God said unto the serpent: ‘Because thou hast done this, cursed art thou from among all cattle, and from among all beasts of the field; upon thy belly shalt thou go, and dust shalt thou eat all the days of thy life.
4.8. And Cain spoke unto Abel his brother. And it came to pass, when they were in the field, that Cain rose up against Abel his brother, and slew him. 4.9. And the LORD said unto Cain: ‘Where is Abel thy brother?’ And he said: ‘I know not; am I my brother’s keeper?’
4.14. Behold, Thou hast driven me out this day from the face of the land; and from Thy face shall I be hid; and I shall be a fugitive and a wanderer in the earth; and it will come to pass, that whosoever findeth me will slay me.’
4.16. And Cain went out from the presence of the LORD, and dwelt in the land of Nod, on the east of Eden. 4.17. And Cain knew his wife; and she conceived, and bore Enoch; and he builded a city, and called the name of the city after the name of his son Enoch.
5.21. And Enoch lived sixty and five years, and begot Methuselah. 5.22. And Enoch walked with God after he begot Methuselah three hundred years, and begot sons and daughters. 5.23. And all the days of Enoch were three hundred sixty and five years. 5.24. And Enoch walked with God, and he was not; for God took him.
6.6. And it repented the LORD that He had made man on the earth, and it grieved Him at His heart.
7.11. In the six hundredth year of Noah’s life, in the second month, on the seventeenth day of the month, on the same day were all the fountains of the great deep broken up, and the windows of heaven were opened.
9.20. And Noah, the man of the land, began and planted a vineyard.
2.1. Now the LORD said unto Abram: ‘Get thee out of thy country, and from thy kindred, and from thy father’s house, unto the land that I will show thee. 12.2. And I will make of thee a great nation, and I will bless thee, and make thy name great; and be thou a blessing. 12.3. And I will bless them that bless thee, and him that curseth thee will I curse; and in thee shall all the families of the earth be blessed.’ 12.4. So Abram went, as the LORD had spoken unto him; and Lot went with him; and Abram was seventy and five years old when he departed out of Haran. 12.5. And Abram took Sarai his wife, and Lot his brother’s son, and all their substance that they had gathered, and the souls that they had gotten in Haran; and they went forth to go into the land of Canaan; and into the land of Canaan they came. 12.6. And Abram passed through the land unto the place of Shechem, unto the terebinth of Moreh. And the Canaanite was then in the land.
4.14. And when Abram heard that his brother was taken captive, he led forth his trained men, born in his house, three hundred and eighteen, and pursued as far as Dan. 14.15. And he divided himself against them by night, he and his servants, and smote them, and pursued them unto Hobah, which is on the left hand of Damascus. 1
4.16. And he brought back all the goods, and also brought back his brother Lot, and his goods, and the women also, and the people.
15.5. And He brought him forth abroad, and said: ‘Look now toward heaven, and count the stars, if thou be able to count them’; and He said unto him: ‘So shall thy seed be.’ 15.6. And he believed in the LORD; and He counted it to him for righteousness. 15.7. And He said unto him: ‘I am the LORD that brought thee out of Ur of the Chaldees, to give thee this land to inherit it.’ 15.8. And he said: ‘O Lord GOD, whereby shall I know that I shall inherit it?’
15.12. And it came to pass, that, when the sun was going down, a deep sleep fell upon Abram; and, lo, a dread, even a great darkness, fell upon him.
15.15. But thou shalt go to thy fathers in peace; thou shalt be buried in a good old age. 15.16. And in the fourth generation they shall come back hither; for the iniquity of the Amorite is not yet full.’ 15.17. And it came to pass, that, when the sun went down, and there was thick darkness, behold a smoking furnace, and a flaming torch that passed between these pieces. 15.18. In that day the LORD made a covet with Abram, saying: ‘Unto thy seed have I given this land, from the river of Egypt unto the great river, the river Euphrates;
16.1. Now Sarai Abram’s wife bore him no children; and she had a handmaid, an Egyptian, whose name was Hagar. 16.2. And Sarai said unto Abram: ‘Behold now, the LORD hath restrained me from bearing; go in, I pray thee, unto my handmaid; it may be that I shall be builded up through her.’ And Abram hearkened to the voice of Sarai. 16.3. And Sarai Abram’s wife took Hagar the Egyptian, her handmaid, after Abram had dwelt ten years in the land of Canaan, and gave her to Abram her husband to be his wife. 16.4. And he went in unto Hagar, and she conceived; and when she saw that she had conceived, her mistress was despised in her eyes.
6.6. But Abram said unto Sarai: ‘Behold, thy maid is in thy hand; do to her that which is good in thine eyes.’ And Sarai dealt harshly with her, and she fled from her face. 16.7. And the angel of the LORD found her by a fountain of water in the wilderness, by the fountain in the way to Shur. 16.8. And he said: ‘Hagar, Sarai’s handmaid, whence camest thou? and whither goest thou?’ And she said: ‘I flee from the face of my mistress Sarai.’ 16.9. And the angel of the LORD said unto her: ‘Return to thy mistress, and submit thyself under her hands.’
16.10. And the angel of the LORD said unto her: ‘I will greatly multiply thy seed, that it shall not be numbered for multitude.
16.11. And the angel of the LORD said unto her: ‘Behold, thou art with child, and shalt bear a son; and thou shalt call his name Ishmael, because the LORD hath heard thy affliction.
16.12. And he shall be a wild ass of a man: his hand shall be against every man, and every man’s hand against him; and he shall dwell in the face of all his brethren.’
16.13. And she called the name of the LORD that spoke unto her, Thou art a God of seeing; for she said: ‘Have I even here seen Him that seeth Me?’
16.14. Wherefore the well was called Beer-lahai-roi; behold, it is between Kadesh and Bered.
17.1. And when Abram was ninety years old and nine, the LORD appeared to Abram, and said unto him: ‘I am God Almighty; walk before Me, and be thou wholehearted.
17.4. ’As for Me, behold, My covet is with thee, and thou shalt be the father of a multitude of nations. 17.5. Neither shall thy name any more be called Abram, but thy name shall be Abraham; for the father of a multitude of nations have I made thee.

17.15. And God said unto Abraham: ‘As for Sarai thy wife, thou shalt not call her name Sarai, but Sarah shall her name be.
20.7. Now therefore restore the man’s wife; for he is a prophet, and he shall pray for thee, and thou shalt live; and if thou restore her not, know thou that thou shalt surely die, thou, and all that are thine.’
21.5. And Abraham was a hundred years old, when his son Isaac was born unto him. 2

2.18. and in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blessed; because thou hast hearkened to My voice.’
23.6. ’Hear us, my lord: thou art a mighty prince among us; in the choice of our sepulchres bury thy dead; none of us shall withhold from thee his sepulchre, but that thou mayest bury thy dead.’
24.1. And Abraham was old, well stricken in age; and the LORD had blessed Abraham in all things.
26.17. And Isaac departed thence, and encamped in the valley of Gerar, and dwelt there. 26.18. And Isaac digged again the wells of water, which they had digged in the days of Abraham his father; for the Philistines had stopped them after the death of Abraham; and he called their names after the names by which his father had called them. 26.19. And Isaac’s servants digged in the valley, and found there a well of living water. 26.20. And the herdmen of Gerar strove with Isaac’s herdmen, saying: ‘The water is ours.’ And he called the name of the well Esek; because they contended with him. 26.21. And they digged another well, and they strove for that also. And he called the name of it Sitnah. 26.22. And he removed from thence, and digged another well; and for that they strove not. And he called the name of it Rehoboth; and he said: ‘For now the LORD hath made room for us, and we shall be fruitful in the land.’ 26.23. And he went up from thence to Beer-sheba. 26.24. And the LORD appeared unto him the same night, and said: ‘I am the God of Abraham thy father. Fear not, for I am with thee, and will bless thee, and multiply thy seed for My servant Abraham’s sake.’ 26.25. And he builded an altar there, and called upon the name of the LORD, and pitched his tent there; and there Isaac’s servants digged a well. 26.26. Then Abimelech went to him from Gerar, and Ahuzzath his friend, and Phicol the captain of his host. 26.27. And Isaac said unto them: ‘Wherefore are ye come unto me, seeing ye hate me, and have sent me away from you?’ 26.28. And they said: ‘We saw plainly that the LORD was with thee; and we said: Let there now be an oath betwixt us, even betwixt us and thee, and let us make a covet with thee; 26.29. that thou wilt do us no hurt, as we have not touched thee, and as we have done unto thee nothing but good, and have sent thee away in peace; thou art now the blessed of the LORD.’" 26.30. And he made them a feast, and they did eat and drink. 26.31. And they rose up betimes in the morning, and swore one to another; and Isaac sent them away, and they departed from him in peace. 26.32. And it came to pass the same day, that Isaac’s servants came, and told him concerning the well which they had digged, and said unto him: ‘We have found water.’ 26.33. And he called it Shibah. Therefore the name of the city is Beer-sheba unto this day.
28.10. And Jacob went out from Beer-sheba, and went toward Haran. 28.11. And he lighted upon the place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was set; and he took one of the stones of the place, and put it under his head, and lay down in that place to sleep. 28.12. And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven; and behold the angels of God ascending and descending on it. 28.13. And, behold, the LORD stood beside him, and said: ‘I am the LORD, the God of Abraham thy father, and the God of Isaac. The land whereon thou liest, to thee will I give it, and to thy seed. 28.14. And thy seed shall be as the dust of the earth, and thou shalt spread abroad to the west, and to the east, and to the north, and to the south. And in thee and in thy seed shall all the families of the earth be blessed. 28.15. And, behold, I am with thee, and will keep thee whithersoever thou goest, and will bring thee back into this land; for I will not leave thee, until I have done that which I have spoken to thee of.’ 28.16. And Jacob awaked out of his sleep, and he said: ‘Surely the LORD is in this place; and I knew it not.’ 28.17. And he was afraid, and said: ‘How full of awe is this place! this is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of heaven.’ 28.18. And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had put under his head, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the top of it. 28.19. And he called the name of that place Beth-el, but the name of the city was Luz at the first.
31.11. And the angel of God said unto me in the dream: Jacob; and I said: Here am I. 31.12. And he said: Lift up now thine eyes, and see, all the he-goats which leap upon the flock are streaked, speckled, and grizzled; for I have seen all that Laban doeth unto thee. 31.13. I am the God of Beth-el, where thou didst anoint a pillar, where thou didst vow a vow unto Me. Now arise, get thee out from this land, and return unto the land of thy nativity.’
32.28. And he said unto him: ‘What is thy name?’ And he said: ‘Jacob.’ 32.29. And he said: ‘Thy name shall be called no more Jacob, but Israel; for thou hast striven with God and with men, and hast prevailed.’
32.31. And Jacob called the name of the place Peniel: ‘for I have seen God face to face, and my life is preserved.’
37.7. for, behold, we were binding sheaves in the field, and, lo, my sheaf arose, and also stood upright; and, behold, your sheaves came round about, and bowed down to my sheaf.’
38.14. And she put off from her the garments of her widowhood, and covered herself with her veil, and wrapped herself, and sat in the entrance of Enaim, which is by the way to Timnah; for she saw that Shelah was grown up, and she was not given unto him to wife. 38.15. When Judah saw her, he thought her to be a harlot; for she had covered her face.
38.20. And Judah sent the kid of the goats by the hand of his friend the Adullamite, to receive the pledge from the woman’s hand; but he found her not. 38.21. Then he asked the men of her place, saying: ‘Where is the harlot, that was at Enaim by the wayside?’ And they said: ‘There hath been no harlot here.’ 38.22. And he returned to Judah, and said: ‘I have not found her; and also the men of the place said: There hath been no harlot here.’ 38.23. And Judah said: ‘Let her take it, lest we be put to shame; behold, I sent this kid, and thou hast not found her.’' '. None
5. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 11.4, 19.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • Allegory, allegorical exegesis • allegory • allegory/-ies • scripture allegorical interpretation • scripture allegorical interpretation, deeper meaning • scripture allegorical interpretation, literal interpretation • scripture, allegorical interpretation

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 348; Geljon and Runia (2013) 217, 219; Geljon and Runia (2019) 63, 230, 231, 244; Niehoff (2011) 139; Rosenblum (2016) 149; Černušková (2016) 27

11.4. אַךְ אֶת־זֶה לֹא תֹאכְלוּ מִמַּעֲלֵי הַגֵּרָה וּמִמַּפְרִיסֵי הַפַּרְסָה אֶת־הַגָּמָל כִּי־מַעֲלֵה גֵרָה הוּא וּפַרְסָה אֵינֶנּוּ מַפְרִיס טָמֵא הוּא לָכֶם׃
11.4. וְהָאֹכֵל מִנִּבְלָתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב וְהַנֹּשֵׂא אֶת־נִבְלָתָהּ יְכַבֵּס בְּגָדָיו וְטָמֵא עַד־הָעָרֶב׃
19.23. וְכִי־תָבֹאוּ אֶל־הָאָרֶץ וּנְטַעְתֶּם כָּל־עֵץ מַאֲכָל וַעֲרַלְתֶּם עָרְלָתוֹ אֶת־פִּרְיוֹ שָׁלֹשׁ שָׁנִים יִהְיֶה לָכֶם עֲרֵלִים לֹא יֵאָכֵל׃' '. None
11.4. Nevertheless these shall ye not eat of them that only chew the cud, or of them that only part the hoof: the camel, because he cheweth the cud but parteth not the hoof, he is unclean unto you.
19.23. And when ye shall come into the land, and shall have planted all manner of trees for food, then ye shall count the fruit thereof as forbidden; three years shall it be as forbidden unto you; it shall not be eaten.' '. None
6. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 12.8, 23.19, 25.7-25.9 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Philo • allegorists • allegory, • hermeneutic, allegorical • the three visitors, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 272, 273; Bloch (2022) 160; Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 202; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 224; Robbins et al (2017) 307; Rowland (2009) 149; Sly (1990) 116; Witter et al. (2021) 189

12.8. פֶּה אֶל־פֶּה אֲדַבֶּר־בּוֹ וּמַרְאֶה וְלֹא בְחִידֹת וּתְמֻנַת יְהוָה יַבִּיט וּמַדּוּעַ לֹא יְרֵאתֶם לְדַבֵּר בְּעַבְדִּי בְמֹשֶׁה׃
23.19. לֹא אִישׁ אֵל וִיכַזֵּב וּבֶן־אָדָם וְיִתְנֶחָם הַהוּא אָמַר וְלֹא יַעֲשֶׂה וְדִבֶּר וְלֹא יְקִימֶנָּה׃
25.7. וַיַּרְא פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן וַיָּקָם מִתּוֹךְ הָעֵדָה וַיִּקַּח רֹמַח בְּיָדוֹ׃ 25.8. וַיָּבֹא אַחַר אִישׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־הַקֻּבָּה וַיִּדְקֹר אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֵת אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־קֳבָתָהּ וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה מֵעַל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃ 25.9. וַיִּהְיוּ הַמֵּתִים בַּמַּגֵּפָה אַרְבָּעָה וְעֶשְׂרִים אָלֶף׃' '. None
12.8. with him do I speak mouth to mouth, even manifestly, and not in dark speeches; and the similitude of the LORD doth he behold; wherefore then were ye not afraid to speak against My servant, against Moses?’
23.19. God is not a man, that He should lie; Neither the son of man, that He should repent: When He hath said, will He not do it? Or when He hath spoken, will He not make it good?
25.7. And when Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he rose up from the midst of the congregation, and took a spear in his hand. 25.8. And he went after the man of Israel into the chamber, and thrust both of them through, the man of Israel, and the woman through her belly. So the plague was stayed from the children of Israel. 25.9. And those that died by the plague were twenty and four thousand.' '. None
7. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 27.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical, exegesis of the Song of Songs • allegorical interpretation • allegorical interpretation, stoic allegoresis of theological myths • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • exegesis, allegorical

 Found in books: Hasan Rokem (2003) 19; Černušková (2016) 96

27.10. Thine own friend, and thy father’s friend, forsake not; Neither go into thy brother’s house in the day of thy calamity; Better is a neighbour that is near than a brother far off.''. None
8. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 1.1, 1.3 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Luke • Bible, allegorical meaning of Song of Songs • Exegesis,, Allegory • King, Allegory • Myth,, as Allegory • allegory • allegory, figurative • allegory/-ies

 Found in books: Damm (2018) 16; Estes (2020) 206; Fishbane (2003) 41; O, Daly (2020) 209, 210, 211; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 318; Rosenblum (2016) 149, 151; Černušková (2016) 65, 70

1.1. אַשְׁרֵי־הָאִישׁ אֲשֶׁר לֹא הָלַךְ בַּעֲצַת רְשָׁעִים וּבְדֶרֶךְ חַטָּאִים לֹא עָמָד וּבְמוֹשַׁב לֵצִים לֹא יָשָׁב׃
1.3. וְהָיָה כְּעֵץ שָׁתוּל עַל־פַּלְגֵי מָיִם אֲשֶׁר פִּרְיוֹ יִתֵּן בְּעִתּוֹ וְעָלֵהוּ לֹא־יִבּוֹל וְכֹל אֲשֶׁר־יַעֲשֶׂה יַצְלִיחַ׃' '. None
1.1. HAPPY IS the man that hath not walked in the counsel of the wicked, Nor stood in the way of sinners, nor sat in the seat of the scornful.
1.3. And he shall be like a tree planted by streams of water, that bringeth forth its fruit in its season, and whose leaf doth not wither; and in whatsoever he doeth he shall prosper.' '. None
9. None, None, nan (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Solomon, in aggadic tradition, as allegorical representation of God in the Song of Songs • Song of Songs, allegorical interpretation of • allegory

 Found in books: Lieber (2014) 28; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 212

10. Hebrew Bible, 1 Kings, 5.12 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Solomon, in aggadic tradition, as allegorical representation of God in the Song of Songs • allegory

 Found in books: Lieber (2014) 361; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 223

5.12. וַיְדַבֵּר שְׁלֹשֶׁת אֲלָפִים מָשָׁל וַיְהִי שִׁירוֹ חֲמִשָּׁה וָאָלֶף׃''. None
5.12. And he spoke three thousand proverbs; and his songs were a thousand and five.''. None
11. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 5.1-5.7, 6.10, 11.2-11.3 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Augustine • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Beatitudes • Song of Songs, allegorical interpretation of • allegory • allegory, allegorical • allegory, in prophetic texts • allegory/-ies

 Found in books: Estes (2020) 274; Lieber (2014) 48; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 212; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 459, 463; Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 91, 133; Černušková (2016) 18

5.1. אָשִׁירָה נָּא לִידִידִי שִׁירַת דּוֹדִי לְכַרְמוֹ כֶּרֶם הָיָה לִידִידִי בְּקֶרֶן בֶּן־שָׁמֶן׃
5.1. כִּי עֲשֶׂרֶת צִמְדֵּי־כֶרֶם יַעֲשׂוּ בַּת אֶחָת וְזֶרַע חֹמֶר יַעֲשֶׂה אֵיפָה׃ 5.2. הוֹי הָאֹמְרִים לָרַע טוֹב וְלַטּוֹב רָע שָׂמִים חֹשֶׁךְ לְאוֹר וְאוֹר לְחֹשֶׁךְ שָׂמִים מַר לְמָתוֹק וּמָתוֹק לְמָר׃ 5.2. וַיְעַזְּקֵהוּ וַיְסַקְּלֵהוּ וַיִּטָּעֵהוּ שֹׂרֵק וַיִּבֶן מִגְדָּל בְּתוֹכוֹ וְגַם־יֶקֶב חָצֵב בּוֹ וַיְקַו לַעֲשׂוֹת עֲנָבִים וַיַּעַשׂ בְּאֻשִׁים׃ 5.3. וְיִנְהֹם עָלָיו בַּיּוֹם הַהוּא כְּנַהֲמַת־יָם וְנִבַּט לָאָרֶץ וְהִנֵּה־חֹשֶׁךְ צַר וָאוֹר חָשַׁךְ בַּעֲרִיפֶיהָ׃ 5.3. וְעַתָּה יוֹשֵׁב יְרוּשָׁלִַם וְאִישׁ יְהוּדָה שִׁפְטוּ־נָא בֵּינִי וּבֵין כַּרְמִי׃ 5.4. מַה־לַּעֲשׂוֹת עוֹד לְכַרְמִי וְלֹא עָשִׂיתִי בּוֹ מַדּוּעַ קִוֵּיתִי לַעֲשׂוֹת עֲנָבִים וַיַּעַשׂ בְּאֻשִׁים׃ 5.5. וְעַתָּה אוֹדִיעָה־נָּא אֶתְכֶם אֵת אֲשֶׁר־אֲנִי עֹשֶׂה לְכַרְמִי הָסֵר מְשׂוּכָּתוֹ וְהָיָה לְבָעֵר פָּרֹץ גְּדֵרוֹ וְהָיָה לְמִרְמָס׃ 5.6. וַאֲשִׁיתֵהוּ בָתָה לֹא יִזָּמֵר וְלֹא יֵעָדֵר וְעָלָה שָׁמִיר וָשָׁיִת וְעַל הֶעָבִים אֲצַוֶּה מֵהַמְטִיר עָלָיו מָטָר׃ 5.7. כִּי כֶרֶם יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בֵּית יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאִישׁ יְהוּדָה נְטַע שַׁעֲשׁוּעָיו וַיְקַו לְמִשְׁפָּט וְהִנֵּה מִשְׂפָּח לִצְדָקָה וְהִנֵּה צְעָקָה׃' '
11.2. וְנָחָה עָלָיו רוּחַ יְהוָה רוּחַ חָכְמָה וּבִינָה רוּחַ עֵצָה וּגְבוּרָה רוּחַ דַּעַת וְיִרְאַת יְהוָה׃ 11.3. וַהֲרִיחוֹ בְּיִרְאַת יְהוָה וְלֹא־לְמַרְאֵה עֵינָיו יִשְׁפּוֹט וְלֹא־לְמִשְׁמַע אָזְנָיו יוֹכִיחַ׃''. None
5.1. Let me sing of my well-beloved, A song of my beloved touching his vineyard. My well-beloved had a vineyard In a very fruitful hill; 5.2. And he digged it, and cleared it of stones, And planted it with the choicest vine, And built a tower in the midst of it, And also hewed out a vat therein; And he looked that it should bring forth grapes, And it brought forth wild grapes. . 5.3. And now, O inhabitants of Jerusalem and men of Judah, Judge, I pray you, betwixt me and my vineyard. 5.4. What could have been done more to my vineyard, That I have not done in it? Wherefore, when I looked that it should bring forth grapes, Brought it forth wild grapes? 5.5. And now come, I will tell you What I will do to my vineyard: I will take away the hedge thereof, And it shall be eaten up; I will break down the fence thereof, And it shall be trodden down; 5.6. And I will lay it waste: It shall not be pruned nor hoed, But there shall come up briers and thorns; I will also command the clouds That they rain no rain upon it. 5.7. For the vineyard of the LORD of hosts is the house of Israel, And the men of Judah the plant of His delight; And He looked for justice, but behold violence; For righteousness, but behold a cry.
6.10. Make the heart of this people fat, and make their ears heavy, and shut their eyes; lest they, seeing with their eyes, and hearing with their ears, and understanding with their heart, return, and be healed.’
11.2. And the spirit of the LORD shall rest upon him, The spirit of wisdom and understanding, The spirit of counsel and might, The spirit of knowledge and of the fear of the LORD. 11.3. And his delight shall be in the fear of the LORD; And he shall not judge after the sight of his eyes, Neither decide after the hearing of his ears;''. None
12. Hesiod, Works And Days, 287-292 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • allegorical and symbolic uses of mountains • allegory

 Found in books: Konig (2022) 147; Maciver (2012) 68, 69, 79, 81

287. τὴν μέν τοι κακότητα καὶ ἰλαδὸν ἔστιν ἑλέσθαι'288. ῥηιδίως· λείη μὲν ὁδός, μάλα δʼ ἐγγύθι ναίει· 289. τῆς δʼ ἀρετῆς ἱδρῶτα θεοὶ προπάροιθεν ἔθηκαν 290. ἀθάνατοι· μακρὸς δὲ καὶ ὄρθιος οἶμος ἐς αὐτὴν 291. καὶ τρηχὺς τὸ πρῶτον· ἐπὴν δʼ εἰς ἄκρον ἵκηται, 292. ῥηιδίη δὴ ἔπειτα πέλει, χαλεπή περ ἐοῦσα. '. None
287. Perses, remember this, serve righteousne'288. And wholly sidestep the iniquity 289. of force. The son of Cronus made this act 290. For men - that fish, wild beasts and birds should eat 291. Each other, being lawless, but the pact 292. He made with humankind is very meet – '. None
13. Hesiod, Theogony, 218-220, 453-500, 633-634, 736-745, 748-750, 905 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Two jars • Exegesis, allegorical • Homer, Allegory of the jars • Jars, allegory of • allegory • physical allegory

 Found in books: Iribarren and Koning (2022) 28, 31; Joosse (2021) 169; Kirichenko (2022) 188; Maciver (2012) 113; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 96, 142

218. Κλωθώ τε Λάχεσίν τε καὶ Ἄτροπον, αἵτε βροτοῖσι'219. γεινομένοισι διδοῦσιν ἔχειν ἀγαθόν τε κακόν τε, 220. αἵτʼ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε παραιβασίας ἐφέπουσιν·
453. Ῥείη δὲ δμηθεῖσα Κρόνῳ τέκε φαίδιμα τέκνα, 454. Ἱστίην Δήμητρα καὶ Ἥρην χρυσοπέδιλον 455. ἴφθιμόν τʼ Ἀίδην, ὃς ὑπὸ χθονὶ δώματα ναίει 456. νηλεὲς ἦτορ ἔχων, καὶ ἐρίκτυπον Ἐννοσίγαιον 457. Ζῆνά τε μητιόεντα, θεῶν πατέρʼ ἠδὲ καὶ ἀνδρῶν, 458. τοῦ καὶ ὑπὸ βροντῆς πελεμίζεται εὐρεῖα χθών. 459. καὶ τοὺς μὲν κατέπινε μέγας Κρόνος, ὥς τις ἕκαστος 460. νηδύος ἐξ ἱερῆς μητρὸς πρὸς γούναθʼ ἵκοιτο, 461. τὰ φρονέων, ἵνα μή τις ἀγαυῶν Οὐρανιώνων 462. ἄλλος ἐν ἀθανάτοισιν ἔχοι βασιληίδα τιμήν. 463. πεύθετο γὰρ Γαίης τε καὶ Οὐρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος, 464. οὕνεκά οἱ πέπρωτο ἑῷ ὑπὸ παιδὶ δαμῆναι 465. καὶ κρατερῷ περ ἐόντι, Διὸς μεγάλου διὰ βουλάς· 466. τῷ ὅ γʼ ἄρʼ οὐκ ἀλαὸς σκοπιὴν ἔχεν, ἀλλὰ δοκεύων 467. παῖδας ἑοὺς κατέπινε· Ῥέην δʼ ἔχε πένθος ἄλαστον. 468. ἀλλʼ ὅτε δὴ Δίʼ ἔμελλε θεῶν πατέρʼ ἠδὲ καὶ ἀνδρῶν 469. τέξεσθαι, τότʼ ἔπειτα φίλους λιτάνευε τοκῆας 470. τοὺς αὐτῆς, Γαῖάν τε καὶ Οὐρανὸν ἀστερόεντα, 471. μῆτιν συμφράσσασθαι, ὅπως λελάθοιτο τεκοῦσα 472. παῖδα φίλον, τίσαιτο δʼ ἐρινῦς πατρὸς ἑοῖο 473. παίδων θʼ, οὓς κατέπινε μέγας Κρόνος ἀγκυλομήτης. 474. οἳ δὲ θυγατρὶ φίλῃ μάλα μὲν κλύον ἠδʼ ἐπίθοντο, 475. καί οἱ πεφραδέτην, ὅσα περ πέπρωτο γενέσθαι 476. ἀμφὶ Κρόνῳ βασιλῆι καὶ υἱέι καρτεροθύμῳ. 477. πέμψαν δʼ ἐς Λύκτον, Κρήτης ἐς πίονα δῆμον, 478. ὁππότʼ ἄρʼ ὁπλότατον παίδων τέξεσθαι ἔμελλε, 479. Ζῆνα μέγαν· τὸν μέν οἱ ἐδέξατο Γαῖα πελώρη 480. Κρήτῃ ἐν εὐρείῃ τραφέμεν ἀτιταλλέμεναί τε. 481. ἔνθα μιν ἷκτο φέρουσα θοὴν διὰ νύκτα μέλαιναν 482. πρώτην ἐς Λύκτον· κρύψεν δέ ἑ χερσὶ λαβοῦσα 483. ἄντρῳ ἐν ἠλιβάτῳ, ζαθέης ὑπὸ κεύθεσι γαίης, 484. Αἰγαίῳ ἐν ὄρει πεπυκασμένῳ ὑλήεντι. 485. τῷ δὲ σπαργανίσασα μέγαν λίθον ἐγγυάλιξεν 486. Οὐρανίδῃ μέγʼ ἄνακτι, θεῶν προτέρῳ βασιλῆι. 487. τὸν τόθʼ ἑλὼν χείρεσσιν ἑὴν ἐσκάτθετο νηδὺν 488. σχέτλιος· οὐδʼ ἐνόησε μετὰ φρεσίν, ὥς οἱ ὀπίσσω 489. ἀντὶ λίθου ἑὸς υἱὸς ἀνίκητος καὶ ἀκηδὴς 490. λείπεθʼ, ὅ μιν τάχʼ ἔμελλε βίῃ καὶ χερσὶ δαμάσσας 491. τιμῆς ἐξελάειν, ὃ δʼ ἐν ἀθανάτοισι ἀνάξειν. 492. καρπαλίμως δʼ ἄρʼ ἔπειτα μένος καὶ φαίδιμα γυῖα 493. ηὔξετο τοῖο ἄνακτος· ἐπιπλομένων δʼ ἐνιαυτῶν 494. Γαίης ἐννεσίῃσι πολυφραδέεσσι δολωθεὶς 495. ὃν γόνον ἄψ ἀνέηκε μέγας Κρόνος ἀγκυλομήτης 496. νικηθεὶς τέχνῃσι βίηφί τε παιδὸς ἑοῖο. 497. πρῶτον δʼ ἐξέμεσεν λίθον, ὃν πύματον κατέπινεν· 498. τὸν μὲν Ζεὺς στήριξε κατὰ χθονὸς εὐρυοδείης 499. Πυθοῖ ἐν ἠγαθέῃ γυάλοις ὕπο Παρνησοῖο 500. σῆμʼ ἔμεν ἐξοπίσω, θαῦμα θνητοῖσι βροτοῖσιν.
633. οἳ δʼ ἄρʼ ἀπʼ Οὐλύμποιο θεοί, δωτῆρες ἐάων, 634. οὓς τέκεν ἠύκομος Ῥείη Κρόνῳ εὐνηθεῖσα.
736. ἔνθα δὲ γῆς δνοφερῆς καὶ Ταρτάρου ἠερόεντος 737. πόντου τʼ ἀτρυγέτοιο καὶ οὐρανοῦ ἀστερόεντος 738. ἑξείης πάντων πηγαὶ καὶ πείρατʼ ἔασιν 739. ἀργαλέʼ εὐρώεντα, τά τε στυγέουσι θεοί περ, 740. χάσμα μέγʼ, οὐδέ κε πάντα τελεσφόρον εἰς ἐνιαυτὸν 741. οὖδας ἵκοιτʼ, εἰ πρῶτα πυλέων ἔντοσθε γένοιτο, 742. ἀλλά κεν ἔνθα καὶ ἔνθα φέροι πρὸ θύελλα θυέλλῃ 743. ἀργαλέη· δεινὸν δὲ καὶ ἀθανάτοισι θεοῖσι 744. τοῦτο τέρας. Νυκτὸς δʼ ἐρεβεννῆς οἰκία δεινὰ 745. ἕστηκεν νεφέλῃς κεκαλυμμένα κυανέῃσιν.
748. ἀστεμφέως, ὅθι Νύξ τε καὶ Ἡμέρη ἆσσον ἰοῦσαι 749. ἀλλήλας προσέειπον, ἀμειβόμεναι μέγαν οὐδὸν 750. χάλκεον· ἣ μὲν ἔσω καταβήσεται, ἣ δὲ θύραζε
905. Κλωθώ τε Λάχεσίν τε καὶ Ἄτροπον, αἵτε διδοῦσι '. None
218. Because she first saw light amid the swell'219. of Cyprian shores, The Cyprian. One more name 220. She’s known by, since from genitals she came,
453. of her fear father, and Zeus gave her fame 454. With splendid gifts, and through him she became 455. The great oath of the gods, her progeny 456. Allowed to live with him eternally. 457. He kept his vow, continuing to reign 458. Over them all. Then Phoebe once again 459. With Coeus lay and brought forth the goddess, 460. Dark-gowned Leto, so full of gentlene 461. To gods always – she was indeed 462. The gentlest of the gods. From Coeus’ seed 463. Phoebe brought forth Asterie, aptly named, 464. Whom Perseus took to his great house and claimed 465. As his dear wife, and she bore Hecate, 466. Whom Father Zeus esteemed exceedingly. 467. He gave her splendid gifts that she might keep 468. A portion of the earth and barren deep. 469. Even now, when a man, according to convention, 470. offers great sacrifices, his intention 471. To beg good will he calls on Hecate. 472. He whom the goddess looks on favourably 473. Easily gains great honour. She bestow 474. Prosperity upon him. Among those 475. Born of both Earth and Ocean who possessed 476. Illustriousness she was likewise blest. 477. Lord Zeus, the son of Cronus, did not treat 478. Her grievously and neither did he cheat 479. Her of what those erstwhile divinities, 480. The Titans, gave her: all the libertie 481. They had from the beginning in the sea 482. And on the earth and in the heavens, she 483. Still holds. And since Hecate does not posse 484. Siblings, of honour she receives no less, 485. Since Zeus esteems her, nay, she gains yet more. 486. To those she chooses she provides great store 487. of benefits. As intermediary, 488. She sits beside respected royalty. 489. In the assembly those who are preferred 490. By her she elevates, and when men gird 491. Themselves for deadly battle, there she’ll be 492. To grant to those she chooses victory 493. And glory. She is helpful, too, when men 494. Contend in games, for she is present then 495. To see the strongest gain the victory 496. And win with ease the rich prize joyfully, 497. Ennobling his parents. She aids, too, 498. The horsemen she espouses and those who 499. Are forced to ply the grey and stormy sea 500. And prey to Poseidon and Queen Hecate,
633. By the famous Limping God at his behest. 634. Bright-eyed Athene made sure she was dressed
736. The boundless sea roared with a fearful sound 737. And all the earth crashed loudly; in the sky 738. Wide Heaven, shaking, groaned and groaned; on high 739. Olympus rolled and tottered from its base 740. At their attack; the quaking reached the face 741. of gloomy Tartarus; the awesome sound 742. of feet as on they charged echoed around 743. As their hard missiles clanged, and then they hurled 744. Their deadly shafts, and up to heaven whirled 745. The shouts of both the armies as the fight
748. With fury; from Olympus then he came, 749. Showing his strength and hurling lightning 750. Continually; his bolts went rocketing
905. Would catch a hissing sound, which then would change '. None
14. Homer, Iliad, 1.46, 3.383-3.420, 3.424-3.427, 5.370, 8.19, 8.22, 9.410-9.416, 15.187-15.193, 18.478-18.482, 20.23-20.75, 21.416-21.422, 24.526-24.532 (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Two jars • Eusebius of Caesarea’s Gospel Problems and Aristarchus on Homer,, etymological and allegorical arguments • Exegesis, allegorical • Exegesis,, Allegory • Heraclitus the Allegorist • Homer, Allegory of the jars • Jars, allegory of • King, Allegory • Myth,, as Allegory • allegoresis (allegorical interpretation) • allegoresis (general), vs. allegory • allegorical and etymological argumentation • allegory • allegory / allegorisation • allegory, Greek terms for • allegory, definition of • etymological and allegorical argumentation • gods, allegorical interpretations • physical allegory • Νοῦς (allegory of Zeus)

 Found in books: Ayres and Ward (2021) 207, 208; Edmondson (2008) 209; Fishbane (2003) 2; Hunter (2018) 44, 45, 46, 47, 76, 78, 90; Joosse (2021) 169; Kaplan (2015) 34; Kirichenko (2022) 189; König (2012) 8; Maciver (2012) 67, 80, 113; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 95, 142; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 385; Trapp et al (2016) 76; Ward (2022) 45; Wolfsdorf (2020) 363, 367, 368; Álvarez (2019) 83, 102, 144

1.46. ἔκλαγξαν δʼ ἄρʼ ὀϊστοὶ ἐπʼ ὤμων χωομένοιο,
3.383. αὐτὴ δʼ αὖ Ἑλένην καλέουσʼ ἴε· τὴν δὲ κίχανε 3.384. πύργῳ ἐφʼ ὑψηλῷ, περὶ δὲ Τρῳαὶ ἅλις ἦσαν· 3.385. χειρὶ δὲ νεκταρέου ἑανοῦ ἐτίναξε λαβοῦσα, 3.386. γρηῒ δέ μιν ἐϊκυῖα παλαιγενέϊ προσέειπεν 3.387. εἰροκόμῳ, ἥ οἱ Λακεδαίμονι ναιετοώσῃ 3.388. ἤσκειν εἴρια καλά, μάλιστα δέ μιν φιλέεσκε· 3.389. τῇ μιν ἐεισαμένη προσεφώνεε δῖʼ Ἀφροδίτη· 3.390. δεῦρʼ ἴθʼ· Ἀλέξανδρός σε καλεῖ οἶκον δὲ νέεσθαι. 3.391. κεῖνος ὅ γʼ ἐν θαλάμῳ καὶ δινωτοῖσι λέχεσσι 3.392. κάλλεΐ τε στίλβων καὶ εἵμασιν· οὐδέ κε φαίης 3.393. ἀνδρὶ μαχεσσάμενον τόν γʼ ἐλθεῖν, ἀλλὰ χορὸν δὲ 3.394. ἔρχεσθʼ, ἠὲ χοροῖο νέον λήγοντα καθίζειν. 3.395. ὣς φάτο, τῇ δʼ ἄρα θυμὸν ἐνὶ στήθεσσιν ὄρινε· 3.396. καί ῥʼ ὡς οὖν ἐνόησε θεᾶς περικαλλέα δειρὴν 3.397. στήθεά θʼ ἱμερόεντα καὶ ὄμματα μαρμαίροντα, 3.398. θάμβησέν τʼ ἄρʼ ἔπειτα ἔπος τʼ ἔφατʼ ἔκ τʼ ὀνόμαζε· 3.399. δαιμονίη, τί με ταῦτα λιλαίεαι ἠπεροπεύειν; 3.400. ἦ πῄ με προτέρω πολίων εὖ ναιομενάων 3.401. ἄξεις, ἢ Φρυγίης ἢ Μῃονίης ἐρατεινῆς, 3.402. εἴ τίς τοι καὶ κεῖθι φίλος μερόπων ἀνθρώπων· 3.403. οὕνεκα δὴ νῦν δῖον Ἀλέξανδρον Μενέλαος 3.404. νικήσας ἐθέλει στυγερὴν ἐμὲ οἴκαδʼ ἄγεσθαι, 3.405. τοὔνεκα δὴ νῦν δεῦρο δολοφρονέουσα παρέστης; 3.406. ἧσο παρʼ αὐτὸν ἰοῦσα, θεῶν δʼ ἀπόεικε κελεύθου, 3.407. μηδʼ ἔτι σοῖσι πόδεσσιν ὑποστρέψειας Ὄλυμπον, 3.408. ἀλλʼ αἰεὶ περὶ κεῖνον ὀΐζυε καί ἑ φύλασσε, 3.409. εἰς ὅ κέ σʼ ἢ ἄλοχον ποιήσεται ἢ ὅ γε δούλην. 3.410. κεῖσε δʼ ἐγὼν οὐκ εἶμι· νεμεσσητὸν δέ κεν εἴη· 3.411. κείνου πορσανέουσα λέχος· Τρῳαὶ δέ μʼ ὀπίσσω 3.412. πᾶσαι μωμήσονται· ἔχω δʼ ἄχεʼ ἄκριτα θυμῷ. 3.413. τὴν δὲ χολωσαμένη προσεφώνεε δῖʼ Ἀφροδίτη· 3.414. μή μʼ ἔρεθε σχετλίη, μὴ χωσαμένη σε μεθείω, 3.415. τὼς δέ σʼ ἀπεχθήρω ὡς νῦν ἔκπαγλʼ ἐφίλησα, 3.416. μέσσῳ δʼ ἀμφοτέρων μητίσομαι ἔχθεα λυγρὰ 3.417. Τρώων καὶ Δαναῶν, σὺ δέ κεν κακὸν οἶτον ὄληαι. 3.418. ὣς ἔφατʼ, ἔδεισεν δʼ Ἑλένη Διὸς ἐκγεγαυῖα, 3.419. βῆ δὲ κατασχομένη ἑανῷ ἀργῆτι φαεινῷ 3.420. σιγῇ, πάσας δὲ Τρῳὰς λάθεν· ἦρχε δὲ δαίμων.
3.424. τῇ δʼ ἄρα δίφρον ἑλοῦσα φιλομειδὴς Ἀφροδίτη 3.425. ἀντίʼ Ἀλεξάνδροιο θεὰ κατέθηκε φέρουσα· 3.426. ἔνθα κάθιζʼ Ἑλένη κούρη Διὸς αἰγιόχοιο 3.427. ὄσσε πάλιν κλίνασα, πόσιν δʼ ἠνίπαπε μύθῳ·
5.370. ἣ δʼ ἐν γούνασι πῖπτε Διώνης δῖʼ Ἀφροδίτη
8.19. σειρὴν χρυσείην ἐξ οὐρανόθεν κρεμάσαντες
8.22. Ζῆνʼ ὕπατον μήστωρʼ, οὐδʼ εἰ μάλα πολλὰ κάμοιτε.
9.410. μήτηρ γάρ τέ μέ φησι θεὰ Θέτις ἀργυρόπεζα 9.411. διχθαδίας κῆρας φερέμεν θανάτοιο τέλος δέ. 9.412. εἰ μέν κʼ αὖθι μένων Τρώων πόλιν ἀμφιμάχωμαι, 9.413. ὤλετο μέν μοι νόστος, ἀτὰρ κλέος ἄφθιτον ἔσται· 9.414. εἰ δέ κεν οἴκαδʼ ἵκωμι φίλην ἐς πατρίδα γαῖαν, 9.415. ὤλετό μοι κλέος ἐσθλόν, ἐπὶ δηρὸν δέ μοι αἰὼν 9.416. ἔσσεται, οὐδέ κέ μʼ ὦκα τέλος θανάτοιο κιχείη.
15.187. τρεῖς γάρ τʼ ἐκ Κρόνου εἰμὲν ἀδελφεοὶ οὓς τέκετο Ῥέα 15.188. Ζεὺς καὶ ἐγώ, τρίτατος δʼ Ἀΐδης ἐνέροισιν ἀνάσσων. 15.189. τριχθὰ δὲ πάντα δέδασται, ἕκαστος δʼ ἔμμορε τιμῆς· 15.190. ἤτοι ἐγὼν ἔλαχον πολιὴν ἅλα ναιέμεν αἰεὶ 15.191. παλλομένων, Ἀΐδης δʼ ἔλαχε ζόφον ἠερόεντα, 15.192. Ζεὺς δʼ ἔλαχʼ οὐρανὸν εὐρὺν ἐν αἰθέρι καὶ νεφέλῃσι· 15.193. γαῖα δʼ ἔτι ξυνὴ πάντων καὶ μακρὸς Ὄλυμπος.
18.478. ποίει δὲ πρώτιστα σάκος μέγα τε στιβαρόν τε 18.479. πάντοσε δαιδάλλων, περὶ δʼ ἄντυγα βάλλε φαεινὴν 18.480. τρίπλακα μαρμαρέην, ἐκ δʼ ἀργύρεον τελαμῶνα. 18.481. πέντε δʼ ἄρʼ αὐτοῦ ἔσαν σάκεος πτύχες· αὐτὰρ ἐν αὐτῷ 18.482. ποίει δαίδαλα πολλὰ ἰδυίῃσι πραπίδεσσιν.
20.23. ἥμενος, ἔνθʼ ὁρόων φρένα τέρψομαι· οἳ δὲ δὴ ἄλλοι 20.24. ἔρχεσθʼ ὄφρʼ ἂν ἵκησθε μετὰ Τρῶας καὶ Ἀχαιούς, 20.25. ἀμφοτέροισι δʼ ἀρήγεθʼ ὅπῃ νόος ἐστὶν ἑκάστου. 20.26. εἰ γὰρ Ἀχιλλεὺς οἶος ἐπὶ Τρώεσσι μαχεῖται 20.27. οὐδὲ μίνυνθʼ ἕξουσι ποδώκεα Πηλεΐωνα. 20.28. καὶ δέ τί μιν καὶ πρόσθεν ὑποτρομέεσκον ὁρῶντες· 20.29. νῦν δʼ ὅτε δὴ καὶ θυμὸν ἑταίρου χώεται αἰνῶς 20.30. δείδω μὴ καὶ τεῖχος ὑπέρμορον ἐξαλαπάξῃ. 20.31. ὣς ἔφατο Κρονίδης, πόλεμον δʼ ἀλίαστον ἔγειρε. 20.32. βὰν δʼ ἴμεναι πόλεμον δὲ θεοὶ δίχα θυμὸν ἔχοντες· 20.33. Ἥρη μὲν μετʼ ἀγῶνα νεῶν καὶ Παλλὰς Ἀθήνη 20.34. ἠδὲ Ποσειδάων γαιήοχος ἠδʼ ἐριούνης 20.35. Ἑρμείας, ὃς ἐπὶ φρεσὶ πευκαλίμῃσι κέκασται· 20.36. Ἥφαιστος δʼ ἅμα τοῖσι κίε σθένεϊ βλεμεαίνων 20.37. χωλεύων, ὑπὸ δὲ κνῆμαι ῥώοντο ἀραιαί. 20.38. ἐς δὲ Τρῶας Ἄρης κορυθαίολος, αὐτὰρ ἅμʼ αὐτῷ 20.39. Φοῖβος ἀκερσεκόμης ἠδʼ Ἄρτεμις ἰοχέαιρα 20.40. Λητώ τε Ξάνθός τε φιλομειδής τʼ Ἀφροδίτη. 20.41. εἷος μέν ῥʼ ἀπάνευθε θεοὶ θνητῶν ἔσαν ἀνδρῶν, 20.42. τεῖος Ἀχαιοὶ μὲν μέγα κύδανον, οὕνεκʼ Ἀχιλλεὺς 20.43. ἐξεφάνη, δηρὸν δὲ μάχης ἐπέπαυτʼ ἀλεγεινῆς· 20.44. Τρῶας δὲ τρόμος αἰνὸς ὑπήλυθε γυῖα ἕκαστον 20.45. δειδιότας, ὅθʼ ὁρῶντο ποδώκεα Πηλεΐωνα 20.46. τεύχεσι λαμπόμενον βροτολοιγῷ ἶσον Ἄρηϊ. 20.47. αὐτὰρ ἐπεὶ μεθʼ ὅμιλον Ὀλύμπιοι ἤλυθον ἀνδρῶν, 20.48. ὦρτο δʼ Ἔρις κρατερὴ λαοσσόος, αὖε δʼ Ἀθήνη 20.49. στᾶσʼ ὁτὲ μὲν παρὰ τάφρον ὀρυκτὴν τείχεος ἐκτός, 20.50. ἄλλοτʼ ἐπʼ ἀκτάων ἐριδούπων μακρὸν ἀΰτει. 20.51. αὖε δʼ Ἄρης ἑτέρωθεν ἐρεμνῇ λαίλαπι ἶσος 20.52. ὀξὺ κατʼ ἀκροτάτης πόλιος Τρώεσσι κελεύων, 20.53. ἄλλοτε πὰρ Σιμόεντι θέων ἐπὶ Καλλικολώνῃ. 20.54. ὣς τοὺς ἀμφοτέρους μάκαρες θεοὶ ὀτρύνοντες 20.55. σύμβαλον, ἐν δʼ αὐτοῖς ἔριδα ῥήγνυντο βαρεῖαν· 20.56. δεινὸν δὲ βρόντησε πατὴρ ἀνδρῶν τε θεῶν τε 20.57. ὑψόθεν· αὐτὰρ νέρθε Ποσειδάων ἐτίναξε 20.58. γαῖαν ἀπειρεσίην ὀρέων τʼ αἰπεινὰ κάρηνα. 20.59. πάντες δʼ ἐσσείοντο πόδες πολυπίδακος Ἴδης 20.60. καὶ κορυφαί, Τρώων τε πόλις καὶ νῆες Ἀχαιῶν. 20.61. ἔδεισεν δʼ ὑπένερθεν ἄναξ ἐνέρων Ἀϊδωνεύς, 20.62. δείσας δʼ ἐκ θρόνου ἆλτο καὶ ἴαχε, μή οἱ ὕπερθε 20.63. γαῖαν ἀναρρήξειε Ποσειδάων ἐνοσίχθων, 20.64. οἰκία δὲ θνητοῖσι καὶ ἀθανάτοισι φανείη 20.65. σμερδαλέʼ εὐρώεντα, τά τε στυγέουσι θεοί περ· 20.66. τόσσος ἄρα κτύπος ὦρτο θεῶν ἔριδι ξυνιόντων. 20.67. ἤτοι μὲν γὰρ ἔναντα Ποσειδάωνος ἄνακτος 20.68. ἵστατʼ Ἀπόλλων Φοῖβος ἔχων ἰὰ πτερόεντα, 20.69. ἄντα δʼ Ἐνυαλίοιο θεὰ γλαυκῶπις Ἀθήνη· 20.70. Ἥρῃ δʼ ἀντέστη χρυσηλάκατος κελαδεινὴ 20.71. Ἄρτεμις ἰοχέαιρα κασιγνήτη ἑκάτοιο· 20.72. Λητοῖ δʼ ἀντέστη σῶκος ἐριούνιος Ἑρμῆς, 20.73. ἄντα δʼ ἄρʼ Ἡφαίστοιο μέγας ποταμὸς βαθυδίνης, 20.74. ὃν Ξάνθον καλέουσι θεοί, ἄνδρες δὲ Σκάμανδρον. 20.75. ὣς οἳ μὲν θεοὶ ἄντα θεῶν ἴσαν· αὐτὰρ Ἀχιλλεὺς
21.416. τὸν δʼ ἄγε χειρὸς ἑλοῦσα Διὸς θυγάτηρ Ἀφροδίτη 21.417. πυκνὰ μάλα στενάχοντα· μόγις δʼ ἐσαγείρετο θυμόν. 21.418. τὴν δʼ ὡς οὖν ἐνόησε θεὰ λευκώλενος Ἥρη, 21.419. αὐτίκʼ Ἀθηναίην ἔπεα πτερόεντα προσηύδα· 21.420. ὢ πόποι αἰγιόχοιο Διὸς τέκος Ἀτρυτώνη 21.421. καὶ δʼ αὖθʼ ἡ κυνάμυια ἄγει βροτολοιγὸν Ἄρηα 21.422. δηΐου ἐκ πολέμοιο κατὰ κλόνον· ἀλλὰ μέτελθε.
24.526. ζώειν ἀχνυμένοις· αὐτοὶ δέ τʼ ἀκηδέες εἰσί. 24.527. δοιοὶ γάρ τε πίθοι κατακείαται ἐν Διὸς οὔδει 24.528. δώρων οἷα δίδωσι κακῶν, ἕτερος δὲ ἑάων· 24.529. ᾧ μέν κʼ ἀμμίξας δώῃ Ζεὺς τερπικέραυνος, 24.530. ἄλλοτε μέν τε κακῷ ὅ γε κύρεται, ἄλλοτε δʼ ἐσθλῷ· 24.531. ᾧ δέ κε τῶν λυγρῶν δώῃ, λωβητὸν ἔθηκε, 24.532. καί ἑ κακὴ βούβρωστις ἐπὶ χθόνα δῖαν ἐλαύνει,' '. None
1.46. The arrows rattled on the shoulders of the angry god as he moved, and his coming was like the night. Then he sat down apart from the ships and let fly an arrow: terrible was the twang of the silver bow. The mules he assailed first and the swift dogs,
3.383. /with spear of bronze. 3.384. with spear of bronze. But him Aphrodite snatched up, full easily as a goddess may, and shrouded him in thick mist, and set him down in his fragrant, vaulted chamber, and herself went to summon Helen. Her she found on the high wall, and round about her in throngs were the women of Troy. 3.385. Then with her hand the goddess laid hold of her fragrant robe, and plucked it, and spake to her in the likeness of an ancient dame, a wool-comber, who had been wont to card the fair wool for her when she dwelt in Lacedaemon, and who was well loved of her; in her likeness fair Aphrodite spake: 3.390. Come hither; Alexander calleth thee to go to thy home. There is he in his chamber and on his inlaid couch, gleaming with beauty and fair raiment. Thou wouldest not deem that he had come thither from warring with a foe, but rather that he was going to the dance, or sat there as one that had but newly ceased from the dance. 3.394. Come hither; Alexander calleth thee to go to thy home. There is he in his chamber and on his inlaid couch, gleaming with beauty and fair raiment. Thou wouldest not deem that he had come thither from warring with a foe, but rather that he was going to the dance, or sat there as one that had but newly ceased from the dance.' "3.395. So spake she, and stirred Helen's heart in her breast; and when she marked the beauteous neck of the goddess, her lovely bosom, and her flashing eyes, then amazement seized her, and she spake, and addressed her, saying:Strange goddess, why art thou minded to beguile me thus? " "3.399. So spake she, and stirred Helen's heart in her breast; and when she marked the beauteous neck of the goddess, her lovely bosom, and her flashing eyes, then amazement seized her, and she spake, and addressed her, saying:Strange goddess, why art thou minded to beguile me thus? " '3.400. Verily thou wilt lead me yet further on to one of the well-peopled cities of Phrygia or lovely Maeonia, if there too there be some one of mortal men who is dear to thee, seeing that now Menelaus hath conquered goodly Alexander, and is minded to lead hateful me to his home. 3.405. It is for this cause that thou art now come hither with guileful thought. Go thou, and sit by his side, and depart from the way of the gods, neither let thy feet any more bear thee back to Olympus; but ever be thou troubled for him, and guard him, until he make thee his wife, or haply his slave. 3.409. It is for this cause that thou art now come hither with guileful thought. Go thou, and sit by his side, and depart from the way of the gods, neither let thy feet any more bear thee back to Olympus; but ever be thou troubled for him, and guard him, until he make thee his wife, or haply his slave. ' "3.410. But thither will I not go—it were a shameful thing—to array that man's couch; all the women of Troy will blame me hereafter; and I have measureless griefs at heart. Then stirred to wrath fair Aphrodite spake to her:Provoke me not, rash woman, lest I wax wroth and desert thee, " "3.414. But thither will I not go—it were a shameful thing—to array that man's couch; all the women of Troy will blame me hereafter; and I have measureless griefs at heart. Then stirred to wrath fair Aphrodite spake to her:Provoke me not, rash woman, lest I wax wroth and desert thee, " '3.415. and hate thee, even as now I love thee wondrously; and lest I devise grievous hatred between both, Trojans alike and Danaans; then wouldst thou perish of an evil fate. So spake she, and Helen, sprung from Zeus, was seized with fear; and she went, wrapping herself in her bright shining mantle, 3.420. /in silence; and she was unseen of the Trojan women; and the goddess led the way.
3.424. in silence; and she was unseen of the Trojan women; and the goddess led the way. Now when they were come to the beautiful palace of Alexander, the handmaids turned forthwith to their tasks, but she, the fair lady, went to the high-roofed chamber. And the goddess, laughter-loving Aphrodite, took for her a chair, 3.425. and set it before the face of Alexander. Thereon Helen sate her down, the daughter of Zeus that beareth the aegis, with eyes turned askance; and she chid her lord, and said:Thou hast come back from the war; would thou hadst perished there, vanquished by a valiant man that was my former lord.
5.370. but fair Aphrodite flung herself upon the knees of her mother Dione. She clasped her daughter in her arms, and stroked her with her hand and spake to her, saying:Who now of the sons of heaven, dear child, hath entreated thee thus wantonly, as though thou wert working some evil before the face of all?
8.19. far, far away, where is the deepest gulf beneath the earth, the gates whereof are of iron and the threshold of bronze, as far beneath Hades as heaven is above earth: then shall ye know how far the mightiest am I of all gods. Nay, come, make trial, ye gods, that ye all may know. Make ye fast from heaven a chain of gold,
8.22. and lay ye hold thereof, all ye gods and all goddesses; yet could ye not drag to earth from out of heaven Zeus the counsellor most high, not though ye laboured sore. But whenso I were minded to draw of a ready heart, then with earth itself should I draw you and with sea withal;
9.410. For my mother the goddess, silver-footed Thetis, telleth me that twofold fates are bearing me toward the doom of death: if I abide here and war about the city of the Trojans, then lost is my home-return, but my renown shall be imperishable; but if I return home to my dear native land, 9.415. lost then is my glorious renown, yet shall my life long endure, neither shall the doom of death come soon upon me.
15.187. Out upon it, verily strong though he be he hath spoken overweeningly, if in sooth by force and in mine own despite he will restrain me that am of like honour with himself. For three brethren are we, begotten of Cronos, and born of Rhea,—Zeus, and myself, and the third is Hades, that is lord of the dead below. And in three-fold wise are all things divided, and unto each hath been apportioned his own domain. 15.190. I verily, when the lots were shaken, won for my portion the grey sea to be my habitation for ever, and Hades won the murky darkness, while Zeus won the broad heaven amid the air and the clouds; but the earth and high Olympus remain yet common to us all. Wherefore will I not in any wise walk after the will of Zeus; nay in quiet
18.478. and precious gold and silver; and thereafter he set on the anvil-block a great anvil, and took in one hand a massive hammer, and in the other took he the tongs.First fashioned he a shield, great and sturdy, adorning it cunningly in every part, and round about it set a bright rim, 18.480. threefold and glittering, and therefrom made fast a silver baldric. Five were the layers of the shield itself; and on it he wrought many curious devices with cunning skill.Therein he wrought the earth, therein the heavens therein the sea, and the unwearied sun, and the moon at the full,
20.23. Thou knowest, O Shaker of Earth, the purpose in my breast, for the which I gathered you hither; I have regard unto them, even though they die. Yet verily, for myself will I abide here sitting in a fold of Olympus, wherefrom I will gaze and make glad my heart; but do ye others all go forth till ye be come among the Trojans and Achaeans, and bear aid to this side or that, even as the mind of each may be. 20.25. For if Achilles shall fight alone against the Trojans, not even for a little space will they hold back the swift-footed son of Peleus. Nay, even aforetime were they wont to tremble as they looked upon him, and now when verily his heart is grievously in wrath for his friend, I fear me lest even beyond what is ordained he lay waste the wall. 20.29. For if Achilles shall fight alone against the Trojans, not even for a little space will they hold back the swift-footed son of Peleus. Nay, even aforetime were they wont to tremble as they looked upon him, and now when verily his heart is grievously in wrath for his friend, I fear me lest even beyond what is ordained he lay waste the wall. 20.30. So spake the son of Cronos, and roused war unabating. And the gods went their way into the battle, being divided in counsel: Hera gat her to the gathering of the ships, and with her Pallas Athene, and Poseidon, the Shaker of Earth, and the helper Hermes, that was beyond all in the cunning of his mind; 20.35. and together with these went Hephaestus, exulting in his might, halting, but beneath him his slender legs moved nimbly; but unto the Trojans went Ares, of the flashing helm, and with him Phoebus, of the unshorn locks, and Artemis, the archer, 20.40. and Leto and Xanthus and laughter-loving Aphrodite.Now as long as the gods were afar from the mortal men, even for so long triumphed the Achaeans mightily, seeing Achilles was come forth, albeit he had long kept him aloof from grievous battle; but upon the Trojans came dread trembling on the limbs of every man 20.45. in their terror, when they beheld the swift-footed son of Peleus, flaming in his harness, the peer of Ares, the bane of men. But when the Olympians were come into the midst of the throng of men, then up leapt mighty Strife, the rouser of hosts, and Athene cried a1oud,—now would she stand beside the digged trench without the wall, 20.50. and now upon the loud-sounding shores would she utter her loud cry. And over against her shouted Ares, dread as a dark whirlwind, calling with shrill tones to the Trojans from the topmost citadel, and now again as he sped by the shore of Simois over Callicolone. 20.54. and now upon the loud-sounding shores would she utter her loud cry. And over against her shouted Ares, dread as a dark whirlwind, calling with shrill tones to the Trojans from the topmost citadel, and now again as he sped by the shore of Simois over Callicolone. Thus did the blessed gods urge on the two hosts to 20.55. clash in battle, and amid them made grievous strife to burst forth. Then terribly thundered the father of gods and men from on high; and from beneath did Poseidon cause the vast earth to quake, and the steep crests of the mountains. All the roots of many-fountained Ida were shaken, 20.60. and all her peaks, and the city of the Trojans, and the ships of the Achaeans. And seized with fear in the world below was Aidoneus, lord of the shades, and in fear leapt he from his throne and cried aloud, lest above him the earth be cloven by Poseidon, the Shaker of Earth, and his abode be made plain to view for mortals and immortals- 20.65. the dread and dank abode, wherefor the very gods have loathing: so great was the din that arose when the gods clashed in strife. For against king Poseidon stood Phoebus Apollo with his winged arrows, and against Enyalius the goddess, flashing-eyed Athene; 20.70. against Hera stood forth the huntress of the golden arrows, and the echoing chase, even the archer Artemis, sister of the god that smiteth afar; against Leto stood forth the strong helper, Hermes, and against Hephaestus the great, deep-eddying river, that god called Xanthus, and men Scamander. 20.74. against Hera stood forth the huntress of the golden arrows, and the echoing chase, even the archer Artemis, sister of the god that smiteth afar; against Leto stood forth the strong helper, Hermes, and against Hephaestus the great, deep-eddying river, that god called Xanthus, and men Scamander. ' "20.75. Thus gods went forth to meet with gods. But Achilles was fain to meet with Hector, Priam's son, above all others in the throng, for with his blood as with that of none other did his spirit bid him glut Ares, the warrior with tough shield of hide. Howbeit Aeneas did Apollo, rouser of hosts, make to go forth " '
21.416. When she had thus spoken, she turned from Ares her bright eyes. Him then the daughter of Zeus, Aphrodite, took by the hand, and sought to lead away, as he uttered many a moan, and hardly could he gather back to him his spirit. But when the goddess, white-armed Hera, was ware of her, forthwith she spake winged words to Athene: 21.420. Out upon it, thou child of Zeus that beareth the aegis, unwearied one, lo, there again the dog-fly is leading Ares, the bane of mortals, forth from the fury of war amid the throng; nay, have after her. So spake she, and Athene sped in pursuit, glad at heart, and rushing upon her she smote Aphrodite on the breast with her stout hand;
24.526. For on this wise have the gods spun the thread for wretched mortals, that they should live in pain; and themselves are sorrowless. For two urns are set upon the floor of Zeus of gifts that he giveth, the one of ills, the other of blessings. To whomsoever Zeus, that hurleth the thunderbolt, giveth a mingled lot, 24.530. that man meeteth now with evil, now with good; but to whomsoever he giveth but of the baneful, him he maketh to be reviled of man, and direful madness driveth him over the face of the sacred earth, and he wandereth honoured neither of gods nor mortals. Even so unto Peleus did the gods give glorious gifts 24.532. that man meeteth now with evil, now with good; but to whomsoever he giveth but of the baneful, him he maketh to be reviled of man, and direful madness driveth him over the face of the sacred earth, and he wandereth honoured neither of gods nor mortals. Even so unto Peleus did the gods give glorious gifts ' '. None
15. None, None, nan (8th cent. BCE - 7th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • (allegorical) interpretation of Homer • Allegory • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Two jars • Allegory, allegorical exegesis • Homer, Allegory of the jars • Jars, allegory of • allegorical interpretation • allegory • allegory/allegorizing • interpretation, allegoric • Νοῦς (allegory of Zeus)

 Found in books: Beck (2006) 85, 86, 171; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 583; Demoen and Praet (2009) 312; Maciver (2012) 113, 167; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 38; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 142; d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 39; Álvarez (2019) 83

16. None, None, nan (6th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • allegoresis (allegorical interpretation) • dreams, allegorical dreams

 Found in books: Russell and Nesselrath (2014) 83; Álvarez (2019) 101

17. Herodotus, Histories, 2.53, 7.141-7.143 (5th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • allegory • Νοῦς (allegory of Zeus)

 Found in books: Athanassaki and Titchener (2022) 257; Iribarren and Koning (2022) 1; de Jáuregui (2010) 167, 226; Álvarez (2019) 83

2.53. ἔνθεν δὲ ἐγένοντο ἕκαστος τῶν θεῶν, εἴτε αἰεὶ ἦσαν πάντες, ὁκοῖοί τε τινὲς τὰ εἴδεα, οὐκ ἠπιστέατο μέχρι οὗ πρώην τε καὶ χθὲς ὡς εἰπεῖν λόγῳ. Ἡσίοδον γὰρ καὶ Ὅμηρον ἡλικίην τετρακοσίοισι ἔτεσι δοκέω μευ πρεσβυτέρους γενέσθαι καὶ οὐ πλέοσι· οὗτοι δὲ εἰσὶ οἱ ποιήσαντες θεογονίην Ἕλλησι καὶ τοῖσι θεοῖσι τὰς ἐπωνυμίας δόντες καὶ τιμάς τε καὶ τέχνας διελόντες καὶ εἴδεα αὐτῶν σημήναντες. οἱ δὲ πρότερον ποιηταὶ λεγόμενοι τούτων τῶν ἀνδρῶν γενέσθαι ὕστερον, ἔμοιγε δοκέειν, ἐγένοντο. τούτων τὰ μὲν πρῶτα αἱ Δωδωνίδες ἱρεῖαι λέγουσι, τὰ δὲ ὕστερα τὰ ἐς Ἡσίοδόν τε καὶ Ὅμηρον ἔχοντα ἐγὼ λέγω.
7.141. ταῦτα ἀκούσαντες οἱ τῶν Ἀθηναίων θεοπρόποι συμφορῇ τῇ μεγίστῃ ἐχρέωντο. προβάλλουσι δὲ σφέας αὐτοὺς ὑπὸ τοῦ κακοῦ τοῦ κεχρησμένου, Τίμων ὁ Ἀνδροβούλου, τῶν Δελφῶν ἀνὴρ δόκιμος ὅμοια τῷ μάλιστα, συνεβούλευέ σφι ἱκετηρίην λαβοῦσι δεύτερα αὖτις ἐλθόντας χρᾶσθαι τῷ χρηστηρίῳ ὡς ἱκέτας. πειθομένοισι δὲ ταῦτα τοῖσι Ἀθηναίοισι καὶ λέγουσι “ὦναξ, χρῆσον ἡμῖν ἄμεινόν τι περὶ τῆς πατρίδος, αἰδεσθεὶς τὰς ἱκετηρίας τάσδε τάς τοι ἥκομεν φέροντες, ἢ οὔ τοι ἄπιμεν ἐκ τοῦ ἀδύτου, ἀλλʼ αὐτοῦ τῇδε μενέομεν ἔστʼ ἂν καὶ τελευτήσωμεν,” ταῦτα δὲ λέγουσι ἡ πρόμαντις χρᾷ δεύτερα τάδε. οὐ δύναται Παλλὰς Δίʼ Ὀλύμπιον ἐξιλάσασθαι λισσομένη πολλοῖσι λόγοις καὶ μήτιδι πυκνῇ. σοὶ δὲ τόδʼ αὖτις ἔπος ἐρέω ἀδάμαντι πελάσσας. τῶν ἄλλων γὰρ ἁλισκομένων ὅσα Κέκροπος οὖρος ἐντὸς ἔχει κευθμών τε Κιθαιρῶνος ζαθέοιο, τεῖχος Τριτογενεῖ ξύλινον διδοῖ εὐρύοπα Ζεύς μοῦνον ἀπόρθητον τελέθειν, τὸ σὲ τέκνα τʼ ὀνήσει. μηδὲ σύ γʼ ἱπποσύνην τε μένειν καὶ πεζὸν ἰόντα πολλὸν ἀπʼ ἠπείρου στρατὸν ἥσυχος, ἀλλʼ ὑποχωρεῖν νῶτον ἐπιστρέψας· ἔτι τοι ποτε κἀντίος ἔσσῃ. ὦ θείη Σαλαμίς, ἀπολεῖς δὲ σὺ τέκνα γυναικῶν ἤ που σκιδναμένης Δημήτερος ἢ συνιούσης. 7.142. ταῦτα σφι ἠπιώτερα γὰρ τῶν προτέρων καὶ ἦν καὶ ἐδόκεε εἶναι, συγγραψάμενοι ἀπαλλάσσοντο ἐς τὰς Ἀθήνας. ὡς δὲ ἀπελθόντες οἱ θεοπρόποι ἀπήγγελλον ἐς τὸν δῆμον, γνῶμαι καὶ ἄλλαι πολλαὶ γίνονται διζημένων τὸ μαντήιον καὶ αἵδε συνεστηκυῖαι μάλιστα. τῶν πρεσβυτέρων ἔλεγον μετεξέτεροι δοκέειν σφίσι τὸν θεὸν τὴν ἀκρόπολιν χρῆσαι περιέσεσθαι. ἡ γὰρ ἀκρόπολις τὸ πάλαι τῶν Ἀθηναίων ῥηχῷ ἐπέφρακτο. οἳ μὲν δὴ κατὰ τὸν φραγμὸν συνεβάλλοντο τοῦτο τὸ ξύλινον τεῖχος εἶναι, οἳ δʼ αὖ ἔλεγον τὰς νέας σημαίνειν τὸν θεόν, καὶ ταύτας παραρτέεσθαι ἐκέλευον τὰ ἄλλα ἀπέντας. τοὺς ὦν δὴ τὰς νέας λέγοντας εἶναι τὸ ξύλινον τεῖχος ἔσφαλλε τὰ δύο τὰ τελευταῖα ῥηθέντα ὑπὸ τῆς Πυθίης, ὦ θείη Σαλαμίς, ἀπολεῖς δὲ σὺ τέκνα γυναικῶν ἤ που σκιδναμένης Δημήτερος ἢ συνιούσης. κατὰ ταῦτα τὰ ἔπεα συνεχέοντο αἱ γνῶμαι τῶν φαμένων τὰς νέας τὸ ξύλινον τεῖχος εἶναι· οἱ γὰρ χρησμολόγοι ταύτῃ ταῦτα ἐλάμβανον, ὡς ἀμφὶ Σαλαμῖνα δεῖ σφεας ἑσσωθῆναι ναυμαχίην παρασκευασαμένους. 7.143. ἦν δὲ τῶν τις Ἀθηναίων ἀνὴρ ἐς πρώτους νεωστὶ παριών, τῷ οὔνομα μὲν ἦν Θεμιστοκλέης, παῖς δὲ Νεοκλέος ἐκαλέετο. οὗτος ὡνὴρ οὐκ ἔφη πᾶν ὀρθῶς τοὺς χρησμολόγους συμβάλλεσθαι, λέγων τοιάδε· εἰ ἐς Ἀθηναίους εἶχε τὸ ἔπος εἰρημένον ἐόντως, οὐκ ἂν οὕτω μιν δοκέειν ἠπίως χρησθῆναι, ἀλλὰ ὧδε “ὦ σχετλίη Σαλαμίσ” ἀντὶ τοῦ “ὦ θείη Σαλαμίς,” εἴ πέρ γε ἔμελλον οἱ οἰκήτορες ἀμφʼ αὐτῇ τελευτήσειν· ἀλλὰ γὰρ ἐς τοὺς πολεμίους τῷ θεῷ εἰρῆσθαι τὸ χρηστήριον συλλαμβάνοντι κατὰ τὸ ὀρθόν, ἀλλʼ οὐκ ἐς Ἀθηναίους· παρασκευάζεσθαι ὦν αὐτοὺς ὡς ναυμαχήσοντας συνεβούλευε, ὡς τούτου ἐόντος τοῦ ξυλίνου τείχεος. ταύτῃ Θεμιστοκλέος ἀποφαινομένου Ἀθηναῖοι ταῦτα σφίσι ἔγνωσαν αἱρετώτερα εἶναι μᾶλλον ἢ τὰ τῶν χρησμολόγων, οἳ οὐκ ἔων ναυμαχίην ἀρτέεσθαι, τὸ δὲ σύμπαν εἰπεῖν οὐδὲ χεῖρας ἀνταείρεσθαι, ἀλλὰ ἐκλιπόντας χώρην τὴν Ἀττικὴν ἄλλην τινὰ οἰκίζειν.''. None
2.53. But whence each of the gods came to be, or whether all had always been, and how they appeared in form, they did not know until yesterday or the day before, so to speak; ,for I suppose Hesiod and Homer flourished not more than four hundred years earlier than I; and these are the ones who taught the Greeks the descent of the gods, and gave the gods their names, and determined their spheres and functions, and described their outward forms. ,But the poets who are said to have been earlier than these men were, in my opinion, later. The earlier part of all this is what the priestesses of Dodona tell; the later, that which concerns Hesiod and Homer, is what I myself say.
7.141. When the Athenian messengers heard that, they were very greatly dismayed, and gave themselves up for lost by reason of the evil foretold. Then Timon son of Androbulus, as notable a man as any Delphian, advised them to take boughs of supplication and in the guise of suppliants, approach the oracle a second time. ,The Athenians did exactly this; “Lord,” they said, “regard mercifully these suppliant boughs which we bring to you, and give us some better answer concerning our country. Otherwise we will not depart from your temple, but remain here until we die.” Thereupon the priestess gave them this second oracle: ,
18. Plato, Phaedrus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • allegorical interpretation • allegorical interpretation, stoic allegoresis of theological myths • allegory/allegorizing against theurgy • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • exegesis, allegorical • migrations of Abraham, allegorical interpretation of • pagan allegory, mysteries/cults

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 217; Cain (2013) 246; d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 228; Černušková (2016) 85

246a. κινοῦν ἢ ψυχήν, ἐξ ἀνάγκης ἀγένητόν τε καὶ ἀθάνατον ψυχὴ ἂν εἴη.'247c. νώτῳ, στάσας δὲ αὐτὰς περιάγει ἡ περιφορά, αἱ δὲ θεωροῦσι τὰ ἔξω τοῦ οὐρανοῦ. '. None
246a. that that which moves itself is nothing else than the soul,—then the soul would necessarily be ungenerated and immortal. Concerning the immortality of the soul this is enough; but about its form we must speak in the following manner. To tell what it really is would be a matter for utterly superhuman and long discourse, but it is within human power to describe it briefly in a figure; let us therefore speak in that way. We will liken the soul to the composite nature of a pair of winged horses and a charioteer. Now the horses and charioteers of the gods are all good and'247c. pass outside and take their place on the outer surface of the heaven, and when they have taken their stand, the revolution carries them round and they behold the things outside of the heaven. But the region above the heaven was never worthily sung by any earthly poet, nor will it ever be. It is, however, as I shall tell; for I must dare to speak the truth, especially as truth is my theme. For the colorless, formless, and intangible truly existing essence, with which all true knowledge is concerned, holds this region '. None
19. Plato, Statesman, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Exegesis, allegorical • allegorical interpretation • allegorical interpretation, stoic allegoresis of theological myths • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • exegesis, allegorical • pagan allegory, mysteries/cults

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022) 408, 409; Černušková (2016) 86

287a. μόνον ὡς μακρὰ τὰ λεχθέντα, ἀλλὰ καὶ προσαποφαίνειν οἴεσθαι δεῖν ὡς βραχύτερα ἂν γενόμενα τοὺς συνόντας ἀπηργάζετο διαλεκτικωτέρους καὶ τῆς τῶν ὄντων λόγῳ δηλώσεως εὑρετικωτέρους, τῶν δὲ ἄλλων καὶ πρὸς ἄλλʼ ἄττα ψόγων καὶ ἐπαίνων μηδὲν φροντίζειν μηδὲ τὸ παράπαν ἀκούειν δοκεῖν τῶν τοιούτων λόγων. καὶ τούτων μὲν ἅλις, εἰ καὶ σοὶ ταύτῃ συνδοκεῖ· πρὸς δὲ δὴ τὸν πολιτικὸν''. None
287a. but he must also show that there is ground for the belief that if they had been briefer they would have made their hearers better dialecticians and quicker to discover through reason the truth of realities. About other people and the praise or blame they direct towards other qualities in discourse, we need not be concerned; we need not even appear to hear them. But enough of this, if you feel about it as I do; so let us go back to the statesman''. None
20. Plato, Republic, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • (allegorical) interpretation of Homer • Allegory • Allegory of the Cave • Antisthenes, allegory in • Cave, allegory of the • Egypt, allegorical interpretation of • Exegesis,, Allegory • King, Allegory • Myth,, as Allegory • Plato, Allegory of the Cave in Plato • Plato, Cave Allegory • True stories, Plato's allegory of the cave • allegoresis (allegorical interpretation) • allegoresis (general), vs. allegory • allegory • allegory, • allegory, Greek terms for • allegory, definition of • allegory/allegorizing on logic • cave, allegory of (Republic) • exegesis, allegorical • marriage, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 244; Bloch (2022) 33, 158; Ebrey and Kraut (2022) 247; Erler et al (2021) 240; Estes (2020) 237; Fishbane (2003) 2; Kaplan (2015) 34; Lightfoot (2021) 174, 192, 193, 194, 195, 196, 197, 198; Mheallaigh (2014) 228, 229; Robbins et al (2017) 143; Segev (2017) 33; Struck (2016) 57; Wolfsdorf (2020) 364; d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 185, 276; Álvarez (2019) 100

378d. τὰ παιδία εὐθὺς καὶ γέρουσι καὶ γραυσί, καὶ πρεσβυτέροις γιγνομένοις καὶ τοὺς ποιητὰς ἐγγὺς τούτων ἀναγκαστέον λογοποιεῖν. Ἥρας δὲ δεσμοὺς ὑπὸ ὑέος καὶ Ἡφαίστου ῥίψεις ὑπὸ πατρός, μέλλοντος τῇ μητρὶ τυπτομένῃ ἀμυνεῖν, καὶ θεομαχίας ὅσας Ὅμηρος πεποίηκεν οὐ παραδεκτέον εἰς τὴν πόλιν, οὔτʼ ἐν ὑπονοίαις πεποιημένας οὔτε ἄνευ ὑπονοιῶν. ὁ γὰρ νέος οὐχ οἷός τε κρίνειν ὅτι τε ὑπόνοια καὶ ὃ μή, ἀλλʼ ἃ ἂν τηλικοῦτος ὢν λάβῃ ἐν ταῖς δόξαις δυσέκνιπτά 514b. πρόσθεν μόνον ὁρᾶν, κύκλῳ δὲ τὰς κεφαλὰς ὑπὸ τοῦ δεσμοῦ ἀδυνάτους περιάγειν, φῶς δὲ αὐτοῖς πυρὸς ἄνωθεν καὶ πόρρωθεν καόμενον ὄπισθεν αὐτῶν, μεταξὺ δὲ τοῦ πυρὸς καὶ τῶν δεσμωτῶν ἐπάνω ὁδόν, παρʼ ἣν ἰδὲ τειχίον παρῳκοδομημένον, ὥσπερ τοῖς θαυματοποιοῖς πρὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων πρόκειται τὰ παραφράγματα, ὑπὲρ ὧν τὰ θαύματα δεικνύασιν. 515a. καὶ ἄλλα ζῷα λίθινά τε καὶ ξύλινα καὶ παντοῖα εἰργασμένα, οἷον εἰκὸς τοὺς μὲν φθεγγομένους, τοὺς δὲ σιγῶντας τῶν παραφερόντων. 531d. μέθοδος ἐὰν μὲν ἐπὶ τὴν ἀλλήλων κοινωνίαν ἀφίκηται καὶ συγγένειαν, καὶ συλλογισθῇ ταῦτα ᾗ ἐστὶν ἀλλήλοις οἰκεῖα, φέρειν τι αὐτῶν εἰς ἃ βουλόμεθα τὴν πραγματείαν καὶ οὐκ ἀνόνητα πονεῖσθαι, εἰ δὲ μή, ἀνόνητα.' '. None
378d. that is the sort of thing that ought rather to be said by their elders, men and women, to children from the beginning and as they grow older, and we must compel the poets to keep close to this in their compositions. But Hera’s fetterings by her son and the hurling out of heaven of Hephaestus by his father when he was trying to save his mother from a beating, and the battles of the gods in Homer’s verse are things that we must not admit into our city either wrought in allegory or without allegory. For the young are not able to distinguish what is and what is not allegory, but whatever opinions are taken into the mind at that age are wont to prove 514b. able to look forward only, and prevented by the fetters from turning their heads. Picture further the light from a fire burning higher up and at a distance behind them, and between the fire and the prisoners and above them a road along which a low wall has been built, as the exhibitors of puppet-shows have partitions before the men themselves, above which they show the puppets.” “All that I see,” he said. “See also, then, men carrying past the wall 515a. and shapes of animals as well, wrought in stone and wood and every material, some of these bearers presumably speaking and others silent.” “A strange image you speak of,” he said, “and strange prisoners.” “Like to us,” I said; “for, to begin with, tell me do you think that these men would have seen anything of themselves or of one another except the shadows cast from the fire on the wall of the cave that fronted them?” “How could they,” he said, “if they were compelled 531d. of all these studies goes far enough to bring out their community and kinship with one another, and to infer their affinities, then to busy ourselves with them contributes to our desired end, and the labor taken is not lost; but otherwise it is vain.” “I too so surmise,” said he; “but it is a huge task of which you speak, Socrates.” “Are you talking about the prelude,” I said, “or what? Or do we not know that all this is but the preamble of the law itself, the prelude of the strain that we have to apprehend? For you surely do not suppose that experts in these matters are reasoner' '. None
21. Plato, Timaeus, None (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • (allegorical) interpretation of Homer • Allegory of the Cave • Allegory/Myth of the • allegorical interpretation • allegory, Timaeus’s, ontological/epistemological

 Found in books: Fowler (2014) 196; Hoenig (2018) 19; Segev (2017) 32; d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 35

39e. ὡς ὁμοιότατον ᾖ τῷ τελέῳ καὶ νοητῷ ζῴῳ πρὸς τὴν τῆς διαιωνίας μίμησιν φύσεως. ΤΙ. εἰσὶν δὴ τέτταρες, μία μὲν οὐράνιον θεῶν γένος, ἄλλη δὲ' '. None
39e. Nature thereof. Tim. And these Forms are four,—one the heavenly kind of gods;' '. None
22. Xenophon, Memoirs, 1.3.7 (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Heraclitus (the allegorist’) • allegory • pleasure (ἡδονή‎), Circe as allegory of

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 89; Wolfsdorf (2020) 374

1.3.7. οἴεσθαι δʼ ἔφη ἐπισκώπτων καὶ τὴν Κίρκην ὗς ποιεῖν τοιούτοις πολλοῖς δειπνίζουσαν· τὸν δὲ Ὀδυσσέα Ἑρμοῦ τε ὑποθημοσύνῃ καὶ αὐτὸν ἐγκρατῆ ὄντα καὶ ἀποσχόμενον τοῦ ὑπὲρ τὸν κόρον τῶν τοιούτων ἅπτεσθαι, διὰ ταῦτα οὐ γενέσθαι ὗν.''. None
1.3.7. I believe, he said in jest, it was by providing a feast of such things that Circe made swine; and it was partly by the prompting of Hermes, In Odyssey, X. 281 f. partly through his own self-restraint and avoidance of excessive indulgence in such things, that Odysseus was not turned into a pig. ''. None
23. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • allegoresis (allegorical interpretation), by Stoics • allegoresis (allegorical interpretation), of gods

 Found in books: de Jáuregui (2010) 226; Álvarez (2019) 87

24. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • allegory / allegoresis • allegory/allegoresis

 Found in books: Fowler (2014) 255; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 194

25. None, None, nan (5th cent. BCE - 4th cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Exegesis, allegorical • allegory,

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022) 394; Edmonds (2019) 298

26. None, None, nan (4th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • allegory • physical allegory

 Found in books: Iribarren and Koning (2022) 63; Kirichenko (2022) 188, 189

27. None, None, nan (3rd cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • allegory

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 213; Farrell (2021) 96

28. Cicero, On The Nature of The Gods, 2.70, 3.52 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • allegory • allegory, of mythological narratives

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 294; Frede and Laks (2001) 102, 112; Wynne (2019) 174

2.70. "Do you see therefore how from a true and valuable philosophy of nature has been evolved this imaginary and fanciful pantheon? The perversion has been a fruitful source of false beliefs, crazy errors and superstitions hardly above the level of old wives\' tales. We know what the gods look like and how old they are, their dress and their equipment, and also their genealogies, marriages and relationships, and all about them is distorted into the likeness of human frailty. They are actually represented as liable to passions and emotions — we hear of their being in love, sorrowful, angry; according to the myths they even engage in wars and battles, and that not only when as in Homer two armies and contending and the gods take sides and intervene on their behalf, but they actually fought wars of their own, for instance with the Titans and with the Giants. These stories and these beliefs are utterly foolish; they are stuffed with nonsense and absurdity of all sorts. ' "
3.52. Again, if the name of Ceres is derived from her bearing fruit, as you said, the earth itself is a goddess (and so she is believed to be, for she is the same as the deity Tellus). But if the earth is divine, so also is the sea, which you identified with Neptune; and therefore the rivers and springs too. This is borne out by the facts that Maso dedicated a Temple of Fons out of his Corsican spoils, and that the Augur's litany includes as we may see the names of Tiberinus, Spino, almo, Nodinus, and other rivers in the neighbourhood of Rome. Either therefore this process will go on indefinitely, or we shall admit none of these; nts unlimited claim of superstition will not be accepted; therefore none of these is to be accepted. "'. None
29. None, None, nan (2nd cent. BCE - 2nd cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • allegorical dream • allegory, philosophical

 Found in books: Kaplan (2015) 30; Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 31

30. Philo of Alexandria, Plant., 113 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • allegory

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 33; Niehoff (2011) 139, 147

113. And again Moses says, "Its fruit shall be impure for three days, it shall not be Eaten;" as if in fact it were customary for it to be purified for ever. We must, therefore, say that this is one of those expressions which have a concealed meaning, since the words themselves are not quite consistent with it; for the expression is an ambiguous one; for it bears one sense of this kind, the fruit shall remain for three years; and then there is a distinct injunction, "it shall not be eaten before it is purified." But there is also another meaning, "the fruit of the tree shall for three years be unpurified, and while in that state it shall not be eaten." ''. None
31. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Abraham, 2, 5 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • Philo and allegorical interpretation, on narrative and law • allegory / allegoresis

 Found in books: Hayes (2022) 466; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 93; Niehoff (2011) 171

2. But since of these things some are portions of the world, and some are accidents, and since the world is the most perfect and complete of all things, he has normally assigned the whole book to that subject. We have then examined with all the accuracy that was in our power, in what manner the creation of the world was arranged in our previous treatises; '
5. for these men have been living and rational laws; and the lawgiver has magnified them for two reasons; first, because he was desirous to show that the injunctions which are thus given are not inconsistent with nature; and, secondly, that he might prove that it is not very difficult or laborious for those who wish to live according to the laws established in these books, since the earliest men easily and spontaneously obeyed the unwritten principle of legislation before any one of the particular laws were written down at all. So that a man may very properly say, that the written laws are nothing more than a memorial of the life of the ancients, tracing back in an antiquarian spirit, the actions and reasonings which they adopted; '. None
32. Philo of Alexandria, On Husbandry, 73, 79-84, 88, 96-97, 131, 149, 157 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • Allegory • Heraclitus, allegorist • Kingly Power, allegorical interpretation of • On the Contemplative Life, allegorical interpretation of choirs by Red sea • allegory • allegory, • scripture allegorical interpretation • scripture allegorical interpretation, deeper meaning • scripture allegorical interpretation, literal interpretation

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 33, 367; Bloch (2022) 158, 159; Geljon and Runia (2019) 141, 149, 163; Kraemer (2010) 84, 94, 95, 96, 98, 107, 108, 109; Niehoff (2011) 93, 159, 178; Rosenblum (2016) 65; Sly (1990) 93, 94, 95, 99; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020) 12; Wilson (2010) 152

73. Now, the horses are appetite and passion, the one being male and the other female. On this account, the one giving itself airs, wishes to be unrestrained and free, and holds its head erect, as a male animal naturally does; and the other, not being free, but of a slavish disposition, and rejoicing in all kinds of crafty wickedness, devours the house, and destroys the house, for she is female. And the rider and charioteer is one, namely the mind. When, indeed, the mounts with prudence, he is a charioteer; but when he does so with folly, then he is but a rider. ' "
79. But the divine army is the body of virtues, the champions of the souls that love God, whom it becomes, when they see the adversary defeated, to sing a most beautiful and becoming hymn to the God who giveth the victory and the glorious triumph; and two choruses, the one proceeding from the conclave of the men, and the other from the company of the women, will stand up and sing in alternate songs a melody responsive to one another's voices. " '80. And the chorus of men will have Moses for their leader; and that of the women will be under the guidance of Miriam, "the purified outward Sense." For it is just that hymns and praises should be uttered in honour of God without any delay, both in accordance with the suggestions of the intellect and the perceptions of the outward senses, and that each instrument should be struck in harmony, I mean those both of the mind and of the outward sense, in gratitude and honour to the holy Saviour. 81. Accordingly, all the men sing the song on the sea-shore, not indeed with a blind mind, but seeing sharply, Moses being the leader of the song; and women sing, who are in good truth the most excellent of their sex, having been enrolled in the lists of the republic of virtue, Miriam being their leader. XVIII. 82. And the same hymn is sung by both the choruses, having a most admirable burden of the song which is beautiful to be sung. And it is as follows: "Let us sing unto the Lord, for he has been glorified gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the Sea." 83. For no one, if he searches ever so eagerly, can ever discover a more excellent victory than that by which the most mighty army, four-footed, restive, and proud as it was, of the passions and vices was overthrown. For the vices are four in genus, and the passions likewise are equal in number. Moreover, the mind, which is the character of them all, the one which hates virtue and loves the passions, has fallen and perished--the mind, which delighted in pleasures and appetites, and deeds of injustice and wickedness, and likewise in acts of rapine and of covetousness. 84. Very beautifully, therefore, does the lawgiver in his recommendations, teach us not to elect as a chief, a man who is a breeder of horses, thinking that such a one is altogether unsuited to exercise authority, inasmuch as he is in a frenzy about pleasures and appetites, and intolerable loves, and rages about like an unbridled and unmanageable horse. For he speaks thus, "Thou shalt not be able to set over thyself a man that is a stranger, because he is not thy brother; because he will not multiply for himself his horses, and will not turn his people towards Egypt."
88. But the question is not now about his force of cavalry, which it is necessary to collect around the rulers for the destruction of their enemies and the protection of their friends; but concerning the irrational, and immoderate, and unmanageable impetuosity of the soul, which it is desirable to check, lest it should turn all its people towards Egypt, the country of the body, and labour with all its might to render it devoted to pleasures and to the passions, rather than to the service of virtue and of God; since it follows inevitably that he who has acquired a body of cavalry for himself, must, as he said himself, proceed on the road which leads to Egypt.
96. And these things thus expressed resemble visions and prodigies; I mean the account of one dragon uttering the voice of a man and pouring his sophistries into most innocent dispositions, and deceiving the woman with plausible arguments of persuasion; and of another becoming a cause of complete safety to those who looked upon it. 97. But, in the allegorical explanations of these statements, all that bears a fabulous appearance is got rid of in a moment, and the truth is discovered in a most evident manner. The serpent, then, which appeared to the woman, that is to life depending on the outward senses and on the flesh, we pronounce to have been pleasure, crawling forward with an indirect motion, full of innumerable wiles, unable to raise itself up, ever cast down on the ground, creeping only upon the good things of the earth, seeking lurking places in the body, burying itself in each of the outward senses as in pits or caverns, a plotter against man, designing destruction to a being better than itself, eager to kill with its poisonous but painless bite. But the brazen serpent, made by Moses, we explain as being the disposition opposite to pleasure, namely, patient endurance, on which account it is that he is represented as having made it of brass, which is a very strong material.
131. Do you not see that the law pronounces the camel to be an unclean beast, because it chews the cud and does not part the Hoof. And yet, if we considered this sentence as it is expressed in its literal sense, I do not see what reason there is in it when it is interpreted; but if we look at it in its allegorical meaning, it is very clear and inevitable. '
149. For why, I should say, O most excellent man, do you not think it more proper to summon these men to follow you to the contest of war rather than the others, men who have acquired marriages, and houses, and vineyards, and all other kinds of possessions in abundance? For they will most cheerfully undergo dangers, even if they be altogether most formidable, for the sake of the safety of all these things. Since those men who have none of these things which have been enumerated will be very likely to exhibit indifference and inactivity in the war, as having no very important pledges at stake.
157. Therefore the words of the law here admit, perhaps, of all these and even of still more excuses; but that no one of those who study evil cunning, through his ingenuity in devising excuses, may feel any confidence in their validity, we will proceed with the allegory, and say that, in the first place, the law does not only think it right for men to labour for the acquisition of good things, but also for the enjoyment of those which they have already acquired; and that it looks upon happiness as consisting in the exercise of perfect virtue, which makes life safe and complete. In the second place, that the question here is not about a house, or a vineyard, or a betrothed and espoused wife, in order that he may marry her as an accepted suitor, and that he who planted the vineyard may gather the fruit thereof and press it out, and then, drinking the unmixed wine, may be gladdened in his heart, and that the man who has built a house may dwell in it; but the question is rather about the faculties of the soul, to which the beginnings, and progress, and perfection of all praiseworthy actions are owing. '. None
33. Philo of Alexandria, On The Cherubim, 4, 7-8, 44-47, 49-50, 53, 61 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • Allegory • Allegory of the Law • Egypt, allegorical interpretation of • allegory • allegory, • marriage, allegorical interpretation of • migrations of Abraham, allegorical interpretation of • reader, allegorical • sacrifice of Isaac, allegorical interpretation of • scholarship, allegorical • the three visitors, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 222, 223, 225, 226, 247, 248, 266, 328, 330; Kessler (2004) 101; Niehoff (2011) 137, 157; Sly (1990) 73, 99, 128, 132, 134, 140, 143, 145, 151, 154, 157; Wilson (2010) 171

4. And we must speak of the causes of her first flight, and then again of her second perpetual banishment. Before the names of the two were changed, that is to say, before they had been altered for the better as to the characteristics of their souls, and had been endowed with better dispositions, but while the name of the man was still Abram, or the sublime father, who delighted in the lofty philosophy which investigates the events which take place in the air, and the sublime nature of the beings which exist in heaven, which mathematical science claims for itself as the most excellent part of natural philosophy, '
7. But when Abram, instead of an inquirer into natural philosophy, became a wise man and a lover of God, having his name changed to Abraham, which being interpreted means the great father of sounds; for language when uttered sounds, and the father of language is the mind, which has attained to what is virtuous. And when Sarai instead of being my authority, had her name also changed to Sarah, the meaning of which is princess, and this change is equivalent to becoming generic and imperishable virtue, instead of virtue special and perishable: 8. then will arise the genus of happiness that is to say, Isaac; and he, when all the feminine Affections have ceased, and when the passion of joy and cheerfulness are dead, will eagerly pursue, not childish amusements, but divine objects; then too those elementary branches of instruction which bear the name of Agar, will be cast out, and their sophistical child will also be cast out, who is named Ishmael. III.
4. Who, then, is it who sows good seed in them, except the Father of the universe, the uncreated God, he who is the parent of all things? This, therefore, is the being who sows, and presently he bestows his own offspring, which he himself did sow; for God creates nothing for himself, inasmuch as he is in need of nothing, but he creates every thing for him who is able to take it.
45. And I will bring forward as a competent witness in proof of what I have said, the most holy Moses. For he introduces Sarah as conceiving a son when God beheld her by himself; but he represents her as bringing forth her son, not to him who beheld her then, but to him who was eager to attain to wisdom, and his name is called Abraham.
46. And he teaches the same lesson more plainly in the case of Leah, where he says that "God opened her Womb." But to open the womb is the especial business of the husband. And she having conceived, brought forth, not to God, for he alone is sufficient and all-abundant for himself, but to him who underwent labour for the sake of that which is good, namely, for Jacob; so that in this instance virtue received the divine seed from the great Cause of all things, but brought forth her offspring to one of her lovers, who deserved to be preferred to all her other Suitors.
7. Again, when the all-wise Isaac addressed his supplications to God, Rebecca, who is perseverance, became pregt by the agency of him who received the supplication; but Moses, who received Zipporah, that is to say, winged and sublime virtue, without any supplication or entreaty on his part, found that she conceived by no mortal man. XIV.

49. For I myself, having been initiated in the great mysteries by Moses, the friend of God, nevertheless, when subsequently I beheld Jeremiah the prophet, and learnt that he was not only initiated into the sacred mysteries, but was also a competent hierophant or expounder of them, did not hesitate to become his pupil. And he, like a man very much under the influence of inspiration, uttered an oracle in the character of God, speaking in this manner to most peaceful virtue: "Hast thou not called me as thy house, and thy father, and the husband of thy Virginity?" showing by this expression most manifestly that God is both a house, the incorporeal abode of incorporeal ideas, and the Father of all things, inasmuch as it is he who has created them; and the husband of wisdom, sowing for the race of mankind the seed of happiness in good and virgin soil. For it is fitting for God to converse with an unpolluted and untouched and pure nature, in truth and reality virgin, in a different manner from that in which we converse with such. 50. For the association of men, with a view to the procreation of children, makes virgins women. But when God begins to associate with the soul, he makes that which was previously woman now again virgin. Since banishing and destroying all the degenerate appetites unbecoming a human being, by which it had been made effeminate, he introduces in their stead genuine, and perfect, and unadulterated virtues; therefore, he will not converse with Sarah before all the habits, such as other women have, have left her, and till she has returned into the class of pure virgins. XV.
53. And one may wonder at the kind of narration which the Jewish lawgiver frequently employs in many instances, where he departs from the usual style. For after giving the history of those parents of the human race who were created out of the earth, he begins to relate the story of the first-born of human parents, concerning whom he says absolutely nothing, as if he had already frequently mentioned his name, and were not now bringing it forward for the first time. Accordingly, he simply says that "she brought forth Cain." What sort of being was he, O writer; and what have you ever said about him before of either great of small importance?
61. And she, the first moment that she was born, pours forth abundant light in a flood into the mind through each of her subordinate parts, as through so many holes, and having dissipated the previously existing mist, enabled it like a master to discern the natures of bodies at a distance and with perfect clearness; '. None
34. Philo of Alexandria, On The Confusion of Tongues, 2-4, 9, 14-15, 190 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • Allegory • Exegesis, allegorical • Kingly Power, Lot omitted from allegory of • Kingly Power, allegorical interpretation of • Philos colleagues, allegorical • allegorical interpretation, Philonic • allegory • allegory/-ies • grammatical archive, commentarial strategies, allegory (ἀλληγορία) • reader, Jewish allegorical • reader, of Allegorical Commentary • scripture allegorical interpretation • scripture allegorical interpretation, deeper meaning • scripture allegorical interpretation, literal interpretation

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 365; Bloch (2022) 159, 169; Boulluec (2022) 202; Geljon and Runia (2013) 8; Geljon and Runia (2019) 189; Niehoff (2011) 93, 135, 142, 156; Ward (2022) 38, 50; Černušková (2016) 115

2. Those who are discontented at the constitution under which their fathers have lived, being always eager to blame and to accuse the laws, being impious men, use these and similar instances as foundations for their impiety, saying, "Are ye even now speaking boastfully concerning your precepts, as if they contained the rules of truth itself? For, behold, the books which you call the sacred scriptures do also contain fables, at which you are accustomed to laugh, when you hear others relating to them." 3. And what is the use of devoting our leisure to collecting the fables interspersed in so many places throughout the history of the giving of the law, as if we had especial leisure for the consideration of calumnies, and as if it were not better to attend merely to what is under our hands and before us? ' "4. Certainly, this one fable resembles that which is composed about the Aloadae, who the greatest and most glorious of all poets, Homer, says, had in contemplation to heap the three loftiest mountains on one another, and to build them into one mass, hoping that by this means there would be a road for them, as they were desirous to mount up to heaven, and that by these mountains it would be easy for them to be raised to the height of the sky. And the verses of Homer on this subject are these:-- High on Olympus' top they strove to raise Gigantic Ossa; and on Ossa's heights To place the leafy Pelion, that heaven Might thus become accessible. But Olympus and Ossa and Pelion are the names of mountains. " '
9. But he who brings his account nearer the truth, has distinguished between the rational and irrational animals, so that he testifies that identity of language belong to men alone: and this also, as they say, is a fabulous story. And indeed they affirm, that the separation of language into an infinite variety of dialects, which Moses calls the confusion of tongues, was effected as a remedy for sins, in order that men might not be able to cooperate in common for deeds of wickedness through understanding one another; and that they might not, when they were in a manner deprived of all means of communication with one another, be able with united energies to apply themselves to the same actions.
14. Those, then, who put these things together, and cavil at them, and raise malicious objections, will be easily refuted separately by those who can produce ready solutions of all such questions as arise from the plain words of the law, arguing in a spirit far from contentious, and not encountering them by sophisms drawn from any other source, but following the connection of natural consequences, which does not permit them to stumble, but which easily puts aside any impediments that arise, so that the course of their arguments proceeds without any interruption or mishap. '15. We say then that by the expression, that "all the earth had but one pronunciation and one language," is intimated a symphony of great and unspeakable evils, which cities have inflicted upon cities, nations upon nations, and countries upon countries, and through which men not only wrong one another, but also behave with impiety towards God, and yet these things are the iniquities if many; but let us consider the ineffable multitude of evils which proceed from each individual man, and especially when he is under the influence of that ill-timed, and inharmonious, and unmusical agreement. VI. 1
90. This, now, is our opinion upon and interpretation of this passage. But they who follow only what is plain and easy, think that what is here intended to be recorded, is the origin of the languages of the Greeks and barbarians, whom, without blaming them (for, perhaps, they also put a correct interpretation on the transaction), I would exhort not to be content with stopping at this point, but to proceed onward to look at the passage in a figurative way, considering that the mere words of the scriptures are, as it were, but shadows of bodies, and that the meanings which are apparent to investigation beneath them, are the real things to be pondered upon. '. None
35. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 9-11, 20, 35-36, 39, 49-50, 63, 100-106, 111-113, 124 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • Allegory, allegorical exegesis • Exegesis, allegorical • Kingly Power, allegorical interpretation of • allegorical interpretation • allegorical interpretation, stoic allegoresis of theological myths • allegorical interpretation, the laws of • allegorists • allegory • allegory/-ies • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • dispute between Abraham and Lot, allegorical interpretation of • exegesis, allegorical • migrations of Abraham, allegorical interpretation of • sacrifice of Isaac, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 216, 224, 330, 345, 366; Boulluec (2022) 202; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 435; Osborne (2010) 90; Sly (1990) 151, 154, 157, 175; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020) 10; Černušková (2016) 104, 115

9. On this account he does not say that Sarah did not bring forth at all, but only that she did not bring forth for him, for Abraham. For we are not as yet capable of becoming the fathers of offspring of virtue, unless we first of all have a connection with her handmaiden; and the handmaiden of wisdom is the encyclical knowledge of music and logic, arrived at by previous instruction. 10. For as in houses there are vestibules placed in front of staircases, and as in cities there are suburbs, through which one must pass in order to enter into the cities; so also the encyclical branches of instruction are placed in front of virtue, for they are the road which conducts to her. '11. And as you must know that it is common for there to be great preludes to great propositions, and the greatest of all propositions is virtue, for it is conversant about the most important of all materials, namely, about the universal life of man; very naturally, therefore, that will not employ any short preface, but rather it will use as such, grammar, geometry, astronomy, rhetoric, music, and all the other sorts of contemplation which proceed in accordance with reason; of which Hagar, the handmaid of Sarah, is an emblem, as we will proceed to show.
20. Now the first characteristics of the intermediate instruction are represented by two symbols, the race and the name. As to race, the handmaiden is an Egyptian, and her name is Hagar; and this name, being interpreted, means "emigration." For it follows of necessity that the man who delights in the encyclical contemplations, and who joins himself as a companion to varied learning, is as such enrolled under the banners of the earthly and Egyptian body; and that he stands in need of eyes in order to see and to read, and of ears in order to attend and to hear, and of his other external senses, in such a manner as to be able to unfold each of the objects of the external sense.
35. Why was this? Because the virtue acquired by teaching, which Abraham pursues, requires many things, both such as are legitimate according to prudence, and such also as are illegitimate according to the exegetical contemplations of preliminary instruction. And there is also a virtue which is made perfect by practice, to which Jacob appears to have been devoted; for exercises consist of many and various dogmas and doctrines, some leading and others following, some leading the way, and others arriving later, and bringing at one time more serious, and at other times lighter labours. 36. But the self-instructed race, of which Isaac was a partaker, the excellent country of the mastery over the passions, has received as its share a nature simple, and unmixed, and unalloyed, standing in no need of either practice or instruction in which there is need of the concubine sciences, and not only of the citizen wives; for when God has showered down from above that most requisite benefit of knowledge, self-taught, and having no need of a preceptor, it would be impossible any longer for a man to live with the slavish and concubine arts, having a desire for bastard doctrines as his children. For the man who has arrived at this honour, is inscribed as the husband of the mistress and princess virtue; and she is called in the Greek language, perseverance, but among the Hebrews her name is Rebekkah. 3
9. Now recollection only comes in the second rank after memory, as inferior to it; and he who recollects is inferior to him who remembers; for the latter resembles a man in an uninterrupted state of good health, but the other is like a man recovering from a disease, for forgetfulness is a disease of the memory; 4
9. for he does not depart and quit his abode in the Chaldaean country, that is to say, he does not separate himself from the speculations concerning astronomy; honouring that which is created rather than him who created it, and the world in preference to God; or rather, I should say, looking on the world itself as an absolute independent God, and not as the work of an absolute God. X. 50. And he takes Milcah for his wife, not being some queen who by the dispensations of fortune governs some nation of men, or some city, but only one who bears a common name, the same as here. For, just as a person would not be widely wrong who called the world, as being the most excellent of all created things, the king of the objects of the external sense; so, also, one may call the knowledge which is conversant about the heaven, which knowledge those who study astronomy and the Chaldaeans possess in an eminent degree, the queen of all the sciences.
63. The connection therefore between the reason which is devoted to contemplation and those powers which are citizen wives, or concubines, has here been explained to the best of my power. We must now proceed to investigate what follows, and endeavour to frame a proper connection for an argument. "Abraham," says the sacred historian, "listened to the voice of Sarah." For it is necessary for him who is a learner to be obedient to the injunctions of virtue:
100. Very beautifully, therefore, and at the same time most unavoidably, does the sacred historian tell us in the fashion of an incidental narrative, when the memorial of that heavenly and divine food was consecrated in the golden urn, that "gomer was the tenth part of three Measures." For in us men there appear to be three measures, the outward senses, and speech, and mind. The outward sense being the measure of the objects of outward sense, speech being the measure of nouns and verbs, and of whatever is said; and the mind being the measure of those things which can only be perceived by the intellect. 101. We must therefore offer first-fruits of each of these three measures as a sacred tenth, in order that our powers of speaking, and of feeling, and of comprehending, may be seen to be irreproachable and sound, in reference to and in connection with God. For this is the true and just measure, and the things that relate to ourselves are false and unjust measures. XIX. 102. Very appropriately, therefore, in the case of sacrifices also, the tenth part of the measure of fine wheat flour will be brought upon the altar, together with the victims. But the number of nine, which is what is left of the number ten, will remain among us. 103. And the daily sacrifice of the priests corresponds also to these facts. For it is expressly commanded to them to offer every day the tenth part of an Ephah of fine wheat flour. For, passing over the ninth number, the god who was only discernible by the outward senses and by opinion, they learnt to worship the tenth, who is the only living and true God. 104. For the world had nine portions assigned to it, eight in heaven, namely the portion of the fixed stars and the seven planets which are all borne forward in the same arrangement, and the ninth being the earth in conjunction with the air and water. For of these things there is only one bond and connection, though they admit all kinds of various changes and alterations. 105. Therefore men in general have paid honours to these nine portions, and to the world which is compounded of them. But the perfect man honours only that being who is above the nine, and who is their creator, being the tenth portion, namely God. For having examined into the whole of his works, he has felt a love for the creator of them, and he has become anxious to be his suppliant and servant. On this account the priest offers up a tenth every day to the tenth, the only and everlasting God. 106. This is, to speak properly, the spiritual passover of the soul, the passing over of all the passions and of every object of the outward senses to the tenth, which is the proper object of the intellect, and which is divine. For it is said in the scripture: "On the tenth day of this month let each of them take a sheep according to his house; in order that from the tenth, there may be consecrated to the tenth, that is to God, the sacrifices which have been preserved in the soul, which is illuminated in two portions out of the three, until it is entirely changed in every part, and becomes a heavenly brilliancy like a full moon, at the height of its increase at the end of the second week, and so is able not only to guard, but even to sacrifice uninjured and faultless improvements, that is to say, propitiations.
111. And the son of the man who was devoted to learning, learnt a very beautiful doctrine when he went on that admirable embassy, asking in marriage for the self-taught wise man that most appropriate sister, namely, perseverance. For he takes ten camels, a reminder of the number ten, that is to say, of right instruction, from among many and, indeed, infinite memorials of the Lord. 112. He also takes of his good things, evidently not silver, nor any gold, nor any other of those things which consist of perishable materials; for Moses never gave the favourable apellation of good to any of these things, but those genuine good things which are the only good things of the soul; and those he appropriates for the use of his journey, and for his purposes of traffic, namely, instruction, improvement, study, desire, admiration, enthusiasm, prophecy, and the love of doing good actions; 113. to which objects, a man who devotes all his care, and who practices the actions calculated to ensure their attainment, when he is about, as it were, to anchor in a safe harbour after having been tossed in a stormy sea, will take two earrings, each of a drachm in weight, and two golden armlets of ten shekels weight of gold for the arms of her who is sought in Marriage. Oh the divine ornament! We may understand that the drachm means the faculty of hearing, and the unbroken unit, and the attractive nature; for it is not becoming for hearing to have leisure to attend to anything except to that speech alone which sets forth in a suitable manner the virtues of the one and only God. And the ten shekels weight of gold mean attempts at works; for the actions, in accordance with wisdom, are established in perfect numbers, and every one of them is more precious than gold. XXI.
124. But there are times when virtue, as if making experiment of those who come to her as pupils, to see how much eagerness they have, does not come forward to meet them, but veiling her face like Tamar, sits down in the public road, giving room to those who are traveling along the road to look upon her as a harlot, in order that those who are over curious on the subject may take off her veil and disclose her features, and may behold the untouched, and unpolluted, and most exquisite, and truly virgin beauty of modesty and chastity. '. None
36. Philo of Alexandria, On The Decalogue, 1, 52 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • Allegory • Hellenistic Judaism, allegorists • migrations of Abraham, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Bar Kochba (1997) 173; Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 189, 220; Sly (1990) 181

1. I have in my former treatises set forth the lives of Moses and the other wise men down to his time, whom the sacred scriptures point out as the founders and leaders of our nation, and as its unwritten laws; I will now, as seems pointed out by the natural order of my subject, proceed to describe accurately the character of those laws which are recorded in writing, not omitting any allegorical meaning which may perchance be concealed beneath the plain language, from that natural love of more recondite and laborious knowledge which is accustomed to seek for what is obscure before, and in preference to, what is evident. '
52. But we must consider, with all the accuracy possible, each of these oracles separately, not looking upon any one of them as superfluous. Now the best beginning of all living beings is God, and of all virtues, piety. And we must, therefore, speak of these two principles in the first place. There is an error of no small importance which has taken possession of the greater portion of mankind concerning a subject which was likely by itself, or, at least, above all other subjects, to have been fixed with the greatest correctness and truth in the mind of every one; '. None
37. Philo of Alexandria, On Drunkenness, 111 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • Egypt, allegorical interpretation of • On the Contemplative Life, allegorical interpretation of choirs by Red sea • marriage, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 238; Kraemer (2010) 84; Rowland (2009) 540

111. And Moses indeed, in the same manner, when he saw the king of Egypt, that arrogant man with his six hundred chariots, that is to say, with the six carefully arranged motions of the organic body, and with the governors who were appointed to manage them, who, while none of all created things are by nature calculated to stand still, think nevertheless that they may look upon everything as solidly settled and admitting of no alteration; when he, I say, saw that this king had met with the punishment due to his impiety, and that the people, who were practisers of virtue, had escaped from the attacks of their enemies, and had been saved by mighty power beyond their expectation, he then sang a hymn to God as a just and true judge, beginning a hymn in a manner most becoming and most exactly suited to the events that had happened, because the horse and his rider he had thrown into the Sea;" having utterly destroyed that mind which rode upon the irrational impulses of that four-footed and restive animal, passion, and had become an ally, and defender, and protector of the seeing soul, so as to bestow upon it complete safety. ''. None
38. Philo of Alexandria, On Flight And Finding, 45, 51-52, 119, 121-122, 149-153, 182-183, 186, 192, 200 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Philo • Egypt, allegorical interpretation of • Exegesis, allegorical • allegorical interpretation, reality and • allegory • dispute between Abraham and Lot, allegorical interpretation of • five, the number, allegorical interpretation of • marriage, allegorical interpretation of • migrations of Abraham, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 186, 187, 219, 225, 245, 345; Bloch (2022) 104, 105, 157; Boulluec (2022) 202; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 227; Sly (1990) 87, 88, 117, 154, 157, 175; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020) 10

45. for the means of life being given to a bad man, inflate and raise up to great height the mind which is devoid of wisdom, which is called the Syrian; but if they are bestowed on a lover of instruction, then they make the mind inclined to abide by the steady and solid doctrines of virtue and excellence. This is the brother of Rebekkah, that is to say, of perseverance, and he dwells in Charran, which name, being interpreted, means "holes," a symbol of the external senses; for he who is still moving about in mortal life has need of the organs of the external senses.
51. And he calls Bethuel the father of Rebekkah. How, then, can the daughter of God, namely, wisdom, be properly called a father? is it because the name indeed of wisdom is feminine but the sex masculine? For indeed all the virtues bear the names of women, but have the powers and actions of full-grown men, since whatever is subsequent to God, even if it be the most ancient of all other things, still has only the second place when compared with that omnipotent Being, and appears not so much masculine as feminine, in accordance with its likeness to the other creatures; for as the male always has the precedence, the female falls short, and is inferior in rank. 52. We say, therefore, without paying any attention to the difference here existing in the names, that wisdom, the daughter of good, is both male and a father, and that it is that which sows the seeds of, and which begets learning in, souls, and also education, and knowledge, and prudence, all honourable and praiseworthy things. And from this source it is that Jacob the practiser of wisdom, seeks to procure a wife for himself; for from what other quarter she he seek a partner rather than from the house of wisdom? and where else should he find an opinion free from all reproach, with which to live all his life? ... X.
119. Having now, therefore, said what was proper on the subject of fugitives, we will proceed with what follows in the regular order of the context. In the first place it is said, "The angel of the Lord found her in the Way," pitying the soul which out of modesty had voluntarily committed the danger of wandering about, and very nearly becoming a conductor of her return to opinion void of error. '
121. Those, then, who have no desire for either discovery or investigation have shamefully debased their reason by ignorance and indifference, and though they had it in their power to see acutely, they have become blind. Thus he says that "Lot\'s wife turning backwards became a pillar of Salt;" not here inventing a fable, but pointing out the proper nature of the event. 122. For whoever despises his teacher, and under the influence of an innate and habitual indolence forsakes what is in front of him, by means of which it may be in his power to see, and to hear, and to exert his other powers, so as to form a judgment in things of nature, and turns his head round so as to keep his eyes on what is behind him, that man has an admiration for blindness in the affairs of life, as well as in the parts of the body, and becomes a pillar, like a lifeless and senseless stone.
149. Nor does he, who is sent forth to search for that virtue which is invincible and embittered against the ridiculous pursuits of men, by name Tamar, find her. And this failure of his is strictly in accordance with nature; for we read in the scripture, "And Judah sent a kid in the hands of his shepherd, the Adullamite, to receive back his pledge from the woman, and he found her not: and he asked the men of the place, Where is the harlot who was in Ae by the wayside? and they said, There is no harlot in this place. And he returned back to Judah, and said unto him, I have not found her, and the men of the place say that there is no harlot there. And Judah said, Let her keep the things, only let me not be made a laughing-stock, I because I have sent the kid, and you because you have not found Her." Oh, the admirable trial! oh, the temptation becoming sacred things! 150. Who gave the pledge? Why the mind, forsooth, which was eager to purchase the most excellent possession, piety towards God, by three pledges or symbols, namely a ring, and an armlet, and a staff, signifying confidence and sure faith; the connection and union of reason with life, and of life with reason; and upright and unchanging instruction on which it is profitable to rely. 1
51. Therefore he examines the question as to whether he had properly given this pledge. What, then, is the examination? To throw down some bait having an attractive power, such as glory, or riches, or bodily health, or something similar, and to see to which it will incline, like the balance in a scale; for if there is any inclination to any one of these things the pledge is not sure. Therefore he sent a kid in order to recover back his pledge from the woman, not because he had determined by all means to recover it, but only in the case of her being unworthy to retain it. 152. And when will this be? when she willingly exchanges what is of importance for what is indifferent, preferring spurious to genuine good. Now the genuine good things are faith, the connection and union of words with deeds, and the rule of right instruction, as on the other hand the evils are, faithlessness, a want of such connection between words and deeds, and ignorance. And spurious goods are those which depend upon appetite devoid of reason; 153. for "when he sought her he did not find her;" for what is good is hard to be found, or, one may even say, is utterly impossible to be found in a confused life. And if one inquires whether the soul, which is a harlot, is in every place of virtue, one will be distinctly told that it is not, and that it has not been previously; for a common, unchaste, and wanton, and utterly shameless woman, selling the flower of her beauty at a low price, and making her external parts both bright with purifications and washings, but leaving her inward parts unclean and vile, and being like pictures painted with colours about the face because of the absence of all natural beauty; she who pursues that promiscuous evil called the vice of having many husbands, as if it were a good, coveting polygamy, and laying herself open for infinite variety, and being mocked and insulted at the same time by ten thousand bodies and things, "is not there."
182. The domit part of us, like a fountain, pours forth many powers through the veins of the earth as it were, till they reach the organs of the external senses, that is to say, the eyes, and ears, and nostrils, and other organs; and these organs in every animal are situated about the head and face. Therefore, the face, which is the domit portion of the soul; making the spirit, which is calculated for seeing, reach to the eyes, that which has the power of hearing reach the ears, the spirit of smelling reach the nostrils, that of taste the mouth, and causing that of touch to pervade the whole surface of the body. XXXIII. 183. There are also many various fountains of instruction, by means of which most nutritious reasonings have sprung up like the trunks of palm-trees; "for," says Moses, "they came to Aileim, and in Aileim there were twelve fountains of water and seventy trunks of palm-trees. And they pitched their tents there by the side of the Water." The name Aileim is interpreted to mean "vestibules," a symbol of the approach to virtue. For as vestibules are the beginning of a house, so also are the encyclical preliminary branches of instruction the beginning of virtue,
186. He also celebrates the number seven, multiplied by the number ten; at one time speaking of the seventy palm-trees by the fountains, and in other passages he speaks of the elders, who were only seventy in number, to whom the divine and prophetical Spirit was vouchsafed. And again, it is the same number of heifers which are sacrificed at the solemn festival of the feast of tabernacles, in a regular and proper division and order, for they are not all sacrificed together, but in seven days, the beginning being made with thirteen bulls; for thus, by every day subtracting one till they come to the number seven, the arranged number of seventy is properly completed.
192. This is that great deluge in which "the cataracts of heaven were opened"58--by heaven I here mean the mind--and the fountains of the bottomless pit were revealed; that is to say, of the outward sense; for in this way alone is the soul overwhelmed, iniquities being broken up and poured over it from above, as from the heaven of the mind, and the passions irrigating it from below, as from the earth of the outward senses.
200. Then they dig, not as the wise men Abraham and Isaac did, making wells, but cisterns, which have no good nutritious stream belonging to and proceeding from themselves, but requiring an influx from without, which must proceed from instruction. While the teachers are always pouring into the ears of their disciples all kinds of doctrines and speculations of science altogether, admonishing them to retain them in their minds, and to preserve them when faithfully committed to memory. '. None
39. Philo of Alexandria, On Giants, 7, 17, 28-29, 31, 43-44, 53, 60, 65, 67 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • Allegory • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Philo • Egypt, allegorical interpretation of • Kingly Power, Lot omitted from allegory of • Kingly Power, allegorical interpretation of • allegorical interpretation, reality and • allegory • marriage, allegorical interpretation of • the three visitors, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 245, 246, 267, 365; Geljon and Runia (2013) 265; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 214, 215, 216, 227; Sly (1990) 99; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020) 10, 12, 19

7. And let no one suppose, that what is here stated is a fable, for it is necessarily true that the universe must be filled with living things in all its parts, since every one of its primary and elementary portions contains its appropriate animals and such as are consistent with its nature; --the earth containing terrestrial animals, the sea and the rivers containing aquatic animals, and the fire such as are born in the fire (but it is said, that such as these last are found chiefly in Macedonia), and the heaven containing the stars: 1
7. And the expression used by the writer of the psalm, in the following verse, testifies to the truth of my assertion, for he says, "He sent upon them the fury of His wrath, anger, and rage, and affliction, and he sent evil angels among Them." These are the wicked who, assuming the name of angels, not being acquainted with the daughters of right reason, that is with the sciences and the virtues, but which pursue the mortal descendants of mortal men, that is the pleasures, which can confer no genuine beauty, which is perceived by the intellect alone, but only a bastard sort of elegance of form, by means of which the outward sense is beguiled; '
28. On which account, it is possible that the spirit of God may remain in the soul, but that it should remain for ever is impossible, as we have said. And why need we wonder? since there is no other thing whatever, the possession of which, is stable and lasting; but mortal affairs are continually wavering in the scale, and inclining first to one side, and then to the other, and liable at different times to different changes. 29. And the greatest cause of our ignorance is the flesh, and our inseparable connection with the flesh. And this, Moses represents God as admitting, where he says that, "Because they are flesh," the spirit of God cannot abide in them. And yet marriage and the rearing of children, and the furnishing of necessary things, and ingloriousness conjoined with a want of money and business, both private and public, and a countless number of other things cause wisdom to waste away, before it begins to flourish vigorously.
31. For those souls which are devoid of flesh and of the body, remaining undisturbed in the theatre of the universe, occupied in seeing and hearing divine things, of which an insatiable desire has seized them, enjoy a pleasure to which no one offers any interruption. But those which bear the heavy burden of the flesh, being weighed down and oppressed by it, are unable to look upwards to the revolutions of the heaven, but being dragged downwards, have their necks forcibly pressed to the ground like so many quadrupeds. VIII.
43. Now it is well not to desert the ranks of God, in which it follows inevitably that all who are arrayed must be most excellent, and it would be shameful to quit those ranks, to fly to unmanly and effeminate pleasure, which injures its friends and benefits its enemies, for its nature is a very singular one; for all those to whom it chooses to give a share of its special advantages, it at once chastises and injures; and those whom it thinks fit to deprive of its good things, it benefits in the greatest possible degree, for it injures them when it gives, but it benefits them when it takes away. 44. If therefore, O my soul, any one of the temptations of pleasure invites you, turn yourself away, and directing your views towards another point, look at the genuine beauty of virtue, and having surveyed it, remain, until a desire for it has sunk into you, and draws you to it, like a magnet, and immediately leads you and attaches you to that which has become the object of your desire. XI.
53. As, therefore, among men in general, that is to say, among those who propose to themselves many objects in life, the divine spirit does not remain, even though it may abide among them for a very short time, but it remains among one species of men alone, namely, among those who, having put off all the things of creation, and the inmost veil and covering of false opinion, come to God in their unconcealed and naked minds.
60. Therefore he utters no fable whatever respecting the giants; but he wishes to set this fact before your eyes, that some men are born of the earth, and some are born of heaven, and some are born of God: those are born of the earth, who are hunters after the pleasures of the body, devoting themselves to the enjoyment and fruition of them, and being eager to provide themselves with all things that tend to each of them. Those again are born of heaven who are men of skill and science and devoted to learning; for the heavenly portion of us is our mind, and the mind of every one of those persons who are born of heaven studies the encyclical branches of education and every other art of every description, sharpening, and exercising, and practising itself, and rendering itself acute in all those matters which are the objects of intellect.
65. But the sons of earth removing their minds from contemplation, and becoming deserters so as to fly to the lifeless and immovable nature of the flesh, "for they two became one Flesh," as the lawgiver says, adulterated the excellent coinage, and abandoned the better rank which had been allotted to them as their own, and deserted to the worse rank, which was contrary to their original nature, Nimrod being the first to set the example of this desertion; 6
7. and it would be consistent in the truth to say that, according to the most holy Moses, the bad man, as being one destitute of a home and of a city, without any settled habitation, and a fugitive, is naturally a deserter also; but the good man is the firmest of allies. Having said thus much at present, and dwelt sufficiently on the subject of the giants, we will now proceed to what comes next in our subject, which is this. '. None
40. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 45, 69, 82, 85, 89-93, 176-178, 182-183, 211, 224-225 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • Allegorical Interpretation • Allegory • Allegory, allegorical exegesis • Exegesis, allegorical • Hellenistic Judaism, allegorists • Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation • allegorical interpretation, the laws of • allegory • allegory / allegoresis • allegory, allegorists • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • migrations of Abraham, allegorical interpretation of • reader, allegorical • the three visitors, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Bar Kochba (1997) 174; Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 216, 221, 225, 263, 268, 269; Boulluec (2022) 143; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 203; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 98; Najman (2010) 105, 210; Niehoff (2011) 175; Petropoulou (2012) 150; Rosenblum (2016) 67, 68; Sly (1990) 154, 175, 195; Witter et al. (2021) 177, 179; de Jáuregui (2010) 350; Černušková (2016) 114

45. Do not then fancy that this is spoken of the death of the all-wise Moses, as some inconsiderate persons believe; for it is a piece of folly to think that slaves should have the country of virtue assigned to them in preference to the friends of God.
69. for as the reptile with many feet and that with no feet at all, though they are exactly opposite to one another in the race of reptiles, are both pronounced unclean, so also the opinion which denies any God, and that which worships a multitude of Gods, though quite opposite in the soul, are both profane. And of proof of this is that the law banishes them both "from the sacred Assembly," forbidding the atheistical opinion, as a eunuch and mutilated person, to come into the assembly; and the polytheistic, inasmuch as it prohibits any one born of a harlot from either hearing or speaking in the assembly. For he who worships no God at all is barren, and he who worships a multitude is the son of a harlot, who is in a state of blindness as to his true father, and who on this account is figuratively spoken of as having many fathers, instead of one. XIII.
82. Therefore it is necessary for any one who is about to enter into a contest of sophistry, to pay attention to all his words with such vigorous earnestness, that he may not only be able to escape from the manoeuvres of his adversaries, but may also in his turn attack them, and get the better of them, both in skill and in power.
85. Therefore "the rod of Aaron swallowed up their Rods," as the holy scripture tells us. For all sophistical reasons are swallowed up and destroyed by the varied skilfulness of nature; so that they are forced to confess that what is done is "the finger of God," an expression equivalent to confessing the truth of the divine scripture which asserts that sophistry is always subdued by wisdom. For the sacred account tells us that "the tables" on which the commandments were engraved as on a pillar, "were also written by the finger of God." On which account the conjurors were not able to stand before Moses, but fell down as in a wrestling match, being overcome by the superior strength of their antagonist. XVI.
89. For there are some men, who, looking upon written laws as symbols of things appreciable by the intellect, have studied some things with superfluous accuracy, and have treated others with neglectful indifference; whom I should blame for their levity; for they ought to attend to both classes of things, applying themselves both to an accurate investigation of invisible things, and also to an irreproachable observance of those laws which are notorious. 90. But now men living solitarily by themselves as if they were in a desert, or else as if they were mere souls unconnected with the body, and as if they had no knowledge of any city, or village, or house, or in short of any company of men whatever, overlook what appears to the many to be true, and seek for plain naked truth by itself, whom the sacred scripture teaches not to neglect a good reputation, and not to break through any established customs which divine men of greater wisdom than any in our time have enacted or established. 91. For although the seventh day is a lesson to teach us the power which exists in the uncreated God, and also that the creature is entitled to rest from his labours, it does not follow that on that account we may abrogate the laws which are established respecting it, so as to light a fire, or till land, or carry burdens, or bring accusations, or conduct suits at law, or demand a restoration of a deposit, or exact the repayment of a debt, or do any other of the things which are usually permitted at times which are not days of festival. 92. Nor does it follow, because the feast is the symbol of the joy of the soul and of its gratitude towards God, that we are to repudiate the assemblies ordained at the periodical seasons of the year; nor because the rite of circumcision is an emblem of the excision of pleasures and of all the passions, and of the destruction of that impious opinion, according to which the mind has imagined itself to be by itself competent to produce offspring, does it follow that we are to annul the law which has been enacted about circumcision. Since we shall neglect the laws about the due observance of the ceremonies in the temple, and numbers of others too, if we exclude all figurative interpretation and attend only to those things which are expressly ordained in plain words. 93. But it is right to think that this class of things resembles the body, and the other class the soul; therefore, just as we take care of the body because it is the abode of the soul, so also must we take care of the laws that are enacted in plain terms: for while they are regarded, those other things also will be more clearly understood, of which these laws are the symbols, and in the same way one will escape blame and accusation from men in general.
176. And "Abraham," says Moses, "was seventy-five years of age, when he departed out of Charren." Now concerning the number of seventy-five years (for this contains a calculation corresponding to what has been previously advanced,) we will enter into an accurate examination hereafter. But first of all we will examine what Charran is, and what is meant by the departure from this country to go and live in another. '177. Now it is not probable that any one of those persons who are acquainted with the law are ignorant that Abraham had previously migrated from Chaldaea when he came to live in Charran. But after his father died he then departed from this land of Chaldaea, so that he has now migrated from two different places. 178. What then shall we say? The Chaldeans appear beyond all other men to have devoted themselves to the study of astronomy and of genealogies; adapting things on earth to things sublime, and also adapting the things of heaven to those on earth, and like people who, availing themselves of the principles of music, exhibit a most perfect symphony as existing in the universe by the common union and sympathy of the parts for one another, which though separated as to place, are not disunited in regard of kindred. 1
82. On which account even though it may be said somewhere in the declaration of the law, "God is in the heaven above, and in the earth beneath," let no one suppose that God is here spoken of according to his essence. For the living God contains everything, and it is impiety to suppose that he is contained by any thing, but what is meant is, that his power according to which he made, and arranged, and established the universe, is both in heaven and earth. 183. And this, to speak correctly, is goodness, which has driven away from itself envy, which hates virtue and detests what is good, and which generates those virtues by which it has brought all existing things into existence and exhibited them as they are. Since the living God is indeed conceived of in opinion everywhere, but in real truth he is seen nowhere; so that divine scripture is most completely true in which it is said, "Here am I," speaking of him who cannot be shown as if he were being shown, of "him who is invisible as if he were visible, before thou Existedst." For he proceeds onward before the created universe, and outside of it, and not contained or borne onward in any of the things whose existence began after his. XXXIII.
211. What, then, are the means by which it can be tamed and pacified? Having, as far as appearance goes, assumed another form and another character, follow it, first of all, wherever it pleases, and, opposing it in nothing, admit that you have the same objects of love and hatred with itself, for by these means it will be rendered propitious; and, when it is pacified, then you may lay aside your pretence, and, not expecting any longer to suffer any evil at its hand, you may with indifference return to the care of your own objects;
224. For he who bears the same name as this place, namely Sichem, the son of Hamor, that is, of irrational nature; for the name Hamor means "an ass;" giving himself up to folly and being bred up with shamelessness and audacity, infamous man that he was, attempted to pollute and to defile the judicial faculties of the mind; if the pupils and friends of wisdom, Sichem and Levi, had not speedily come up, having made the defences of their house safe, and destroyed those who were still involved in the labour devoted to pleasure and to the indulgence of the passions and uncircumcised. For though there was a sacred scripture that, "There should be no harlot among the daughters of the seer, Israel," these men, having ravished a virgin soul, hoped to escape notice; 225. for there is never a scarcity of avengers against those who violate treaties; but even though some persons fancy there may be, they will only fancy it, and will in the reality of the fact be proved to entertain a false opinion. For justice hates the wicked, and is implacable, and a relentless avenger of all unrighteous actions, overthrowing the ranks of those who defile virtue, and when they are overthrown, then again the soul, which before appeared to be defiled, changes and returns to its virgin state. I say, which appeared to be defiled, because, in fact, it never was defiled; for of involuntary accidents that which affects the patient is not in reality his suffering, just as what is done by a person who does wrong unintentionally, the wrong is not really his action. '. None
41. Philo of Alexandria, On The Change of Names, 7, 60-62, 77-80, 131-132, 134, 143 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • Allegory • Egypt, allegorical interpretation of • allegorical interpretation • allegorical interpretation, stoic allegoresis of theological myths • allegorists • allegory • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • exegesis, allegorical • marriage, allegorical interpretation of • migrations of Abraham, allegorical interpretation of • sacrifice of Isaac, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 222, 225, 226, 243, 248, 328, 330; Kessler (2004) 101; Niehoff (2011) 126, 154, 159; Sly (1990) 151, 152, 165, 175, 177; Černušková (2016) 104

7. Do not, however, think that the living God, he who is truly living, is ever seen so as to be comprehended by any human being; for we have no power in ourselves to see any thing, by which we may be able to conceive any adequate notion of him; we have no external sense suited to that purpose (for he is not an object which can be discerned by the outward sense), nor any strength adequate to it: therefore, Moses, the spectator of the invisible nature, the man who really saw God (for the sacred scriptures say that he entered "into the Darkness," by which expression they mean figuratively to intimate the invisible essence), having investigated every part of every thing, sought to see clearly the much-desired and only God;
60. for it is said in the scripture, "Thy name shall not be called Abram, but Abraham shall thy name be." Some, then, of those persons who are fond of disputes, and who are always eager to affix a stain upon what is irreproachable, on things as well as bodies, and who wage an implacable war against sacred things, while they calumniate everything which does not appear to preserve strict decorum in speech, being the symbols of nature which is always fond of being concealed, perverting it all so as to give it a worse appearance after a very accurate investigation, do especially find fault with the changes of names. 61. And it is only lately that I heard an ungodly and impious man mocking and ridiculing these things, who ventured to say, "Surely they are great and exceeding gifts which Moses says that the Ruler of the universe offers, who, by the addition of one element, the one letter alpha, a superfluous element; and then again adding another element, the letter rho, appears to have bestowed upon men a most marvellous and great benefit; for he has called the wife of Abram Sarrah instead of Sarah, doubling the Rho," and connecting a number of similar arguments without drawing breath, and joking and mocking, he went through many instances. 62. But at no distant period he suffered a suitable punishment for his insane, wickedness; for on a very slight and ordinary provocation he hanged himself, in order that so polluted and impure a person might not die by a pure and unpolluted death. IX. But we may justly, in order to prevent any one else from falling into the same error, eradicate the erroneous notions which have been formed on the subject, arguing the matter on the principle of natural philosophy, and proving that these things which are here said are worthy of all attention.
7. We will now speak of his wife, Sarah, for she too had her name changed to Sarrah by the addition of the one element, the letter rho. These, then, are the names, and we must now explain what they mean. Sarah, being interpreted, signifies "my authority," but Sarrah signifies "princess;" the former name,
78. therefore, is a symbol of specific virtue, but the latter of generic virtue. But in proportion as genus is superior to species in regard of quantity, in the same proportion does the latter name excel the former; for species is something small and perishable, but genus is numerous and immortal,
79. and the intention of God is to bestow great and immortal things instead of such as are small and perishable, and this is a task suited to his dignity. Now the prudence which exists in the virtuous man is the authority of himself alone, and he who has it would not err if he were to say, my authority is the prudence which is in me; but that which has stretched out this authority is generic prudence, not any longer the authority of this or that person, but absolute intrinsic authority; therefore that which exists only in species will perish at the same time with its possessor, but that which, like a seal, has stamped it with an impression, is free from all mortality, and will remain for ever and ever imperishable. 80. Thus also those arts which exist only in species perish along with those who have acquired them, such as geometricians, grammarians, and musicians, but the generic arts remain exempt from destruction. And, again, he gives an additional sketch of his meaning when he teaches by the same name that every virtue is a princess, and a queen, and a ruler of all the affairs of life. XII.
131. Now he who is properly said to give any thing whatever must by all means be giving what is his own private property. And if this is true beyond controversy, then it would follow that Isaac must not have been a man, but a being synonymous with that most exquisite joy of all pleasures, namely, laughter, the adopted son of God, who gave him as a soother and cheerer to the most peace-loving souls; '132. for it is absurd to suppose that there was one who was a man, and another of whom bastard and illegitimate offspring were descended: and, indeed, Moses calls the man of an intellect devoted to virtue a god, when he says, "The Lord, seeing that Leah was hated, opened her Womb."
134. But Tamar, when she became pregt of divine seeds, and did not know who it was who had sown them (for it is said that at that time "she had covered her face," as Moses did when he turned away, having a reverential fear of beholding God), still when she saw the tokens and the evidences and decided within herself that it was not a mortal man who gave these things, cried out, "To whomsoever these things belong, it is by him that I am with Child."
143. and to those who ask, whether she who is barren has an offspring (for the holy scriptures, which some time ago represented Sarrah as barren, now confess that she will become a mother); this answer must be given, that a woman who is barren cannot, in the course of nature, bring forth an offspring, just as a blind man cannot see, nor a deaf man hear; but that the soul, which is barren of bad things, and which is unproductive of immoderate license of the passions and vices, is alone very nearly attaining to a happy delivery, bringing forth objects worthy of love, namely, the number seven, according to the hymn which is sung by Grace, that is, by Hannah, who says, "she who was barren hath born seven, and she who had many children has become weak:" '. None
42. Philo of Alexandria, On The Creation of The World, 1-4, 7, 19, 21, 23, 28-31, 34, 71, 77, 132, 151-166, 168, 170-177 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • Allegorical Commentary, relation of, to other Philonic series • Allegorical Interpretation • Allegory • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Philo • Allegory, allegorical exegesis • Egypt, allegorical interpretation of • Exegesis, allegorical • Heraclitus the Allegorist • Heraclitus, allegorist • Philo and allegorical interpretation, on narrative and law • Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation • Sodom, allegorical interpretation of • allegorical interpretation • allegorical interpretation, stoic allegoresis of theological myths • allegorical interpretation, the laws of • allegorists • allegory • allegory / allegoresis • allegory, figurative • allegory/-ies • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • exegesis, allegorical • migrations of Abraham, allegorical interpretation of • pagan allegory • pagan allegory, mysteries/cults • sacrifice of Isaac, allegorical interpretation of • scripture allegorical interpretation • scripture, allegorical interpretation • the three visitors, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 1, 216, 218, 220, 230, 242, 265, 271, 272, 297, 329, 330, 331; Bloch (2022) 104, 158; Boulluec (2022) 202; Brouwer and Vimercati (2020) 94; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 171; Estes (2020) 198; Geljon and Runia (2013) 189; Geljon and Runia (2019) 147, 149; Hayes (2022) 466; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 93; Najman (2010) 208, 255; Niehoff (2011) 93, 170, 177, 178, 179; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 210; Rosenblum (2016) 67, 68; Sly (1990) 47, 87, 93, 94, 99; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020) 10, 12, 19; Černušková (2016) 105

1. of other lawgivers, some have set forth what they considered to be just and reasonable, in a naked and unadorned manner, while others, investing their ideas with an abundance of amplification, have sought to bewilder the people, by burying the truth under a heap of fabulous inventions. ' 2. But Moses, rejecting both of these methods, the one as inconsiderate, careless, and unphilosophical, and the other as mendacious and full of trickery, made the beginning of his laws entirely beautiful, and in all respects admirable, neither at once declaring what ought to be done or the contrary, nor (since it was necessary to mould beforehand the dispositions of those who were to use his laws) inventing fables himself or adopting those which had been invented by others. 3. And his exordium, as I have already said, is most admirable; embracing the creation of the world, under the idea that the law corresponds to the world and the world to the law, and that a man who is obedient to the law, being, by so doing, a citizen of the world, arranges his actions with reference to the intention of nature, in harmony with which the whole universal world is regulated. 4. Accordingly no one, whether poet or historian, could ever give expression in an adequate manner to the beauty of his ideas respecting the creation of the world; for they surpass all the power of language, and amaze our hearing, being too great and venerable to be adapted to the sense of any created being.
7. For some men, admiring the world itself rather than the Creator of the world, have represented it as existing without any maker, and eternal; and as impiously as falsely have represented God as existing in a state of complete inactivity, while it would have been right on the other hand to marvel at the might of God as the creator and father of all, and to admire the world in a degree not exceeding the bounds of moderation.

19. Now we must form a somewhat similar opinion of God, who, having determined to found a mighty state, first of all conceived its form in his mind, according to which form he made a world perceptible only by the intellect, and then completed one visible to the external senses, using the first one as a model. V. 2
1. And the power and faculty which could be capable of creating the world, has for its origin that good which is founded on truth; for if any one were desirous to investigate the cause on account of which this universe was created, I think that he would come to no erroneous conclusion if he were to say as one of the ancients did say: "That the Father and Creator was good; on which account he did not grudge the substance a share of his own excellent nature, since it had nothing good of itself, but was able to become everything."
23. And God, not being urged on by any prompter (for who else could there have been to prompt him?) but guided by his own sole will, decided that it was fitting to benefit with unlimited and abundant favours a nature which, without the divine gift, was unable to itself to partake of any good thing; but he benefits it, not according to the greatness of his own graces, for they are illimitable and eternal, but according to the power of that which is benefited to receive his graces. For the capacity of that which is created to receive benefits does not correspond to the natural power of God to confer them; since his powers are infinitely greater, and the thing created being not sufficiently powerful to receive all their greatness would have sunk under it, if he had not measured his bounty, allotting to each, in due proportion, that which was poured upon it.
28. for if the Creator had made everything at the same moment, still those things which were created in beauty would no less have had a regular arrangement, for there is no such thing as beauty in disorder. But order is a due consequence and connection of things precedent and subsequent, if not in the completion of a work, at all events in the intention of the maker; for it is owing to order that they become accurately defined and stationary, and free from confusion. 29. In the first place therefore, from the model of the world, perceptible only by intellect, the Creator made an incorporeal heaven, and an invisible earth, and the form of air and of empty space: the former of which he called darkness, because the air is black by nature; and the other he called the abyss, for empty space is very deep and yawning with immense width. Then he created the incorporeal substance of water and of air, and above all he spread light, being the seventh thing made; and this again was incorporeal, and a model of the sun, perceptible only to intellect, and of all the lightgiving stars, which are destined to stand together in heaven. VIII. 30. And air and light he considered worthy of the pre-eminence. For the one he called the breath of God, because it is air, which is the most life-giving of things, and of life the causer is God; and the other he called light, because it is surpassingly beautiful: for that which is perceptible only by intellect is as far more brilliant and splendid than that which is seen, as I conceive, the sun is than darkness, or day than night, or the intellect than any other of the outward senses by which men judge (inasmuch as it is the guide of the entire soul), or the eyes than any other part of the body. 3
1. And the invisible divine reason, perceptible only by intellect, he calls the image of God. And the image of this image is that light, perceptible only by the intellect, which is the image of the divine reason, which has explained its generation. And it is a star above the heavens, the source of those stars which are perceptible by the external senses, and if any one were to call it universal light he would not be very wrong; since it is from that the sun and the moon, and all the other planets and fixed stars derive their due light, in proportion as each has power given to it; that unmingled and pure light being obscured when it begins to change, according to the change from that which is perceptible only by the intellect, to that which is perceptible by the external senses; for none of those things which are perceptible to the external senses is pure. IX.
34. and these boundaries are evening and morning; the one of which heralds in the good tidings that the sun is about to rise, gently dissipating the darkness: and evening comes on as the sun sets, receiving gently the collective approach of darkness. And these, I mean morning and evening, must be placed in the class of incorporeal things, perceptible only by the intellect; for there is absolutely nothing in them which is perceptible by the external senses, but they are entirely ideas, and measures, and forms, and seals, incorporeal as far as regards the generation of other bodies.
1. and perceiving in that, the original models and ideas of those things intelligible by the external senses which it saw here full of surpassing beauty, it becomes seized with a sort of sober intoxication like the zealots engaged in the Corybantian festivals, and yields to enthusiasm, becoming filled with another desire, and a more excellent longing, by which it is conducted onwards to the very summit of such things as are perceptible only to the intellect, till it appears to be reaching the great King himself. And while it is eagerly longing to behold him pure and unmingled, rays of divine light are poured forth upon it like a torrent, so as to bewilder the eyes of its intelligence by their splendour. But as it is not every image that resembles its archetypal model, since many are unlike, Moses has shown this by adding to the words "after his image," the expression, "in his likeness," to prove that it means an accurate impression, having a clear and evident resemblance in form. XXIV.
7. And some one may inquire the cause why it was that man was the last work in the creation of the world. For the Creator and Father created him after every thing else as the sacred scriptures inform us. Accordingly, they who have gone most deeply into the laws, and who to the best of their power have investigated everything that is contained in them with all diligence, say that God, when he had given to man to partake of kindred with himself, grudged him neither reason, which is the most excellent of all gifts, nor anything else that is good; but before his creation, provided for him every thing in the world, as for the animal most resembling himself, and dearest to him, being desirous that when he was born, he should be in want of nothing requisite for living, and for living well; the first of which objects is provided for by the abundance of supplies which are furnished to him for his enjoyment, and the other by his power of contemplation of the heavenly bodies, by which the mind is smitten so as to conceive a love and desire for knowledge on those subjects; owing to which desire, philosophy has sprung up, by which, man, though mortal, is made immortal.

132. This is one reason; and we must also mention another, which is aimed at the truth like an arrow at a mark. It is not the nature of anything upon the earth to exist without a moist essence. And this is indicated by the throwing of seed, which is either moist, as the seed of animals, or else does not shoot up without moisture, such as the seeds of plants; from which it is evident that it follows that the aforesaid moist essence must be a portion of the earth which produces everything, just as the flux of the catamenia is a part of women. For by men who are learned in natural philosophy, this also is said to be the corporeal essence of children.
1. But since nothing in creation lasts for ever, but all mortal things are liable to inevitable changes and alterations, it was unavoidable that the first man should also undergo some disaster. And the beginning of his life being liable to reproach, was his wife. For, as long as he was single, he resembled, as to his creation, both the world and God; and he represented in his soul the characteristics of the nature of each, I do not mean all of them, but such as a mortal constitution was capable of admitting. But when woman also was created, man perceiving a closely connected figure and a kindred formation to his own, rejoiced at the sight, and approached her and embraced her.
152. And she, in like manner, beholding a creature greatly resembling herself, rejoiced also, and addressed him in reply with due modesty. And love being engendered, and, as it were, uniting two separate portions of one animal into one body, adapted them to each other, implanting in each of them a desire of connection with the other with a view to the generation of a being similar to themselves. And this desire caused likewise pleasure to their bodies, which is the beginning of iniquities and transgressions, and it is owing to this that men have exchanged their previously immortal and happy existence for one which is mortal and full of misfortune. LVI.
153. But while man was still living a solitary life, and before woman was created, the history relates that a paradise was planted by God in no respect resembling the parks which are seen among men now. For parks of our day are only lifeless woods, full of all kinds of trees, some evergreen with a view to the undisturbed delectation of the sight; others budding and germinating in the spring season, and producing fruit, some eatable by men, and sufficient, not only for the necessary support of nature as food, but also for the superfluous enjoyment of luxurious life; and some not eatable by men, but of necessity bestowed upon the beasts. But in the paradise, made by God, all the plants were endowed in the souls and reason, producing for their fruit the different virtues, and, moreover, imperishable wisdom and prudence, by which honourable and dishonourable things are distinguished from one another, and also a life free from disease, and exempt from corruption, and all other qualities corresponding to these already mentioned.
154. And these statements appear to me to be dictated by a philosophy which is symbolical rather than strictly accurate. For no trees of life or of knowledge have ever at any previous time appeared upon the earth, nor is it likely that any will appear hereafter. But I rather conceive that Moses was speaking in an allegorical spirit, intending by his paradise to intimate the domit character of the soul, which is full of innumerable opinions as this figurative paradise was of trees. And by the tree of life he was shadowing out the greatest of the virtuesùnamely, piety towards the gods, by means of which the soul is made immortal; and by the tree which had the knowledge of good an evil, he was intimating that wisdom and moderation, by means of which things, contrary in their nature to one another, are distinguished. LV.
155. Therefore, having laid down these to be boundaries as it were in the soul, God then, like a judge, began to consider to which side men would be most inclined by nature. And when he saw that the disposition of man had a tendency to wickedness, and was but little inclined to holiness or piety, by which qualities an immortal life is secured, he drove them forth as was very natural, and banished him from paradise; giving no hope of any subsequent restoration to his soul which had sinned in such a desperate and irremediable manner. Since even the opportunity of deceit was blameable in no slight degree, which I must not pass over in this place.
156. It is said that the old poisonous and earthborn reptile, the serpent, uttered the voice of a man. And he on one occasion coming to the wife of the first created man, reproached her with her slowness and her excessive prudence, because she delayed and hesitated to gather the fruit which was completely beautiful to look at, and exceedingly sweet to enjoy, and was, moreover, most useful as being a means by which men might be able to distinguish between good an evil. And she, without any inquiry, prompted by an unstable and rash mind, acquiesced in his advice, and ate of the fruit, and gave a portion of it to her husband. And this conduct suddenly changed both of them from innocence and simplicity of character to all kinds of wickedness; at which the Father of all was indigt. For their actions deserved his anger, inasmuch as they, passing by the tree of eternal life, the tree which might have endowed them with perfection of virtue, and by means of which they might have enjoyed a long and happy life, preferred a brief and mortal (I will not call it life, but) time full of unhappiness; and, accordingly, he appointed them such punishment as was befitting. LVI.
7. And these things are not mere fabulous inventions, in which the race of poets and sophists delights, but are rather types shadowing forth some allegorical truth, according to some mystical explanation. And any one who follows a reasonable train of conjecture, will say with great propriety, that the aforesaid serpent is the symbol of pleasure, because in the first place he is destitute of feet, and crawls on his belly with his face downwards. In the second place, because he uses lumps of clay for food. Thirdly, because he bears poison in his teeth, by which it is his nature to kill those who are bitten by him.
158. And the man devoted to pleasure is free form none of the aforementioned evils; for it is with difficulty that he can raise his head, being weighed down and dragged down, since intemperance trips him up and keeps him down. And he feeds, not on heavenly food, which wisdom offers to contemplative men by means of discourses and opinions; but on that which is put forth by the earth in the varying seasons of the year, from which arise drunkenness and voracity, and licentiousness, breaking through and inflaming the appetites of the belly, and enslaving them in subjection to gluttony, by which they strengthen the impetuous passions, the seat of which is beneath the belly; and make them break forth. And they lick up the result of the labours of cooks and tavern-keepers; and at times some of them in ecstasy with the flavour of the delicious food, moves about his head and reaches forward, being desirous to participate in the sight. And when he sees an expensively furnished table, he throws himself bodily upon the delicacies which are abundantly prepared, and devotes himself to them, wishing to be filled with them all together, and so to depart, having no other end in view than that he should allow nothing of such a sumptuous preparation to be wasted. Owing to which conduct, he too, carries about poison in his teeth, no less than the serpent does;
159. for his teeth are the ministers and servants of his insatiability, cutting up and smoothing everything which has a reference to eating, and committing them, in the first place to the tongue, which decides upon, and distinguishes between the various flavours, and, subsequently, to the larynx. But immoderate indulgence in eating is naturally a poisonous and deadly habit, inasmuch as what is so devoured is not capable of digestion, in consequence of the quantity of additional food which is heaped in on the top of it, and arrives before what was previously eaten is converted into juice.
160. And the serpent is said to have uttered a human voice, because pleasure employs innumerable champions and defenders who take care to advocate its interests, and who dare to assert that the power over everything, both small and great, does of right belong to it without any exception whatever. LVII.
1. Now, the first approaches of the male to the female have a pleasure in them which brings on other pleasures also, and it is through this pleasure that the formation and generation of children is carried on. And what is generated by it appears to be attached to nothing rather than to it, since they rejoice in pleasure, and are impatient at pain, which is its contrary. On which account even the infant when first brought forth cries, being as it seems in pain at the cold. For coming forth on a sudden into the air from a very warm, and indeed, hot region namely, the womb, in which it has been abiding a considerable time, the air being a cold place and one to which it is wholly unaccustomed, it is alarmed, and pours forth tears as the most evident proof of its grief and of its impatience at pain.
162. For every animal, it is said, hastens to pleasure as to the cud which is most indispensable and necessary to its very existence; and, above all other animals, this is the case with man. For other animals pursue pleasure only in taste and in the acts of generation; but man aims at it by means of his other senses also, devoting himself to whatever sights or sounds can impart pleasure to his eyes or ears.
163. And many other things are said in the way of praise of this inclination, especially that it is one most peculiar and kindred to all animals. LVIII. But what has been already said is sufficient to show what the reasons were on account of which the serpent appears to have uttered a human voice. And it is on this account that Moses appears to me in the particular laws also which he issued in the respect to animals, deciding what were proper to be eaten, and what were not, to have given especial praise to the animal called the serpent fighter. This is a reptile with jointed legs above its feet, by which it is able to leap and to raise itself on high, in the same manner as the tribe of locusts.
164. For the serpent fighter appears to me to be no other than temperance expressed under a symbolical figure, waging an interminable and unrelenting warfare against intemperance and pleasure. For temperance especially embraces economy and frugality, and pares down the necessities to a small number, preferring a life of austerity and dignity. But intemperance is devoted to extravagance and superfluity, which are the causes of luxury and effeminacy to both soul and body, and to which it is owing that in the opinion of wise men life is but a faulty thing, and more miserable than death. LIX.
165. But its juggleries and deceits pleasure does not venture to bring directly to the man, but first offers them to the woman, and by her means to the man; acting in a very natural and sagacious manner. For in human beings the mind occupies the rank of the man, and the sensations that of the woman. And pleasure joins itself to and associates itself with the sensations first of all, and then by their means cajoles also the mind, which is the domit part. For, after each of the senses have been subjected to the charms of pleasure, and has learnt to delight in what is offered to it, the sight being fascinated by varieties of colours and shapes, the hearing by harmonious sounds, the taste by the sweetness of flowers, and the smell by the delicious fragrance of the odours which are brought before it, these all having received these offerings, like handmaids, bring them to the mind as their master, leading with them persuasion as an advocate, to warn it against rejecting any of them whatever. And the mind being immediately caught by the bait, becomes a subject instead of a ruler, and a slave instead of a master, and an exile instead of a citizen, and a mortal instead of an immortal.
166. For we must altogether not be ignorant that pleasure, being like a courtesan or mistress, is eager to meet with a lover, and seeks for panders in order by their means to catch a lover. And the sensations are her panders, and conciliate love to her, and she employing them as baits, easily brings the mind into subjection to her. And the sensations conveying within the mind the things which have been seen externally, explain and display the forms of each of them, setting their seal upon a similar affection. For the mind is like wax, and receives the impressions of appearances through the sensations, by means of which it makes itself master of the body, which of itself it would not be able to do, as I have already said. LX.

168. For I think that as the sun and the moon do continually give light, ever since they were originally commanded to do so at the time of the original creation of the universe, and as they constantly obey the divine injunction, for the sake of no other reason but because evil and disobedience are banished to a distance far from the boundaries of heaven: so in the same way would the fertile and productive regions of the earth yield an immense abundance in the various seasons of the year, without any skill or co-operation on the part of the husbandman. But at present the ever-flowing fountains of the graces of God have been checked, from the time when wickedness began to increase faster than the virtues, in order that they might not be supplying men who were unworthy to be benefited by them.
70. Such is the life of those who originally were men of innocence and simplicity, and also of those who have come to prefer vice to virtue, from whom one ought to keep aloof. And in his before mentioned account of the creation of the world, Moses teaches us also many other things, and especially five most beautiful lessons which are superior to all others. In the first place, for the sake of convicting the atheists, he teaches us that the Deity has a real being and existence. Now, of the atheists, some have only doubted of the existence of God, stating it to be an uncertain thing; but others, who are more audacious, have taken courage, and asserted positively that there is no such thing; but this is affirmed only by men who have darkened the truth with fabulous inventions.
1. In the second place he teaches us that God is one; having reference here to the assertors of the polytheistic doctrine; men who do not blush to transfer that worst of evil constitutions, ochlocracy, from earth to heaven. Thirdly, he teaches, as has been already related, that the world was created; by this lesson refuting those who think that it is uncreated and eternal, and who thus attribute no glory to God. In the fourth place we learn that the world also which was thus created is one, since also the Creator is one, and he, making his creation to resemble himself in its singleness, employed all existing essence in the creation of the universe. For it would not have been complete if it had not been made and composed of all parts which were likewise whole and complete. For there are some persons who believe that there are many worlds, and some who even fancy that they are boundless in extent, being themselves inexperienced and ignorant of the truth of those things of which it is desirable to have a correct knowledge. The fifth lesson that Moses teaches us is, that God exerts his providence for the benefit of the world.
72. For it follows of necessity that the Creator must always care for that which he has created, just as parents do also care for their children. And he who has learnt this not more by hearing it than by his own understanding, and has impressed on his own soul these marvellous facts which are the subject of so much contentionùnamely, that God has a being and existence, and that he who so exists is really one, and that he has created the world, and that he has created it one as has been stated, having made it like to himself in singleness; and that he exercises a continual care for that which he has created will live a happy and blessed life, stamped with the doctrines of piety and holiness. '. None
43. Philo of Alexandria, On The Posterity of Cain, 7, 22, 142-145, 148-149 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • Egypt, allegorical interpretation of • allegorical interpretation, Greek • allegory • five, the number, allegorical interpretation of • grammatical archive, commentarial strategies, allegory (ἀλληγορία) • sacrifice of Isaac, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 186, 242, 329; Geljon and Runia (2013) 182; Rosenblum (2016) 65; Sly (1990) 154; Ward (2022) 38, 39

7. and if God has not a face (inasmuch as he is not bound by what may seem appropriate for created things), and if he does not exist in parts inasmuch as he surrounds all things and is not surrounded by any, it is impossible for anything to remove and depart from this world as from a city, as there is no portion of it left without. It now remains for us, considering that none of these things are spoken of in terms of strict propriety, to turn to the allegorical system, which is dear to men versed in natural philosophy, taking the first principles of our argument from this source.
22. It is worth while also to consider the wickedness into which a man who flies from the face of God is driven, since it is called a tempest. The law-giver showing, by this expression, that he who gives way to inconsiderate impulses without any stability or firmness exposes himself to surf and violent tossing, like those of the sea, when it is agitated in the winter season by contrary winds, and has never even a single glimpse of calm or tranquillity. But as when a ship having been tossed in the sea is agitated, it is then no longer fit to take a voyage or to anchor in harbour, but being tossed about hither and thither it leans first to one side and then to the other, and struggles in vain against the waves; so the wicked man, yielding to a perverse and insane disposition, and being unable to regulate his voyage through life without disaster, is constantly tossed about in perpetual expectation of an overturning of his life.
142. On which account Moses says in another passage, "Thou shalt lend a loan to him who asks you for one, as much as he requires, having regard to what he Requires." By the second phrase showing that it is not everything which is to be given, but only such things as are suitable to the requirements of those who are asking for them. For to give an anchor, or an oar, or a rudder to a husbandman, or ploughs or a spade to a captain of a ship, or a lyre to a physician, or instruments suited to manual labour to a musician, would be ridiculous, unless indeed one ought to offer a thirsty man costly viands, or a hungry man unmixed wine in abundance, so as to show at once one\'s own riches and one\'s want of humanity, by turning the souls of one\'s companions into ridicule. The quantity to be given in an act of beneficence is defined according to due proportion, which is a most useful thing. For, says Moses, do not give all that right reason is able to give, but as much as he who is asking the loan is worthy to receive. '143. Do you not see that even God does not utter his oracles, having a regard to their being in proportion to the magnitude of his own oracular power, but always having respect to the capacity of those who are to be benefited by them? Since who could receive the whole power of the words of God, which are too mighty for any one to listen to? On which account those persons appear to speak with great truth, who say to Moses, "Do thou speak to us, and let not God speak to us, lest we Die." For they know that they have not in themselves any organ which can be worthy of God who is giving laws to his church; 144. nor, indeed, could even the whole world, both land and sea, contain his riches if he were inclined to display them, unless we think that the descent of the rains and of the other things that happen in the world are appointed to take place according to the pre-arranged periods of the seasons, and not all at once, because of the scarcity and rarity of the things themselves, and not from any regard to the advantage of those who are benefited by them; who would be injured rather than be benefited by a continual enjoyment of such gifts. 145. On this account it is, that God always judiciously limits and brings out with wise moderation his first benefits, stopping them before those who partake of them become wanton through satiety; and then he bestows others in their stead; and again a third class of advantages instead of the second set, and so on, continually substituting new blessings for those of older date, at one time giving such as are different from those which went before, and at another time such as are almost identical with them; for the creature is never wholly destitute of the blessings bestowed by God, since if he were he would be utterly destroyed; but he is unable to endure an unlimited and measureless abundance of them. On which account, as he is desirous that we should derive advantage from the benefits which he bestows upon us, he weighs out what he gives so as to proportion it to the strength of those who receive it. XLIV. ' "
148. But it is not sufficient for the complete enjoyment of his teacher's lessons, that the disciple should merely comprehend what the master has taught him, unless he has also got memory. On which account, making a display of her bounteous disposition, when he has satisfied himself with the water, she offers to give his camels water also, which we have already said are here put symbolically for memory. For the animal while eating its food ruminates, and when, having stooped down it has received a heavy burden, with exceedingly great vigour of muscle it rises up lightly; " '149. and in the same manner also, the soul of the man who is devoted to learning, when the burden of its speculations is placed upon it, becomes more lowly, and when it has risen up it rejoices; and from that mastication, and as it were the softening, of the first food that is placed down before it, arises its memory of those speculations. '. None
44. Philo of Alexandria, On Curses, 1-2, 53 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • Allegorical Commentary, relation of, to other Philonic series • Kingly Power, allegorical interpretation of • Sodom, allegorical interpretation of • allegorical interpretation of cult • allegory • dispute between Abraham and Lot, allegorical interpretation of • sacrifice of Isaac, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 1, 4, 5, 13, 344; Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 34; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020) 12

1. "And Cain went out from before the face of God, and dwelt in the land of Nod, opposite to Eden." Now we may raise the question whether we are to take the expressions which occur in the books that have been handed down to us by Moses and to interpret them in a somewhat metaphorical sense, while the ideas which readily present themselves as derived from the names are very deficient in truth. '2. For if the living God has a face, and if he who desires to leave it can with perfect ease rise up and depart to another place, why do we repudiate the impiety of the Epicureans, or the godlessness of the Egyptians, or the mythical suggestions of which life is full?
53. Now of such a city as this, every impious man is found to be a builder in his own miserable soul, until God deliberately causes complete and great confusion to their sophistical Arts. And this will be, when not only "they build a city and tower, the head of which will reach to heaven," that is to say, ... the mind or the reason of each individual as conversant about making great works, which they represent as having for its head a conception peculiar to itself, which is called in symbolical language heaven. For it is plain that the head and object of every reasoning must be the aforesaid mind; for the sake of which, long digressions and sentences are in the habit of being used by men who write histories. XVI. '. None
45. Philo of Alexandria, On The Sacrifices of Cain And Abel, 1, 4, 32, 51 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Interpretation • Allegory • Egypt, allegorical interpretation of • Kingly Power, allegorical interpretation of • Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation • allegory / allegoresis • dispute between Abraham and Lot, allegorical interpretation of • marriage, allegorical interpretation of • slaves/slavery, in Philo’s allegory

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 247, 366; Gruen (2020) 153; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 119; Najman (2010) 213, 214, 215; Sly (1990) 47, 99, 154

1. "And he also added, that she should bring forth his Brother." The addition of one thing is a taking away of some other; as for instance, of particles in arithmetic, and of reasons in the soul. If then we must say that Abel is added, we must also think that Cain is taken away. But that the unusual character of expression may not cause perplexity to many we will endeavour to explain accurately the philosophy which is apparent beneath them, as clearly as may be in our power. '
4. And this will be more evidently shown by the oracle which was given to Perseverance, that is to Rebecca; for she also, having conceived the two inconsistent natures of good and evil, and having considered each of them very deeply according to the injunctions of prudence, beholding them both exulting, and making a sort of skirmish as a prelude to the war which was to exist between them; she, I say, besought God to explain to her what this calamity meant, and what was the remedy for it. And he answered her inquiry, and told her, "Two nations are in thy womb." This calamity is the birth of good and evil. "But two peoples shall be divided in thy bowels." And the remedy is, for these two to be parted and separated from one another, and no longer to abide in the same place.
32. Know, then, my good friend, that if you become a votary of pleasure you will be all these things: a bold, cunning, audacious, unsociable, uncourteous, inhuman, lawless, savage, illtempered, unrestrainable, worthless man; deaf to advice, foolish, full of evil acts, unteachable, unjust, unfair, one who has no participation with others, one who cannot be trusted in his agreements, one with whom there is no peace, covetous, most lawless, unfriendly, homeless, cityless, seditious, faithless, disorderly, impious, unholy, unsettled, unstable, uninitiated, profane, polluted, indecent, destructive, murderous, illiberal, abrupt, brutal, slavish, cowardly, intemperate, irregular, disgraceful, shameful, doing and suffering all infamy, colourless, immoderate, unsatiable, insolent, conceited, self-willed, mean, envious, calumnious, quarrelsome, slanderous, greedy, deceitful, cheating, rash, ignorant, stupid, inharmonious, dishonest, disobedient, obstinate, tricky, swindling, insincere, suspicious, hated, absurd, difficult to detect, difficult to avoid, destructive, evil-minded, disproportionate, an unreasonable chatterer, a proser, a gossip, a vain babbler, a flatterer, a fool, full of heavy sorrow, weak in bearing grief, trembling at every sound, inclined to delay, inconsiderate, improvident, impudent, neglectful of good, unprepared, ignorant of virtue, always in the wrong, erring, stumbling, ill-managed, ill-governed, a glutton, a captive, a spendthrift, easily yielding, most crafty, double-minded, double-tongued, perfidious, treacherous, unscrupulous, always unsuccessful, always in want, infirm of purpose, fickle, a wanderer, a follower of others, yielding to impulses, open to the attacks of enemies, mad, easily satisfied, fond of life, fond of vain glory, passionate, ill-tempered, lazy, a procrastinator, suspected, incurable, full of evil jealousies, despairing, full of tears, rejoicing in evil, frantic, beside yourself, without any steady character, contriving evil, eager for disgraceful gain, selfish, a willing slave, an eager enemy, a demagogue, a bad steward, stiffnecked, effeminate, outcast, confused, discarded, mocking, injurious, vain, full of unmitigated unalloyed misery. 5
1. The consequence of which conduct of his was that "Every shepherd of sheep is an abomination to the Egyptians." For every man who loves his passions hates right reason as the governor and guide to good things; just as foolish children hate their tutors and teachers, and every one who reproves them or corrects them, or would lead them to virtue. But Moses says that he "will sacrifice the abominations of the Egyptians to God." namely the virtues which are faultless and most becoming victims, which every foolish man abominates. So that very appropriately, Abel, who brought the best offerings to God, is called a shepherd; but he, who offered every thing to himself and to his own mind, is called a tiller of the earth, namely Cain. And what is meant by tilling the Earth we have shown in our previous treatises. XIII. '. None
46. Philo of Alexandria, On Dreams, 1.33, 1.39, 1.46, 1.52-1.53, 1.60, 1.73, 1.167-1.168, 1.172, 1.237, 2.153, 2.269 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • Allegorical Commentary, relation of, to other Philonic series • Allegory • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Philo • Kingly Power, allegorical interpretation of • On the Contemplative Life, allegorical interpretation of choirs by Red sea • Sodom, allegorical interpretation of • allegorical interpretation, the laws of • allegorical interpretation, “suited to the few” • allegory • migrations of Abraham, allegorical interpretation of • sacrifice of Isaac, allegorical interpretation of • scripture allegorical interpretation • scripture allegorical interpretation, deeper meaning • slaves/slavery, in Philo’s allegory • the three visitors, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 1, 5, 14, 16, 194, 216, 219, 224, 225, 273, 292, 298; Bloch (2022) 160; Geljon and Runia (2019) 147, 244; Gruen (2020) 153; Kessler (2004) 101; Kraemer (2010) 84; Niehoff (2011) 96, 134; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 214, 221; Rowland (2009) 540; Sly (1990) 93, 95, 154, 157; Witter et al. (2021) 178, 179

1.33. Therefore now the fourth element is incomprehensible, in the world of heaven, in comparison of the nature of the earth, of the water, and of the air; and the mind in man, in comparison of the body and the outward sense, and the speech, which is the interpreter of the mind; may it not be the case also, that for this reason the fourth year is described as holy and praiseworthy in the sacred scriptures?
1.39. Perhaps therefore some petty cavilling critics will imagine that all this statement about the digging of the wells is a superfluous piece of prolixity on the part of the lawgiver: but those who deserve a larger classification, being citizens not of some petty state but of the wide world, being men of more perfect wisdom, will know well that the real question is not about the four wells, but about the parts of the universe that the men who are gifted with sight, and are fond of contemplation exercise their powers of investigation; namely, about the earth, the water, the air, and the heaven.
1.46. therefore his mother, perseverance, that is Rebecca, says to him, "Rise up and flee to Laban, my brother, to Charran, and dwell with him certain Days." Do you not perceive then that the practiser of virtue will not endure to live permanently in the country of the outward senses, but only to remain there a few days and a short time, on account of the necessities of the body to which he is bound? But a longer time and an entire life is allotted to him in the city which is appreciable only by the intellect. IX.
1.52. Therefore, having left the land of the Chaldaeans, Terah is said to have migrated to Charran; bringing with him his son Abraham and the rest of his household who agreed with him in opinion, not in order that we might read in the account of the historical chronicles that some men had become emigrants, leaving their native country and becoming inhabitants of a foreign land as if it were their own country, but in order that a lesson of the greatest importance to life and full of wisdom, and adapted to man alone, might not be neglected. 1.53. And what is the lesson? The Chaldaeans are great astronomers, and the inhabitants of Charran occupy themselves with the topics relating to the external senses. Therefore the sacred account says to the investigator of the things of nature, why are you inquiring about the sun, and asking whether he is a foot broad, whether he is greater than the whole earth put together, or whether he is even many times as large? And why are you investigating the causes of the light of the moon, and whether it has a borrowed light, or one which proceeds solely from itself? Why, again, do you seek to understand the nature of the rest of the stars, of their motion, of their sympathy with one another, and even with earthly things?
1.60. of the number of these men is Abraham, who attained to great progress and improvement in the comprehension of complete knowledge; for when he knew most, then he most completely renounced himself in order to attain to the accurate knowledge of him who was the truly living God. And, indeed, this is a very natural course of events; for he who completely understands himself does also very much, because of his thorough appreciation of it, renounce the universal nothingness of the creature; and he who renounces himself learns to comprehend the living God. XI.
1.73. And do not wonder if, according to the rules of allegorical description, the sun is likened to the Father and Governor of the universe; for in reality nothing is like unto God; but those things which by the vain opinion of men are thought to be so, are only two things, one invisible and the other visible; the soul being the invisible thing, and the sun the visible one.
1.167. is it not then worth while to examine into the cause of this difference? Undoubtedly it is; let us then in a careful manner apply ourselves to the consideration of the cause. Philosophers say that virtue exists among men, either by nature, or by practice, or by learning. On which account the sacred scriptures represent the three founders of the nation of the Israelites as wise men; not indeed originally endowed with the same kind of wisdom, but arriving rapidly at the same end. 1.168. For the eldest of them, Abraham, had instruction for his guide in the road which conducted him to virtue; as we shall show in another treatise to the best of our power. And Isaac, who is the middle one of the three, had a self-taught and self-instructed nature. And Jacob, the third, arrived at this point by industry and practice, in accordance with which were his labours of wrestling and contention.
1.172. These statements are not fables of my own invention, but are the oracle written on the sacred pillars. For, says the scripture: "Israel having departed, he and all that he had came to the well of the oath, and there he sacrificed a sacrifice to the God of his father Isaac." Do you not now perceive that this present assertion has reference not to the relationship between mortal men, but, as was said before, to the nature of things? For look at what is before us. At one time, Jacob is spoken of as the son of his father Abraham, and at another time he is called Israel, the son of Isaac, on account of the reason which we have thus accurately investigated. XVIII.
1.237. For we must be content if such men can be brought to a proper state, by the fear which is suspended over them by such descriptions; and one many almost say that these are the only two paths taken, in the whole history of the law; one leading to plain truth, owing to which we have such assertions as, "God is not as a Man;" the other, that which has regard to the opinions of foolish men, in reference to whom it is said, "The Lord God shall instruct you, like as if a man instructs his Son." XLI.
2.153. What then? Do we not think that even in ourselves there is a herd of irrational cattle, inasmuch as the irrational multitude of the soul is deprived of reason, and that the shepherd is the governing mind? But as long as that is vigorous and competent to act as the manager of the herd, everything goes on in a just, and prosperous, and advantageous manner;
2.269. What, then, is the good? The passion which is attacking us is dead, and is thrown out on its face without burial. Let us not delay, but standing still, let us sing that most sacred and becoming hymn, feeling that we are command to say to all men, "Let us sing unto the Lord, for he has triumphed gloriously; the horse and his rider hath he thrown into the Sea." ' '. None
47. Philo of Alexandria, On The Special Laws, 1.3, 1.8-1.9, 1.13, 1.287, 2.52, 2.54-2.55, 2.176, 2.189, 3.1-3.6, 3.45, 3.178, 4.69, 4.107, 4.114, 4.123 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • Allegorical Commentary, relation of, to other Philonic series • Allegorical Interpretation • Allegorical method • Allegory • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Philo • Allegory, allegorical exegesis • Egypt, allegorical interpretation of • Hellenistic Judaism, allegorists • Heraclitus the Allegorist • Kingly Power, Lot omitted from allegory of • Kingly Power, allegorical interpretation of • Sodom, allegorical interpretation of • allegorical interpretation, the laws of • allegorical interpretation, “suited to the few” • allegory • allegory / allegoresis • dispute between Abraham and Lot, allegorical interpretation of • migrations of Abraham, allegorical interpretation of • reader, allegorical • sacrifice of Isaac, allegorical interpretation of • scripture, allegorical interpretation • the three visitors, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Bar Kochba (1997) 173; Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 5, 13, 15, 16, 33, 216, 220, 222, 223, 230, 242, 263, 269, 292, 328, 329, 331, 344, 345, 346, 365; Bloch (2022) 33, 161; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 203; Geljon and Runia (2013) 5, 123; Geljon and Runia (2019) 5, 6; Grypeou and Spurling (2009) 177; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 93, 98; Najman (2010) 104, 105; Niehoff (2011) 175; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 210; Rosenblum (2016) 64, 66, 68, 69, 74, 148; Sly (1990) 99, 116, 134, 181, 182

1.3. In consequence of which it would be most fitting for men to discard childish ridicule, and to investigate the real causes of the ordice with more prudence and dignity, considering the reasons why the custom has prevailed, and not being precipitate, so as without examination to condemn the folly of mighty nations, recollecting that it is not probable that so many myriads should be circumcised in every generation, mutilating the bodies of themselves and of their nearest relations, in a manner which is accompanied with severe pain, without adequate cause; but that there are many reasons which might encourage men to persevere and continue a custom which has been introduced by previous generations, and that these are from reasons of the greatest weight and importance.
1.8. These considerations have come to our ears, having been discussed of old among men of divine spirit and wisdom, who have interpreted the writings of Moses in no superficial or careless manner. But, besides what has been already said, I also look upon circumcision to be a symbol of two things of the most indispensable importance. 1.9. First of all, it is a symbol of the excision of the pleasures which delude the mind; for since, of all the delights which pleasure can afford, the association of man with woman is the most exquisite, it seemed good to the lawgivers to mutilate the organ which ministers to such connections; by which rite they signified figuratively the excision of all superfluous and excessive pleasure, not, indeed, of one only, but of all others whatever, though that one which is the most imperious of all.
1.13. Some persons have conceived that the sun, and the moon, and the other stars are independent gods, to whom they have attributed the causes of all things that exist. But Moses was well aware that the world was created, and was like a very large city, having rulers and subjects in it; the rulers being all the bodies which are in heaven, such as planets and fixed stars;
1.287. But some are verbal symbols of things appreciable only by the intellect, and the mystical meaning which is concealed beneath them must be investigated by those who are eager for truth in accordance with the rules of allegory. The altar of God is the grateful soul of the wise man, being compounded of perfect numbers undivided and indivisible; for no part of virtue is useless.
2.52. In considering the melancholy and fearful condition of the human race, and how full it is of innumerable evils, which the covetousness of the soul begets, which the defects of the body produce, and which all the inequalities of the soul inflict upon us, and which the retaliations of those among whom we live, both doing and suffering innumerable evils, are continually causing us, he then wondered whether any one being tossed about in such a sea of troubles, some brought on deliberately and others unintentionally, and never being able to rest in peace nor to cast anchor in the safe haven of a life free from danger, could by any possibility really keep a feast, not one in name, but one which should really be so, enjoying himself and being happy in the contemplation of the world and all the things in it, and in obedience to nature, and in a perfect harmony between his words and his actions, between his actions and his words.
2.54. In reference to which fact, a certain pre-eminently virtuous mind among the people of old, {8}{2.55. For the merciful God lightened her fear, bidding her by his holy word confess that she did laugh, in order to teach us that the creature is not wholly and entirely deprived of joy; but that joy is unmingled and the purest of all which can receive nothing of an opposite nature, the chosen peculiar joy of God. But the joy which flows from that is a mingled one, being alloyed, being that of a man who is already wise, and who has received as the most valuable gift possible such a mixture as that in which the pleasant are far more numerous than the unpleasant ingredients. And this is enough to say on this subject.THE SECOND FESTIVALXV.
2.176. The solemn assembly on the occasion of the festival of the sheaf having such great privileges, is the prelude to another festival of still greater importance; for from this day the fiftieth day is reckoned, making up the sacred number of seven sevens, with the addition of a unit as a seal to the whole; and this festival, being that of the first fruits of the corn, has derived its name of pentecost from the number of fifty, (penteµkosto
2.189. for then the voice of a trumpet sounded from heaven, which it is natural to suppose reached to the very extremities of the universe, so that so wondrous a sound attracted all who were present, making them consider, as it is probable, that such mighty events were signs betokening some great things to be accomplished.
3.1. There was once a time when, devoting my leisure to philosophy and to the contemplation of the world and the things in it, I reaped the fruit of excellent, and desirable, and blessed intellectual feelings, being always living among the divine oracles and doctrines, on which I fed incessantly and insatiably, to my great delight, never entertaining any low or grovelling thoughts, nor ever wallowing in the pursuit of glory or wealth, or the delights of the body, but I appeared to be raised on high and borne aloft by a certain inspiration of the soul, and to dwell in the regions of the sun and moon, and to associate with the whole heaven, and the whole universal world. 3.2. At that time, therefore, looking down from above, from the air, and straining the eye of my mind as from a watch-tower, I surveyed the unspeakable contemplation of all the things on the earth, and looked upon myself as happy as having forcibly escaped from all the evil fates that can attack human life. 3.3. Nevertheless, the most grievous of all evils was lying in wait for me, namely, envy, that hates every thing that is good, and which, suddenly attacking me, did not cease from dragging me after it by force till it had taken me and thrown me into the vast sea of the cares of public politics, in which I was and still am tossed about without being able to keep myself swimming at the top. 3.4. But though I groan at my fate, I still hold out and resist, retaining in my soul that desire of instruction which has been implanted in it from my earliest youth, and this desire taking pity and compassion on me continually raises me up and alleviates my sorrow. And it is through this fondness for learning that I at times lift up my head, and with the eyes of my soul, which are indeed dim (for the mist of affairs, wholly inconsistent with their proper objects, has overshadowed their acute clear-sightedne 3.5. And if at any time unexpectedly there shall arise a brief period of tranquillity, and a short calm and respite from the troubles which arise from state affairs, I then rise aloft and float above the troubled waves, soaring as it were in the air, and being, I may almost say, blown forward by the breezes of knowledge, which often persuades me to flee away, and to pass all my days with her, escaping as it were from my pitiless masters, not men only, but also affairs which pour upon me from all quarters and at all times like a torrent. 3.6. But even in these circumstances I ought to give thanks to God, that though I am so overwhelmed by this flood, I am not wholly sunk and swallowed up in the depths. But I open the eyes of my soul, which from an utter despair of any good hope had been believed to have been before now wholly darkened, and I am irradiated with the light of wisdom, since I am not given up for the whole of my life to darkness. Behold, therefore, I venture not only to study the sacred commands of Moses, but also with an ardent love of knowledge to investigate each separate one of them, and to endeavour to reveal and to explain to those who wish to understand them, things concerning them which are not known to the multitude.II. ' "
3.45. And it is very likely that there may be other Pasipha's also, with passions equally unbridled, and that not women only, but men likewise may fall madly in love with animals, from whom, perhaps, indescribable monsters may be born, being memorials of the excessive pollution of men; owing to which, perhaps, those unnatural creations of unprecedented and fabulous monsters will exist, such as hippocentaurs and chimaeras, and other similar animals. " '

3.178. And this is the cause which is often mentioned by many people. But I have heard another also, alleged by persons of high character, who look upon the greater part of the injunctions contained in the law as plain symbols of obscure meanings, and expressed intimations of what may not be expressed. And this other reason alleged is as follows. There are two kinds of soul, much as there are two sexes among human relations; the one a masculine soul, belonging to men; the other a female soul, as found in women. The masculine soul is that which devotes itself to God alone, as the Father and Creator of the universe and the cause of all things that exist; but the female soul is that which depends upon all the things which are created, and as such are liable to destruction, and which puts forth, as it were, the hand of its power in order that in a blind sort of way it may lay hold of whatever comes across it, clinging to a generation which admits of an innumerable quantity of changes and variations, when it ought rather to cleave to the unchangeable, blessed, and thrice happy divine nature.
4.69. And what in life is there equally beautiful with truth, which the all-wise legislator erected in the most sacred place, in that part of the dress of the chief priest, where the domit part of the soul lies, wishing to adorn it with the most beautiful and glorious of all ornaments? And next to truth he has placed power as akin to it, which he has in this case called manifestation, being the two images of the two kinds of speech which exist in us, the secret speech and the lettered speech, for the lettered speech requires manifestation, by which the secret thoughts in all our hearts are made known to our neighbour, but the secret speech has need of truth for the perfection of life and actions, by means of which the road to happiness is found out.XII.
4.107. for as the animal which chews the cud, while it is masticating its food draws it down its throat, and then by slow degrees kneads and softens it, and then after this process again sends it down into the belly, in the same manner the man who is being instructed, having received the doctrines and speculations of wisdom in at his ears from his instructor, derives a considerable amount of learning from him, but still is not able to hold it firmly and to embrace it all at once, until he has resolved over in his mind everything which he has heard by the continued exercise of his memory (and this exercise of memory is the cement which connects idea
4.114. Again, in the case of those reptiles who have legs above their feet, so that they are able to take leaps from the ground, those Moses speaks of as clean; as, for instance, the different kinds of locusts, and that animal called the serpentfighter, here again intimating by figurative expressions the manners and habits of the rational soul. For the weight of the body being naturally heavy, drags down with it those who are but of small wisdom, strangling it and pressing it down by the weight of the flesh.
4.123. On which account Moses, in another passage, establishes a law concerning blood, that one may not eat the blood nor the Fat.{27}{'. None
48. Philo of Alexandria, On The Virtues, 199, 208-209, 212, 214, 216-217, 221 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • Allegorical Commentary, relation of, to other Philonic series • Allegory • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Philo • dispute between Abraham and Lot, allegorical interpretation of • migrations of Abraham, allegorical interpretation of • slaves/slavery, in Philo’s allegory

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 1, 225, 344; Gruen (2020) 153; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 226; Sly (1990) 99, 154, 157, 175

199. Again, who is there who would deny that those men who were born of him who was made out of the earth were noble themselves, and the founders of noble families? persons who have received a birth more excellent than that of any succeeding generation, in being sprung from the first wedded pair, from the first man and woman, who then for the first time came together for the propagation of offspring resembling themselves. But, nevertheless, when there were two persons so born, the elder of them endured to slay the younger; and, having committed the great and most accursed crime of fratricide, he first defiled the ground with human blood. '
208. Again, to the one who was approved of as the heir, there were born two sons, twins, resembling one another in no particular except in the hands, and even in them only by some especially providence of God, inasmuch as they were alike neither in their bodies nor in their minds, for the younger one was obedient to both his parents, and was really amiable and pleasing, so that he obtained the praises even of God; while the elder was disobedient, being intemperate in respect of the pleasures of the belly and of the parts beneath the belly, by a regard for which he was induced even to part with his birth-right, as far as he himself was concerned, though he repented immediately afterwards of the conditions on which he had forfeited it, and sought to slay his brother, and, in fact, to do everything imaginable by which he could be likely to pain his parents; 209. therefore they, in the first place, offered up prayers for his brother to the supreme God, who accepted them, and who did not choose to leave any one of them unaccomplished; while to the others they gave, out of compassion, a subordinate rank, appointing that he should serve his brother, thinking, as indeed is the truth, that the fact of not being his own master, is good for a wicked man.
212. The most ancient person of the Jewish nation was a Chaldaean by birth, born of a father who was very skilful in astronomy, and famous among those men who pass their lives in the study of mathematics, who look upon the stars as gods, and worship the whole heaven and the whole world; thinking, that from them do all good and all evil proceed, to every individual among men; as they do not conceive that there is any cause whatever, except such as are included among the objects of the outward senses. ' "
214. But this man, having formed a proper conception of this in his mind, and being under the influence of inspiration, left his country, and his family, and his father's house, well knowing that, if he remained among them, the deceitful fancies of the polytheistic doctrine abiding there likewise, must render his mind incapable of arriving at the proper discovery of the true God, who is the only everlasting God and the Father of all other things, whether appreciable only by the intellect or perceptible by the outward senses; while, on the other hand, he saw, that if he rose up and quitted his native land, deceit would also depart from his mind. changing his false opinions into true belief. " '
216. for which reason he is the first person who is said to have believed in God, since he was the first who had an unswerving and firm comprehension of him, apprehending that there is one supreme cause, and that he it is which governs the world by his providence, and all the things that are therein. And having attained to a most firm comprehension of the virtues, he acquired at the same time all the other virtues and excellencies also, so that he was looked upon as a king by those who received him, not indeed in respect of his appointments, for he was only a private individual, but in his magimity and greatness of soul, inasmuch as he was of a royal spirit. 217. For, indeed, his servants at all times steadfastly observed him, as subjects observe a ruler, looking with admiration at the universal greatness of his nature and disposition, which was more perfect than is customary to meet with in a man; for he did not use the same conversation as ordinary men, but, like one inspired, spoke in general in more dignified language. Whenever, therefore, he was possessed by the Holy Spirit he at once changed everything for the better, his eyes and his complexion, and his size and his appearance while standing, and his motions, and his voice; the Holy Spirit, which, being breathed into him from above, took up its lodging in his soul, clothing his body with extraordinary beauty, and investing his words with persuasiveness at the same time that it endowed his hearers with understanding.
221. for Tamar was a woman from Syria Palestina, who had been bred up in her own native city, which was devoted to the worship of many gods, being full of statues, and images, and, in short, of idols of every kind and description. But when she, emerging, as it were, out of profound darkness, was able to see a slight beam of truth, she then, at the risk of her life, exerted all her energies to arrive at piety, caring little for life if she could not live virtuously; and living virtuously was exactly identical with living for the service of and in constant supplication to the one true God. '. None
49. Philo of Alexandria, On The Contemplative Life, 28-29, 31, 78 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • Allegorical Interpretation • Allegory • Egypt, allegorical interpretation of • Exegesis, allegorical • Kingly Power, allegorical interpretation of • Stoics, allegorical exegesis of • allegorical interpretation • allegorical interpretation, Philonic • allegorical interpretation, reality and • allegorical interpretation, stoic allegoresis of theological myths • allegorists • allegory • allegory / allegoresis • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • exegesis, allegorical • marriage, allegorical interpretation of • reader, allegorical • the three visitors, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 33, 240, 263, 362; Boulluec (2022) 30, 31; Geljon and Runia (2013) 8; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 120; Najman (2010) 103, 104; Niehoff (2011) 165, 167; Sly (1990) 210; Černušková (2016) 104

28. And the interval between morning and evening is by them devoted wholly to meditation on and to practice of virtue, for they take up the sacred scriptures and philosophise concerning them, investigating the allegories of their national philosophy, since they look upon their literal expressions as symbols of some secret meaning of nature, intended to be conveyed in those figurative expressions. '29. They have also writings of ancient men, who having been the founders of one sect or another have left behind them many memorials of the allegorical system of writing and explanation, whom they take as a kind of model, and imitate the general fashion of their sect; so that they do not occupy themselves solely in contemplation, but they likewise compose psalms and hymns to God in every kind of metre and melody imaginable, which they of necessity arrange in more dignified rhythm.
31. and then the eldest of them who has the most profound learning in their doctrines, comes forward and speaks with steadfast look and with steadfast voice, with great powers of reasoning, and great prudence, not making an exhibition of his oratorical powers like the rhetoricians of old, or the sophists of the present day, but investigating with great pains, and explaining with minute accuracy the precise meaning of the laws, which sits, not indeed at the tips of their ears, but penetrates through their hearing into the soul, and remains there lastingly; and all the rest listen in silence to the praises which he bestows upon the law, showing their assent only by nods of the head, or the eager look of the eyes.
78. And these explanations of the sacred scriptures are delivered by mystic expressions in allegories, for the whole of the law appears to these men to resemble a living animal, and its express commandments seem to be the body, and the invisible meaning concealed under and lying beneath the plain words resembles the soul, in which the rational soul begins most excellently to contemplate what belongs to itself, as in a mirror, beholding in these very words the exceeding beauty of the sentiments, and unfolding and explaining the symbols, and bringing the secret meaning naked to the light to all who are able by the light of a slight intimation to perceive what is unseen by what is visible. '. None
50. Philo of Alexandria, On The Life of Moses, 1.1, 1.5, 1.23-1.24, 1.62, 1.263, 1.279, 1.289, 2.31, 2.48, 2.50-2.51, 2.74, 2.76, 2.97-2.100, 2.103, 2.107-2.108, 2.127-2.129 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • Allegorical Interpretation • Allegory • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Philo • Allegory, allegorical exegesis • Egypt, allegorical interpretation of • Exegesis, allegorical • Hellenistic Judaism, allegorists • Homer, Allegory of the jars • Jars, allegory of • Philo and allegorical interpretation, on narrative and law • Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation • Sodom, allegorical interpretation of • allegorical interpretation • allegorical interpretation of cult • allegorical interpretation, stoic allegoresis of theological myths • allegorical interpretation, universal significance of • allegorists • allegory • allegory / allegoresis • allegory, • allegory/-ies • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • exegesis, allegorical • marriage, allegorical interpretation of • migrations of Abraham, allegorical interpretation of • scripture, allegorical interpretation • slaves/slavery, in Philo’s allegory • the three visitors, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Bar Kochba (1997) 174; Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 4, 28, 223, 225, 242, 244, 265, 271, 277, 298, 310; Bloch (2022) 33, 159; Boulluec (2022) 30, 31; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 348, 349; Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 34; Geljon and Runia (2013) 122; Gruen (2020) 153; Hayes (2022) 466; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 93, 119; Najman (2010) 208, 255; Niehoff (2011) 44, 171, 172; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 95, 224; Sly (1990) 117; Wilson (2010) 171; Černušková (2016) 101

1.1. I have conceived the idea of writing the life of Moses, who, according to the account of some persons, was the lawgiver of the Jews, but according to others only an interpreter of the sacred laws, the greatest and most perfect man that ever lived, having a desire to make his character fully known to those who ought not to remain in ignorance respecting him,
1.5. And I will begin first with that with which it is necessary to begin. Moses was by birth a Hebrew, but he was born, and brought up, and educated in Egypt, his ancestors having migrated into Egypt with all their families on account of the long famine which oppressed Babylon and all the adjacent countries; for they were in search of food, and Egypt was a champaign country blessed with a rich soil, and very productive of every thing which the nature of man requires, and especially of corn and wheat,
1.23. Accordingly he speedily learnt arithmetic, and geometry, and the whole science of rhythm and harmony and metre, and the whole of music, by means of the use of musical instruments, and by lectures on the different arts, and by explanations of each topic; and lessons on these subjects were given him by Egyptian philosophers, who also taught him the philosophy which is contained in symbols, which they exhibit in those sacred characters of hieroglyphics, as they are called, and also that philosophy which is conversant about that respect which they pay to animals which they invest with the honours due to God. And all the other branches of the encyclical education he learnt from Greeks; and the philosophers from the adjacent countries taught him Assyrian literature and the knowledge of the heavenly bodies so much studied by the Chaldaeans. 1.24. And this knowledge he derived also from the Egyptians, who study mathematics above all things, and he learnt with great accuracy the state of that art among both the Chaldaeans and Egyptians, making himself acquainted with the points in which they agree with and differ from each other--making himself master of all their disputes without encouraging any disputatious disposition in himself--but seeking the plain truth, since his mind was unable to admit any falsehood, as those are accustomed to do who contend violently for one particular side of a question; and who advocate any doctrine which is set before them, whatever it may be, not inquiring whether it deserves to be supported, but acting in the same manner as those lawyers who defend a cause for pay, and are wholly indifferent to the justice of their cause.
1.62. And it appears to me, who have examined the matter not with any reference to the opinions of the many, but solely with regard to truth (and he may laugh who please
1.263. This war struck all the Asiatic nations with terrible consternation, and especially all those who were near the borders of the Amorites, inasmuch as they looked upon the dangers as being nearer to themselves. Accordingly, one of the neighbouring kings, by name Balak, who ruled over a large and thickly inhabited country of the east, before he met them in battle, feeling great distrust of his own power, did not think fit to meet them in close combat, being desirous to avoid carrying on a war of extermination by open arms; but he had recourse to inquiries and divination, thinking that by some kind of ruse or other he might be able to overthrow the irresistible power of the Hebrews.
1.279. Who has ever discovered with accuracy the first origin of the birth of these people? Their bodies, indeed, may have been fashioned according to human means of propagation; but their souls have been brought forth by divine agency, wherefore they are nearly related to God. May my soul die as to the death of the body, that it may be remembered among the souls of the righteous, such as the souls of these men are."
1.289. What, then, said the man who saw truly, who in his sleep saw a clear vision of God with the ever open and sleepless eyes of his soul? "How goodly are thy abodes, O army of Hebrews; they tents are shady as groves, as a paradise on the bank of a river, as a cedar by the waters.
2.31. He, then, being a sovereign of this character, and having conceived a great admiration for and love of the legislation of Moses, conceived the idea of having our laws translated into the Greek language; and immediately he sent out ambassadors to the high-priest and king of Judea, for they were the same person.
2.48. for he was not like any ordinary compiler of history, studying to leave behind him records of ancient transactions as memorials to future ages for the mere sake of affording pleasure without any advantage; but he traced back the most ancient events from the beginning of the world, commencing with the creation of the universe, in order to make known two most necessary principles. First, that the same being was the father and creator of the world, and likewise the lawgiver of truth; secondly, that the man who adhered to these laws, and clung closely to a connection with and obedience to nature, would live in a manner corresponding to the arrangement of the universe with a perfect harmony and union, between his words and his actions and between his actions and his words.
2.50. But he, thinking the first of the two courses above mentioned to be tyrannical and despotic, as indeed it is, namely, that of laying positive commands on persons as if they were not free men but slaves, without offering them any alleviation; and that the second course was better indeed, but was not entirely to be commended, must appear to all judges to be superior in each of the above considerations. 2.51. For both in his commandments and also in his prohibitions he suggests and recommends rather than commands, endeavouring with many prefaces and perorations to suggest the greater part of the precepts that he desires to enforce, desiring rather to allure men to virtue than to drive them to it, and looking upon the foundation and beginning of a city made with hands, which he has made the commencement of his work a commencement beneath the dignity of his laws, looking rather with the most accurate eye of his mind at the importance and beauty of his whole legislative system, and thinking it too excellent and too divine to be limited as it were by any circle of things on earth; and therefore he has related the creation of that great metropolis, the world, thinking his laws the most fruitful image and likeness of the constitution of the whole world.
2.74. Therefore Moses now determined to build a tabernacle, a most holy edifice, the furniture of which he was instructed how to supply by precise commands from God, given to him while he was on the mount, contemplating with his soul the incorporeal patterns of bodies which were about to be made perfect, in due similitude to which he was bound to make the furniture, that it might be an imitation perceptible by the outward senses of an archetypal sketch and pattern, appreciable only by the intellect;
2.76. Therefore the general form of the model was stamped upon the mind of the prophet, being accurately painted and fashioned beforehand invisibly without any materials, in species which were not apparent to the eye; and the completion of the work was made in the similitude of the model, the maker giving an accurate representation of the impression in material substances corresponding to each part of the model,
2.97. But the ark is the depository of the laws, for in that are placed the holy oracles of God, which were given to Moses; and the covering of the ark, which is called the mercy-seat, is a foundation for two winged creatures to rest upon, which are called, in the native language of the Hebrews, cherubim, but as the Greeks would translate the word, vast knowledge and science. 2.98. Now some persons say, that these cherubim are the symbols of the two hemispheres, placed opposite to and fronting one another, the one beneath the earth and the other above the earth, for the whole heaven is endowed with wings. 2.99. But I myself should say, that what is here represented under a figure are the two most ancient and supreme powers of the divine God, namely, his creative and his kingly power; and his creative power is called God; according to which he arranged, and created, and adorned this universe, and his kingly power is called Lord, by which he rules over the beings whom he has created, and governs them with justice and firmness; 2.100. for he, being the only true living God, is also really the Creator of the world; since he brought things which had no existence into being; and he is also a king by nature, because no one can rule over beings that have been created more justly than he who created them.
2.103. and in all the seven there were seven candles and seven lights, being symbols of those seven stars which are called planets by those men who are versed in natural philosophy; for the sun, like the candlestick, being placed in the middle of the other six, in the fourth rank, gives light to the three planets which are above him, and to those of equal number which are below him, adapting to circumstances the musical and truly divine instrument.
2.107. for if the man who made the offerings was foolish and ignorant, the sacrifices were no sacrifices, the victims were not sacred or hallowed, the prayers were ill-omened, and liable to be answered by utter destruction, for even when they appear to be received, they produce no remission of sins but only a reminding of them. 2.108. But if the man who offers the sacrifice be bold and just, then the sacrifice remains firm, even if the flesh of the victim be consumed, or rather, I might say, even if no victim be offered up at all; for what can be a real and true sacrifice but the piety of a soul which loves God? The gratitude of which is blessed with immortality, and without being recorded in writing is engraved on a pillar in the mind of God, being made equally everlasting with the sun, and moon, and the universal world.
2.127. And this logeum is described as double with great correctness; for reason is double, both in the universe and also in the nature of mankind, in the universe there is that reason which is conversant about incorporeal species which are like patterns as it were, from which that world which is perceptible only by the intellect was made, and also that which is concerned with the visible objects of sight, which are copies and imitations of those species above mentioned, of which the world which is perceptible by the outward senses was made. Again, in man there is one reason which is kept back, and another which finds vent in utterance: and the one is, as it were a spring, and the other (that which is uttered 2.128. And the architect assigned a quadrangular form to the logeum, intimating under an exceedingly beautiful figure, that both the reason of nature, and also that of man, ought to penetrate everywhere, and ought never to waver in any case; in reference to which, it is that he has also assigned to it the two virtues that have been already enumerated, manifestation and truth; for the reason of nature is true, and calculated to make manifest, and to explain everything; and the reason of the wise man, imitating that other reason, ought naturally, and appropriately to be completely sincere, honouring truth, and not obscuring anything through envy, the knowledge of which can benefit those to whom it would be explained; 2.129. not but what he has also assigned their two appropriate virtues to those two kinds of reason which exist in each of us, namely, that which is uttered and that which is kept concealed, attributing clearness of manifestation to the uttered one, and truth to that which is concealed in the mind; for it is suitable to the mind that it should admit of no error or falsehood, and to explanation that it should not hinder anything that can conduce to the most accurate manifestation. ''. None
51. Philo of Alexandria, Against Flaccus, 19 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • Egypt, allegorical interpretation of • marriage, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 246; Geljon and Runia (2013) 5

19. but they, for they persisted in their ill-will, being reconciled with him only in words and in appearance, but in their actions and in their hearts they bore him incurable enmity, and though only pretending a genuine friendship towards him, like actors in a theatre, they drew him over wholly to their side; and so the governor became a subject, and the subjects became the governor, advancing the most unprofitable opinions, and immediately confirming and insisting upon them; ''. None
52. Philo of Alexandria, On The Embassy To Gaius, 1 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • Allegorical Commentary, relation of, to other Philonic series

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 13; Geljon and Runia (2013) 5

1. How long shall we, who are aged men, still be like children, being indeed as to our bodies gray-headed through the length of time that we have lived, but as to our souls utterly infantine through our want of sense and sensibility, looking upon that which is the most unstable of all things, namely, fortune, as most invariable, and that which is of all things in the world the most steadfast, namely, nature, as utterly untrustworthy? For, like people playing at draughts, we make changes, altering the position of actions, and considering the things which are the result of fortune as more durable than those which result from nature, and the things which proceed in accordance with nature as less stable than those which are the result of chance. ''. None
53. Philo of Alexandria, Who Is The Heir, 214, 258, 265, 278 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Philo • allegory / allegoresis • migrations of Abraham, allegorical interpretation of • slaves/slavery, in Philo’s allegory

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 214, 220; Gruen (2020) 153; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 119; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 226, 227; Sly (1990) 3, 152

214. Is not this the thing which the Greeks say that Heraclitus, that great philosopher who is so celebrated among them, put forth as the leading principle of his whole philosophy, and boasted of it as if it were a new discovery? For it is in reality an ancient discovery of Moses, that out of the same thing opposite things are produced having the ratio of parts to the whole, as has here been shown. XLVI. '
258. An instance of the fourth kind of trance is the one which we are now considering: "And about the setting of the sun a trance fell upon Abraham," he being thrown into a state of enthusiasm and inspired by the Deity. But this is not the only thing which shows him to have been a prophet, but also the express words which are engraven in the sacred scriptures as on a pillar. When some one endeavored to separate Sarah, that is, the virtue which is derived from nature, from him, as if she had not been the peculiar property of the wise man alone, but had also belonged to every one who made any pretence to wisdom, God said, "Give the man back his wife, because he is a prophet, and he will pray for thee, and thou shalt Live;"
265. and this very frequently happens to the race of prophets; for the mind that is in us is removed from its place at the arrival of the divine Spirit, but is again restored to its previous habitation when that Spirit departs, for it is contrary to holy law for what is mortal to dwell with what is immortal. On this account the setting of our reason, and the darkness which surrounds it, causes a trance and a heaven-inflicted madness.
278. For how can it be reasonable for him who was once been removed from his abode by the interference of Divine Providence, to return and dwell again in the same place? And how could it be reasonable for one who was about to be the leader of a new nation and or another race to be again assigned to his ancient one? For God would never have given to him a new character, and a new nation and family, if he had not wholly and entirely separated himself from his ancient one. '. None
54. Philo of Alexandria, That The Worse Attacks The Better, 59, 81, 83, 125 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • Allegorical Interpretation • Allegory • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Philo • Kingly Power, Lot omitted from allegory of • Kingly Power, allegorical interpretation of • Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation • Philos colleagues, allegorical • allegory • grammatical archive, commentarial strategies, allegory (ἀλληγορία) • reader, Jewish allegorical • reader, allegorical

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 365; Najman (2010) 208; Niehoff (2011) 140, 156, 173; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 215; Sly (1990) 152; Ward (2022) 38

59. Since, when he asks the wise man, Where is Virtue? that is to say, when he asks Abraham about Sarah, he asks, not because he is ignorant, but because he thinks that he ought to answer for the sake of eliciting praise from the answer of him who speaks. Accordingly, Moses tells us that Abraham answered, "Behold, she is in the tent;" that is to say, in the soul. What then is there in this answer that contains praise? Behold, says he, I keep virtue in my house as a treasure carefully stored up, and on account of this I am immediately happy.
81. And, indeed, he is accustomed diligently to record all the suggestions and purposes of God from the beginning, thinking it right to adopt his subsequent statements to aid to make them consistent with his first accounts. Therefore, after he had previously stated the breath to be the essence of the life, he would not subsequently have spoken of the blood as occupying the most important place in the body, unless he had been making a reference to some very necessary and comprehensive principle.
83. Therefore, the faculty which is common to us with the irrational animals, has blood for its essence. And it, having flowed form the rational fountain, is spirit, not air in motion, but rather a certain representation and character of the divine faculty which Moses calls by its proper name an image, showing by his language that God is the archetypal pattern of rational nature, and that man is the imitation of him, and the image formed after his model; not meaning by man that animal of a double nature, but the most excellent species of the soul which is called mind and reason.
125. If, therefore, any one is worthy to listen to the account of the creative power of God he is of necessity joyful, and rejoices in company with those who have had a longing to hear the same. And in the account of the creative power of God you will find no cunningly devised fable, but only unalloyed laws of truth firmly established. Moreover, you will find no vocal measures or rhythm, no melodies alluring the hearing with musical art; but only most perfect works of virtue, which have all of them a peculiar harmony and fitness. And as the mind rejoices which is eager to hear of the works of God, so also does language, which is in harmony with the conceptions of the mind, and which in a manner is compelled to attend to them, feel exultation. XXXIV. ''. None
55. Philo of Alexandria, That God Is Unchangeable, 53-54, 59 (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • the three visitors, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 273; Bloch (2022) 160; Sly (1990) 93

53. For of all the laws which are couched in the form of injunction or prohibition, and such alone are properly speaking laws; there are two principal positions laid down with respect to the great cause of all things: one, that God is not as a man; the other, that God is as a man.14 '54. But the first of these assertions is confirmed by the most certain truth, while the latter is introduced for the instruction of the many. In reference to which, it is said concerning them, "as a man would instruct his son."15 And this is said for the sake of instruction and admonition, and not because he is really such by nature.
59. And why need we mention the organs of luxury? For if he has these organs, then he is fed, and when he has satisfied himself he leaves off eating, and after he has left eating he wants food again; and I need not enumerate other particulars which are the necessary consequences of this; for these are the fabulous inventions of impious men, who represent God, in word indeed only as endued with human form, but in fact as influenced by human passions. XIII. '. None
56. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • allegory

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 186; de Jáuregui (2010) 142

57. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Heraclitus (the allegorist’) • allegory

 Found in books: Farrell (2021) 83; Gale (2000) 89

58. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. BCE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Heracles/Hercules, allegorization of • Stoicism, allegorization • allegory • allegory/allegorization

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 214; Gale (2000) 126, 139, 142; Malherbe et al (2014) 655, 668

59. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • allegory • dispute between Abraham and Lot, allegorical interpretation of • scripture allegorical interpretation • scripture allegorical interpretation, literal interpretation • slaves/slavery, in Philo’s allegory

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 403; Geljon and Runia (2019) 231; Gruen (2020) 153; Niehoff (2011) 142

60. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • Allegorical Interpretation • Allegory • Allegory of the Law • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Philo • Allegory, allegorical exegesis • Egypt, allegorical interpretation of • Exegesis, allegorical • Heraclitus the Allegorist • Heraclitus, allegorist • Kingly Power, allegorical interpretation of • On the Contemplative Life, allegorical interpretation of choirs by Red sea • Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation • Philos colleagues, allegorical • Plato, the chariot allegory • Sodom, allegorical interpretation of • allegorical interpretation • allegorical interpretation of cult • allegorical interpretation, literal interpretation) • allegorical interpretation, stoic allegoresis of theological myths • allegorical interpretation, “suited to the few” • allegorists • allegory • allegory / allegoresis • allegory, Greek terms for • allegory, figurative • allegory, philosophical • allegory/-ies • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • dispute between Abraham and Lot, allegorical interpretation of • exegesis, allegorical • marriage, allegorical interpretation of • migrations of Abraham, allegorical interpretation of • reader, Jewish allegorical • reader, allegorical • sacrifice of Isaac, allegorical interpretation of • scripture allegorical interpretation • scripture allegorical interpretation, deeper meaning • scripture allegorical interpretation, literal interpretation • the three visitors, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Agri (2022) 176; Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 33, 217, 218, 225, 226, 242, 244, 246, 264, 266, 294, 296, 299, 327, 330, 331, 343, 345, 367; Bloch (2022) 159; Boulluec (2022) 143; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 346, 435; Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 34; Estes (2020) 205, 237; Garcia (2021) 79; Geljon and Runia (2013) 187; Geljon and Runia (2019) 141, 142, 215; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 93; Kaplan (2015) 16, 17; Kessler (2004) 101; Kraemer (2010) 84; Najman (2010) 208, 211; Niehoff (2011) 118, 137, 142, 155, 156, 158, 159, 163, 175, 179; Nisula (2012) 205; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 214, 218; Rosenblum (2016) 67, 68; Rowland (2009) 540; Sly (1990) 47, 95, 112, 128, 134, 147, 150, 151, 152, 165; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020) 10, 19; Witter et al. (2021) 176, 177, 180; Černušková (2016) 104, 115

61. None, None, nan (1st cent. BCE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Philo • Allegory, allegorical exegesis • Kingly Power, allegorical interpretation of • Sodom, allegorical interpretation of • allegorical interpretation, literal interpretation) • allegory • allegory / allegoresis • scripture allegorical interpretation • scripture allegorical interpretation, deeper meaning

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 293, 364; Bloch (2022) 159; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 200; Geljon and Runia (2019) 146; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 119; Lieu (2015) 358; Nisula (2012) 206; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 221; Sly (1990) 99; Smith and Stuckenbruck (2020) 12

62. Clement of Rome, 1 Clement, 40-41 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Exegesis, allegorical • allegory, allegorists

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022) 22, 195; Petropoulou (2012) 275

40. These things therefore being manifest to us, and since we look into the depths of the divine knowledge, it behooves us to do all things in their proper order, which the Lord has commanded us to perform at stated times. He has enjoined offerings to be presented and service to be performed to Him, and that not thoughtlessly or irregularly, but at the appointed times and hours. Where and by whom He desires these things to be done, He Himself has fixed by His own supreme will, in order that all things, being piously done according to His good pleasure, may be acceptable unto Him. Those, therefore, who present their offerings at the appointed times, are accepted and blessed; for inasmuch as they follow the laws of the Lord, they sin not. For his own peculiar services are assigned to the high priest, and their own proper place is prescribed to the priests, and their own special ministrations devolve on the Levites. The layman is bound by the laws that pertain to laymen. '41. Let every one of you, brethren, give thanks to God in his own order, living in all good conscience, with becoming gravity, and not going beyond the rule of the ministry prescribed to him. Not in every place, brethren, are the daily sacrifices offered, or the peace-offerings, or the sin-offerings and the trespass-offerings, but in Jerusalem only. And even there they are not offered in any place, but only at the altar before the temple, that which is offered being first carefully examined by the high priest and the ministers already mentioned. Those, therefore, who do anything beyond that which is agreeable to His will, are punished with death. You see, brethren, that the greater the knowledge that has been vouchsafed to us, the greater also is the danger to which we are exposed. '. None
63. Dio Chrysostom, Orations, 8.20-8.26 (1st cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Heracles/Hercules, allegorization of • Heraclitus (the allegorist’) • allegory • allegory/allegorization • pleasure (ἡδονή‎), Circe as allegory of

 Found in books: Gale (2000) 89; Malherbe et al (2014) 652; Wolfsdorf (2020) 374

8.20. \xa0"But there is another battle more terrible and a struggle not slight but much greater than this and fraught with greater danger, I\xa0mean the fight against pleasure. Nor is it like that battle which Homer speaks of when he says, Fiercely then around the ships The struggle was renewed. With halberds and with trenchant battle-axe They fought, with mighty sword and two-edged spear. < 8.21. \xa0No, it is no such battle, for pleasure uses no open force but deceives and casts a spell with baneful drugs, just as Homer says Circe drugged the comrades of Odysseus, and some forthwith became swine, some wolves, and some other kinds of beasts. Yes, such is this thing pleasure, that hatches no single plot but all kinds of plots, and aims to undo men through sight, sound, smell, taste, and touch, with food too, and drink and carnal lust, tempting the waking and the sleeping alike. < 8.22. \xa0For it is not possible to set guards and then lie down to sleep as in ordinary warfare, since it is just then of all times that she makes her attack, at one time weakening and enslaving the soul by means of sleep itself, at another, sending mischievous and insidious dreams that suggest her. < 8.23. \xa0"Now work is carried on by means of touch for the most part and proceeds in that way, but pleasure assails a man through each and every sense that he has; and while he must face and grapple with work, to pleasure he must give the widest berth possible and have none but unavoidable dealings with her. <' "8.24. \xa0And herein the strongest man is indeed strongest, one might almost say, who can keep the farthest away from pleasures; for it is impossible to dwell with pleasure or even to dally with her for any length of time without being completely enslaved. Hence when she gets the mastery and overpowers the soul by her charms, the rest of Circe's sorcery at once follows. With a stroke of her wand pleasure coolly drives her victim into a sort of sty and pens him up, <" '8.25. \xa0and now from that time forth the man goes on living as a pig or a wolf. Pleasure also brings divers and deadly vipers into being, and other crawling things that attend constantly upon her as they lie about her doors, and though yearning for pleasure and serving her, they yet suffer a\xa0thousand hardships all in vain. < 8.26. \xa0For pleasure, after overpowering and taking possession of her victims, delivers them over to hardships, the most hateful and most difficult to endure. "This is the contest which I\xa0steadfastly maintain, and in which I\xa0risk my life against pleasure and hardship, yet not a single wretched mortal gives heed to me, but only to the jumpers and runners and dancers. <''. None
64. Ignatius, To The Philadelphians, 6.1 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • Exegesis, allegorical

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022) 22; Lieu (2015) 409

6.1. But if any one propound Judaism unto you, here him not: for it is better to hear Christianity from a man who is circumcised than Judaism from one uncircumcised. But if either the one or the other speak not concerning Jesus Christ, I look on them as tombstones and graves of the dead, whereon are inscribed only the names of men. ''. None
65. Josephus Flavius, Jewish Antiquities, 3.180-3.187 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory, allegorical exegesis • allegorical interpretation of cult

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 348, 349; Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 41

3.181. τήν τε γὰρ σκηνὴν τριάκοντα πηχῶν οὖσαν νείμας εἰς τρία καὶ δύο μέρη πᾶσιν ἀνεὶς τοῖς ἱερεῦσιν ὥσπερ βέβηλόν τινα καὶ κοινὸν τόπον, τὴν γῆν καὶ τὴν θάλασσαν ἀποσημαίνει: καὶ γὰρ ταῦτα πᾶσίν ἐστιν ἐπιβατά. τὴν δὲ τρίτην μοῖραν μόνῳ περιέγραψε τῷ θεῷ διὰ τὸ καὶ τὸν οὐρανὸν ἀνεπίβατον εἶναι ἀνθρώποις. 3.182. ἐπί τε τῇ τραπέζῃ τοὺς δώδεκα τιθεὶς ἄρτους ἀποσημαίνει τὸν ἐνιαυτὸν εἰς τοσούτους μῆνας διῃρημένον. τὴν δὲ λυχνίαν ἐξ ἑβδομήκοντα μορίων ποιήσας συγκειμένην τὰς τῶν πλανητῶν δεκαμοιρίας ᾐνίξατο: καὶ λύχνους ὑπὲρ αὐτῆς ἑπτά, τῶν πλανητῶν τὴν φοράν: τοσοῦτοι γάρ εἰσι τὸν ἀριθμόν.' "3.183. τά τε φάρση ἐκ τεσσάρων ὑφανθέντα τὴν τῶν στοιχείων φύσιν δηλοῖ: ἥ τε γὰρ βύσσος τὴν γῆν ἀποσημαίνειν ἔοικε διὰ τὸ ἐξ αὐτῆς ἀνεῖσθαι τὸ λίνον, ἥ τε πορφύρα τὴν θάλασσαν τῷ πεφοινῖχθαι τῶν ἰχθύων τῷ αἵματι, τὸν δὲ ἀέρα βούλεται δηλοῦν ὁ ὑάκινθος, καὶ ὁ φοῖνιξ δ' ἂν εἴη τεκμήριον τοῦ πυρός." "3.184. ἀποσημαίνει δὲ καὶ ὁ τοῦ ἀρχιερέως χιτὼν τὴν γῆν λίνεος ὤν, ὁ δὲ ὑάκινθος τὸν πόλον, ἀστραπαῖς μὲν κατὰ τοὺς ῥοί̈σκους ἀπεικασμένος βρονταῖς δὲ κατὰ τὸν τῶν κωδώνων ψόφον. καὶ τὴν ἐφαπτίδα τοῦ παντὸς τὴν φύσιν ἐκ τεσσάρων δοχθεῖσαν γενέσθαι τῷ θεῷ χρυσῷ συνυφασμένην κατ' ἐπίνοιαν οἶμαι τῆς προσούσης ἅπασιν αὐγῆς." '3.185. καὶ τὸν ἐσσῆνα μέσον ὄντα τῆς ἐφαπτίδος ἐν τρόπῳ γῆς ἔταξε: καὶ γὰρ αὕτη τὸν μεσαίτατον τόπον ἔχει: ζώνῃ τε περιοδεύσας τὸν ὠκεανὸν ἀποσημαίνει: καὶ γὰρ οὗτος ἐμπεριείληφε τὰ πάντα. δηλοῖ δὲ καὶ τὸν ἥλιον καὶ τὴν σελήνην τῶν σαρδονύχων ἑκάτερος, οἷς ἐνεπόρπωσε τὸν ἀρχιερέα.' "3.186. τήν τε δωδεκάδα τῶν λίθων εἴτε τοὺς μῆνάς τις θέλοι νοεῖν, εἴτε τὸν οὕτως ἀριθμὸν τῶν ἀστέρων, ὃν ζωδιακὸν κύκλον ̔́Ελληνες καλοῦσι, τῆς κατ' ἐκεῖνο γνώμης οὐκ ἂν ἁμάρτοι: καὶ ὁ πῖλος δέ μοι δοκεῖ τὸν οὐρανὸν τεκμηριοῦν ὑακίνθινος πεποιημένος," '3.187. οὐ γὰρ ἂν ἄλλως ὑπερανετίθετο αὐτῷ τὸ ὄνομα τοῦ θεοῦ τῇ στεφάνῃ ἠγλαϊσμένον καὶ ταύτῃ χρυσέᾳ, διὰ τὴν αὐγήν, ᾗ μάλιστα χαίρει τὸ θεῖον. καὶ ταῦτα μὲν ἐπὶ τοσοῦτόν μοι δεδηλώσθω πολλάκις τε καὶ ἐν πολλοῖς τὴν ἀρετὴν τοῦ νομοθέτου παρεξόντων ἡμῖν διελθεῖν τῶν πραγμάτων.' '. None
3.181. When Moses distinguished the tabernacle into three parts, and allowed two of them to the priests, as a place accessible and common, he denoted the land and the sea, these being of general access to all; but he set apart the third division for God, because heaven is inaccessible to men. 3.182. And when he ordered twelve loaves to be set on the table, he denoted the year, as distinguished into so many months. By branching out the candlestick into seventy parts, he secretly intimated the Decani, or seventy divisions of the planets; and as to the seven lamps upon the candlesticks, they referred to the course of the planets, of which that is the number. 3.183. The veils, too, which were composed of four things, they declared the four elements; for the fine linen was proper to signify the earth, because the flax grows out of the earth; the purple signified the sea, because that color is dyed by the blood of a sea shell-fish; the blue is fit to signify the air; and the scarlet will naturally be an indication of fire. 3.184. Now the vestment of the high priest being made of linen, signified the earth; the blue denoted the sky, being like lightning in its pomegranates, and in the noise of the bells resembling thunder. And for the ephod, it showed that God had made the universe of four elements; and as for the gold interwoven, I suppose it related to the splendor by which all things are enlightened. 3.185. He also appointed the breastplate to be placed in the middle of the ephod, to resemble the earth, for that has the very middle place of the world. And the girdle which encompassed the high priest round, signified the ocean, for that goes round about and includes the universe. Each of the sardonyxes declares to us the sun and the moon; those, I mean, that were in the nature of buttons on the high priest’s shoulders. 3.186. And for the twelve stones, whether we understand by them the months, or whether we understand the like number of the signs of that circle which the Greeks call the Zodiac, we shall not be mistaken in their meaning. And for the mitre, which was of a blue color, it seems to me to mean heaven; 3.187. for how otherwise could the name of God be inscribed upon it? That it was also illustrated with a crown, and that of gold also, is because of that splendor with which God is pleased. Let this explication suffice at present, since the course of my narration will often, and on many occasions, afford me the opportunity of enlarging upon the virtue of our legislator.' '. None
66. Josephus Flavius, Jewish War, 5.205, 5.228-5.236 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical Commentary • Allegorical Commentary, relation of, to other Philonic series • allegorical interpretation of cult • allegory,

 Found in books: Bay (2022) 207; Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 1; Dignas Parker and Stroumsa (2013) 41

5.205. πεντήκοντα γὰρ πηχῶν οὖσα τὴν ἀνάστασιν τεσσαρακονταπήχεις τὰς θύρας εἶχε καὶ τὸν κόσμον πολυτελέστερον ἐπὶ δαψιλὲς πάχος ἀργύρου τε καὶ χρυσοῦ. τοῦτον δὲ ταῖς ἐννέα πύλαις ἐπέχεεν ὁ Τιβερίου πατὴρ ̓Αλέξανδρος.' "
5.228. Τῶν δ' ἀπὸ γένους ἱερέων ὅσοι διὰ πήρωσιν οὐκ ἐλειτούργουν παρῆσάν τε ἅμα τοῖς ὁλοκλήροις ἐνδοτέρω τοῦ γεισίου καὶ τὰς ἀπὸ τοῦ γένους ἐλάμβανον μερίδας, ταῖς γε μὴν ἐσθῆσιν ἰδιωτικαῖς ἐχρῶντο: τὴν γὰρ ἱερὰν ὁ λειτουργῶν ἠμφιέννυτο μόνος." '5.229. ἐπὶ δὲ τὸ θυσιαστήριον καὶ τὸν ναὸν ἀνέβαινον οἱ τῶν ἱερέων ἄμωμοι, βύσσον μὲν ἀμπεχόμενοι, μάλιστα δὲ ἀπὸ ἀκράτου νήφοντες δέει τῆς θρησκείας, ὡς μή τι παραβαῖεν ἐν τῇ λειτουργίᾳ.' "5.231. ἐλειτούργει δὲ τοὺς μηροὺς μέχρις αἰδοίου διαζώματι καλύπτων λινοῦν τε ὑποδύτην ἔνδοθεν λαμβάνων καὶ ποδήρη καθύπερθεν ὑακίνθινον, ἔνδυμα στρογγύλον θυσανωτόν: τῶν δὲ θυσάνων ἀπήρτηντο κώδωνες χρύσεοι καὶ ῥοαὶ παράλληλοι, βροντῆς μὲν οἱ κώδωνες, ἀστραπῆς δ' αἱ ῥοαὶ σημεῖον." "5.232. ἡ δὲ τὸ ἔνδυμα τῷ στέρνῳ προσηλοῦσα ταινία πέντε διηνθισμένη ζώναις πεποίκιλτο, χρυσοῦ τε καὶ πορφύρας καὶ κόκκου πρὸς δὲ βύσσου καὶ ὑακίνθου, δι' ὧν ἔφαμεν καὶ τὰ τοῦ ναοῦ καταπετάσματα συνυφάνθαι." "5.233. τούτοις δὲ καὶ ἐπωμίδα κεκραμένην εἶχεν, ἐν ᾗ πλείων χρυσὸς ἦν. σχῆμα μὲν οὖν ἐνδυτοῦ θώρακος εἶχεν, δύο δ' αὐτὴν ἐνεπόρπων ἀσπιδίσκαι χρυσαῖ, κατεκέκλειντο δ' ἐν ταύταις κάλλιστοί τε καὶ μέγιστοι σαρδόνυχες, τοὺς ἐπωνύμους τῶν τοῦ ἔθνους φυλῶν ἐπιγεγραμμέναι." "5.234. κατὰ δὲ θάτερον ἄλλοι προσήρτηντο λίθοι δώδεκα, κατὰ τρεῖς εἰς τέσσαρα μέρη διῃρημένοι, σάρδιον τόπαζος σμάραγδος, ἄνθραξ ἴασπις σάπφειρος, ἀχάτης ἀμέθυστος λιγύριον, ὄνυξ βήρυλλος χρυσόλιθος, ὧν ἐφ' ἑκάστου πάλιν εἷς τῶν ἐπωνύμων ἐγέγραπτο." "5.235. τὴν δὲ κεφαλὴν βυσσίνη μὲν ἔσκεπεν τιάρα, κατέστεπτο δ' ὑακίνθῳ, περὶ ἣν χρυσοῦς ἄλλος ἦν στέφανος ἔκτυπα φέρων τὰ ἱερὰ γράμματα: ταῦτα δ' ἐστὶ φωνήεντα τέσσαρα." "5.236. ταύτην μὲν οὖν τὴν ἐσθῆτα οὐκ ἐφόρει χρόνιον, λιτοτέραν δ' ἀνελάμβανεν, ὁπότε δ' εἰσίοι εἰς τὸ ἄδυτον: εἰσῄει δ' ἅπαξ κατ' ἐνιαυτὸν μόνος ἐν ᾗ νηστεύειν ἔθος ἡμέρᾳ πάντας τῷ θεῷ." '. None
5.205. for its height was fifty cubits; and its doors were forty cubits; and it was adorned after a most costly manner, as having much richer and thicker plates of silver and gold upon them than the other. These nine gates had that silver and gold poured upon them by Alexander, the father of Tiberius.
5.228. 7. Now all those of the stock of the priests that could not minister by reason of some defect in their bodies, came within the partition, together with those that had no such imperfection, and had their share with them by reason of their stock, but still made use of none except their own private garments; for nobody but he that officiated had on his sacred garments; 5.229. but then those priests that were without any blemish upon them went up to the altar clothed in fine linen. They abstained chiefly from wine, out of this fear, lest otherwise they should transgress some rules of their ministration. 5.231. When he officiated, he had on a pair of breeches that reached beneath his privy parts to his thighs, and had on an inner garment of linen, together with a blue garment, round, without seam, with fringework, and reaching to the feet. There were also golden bells that hung upon the fringes, and pomegranates intermixed among them. The bells signified thunder, and the pomegranates lightning. 5.232. But that girdle that tied the garment to the breast was embroidered with five rows of various colors, of gold, and purple, and scarlet, as also of fine linen and blue, with which colors we told you before the veils of the temple were embroidered also. 5.233. The like embroidery was upon the ephod; but the quantity of gold therein was greater. Its figure was that of a stomacher for the breast. There were upon it two golden buttons like small shields, which buttoned the ephod to the garment; in these buttons were enclosed two very large and very excellent sardonyxes, having the names of the tribes of that nation engraved upon them: 5.234. on the other part there hung twelve stones, three in a row one way, and four in the other; a sardius, a topaz, and an emerald; a carbuncle, a jasper, and a sapphire; an agate, an amethyst, and a ligure; an onyx, a beryl, and a chrysolite; upon every one of which was again engraved one of the forementioned names of the tribes. 5.235. A mitre also of fine linen encompassed his head, which was tied by a blue ribbon, about which there was another golden crown, in which was engraven the sacred name of God: it consists of four vowels. 5.236. However, the high priest did not wear these garments at other times, but a more plain habit; he only did it when he went into the most sacred part of the temple, which he did but once in a year, on that day when our custom is for all of us to keep a fast to God.' '. None
67. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 1.24, 7.19, 9.20-9.21, 12.12, 13.8, 13.12, 15.44, 15.50 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical readers, Origens idea of • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Aristobulus • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Letter of Aristeas • Allegory, consumption of body through • Allegory, in Scripture • Aristeas, Letter of, Allegorical interpretation • Aristobulus, Allegorical exegesis of OT • Exegesis, allegorical • Paul, the apostle, allegorical hermeneutics of • Philo of Alexandria, allegorical interpretation • Scripture, allegorical meaning in • allegorical interpretation • allegorical interpretation, stoic allegoresis of theological myths • allegory • allegory/allegorization • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • biblical interpretation, allegorical/Alexandrian • exegesis, allegorical • hermeneutic, allegorical • pagan allegory, mysteries/cults

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022) 239, 334; Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 202; Dawson (2001) 71, 79, 229; Esler (2000) 675; Malherbe et al (2014) 145; Pollmann and Vessey (2007) 224; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 46, 174, 178; Seaford (2018) 327; Černušková (2016) 91, 97, 109

1.24. αὐτοῖς δὲ τοῖς κλητοῖς, Ἰουδαίοις τε καὶ Ἕλλησιν, Χριστὸν θεοῦ δύναμιν καὶ θεοῦ σοφίαν.
7.19. ἡ περιτομὴ οὐδέν ἐστιν, καὶ ἡ ἀκροβυστία οὐδέν ἐστιν, ἀλλὰ τήρησις ἐντολῶν θεοῦ.
9.20. καὶ ἐγενόμην τοῖς Ἰουδαίοις ὡς Ἰουδαῖος, ἵνα Ἰουδαίους κερδήσω· τοῖς ὑπὸ νόμον ὡς ὑπὸ νόμον, μὴ ὢν αὐτὸς ὑπὸ νόμον, ἵνα τοὺς ὑπὸ νόμον κερδήσω· 9.21. τοῖς ἀνόμοις ὡς ἄνομος, μὴ ὢν ἄνομος θεοῦ ἀλλʼ ἔννομος Χριστοῦ, ἵνα κερδανῶ τοὺς ἀνόμους·
12.12. Καθάπερ γὰρ τὸ σῶμα ἕν ἐστιν καὶ μέλη πολλὰ ἔχει, πάντα δὲ τὰ μέλη τοῦ σώματος πολλὰ ὄντα ἕν ἐστιν σῶμα, οὕτως καὶ ὁ χριστός·
13.8. Ἡ ἀγάπη οὐδέποτε πίπτει. εἴτε δὲ προφητεῖαι, καταργηθήσονται· εἴτε γλῶσσαι, παύσονται· εἴτε γνῶσις, καταργηθήσεται.
13.12. βλέπομεν γὰρ ἄρτι διʼ ἐσόπτρου ἐν αἰνίγματι, τότε δὲ πρόσωπον πρὸς πρόσωπον· ἄρτι γινώσκω ἐκ μέρους, τότε δὲ ἐπιγνώσομαι καθὼς καὶ ἐπεγνώσθην.
15.44. σπείρεται σῶμα ψυχικόν, ἐγείρεται σῶμα πνευματικόν. Εἰ ἔστιν σῶμα ψυχικόν, ἔστιν καὶ πνευματικόν.
15.50. Τοῦτο δέ φημι, ἀδελφοί, ὅτι σὰρξ καὶ αἷμα βασιλείαν θεοῦ κληρονομῆσαι οὐ δύναται, οὐδὲ ἡ φθορὰ τὴν ἀφθαρσίαν κληρονομεῖ.''. None
1.24. but to thosewho are called, both Jews and Greeks, Christ is the power of God andthe wisdom of God.
7.19. Circumcision is nothing, and uncircumcision isnothing, but the keeping of the commandments of God.
9.20. To the Jews I became as a Jew, that I might gain Jews; to thosewho are under the law, as under the law, that I might gain those whoare under the law; 9.21. to those who are without law, as without law(not being without law toward God, but under law toward Christ), that Imight win those who are without law.
12.12. For as the body is one, and has many members, and all themembers of the body, being many, are one body; so also is Christ.
13.8. Love never fails. But where there are prophecies,they will be done away with. Where there are various languages, theywill cease. Where there is knowledge, it will be done away with.
13.12. For now we see in a mirror, dimly, butthen face to face. Now I know in part, but then I will know fully, evenas I was also fully known.
15.44. It is sown a natural body; it is raised aspiritual body. There is a natural body and there is also a spiritualbody.' "
15.50. Now I say this, brothers, that flesh and blood can'tinherit the Kingdom of God; neither does corruption inheritincorruption."'. None
68. New Testament, 1 Thessalonians, 4.17 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Beatitudes • allegory

 Found in books: Nissinen and Uro (2008) 350; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 436

4.17. ἔπειτα ἡμεῖς οἱ ζῶντες οἱ περιλειπόμενοι ἅμα σὺν αὐτοῖς ἁρπαγησόμεθα ἐν νεφέλαις εἰς ἀπάντησιν τοῦ κυρίου εἰς ἀέρα· καὶ οὕτως πάντοτε σὺν κυρίῳ ἐσόμεθα.''. None
4.17. then we who are alive, who are left, will be caught up together with them in the clouds, to meet the Lord in the air. So we will be with the Lord forever. ''. None
69. New Testament, Acts, 5.30, 13.32-13.35 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Luke • allegory, figurative • allegory/-ies • typology, distinguished from allegory

 Found in books: Estes (2020) 207; Hillier (1993) 156, 157; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 318; Černušková (2016) 70

5.30. ὁ θεὸς τῶν πατέρων ἡμῶν ἤγειρεν Ἰησοῦν, ὃν ὑμεῖς διεχειρίσασθεκρεμάσαντες ἐπὶ ξύλου·
13.32. καὶ ἡμεῖς ὑμᾶς εὐαγγελιζόμεθα τὴν πρὸς τοὺς πατέρας ἐπαγγελίαν γενομένην 13.33. ὅτι ταύτην ὁ θεὸς ἐκπεπλήρωκεν τοῖς τέκνοις ἡμῶν ἀναστήσας Ἰησοῦν, ὡς καὶ ἐν τῷ ψαλμῶ γέγραπται τῷ δευτέρῳ Υἱός μου εἶ σύ, ἐγὼ σήμ ν γεγέννηκά σε. 13.34. ὅτι δὲ ἀνέστησεν αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν μηκέτι μέλλοντα ὑποστρέφειν εἰς διαφθοράν, οὕτως εἴρηκεν ὅτιΔώσω ὑμῖν τὰ ὅσια Δαυεὶδ τὰ πιστά. 13.35. διότι καὶ ἐν ἑτέρῳ λέγει Οὐ δώσεις τὸν ὅσιόν σου ἰδεῖν διαφθοράν·''. None
5.30. The God of our fathers raised up Jesus, whom you killed, hanging him on a tree.
13.32. We bring you good news of the promise made to the fathers, ' "13.33. that God has fulfilled the same to us, their children, in that he raised up Jesus. As it is also written in the second psalm, 'You are my Son. Today I have become your father.' " '13.34. "Concerning that he raised him up from the dead, now no more to return to corruption, he has spoken thus: \'I will give you the holy and sure blessings of David.\ "13.35. Therefore he says also in another psalm, 'You will not allow your Holy One to see decay.' "'. None
70. New Testament, Apocalypse, 1.13, 2.1, 3.20 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • Solomon, in aggadic tradition, as allegorical representation of God in the Song of Songs • Song of Songs, allegorical interpretation of • allegory • allegory, figurative

 Found in books: Estes (2020) 198, 206, 207; Lieber (2014) 29, 30; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 363; Rowland (2009) 86, 92

1.13. καὶ ἐν μέσῳ τῶν λυχνιῶνὅμοιον υἱὸν ἀνθρώπου, ἐνδεδυμένον ποδήρηκαὶπεριεζωσμένονπρὸς τοῖς μαστοῖς ζώνην χρυσᾶν·
2.1. Τῷ ἀγγέλῳ τῷ ἐν Ἐφέσῳ ἐκκλησίας γράψον Τάδε λέγει ὁ κρατῶν τοὺς ἑπτὰ ἀστέρας ἐν τῇ δεξιᾷ αὐτοῦ, ὁ περιπατῶν ἐν μέσῳ τῶν ἑπτὰ λυχνιῶν τῶν χρυσῶν,
3.20. Ἰδοὺ ἕστηκα ἐπὶ τὴν θύραν καὶ κρούω· ἐάν τις ἀκούσῃ τῆς φωνῆς μου καὶ ἀνοίξῃ τὴν θύραν, εἰσελεύσομαι πρὸς αὐτὸν καὶ δειπνήσω μετʼ αὐτοῦ καὶ αὐτὸς μετʼ ἐμοῦ.' '. None
1.13. And in the midst of the lampstands was one like a son of man, clothed with a robe reaching down to his feet, and with a golden sash around his chest.
2.1. To the angel of the assembly in Ephesus write: "He who holds the seven stars in his right hand, he who walks in the midst of the seven golden lampstands says these things:
3.20. Behold, I stand at the door and knock. If anyone hears my voice and opens the door, then I will come in to him, and will dine with him, and he with me.' '. None
71. New Testament, Colossians, 3.11 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Aristobulus • Aristobulus, Allegorical exegesis of OT • allegory/-ies

 Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 174, 178; Černušková (2016) 65

3.11. ὅπου οὐκ ἔνι Ἕλλην καὶ Ἰουδαῖος, περιτομὴ καὶ ἀκροβυστία, βάρβαρος, Σκύθης, δοῦλος, ἐλεύθερος, ἀλλὰ πάντα καὶ ἐν πᾶσιν Χριστός.''. None
3.11. where there can't be Greek and Jew, circumcision and uncircumcision, barbarian, Scythian, bondservant, freeman; but Christ is all, and in all. "". None
72. New Testament, Ephesians, 2.15, 5.32 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • Eusebius of Caesarea’s Gospel Problems and Aristarchus on Homer,, etymological and allegorical arguments • Exegesis, allegorical • allegorical and etymological argumentation • etymological and allegorical argumentation

 Found in books: Ayres and Ward (2021) 208; Boulluec (2022) 214; Rowland (2009) 598; Sly (1990) 134

2.15. ἐν τῇ σαρκὶ αὐτοῦ, τὸν νόμον τῶν ἐντολῶν ἐν δόγμασιν καταργήσας, ἵνα τοὺς δύο κτίσῃ ἐν αὑτῷ εἰς ἕνα καινὸν ἄνθρωπον ποιῶν εἰρήνην,
5.32. τὸ μυστήριον τοῦτο μέγα ἐστίν, ἐγὼ δὲ λέγω εἰς Χριστὸν καὶ εἰς τὴν ἐκκλησίαν.''. None
2.15. having abolished in the flesh the hostility, the law of commandments contained in ordices, that he might create in himself one new man of the two, making peace;
5.32. This mystery is great, but I speak concerning Christ and of the assembly. ''. None
73. New Testament, Galatians, 3.13-3.14, 3.24, 4.21-4.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Alexandria, Alexandrian allegory/interpretation • Allegory • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Aristobulus, Allegorical exegesis of OT • Paul, Allegory use • allegorical interpretation • allegory • allegory, figurative • allegory/-ies • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • pagan allegory • pagan allegory, authors

 Found in books: Estes (2020) 207; Frey and Levison (2014) 357; Lieu (2015) 250, 365, 409; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 363; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 179; Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 188; Rowland (2009) 149; Černušková (2016) 22, 70

3.13. Χριστὸς ἡμᾶς ἐξηγόρασεν ἐκ τῆς κατάρας τοῦ νόμου γενόμενος ὑπὲρ ἡμῶν κατάρα, ὅτι γέγραπταιἘπικατάρατος πᾶς ὁ κρεμάμενος ἐπὶ ξύλου, 3.14. ἵνα εἰς τὰ ἔθνη ἡ εὐλογία τοῦ Ἀβραὰμ γένηται ἐν Ἰησοῦ Χριστῷ, ἵνα τὴν ἐπαγγελίαν τοῦ πνεύματος λάβωμεν διὰ τῆς πίστεως.
3.24. ὥστε ὁ νόμος παιδαγωγὸς ἡμῶν γέγονεν εἰς Χριστόν, ἵνα ἐκ πίστεως δικαιωθῶμεν·
4.21. Λέγετέ μοι, οἱ ὑπὸ νόμον θέλοντες εἶναι, τὸν νόμον οὐκ ἀκούετε; 4.22. γέγραπται γὰρ ὅτι Ἀβραὰμ δύο υἱοὺς ἔσχεν, ἕνα ἐκ τῆς παιδίσκης καὶ ἕνα ἐκ τῆς ἐλευθέρας· 4.23. ἀλλʼ ὁ μὲν ἐκ τῆς παιδίσκης κατὰ σάρκα γεγέννηται, ὁ δὲ ἐκ τῆς ἐλευθέρας διʼ ἐπαγγελίας. 4.24. ἅτινά ἐστιν ἀλληγορούμενα· αὗται γάρ εἰσιν δύο διαθῆκαι, μία μὲν ἀπὸ ὄρους Σινά, εἰς δουλείαν γεννῶσα, ἥτις ἐστὶν Ἅγαρ, 4.25. τὸ δὲ Ἅγαρ Σινὰ ὄρος ἐστὶν ἐν τῇ Ἀραβίᾳ, συνστοιχεῖ δὲ τῇ νῦν Ἰερουσαλήμ, δουλεύει γὰρ μετὰ τῶν τέκνων αὐτῆς· 4.26. ἡ δὲ ἄνω Ἰερουσαλὴμ ἐλευθέρα ἐστίν, 4.27. ἥτις ἐστὶν μήτηρ ἡμῶν· γέγραπται γάρ 4.28. ἡμεῖς δέ, ἀδελφοί, κατὰ Ἰσαὰκ ἐπαγγελίας τέκνα ἐσμέν· 4.29. ἀλλʼ ὥσπερ τότε ὁ κατὰ σάρκα γεννηθεὶς ἐδίωκε τὸν κατὰ πνεῦμα, οὕτως καὶ νῦν. 4.30. ἀλλὰ τί λέγει ἡ γραφή; Ἔκβαλε τὴν παιδίσκην καὶ τὸν υἱὸν αὐτῆς, οὐ γὰρ μὴ κληρονομήσει ὁ υἱὸς τῆς παιδίσκης μετὰ τοῦ υἱοῦ τῆς ἐλευθέρας. 4.31. διό, ἀδελφοί, οὐκ ἐσμὲν παιδίσκης τέκνα ἀλλὰ τῆς ἐλευθέρας.''. None
3.13. Christ redeemed us from the curse of the law, having become acurse for us. For it is written, "Cursed is everyone who hangs on atree," 3.14. that the blessing of Abraham might come on the Gentilesthrough Christ Jesus; that we might receive the promise of the Spiritthrough faith.
3.24. So that the law has become our tutor to bring us toChrist, that we might be justified by faith. ' "
4.21. Tell me, you that desire to be under the law, don't you listen to thelaw? " '4.22. For it is written that Abraham had two sons, one by thehandmaid, and one by the free woman. 4.23. However, the son by thehandmaid was born according to the flesh, but the son by the free womanwas born through promise. 4.24. These things contain an allegory, forthese are two covets. One is from Mount Sinai, bearing children tobondage, which is Hagar. 4.25. For this Hagar is Mount Sinai inArabia, and answers to the Jerusalem that exists now, for she is inbondage with her children. 4.26. But the Jerusalem that is above isfree, which is the mother of us all. 4.27. For it is written,"Rejoice, you barren who don\'t bear. Break forth and shout, you that don\'t travail. For more are the children of the desolate than of her who has a husband." 4.28. Now we, brothers, as Isaac was, are children of promise. 4.29. But as then, he who was born according to the flesh persecutedhim who was born according to the Spirit, so also it is now. 4.30. However what does the Scripture say? "Throw out the handmaid and herson, for the son of the handmaid will not inherit with the son of thefree woman." 4.31. So then, brothers, we are not children of ahandmaid, but of the free woman.''. None
74. New Testament, Philippians, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Aristobulus, Allegorical exegesis of OT • allegorists

 Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 178; Witter et al. (2021) 195

3.5. περιτομῇ ὀκταήμερος, ἐκ γένους Ἰσραήλ, φυλῆς Βενιαμείν, Ἐβραῖος ἐξ Ἐβραίων, κατὰ νόμον Φαρισαῖος,''. None
3.5. circumcised the eighth day, of the stock of Israel, of the tribe of Benjamin, a Hebrew of Hebrews; concerning the law, a Pharisee; ''. None
75. New Testament, Romans, 2.13-2.15, 2.29, 3.16, 6.19, 7.1, 7.4, 12.1, 15.19 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Alexandria, Alexandrian allegory/interpretation • Allegory • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Aristobulus, Allegorical exegesis of OT • Exegesis, allegorical • Paul, Allegory use • Paul, the apostle, allegorical hermeneutics of • Scripture, allegory for • allegory • allegory, allegorists

 Found in books: Azar (2016) 79; Boulluec (2022) 334; Dawson (2001) 229; Frey and Levison (2014) 356, 357; Lieu (2015) 267; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 408; Petropoulou (2012) 242, 243; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 179

2.13. οὐ γὰρ οἱ ἀκροαταὶ νόμου δίκαιοι παρὰ τῷ θεῷ, ἀλλʼ οἱ ποιηταὶ νόμου δικαιωθήσονται. 2.14. ὅταν γὰρ ἔθνη τὰ μὴ νόμον ἔχοντα φύσει τὰ τοῦ νόμου ποιῶσιν, οὗτοι νόμον μὴ ἔχοντες ἑαυτοῖς εἰσὶν νόμος· 2.15. οἵτινες ἐνδείκνυνται τὸ ἔργον τοῦ νόμου γραπτὸν ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις αὐτῶν, συνμαρτυρούσης αὐτῶν τῆς συνειδήσεως καὶ μεταξὺ ἀλλήλων τῶν λογισμῶν κατηγορούντων ἢ καὶ ἀπολογουμένων,
2.29. ἀλλʼ ὁ ἐν τῷ κρυπτῷ Ἰουδαῖος, καὶ περιτομὴ καρδίας ἐν πνεύματι οὐ γράμματι, οὗ ὁ ἔπαινος οὐκ ἐξ ἀνθρώπων ἀλλʼ ἐκ τοῦ θεοῦ.
6.19. ἀνθρώπινον λέγω διὰ τὴν ἀσθένειαν τῆς σαρκὸς ὑμῶν· ὥσπερ γὰρ παρεστήσατε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν δοῦλα τῇ ἀκαθαρσίᾳ καὶ τῇ ἀνομίᾳ εἰς τὴν ἀνομίαν, οὕτω νῦν παραστήσατε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν δοῦλα τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ εἰς ἁγιασμόν·
7.1. Ἢ ἀγνοεῖτε, ἀδελφοί, γινώσκουσιν γὰρ νόμον λαλῶ, ὅτι ὁ νόμος κυριεύει τοῦ ἀνθρώπου ἐφʼ ὅσον χρόνον ζῇ;
7.4. ὥστε, ἀδελφοί μου, καὶ ὑμεῖς ἐθανατώθητε τῷ νόμῳ διὰ τοῦ σώματος τοῦ χριστοῦ, εἰς τὸ γενέσθαι ὑμᾶς ἑτέρῳ, τῷ ἐκ νεκρῶν ἐγερθέντι ἵνα καρποφορήσωμεν τῷ θεῷ.
12.1. Παρακαλῶ οὖν ὑμᾶς, ἀδελφοί, διὰ τῶν οἰκτιρμῶν τοῦ θεοῦ παραστῆσαι τὰ σώματα ὑμῶν θυσίαν ζῶσαν ἁγίαν τῷ θεῷ εὐάρεστον, τὴν λογικὴν λατρείαν ὑμῶν·
15.19. ἐν δυνάμει σημείων καὶ τεράτων, ἐν δυνάμει πνεύματος ἁγίου· ὥστε με ἀπὸ Ἰερουσαλὴμ καὶ κύκλῳ μέχρι τοῦ Ἰλλυρικοῦ πεπληρωκέναι τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τοῦ χριστοῦ,''. None
2.13. For it isn't the hearers of the law who are righteous before God, but the doers of the law will be justified " "2.14. (for when Gentiles who don't have the law do by nature the things of the law, these, not having the law, are a law to themselves, " '2.15. in that they show the work of the law written in their hearts, their conscience testifying with them, and their thoughts among themselves accusing or else excusing them)
2.29. but he is a Jew who is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart, in the spirit not in the letter; whose praise is not from men, but from God.
3.16. Destruction and misery are in their ways.
6.19. I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh, for as you presented your members as servants to uncleanness and to wickedness upon wickedness, even so now present your members as servants to righteousness for sanctification. ' "
7.1. Or don't you know, brothers (for I speak to men who know the law), that the law has dominion over a man for as long as he lives? " '
7.4. Therefore, my brothers, you also were made dead to the law through the body of Christ, that you would be joined to another, to him who was raised from the dead, that we might bring forth fruit to God.
12.1. Therefore I urge you, brothers, by the mercies of God, to present your bodies a living sacrifice, holy, acceptable to God, which is your spiritual service. ' "
15.19. in the power of signs and wonders, in the power of God's Spirit; so that from Jerusalem, and around as far as to Illyricum, I have fully preached the gospel of Christ; "". None
76. New Testament, John, 1.1-1.18, 4.22, 6.51, 6.53, 6.55, 14.6 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical, level • Allegory, Protestantisms assault on • Allegory, allegorical exegesis • Allegory, and typology • Allegory, consumption of body through • Allegory, in Scripture • Exegesis, allegorical • New Testament, allegory for • Old Testament, allegory for • Protestantism, assault on allegory • Scripture, allegorical meaning in • Scripture, allegory for • Typology, and allegory • allegorical interpretation • allegorical interpretation, stoic allegoresis of theological myths • allegorists • allegory / allegoresis • allegory, • allegory, and the Maxim of Quality • allegory, defenses of • allegory, figurative • allegory/-ies • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • exegesis, allegorical • pagan allegory, mysteries/cults

 Found in books: Azar (2016) 77, 78; Boulluec (2022) 344; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 255, 438; Dawson (2001) 72, 234, 256; Estes (2020) 207; Hasan Rokem (2003) 47; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 146, 147, 183; James (2021) 139; Robbins et al (2017) 119, 143; Černušková (2016) 70, 77, 89, 91, 99, 279, 290

1.1. ΕΝ ΑΡΧΗ ἦν ὁ λόγος, καὶ ὁ λόγος ἦν πρὸς τὸν θεόν, καὶ θεὸς ἦν ὁ λόγος. 1.2. Οὗτος ἦν ἐν ἀρχῇ πρὸς τὸν θεόν. 1.3. πάντα διʼ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο, καὶ χωρὶς αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο οὐδὲ ἕν. 1.4. ὃ γέγονεν ἐν αὐτῷ ζωὴ ἦν, καὶ ἡ ζωὴ ἦν τὸ φῶς τῶν ἀνθρώπων· 1.5. καὶ τὸ φῶς ἐν τῇ σκοτίᾳ φαίνει, καὶ ἡ σκοτία αὐτὸ οὐ κατέλαβεν. 1.6. Ἐγένετο ἄνθρωπος ἀπεσταλμένος παρὰ θεοῦ, ὄνομα αὐτῷ Ἰωάνης· 1.7. οὗτος ἦλθεν εἰς μαρτυρίαν, ἵνα μαρτυρήσῃ περὶ τοῦ φωτός, ἵνα πάντες πιστεύσωσιν διʼ αὐτοῦ. 1.8. οὐκ ἦν ἐκεῖνος τὸ φῶς, ἀλλʼ ἵνα μαρτυρήσῃ περὶ τοῦ φωτός. 1.9. Ἦν τὸ φῶς τὸ ἀληθινὸν ὃ φωτίζει πάντα ἄνθρωπον ἐρχόμενον εἰς τὸν κόσμον.
1.10. ἐν τῷ κόσμῳ ἦν, καὶ ὁ κόσμος διʼ αὐτοῦ ἐγένετο, καὶ ὁ κόσμος αὐτὸν οὐκ ἔγνω.
1.11. Εἰς τὰ ἴδια ἦλθεν, καὶ οἱ ἴδιοι αὐτὸν οὐ παρέλαβον.
1.12. ὅσοι δὲ ἔλαβον αὐτόν, ἔδωκεν αὐτοῖς ἐξουσίαν τέκνα θεοῦ γενέσθαι, τοῖς πιστεύουσιν εἰς τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ,
1.13. οἳ οὐκ ἐξ αἱμάτων οὐδὲ ἐκ θελήματος σαρκὸς οὐδὲ ἐκ θελήματος ἀνδρὸς ἀλλʼ ἐκ θεοῦ ἐγεννήθησαν.
1.14. Καὶ ὁ λόγος σὰρξ ἐγένετο καὶ ἐσκήνωσεν ἐν ἡμῖν, καὶ ἐθεασάμεθα τὴν δόξαν αὐτοῦ, δόξαν ὡς μονογενοῦς παρὰ πατρός, πλήρης χάριτος καὶ ἀληθείας·?̔
1.15. Ἰωάνης μαρτυρεῖ περὶ αὐτοῦ καὶ κέκραγεν λέγων — οὗτος ἦν ὁ εἰπών — Ὁ ὀπίσω μου ἐρχόμενος ἔμπροσθέν μου γέγονεν, ὅτι πρῶτός μου ἦν·̓
1.16. ὅτι ἐκ τοῦ πληρώματος αὐτοῦ ἡμεῖς πάντες ἐλάβομεν, καὶ χάριν ἀντὶ χάριτος·
1.17. ὅτι ὁ νόμος διὰ Μωυσέως ἐδόθη, ἡ χάρις καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ ἐγένετο.
1.18. θεὸν οὐδεὶς ἑώρακεν πώποτε· μονογενὴς θεὸς ὁ ὢν εἰς τὸν κόλπον τοῦ πατρὸς ἐκεῖνος ἐξηγήσατο.
4.22. ὑμεῖς προσκυνεῖτε ὃ οὐκ οἴδατε, ἡμεῖς προσκυνοῦμεν ὃ οἴδαμεν, ὅτι ἡ σωτηρία ἐκ τῶν Ἰουδαίων ἐστίν·
6.51. ἐγώ εἰμι ὁ ἄρτος ὁ ζῶν ὁ ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ καταβάς· ἐάν τις φάγῃ ἐκ τούτου τοῦ ἄρτου ζήσει εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα, καὶ ὁ ἄρτος δὲ ὃν ἐγὼ δώσω ἡ σάρξ μου ἐστὶν ὑπὲρ τῆς τοῦ κόσμου ζωῆς.
6.53. εἶπεν οὖν αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς Ἀμὴν ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, ἐὰν μὴ φάγητε τὴν σάρκα τοῦ υἱοῦ τοῦ ἀνθρώπου καὶ πίητε αὐτοῦ τὸ αἷμα, οὐκ ἔχετε ζωὴν ἐν ἑαυτοῖς.
6.55. ἡ γὰρ σάρξ μου ἀληθής ἐστι βρῶσις, καὶ τὸ αἷμά μου ἀληθής ἐστι πόσις.
14.6. λέγει αὐτῷ Ἰησοῦς Ἐγώ εἰμι ἡ ὁδὸς καὶ ἡ ἀλήθεια καὶ ἡ ζωή· οὐδεὶς ἔρχεται πρὸς τὸν πατέρα εἰ μὴ διʼ ἐμοῦ.' '. None
1.1. In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. 1.2. The same was in the beginning with God. 1.3. All things were made through him. Without him was not anything made that has been made. 1.4. In him was life, and the life was the light of men. ' "1.5. The light shines in the darkness, and the darkness hasn't overcome it. " '1.6. There came a man, sent from God, whose name was John. 1.7. The same came as a witness, that he might testify about the light, that all might believe through him. 1.8. He was not the light, but was sent that he might testify about the light. 1.9. The true light that enlightens everyone was coming into the world. ' "
1.10. He was in the world, and the world was made through him, and the world didn't recognize him. " "
1.11. He came to his own, and those who were his own didn't receive him. " "
1.12. But as many as received him, to them he gave the right to become God's children, to those who believe in his name: " '
1.13. who were born not of blood, nor of the will of the flesh, nor of the will of man, but of God.
1.14. The Word became flesh, and lived among us. We saw his glory, such glory as of the one and only Son of the Father, full of grace and truth.
1.15. John testified about him. He cried out, saying, "This was he of whom I said, \'He who comes after me has surpassed me, for he was before me.\'"
1.16. From his fullness we all received grace upon grace.
1.17. For the law was given through Moses. Grace and truth came through Jesus Christ.
1.18. No one has seen God at any time. The one and only Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, he has declared him. ' "
4.22. You worship that which you don't know. We worship that which we know; for salvation is from the Jews. " '
6.51. I am the living bread which came down out of heaven. If anyone eats of this bread, he will live forever. Yes, the bread which I will give for the life of the world is my flesh."
6.53. Jesus therefore said to them, "Most assuredly I tell you, unless you eat the flesh of the Son of Man and drink his blood, you don\'t have life in yourselves.
6.55. For my flesh is food indeed, and my blood is drink indeed.
14.6. Jesus said to him, "I am the way, the truth, and the life. No one comes to the Father, except through me. ' '. None
77. New Testament, Luke, 12.49, 14.23 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • allegory • allegory in • reading, allegorical

 Found in books: Berglund Crostini and Kelhoffer (2022) 325, 326; Cain (2013) 107; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 350; de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 222

12.49. Πῦρ ἦλθον βαλεῖν ἐπὶ τὴν γῆν, καὶ τί θέλω εἰ ἤδη ἀνήφθη;
14.23. καὶ εἶπεν ὁ κύριος πρὸς τὸν δοῦλον Ἔξελθε εἰς τὰς ὁδοὺς καὶ φραγμοὺς καὶ ἀνάγκασον εἰσελθεῖν, ἵνα γεμισθῇ μου ὁ οἶκος·''. None
12.49. "I came to throw fire on the earth. I wish it were already kindled.
14.23. "The lord said to the servant, \'Go out into the highways and hedges, and compel them to come in, that my house may be filled. ''. None
78. New Testament, Mark, 10.18, 10.26-10.27, 10.29-10.30 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Exegesis, allegorical • allegory/allegoresis • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • exegesis, allegorical • hermeneutic, allegorical

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022) 293; Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 200; Fowler (2014) 217; Černušková (2016) 13

10.18. ὁ δὲ Ἰησοῦς εἶπεν αὐτῷ Τί με λέγεις ἀγαθόν; οὐδεὶς ἀγαθὸς εἰ μὴ εἷς ὁ θεός.
10.26. οἱ δὲ περισσῶς ἐξεπλήσσοντο λέγοντες πρὸς αὐτόν Καὶ τίς δύναται σωθῆναι; 10.27. ἐμβλέψας αὐτοῖς ὁ Ἰησοῦς λέγει Παρὰ ἀνθρώποις ἀδύνατον ἀλλʼ οὐ παρὰ θεῷ, πάντα γὰρ δυνατὰ παρὰ τῷ θεῷ .
10.29. ἔφη ὁ Ἰησοῦς Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, οὐδεὶς ἔστιν ὃς ἀφῆκεν οἰκίαν ἢ ἀδελφοὺς ἢ ἀδελφὰς ἢ μητέρα ἢ πατέρα ἢ τέκνα ἢ ἀγροὺς ἕνεκεν ἐμοῦ καὶ ἕνεκεν τοῦ εὐαγγελίου, 10.30. ἐὰν μὴ λάβῃ ἑκατονταπλασίονα νῦν ἐν τῷ καιρῷ τούτῳ οἰκίας καὶ ἀδελφοὺς καὶ ἀδελφὰς καὶ μητέρας καὶ τέκνα καὶ ἀγροὺς μετὰ διωγμῶν, καὶ ἐν τῷ αἰῶνι τῷ ἐρχομένῳ ζωὴν αἰώνιον.''. None
10.18. Jesus said to him, "Why do you call me good? No one is good except one -- God.
10.26. They were exceedingly astonished, saying to him, "Then who can be saved?" 10.27. Jesus, looking at them, said, "With men it is impossible, but not with God, for all things are possible with God."
10.29. Jesus said, "Most assuredly I tell you, there is no one who has left house, or brothers, or sisters, or father, or mother, or wife, or children, or land, for my sake, and for the gospel\'s sake, 10.30. but he will receive one hundred times more now in this time, houses, brothers, sisters, mothers, children, and land, with persecutions; and in the age to come eternal life. ''. None
79. New Testament, Matthew, 5.2-5.10, 7.6-7.7, 7.14, 18.20, 19.11-19.12, 25.1-25.13, 25.33, 25.41 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Augustine • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Beatitudes • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Plato’s cave • Exegesis, allegorical • Heraclitus the Allegorist, van den Hoek, Annewies • Plato, Cave allegory • acusmata (Pythagorean), interpretation of ethical allegories • allegorical interpretation • allegorical interpretation, stoic allegoresis of theological myths • allegory • allegory in • allegory/-ies • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • exegesis, allegorical • grammatical archive, commentarial strategies, allegory (ἀλληγορία) • pagan allegory, mysteries/cults

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022) 61, 240, 243, 292, 393, 408; Iricinschi et al. (2013) 143; König (2012) 313; Lieu (2015) 188; Nissinen and Uro (2008) 349, 350; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 436, 445, 459, 463; Ward (2022) 63, 158; Wolfsdorf (2020) 14; de Ste. Croix et al. (2006) 221, 222; Černušková (2016) 11, 13, 16, 65, 87

5.2. καὶ ἀνοίξας τὸ στόμα αὐτοῦ ἐδίδασκεν αὐτοὺς λέγων 5.3. ΜΑΚΑΡΙΟΙ οἱ πτωχοὶ τῷ πνεύματι, ὅτι αὐτῶν ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν. 5.4. μακάριοι οἱ πενθοῦντες, ὅτι αὐτοὶ παρακληθήσονται. 5.5. μακάριοι οἱ πραεῖς, ὅτι αὐτοὶ κληρονομήσουσι τὴν γῆν. 5.6. μακάριοι οἱ πεινῶντες καὶ διψῶντες τὴν δικαιοσύνην, ὅτι αὐτοὶ χορτασθήσονται. 5.7. μακάριοι οἱ ἐλεήμονες, ὅτι αὐτοὶ ἐλεηθήσονται. 5.8. μακάριοι οἱ καθαροὶ τῇ καρδίᾳ, ὅτι αὐτοὶ τὸν θεὸν ὄψονται. 5.9. μακάριοι οἱ εἰρηνοποιοί, ὅτι αὐτοὶ υἱοὶ θεοῦ κληθήσονται. 5.10. μακάριοι οἱ δεδιωγμένοι ἕνεκεν δικαιοσύνης, ὅτι αὐτῶν ἐστὶν ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν.
7.6. Μὴ δῶτε τὸ ἅγιον τοῖς κυσίν, μηδὲ βάλητε τοὺς μαργαρίτας ὑμῶν ἔμπροσθεν τῶν χοίρων, μή ποτε καταπατήσουσιν αὐτοὺς ἐν τοῖς ποσὶν αὐτῶν καὶ στραφέντες ῥήξωσιν ὑμᾶς. 7.7. Αἰτεῖτε, καὶ δοθήσεται ὑμῖν· ζητεῖτε, καὶ εὑρήσετε· κρούετε, καὶ ἀνοιγήσεται ὑμῖν.
7.14. ὅτι στενὴ ἡ πύλη καὶ τεθλιμμένη ἡ ὁδὸς ἡ ἀπάγουσα εἰς τὴν ζωήν, καὶ ὀλίγοι εἰσὶν οἱ εὑρίσκοντες αὐτήν.
18.20. οὗ γάρ εἰσιν δύο ἢ τρεῖς συνηγμένοι εἰς τὸ ἐμὸν ὄνομα, ἐκεῖ εἰμὶ ἐν μέσῳ αὐτῶν.
19.11. ὁ δὲ εἶπεν αὐτοῖς Οὐ πάντες χωροῦσι τὸν λόγον, ἀλλʼ οἷς δέδοται. 19.12. εἰσὶν γὰρ εὐνοῦχοι οἵτινες ἐκ κοιλίας μητρὸς ἐγεννήθησαν οὕτως, καὶ εἰσὶν εὐνοῦχοι οἵτινες εὐνουχίσθησαν ὑπὸ τῶν ἀνθρώπων, καὶ εἰσὶν εὐνοῦχοι οἵτινες εὐνούχισαν ἑαυτοὺς διὰ τὴν βασιλείαν τῶν οὐρανῶν. ὁ δυνάμενος χωρεῖν χωρείτω.
25.1. Τότε ὁμοιωθήσεται ἡ βασιλεία τῶν οὐρανῶν δέκα παρθένοις, αἵτινες λαβοῦσαι τὰς λαμπάδας ἑαυτῶν ἐξῆλθον εἰς ὑπάντησιν τοῦ νυμφίου. 2
5.2. πέντε δὲ ἐξ αὐτῶν ἦσαν μωραὶ καὶ πέντε φρόνιμοι· 25.3. αἱ γὰρ μωραὶ λαβοῦσαι τὰς λαμπάδας αὐτῶν οὐκ ἔλαβον μεθʼ ἑαυτῶν ἔλαιον· 25.4. αἱ δὲ φρόνιμοι ἔλαβον ἔλαιον ἐν τοῖς ἀγγείοις μετὰ τῶν λαμπάδων ἑαυτῶν. 25.5. χρονίζοντος δὲ τοῦ νυμφίου ἐνύσταξαν πᾶσαι καὶ ἐκάθευδον. 25.6. μέσης δὲ νυκτὸς κραυγὴ γέγονεν Ἰδοὺ ὁ νυμφίος, ἐξέρχεσθε εἰς ἀπάντησιν. 25.7. τότε ἠγέρθησαν πᾶσαι αἱ παρθένοι ἐκεῖναι καὶ ἐκόσμησαν τὰς λαμπάδας ἑαυτῶν. 25.8. αἱ δὲ μωραὶ ταῖς φρονίμοις εἶπαν Δότε ἡμῖν ἐκ τοῦ ἐλαίου ὑμῶν, ὅτι αἱ λαμπάδες ἡμῶν σβέννυνται. 25.9. ἀπεκρίθησαν δὲ αἱ φρόνιμοι λέγουσαι Μήποτε οὐ μὴ ἀρκέσῃ ἡμῖν καὶ ὑμῖν· πορεύεσθε μᾶλλον πρὸς τοὺς πωλοῦντας καὶ ἀγοράσατε ἑαυταῖς.
25.10. ἀπερχομένων δὲ αὐτῶν ἀγοράσαι ἦλθεν ὁ νυμφίος, καὶ αἱ ἕτοιμοι εἰσῆλθον μετʼ αὐτοῦ εἰς τοὺς γάμους, καὶ ἐκλείσθη ἡ θύρα.
25.11. ὕστερον δὲ ἔρχονται καὶ αἱ λοιπαὶ παρθένοι λέγουσαι Κύριε κύριε, ἄνοιξον ἡμῖν·
25.12. ὁ δὲ ἀποκριθεὶς εἶπεν Ἀμὴν λέγω ὑμῖν, οὐκ οἶδα ὑμᾶς.
25.13. Γρηγορεῖτε οὖν, ὅτι οὐκ οἴδατε τὴν ἡμέραν οὐδὲ τὴν ὥραν.
25.33. καὶ στήσει τὰ μὲν πρόβατα ἐκ δεξιῶν αὐτοῦ τὰ δὲ ἐρίφια ἐξ εὐωνύμων.
25.41. τότε ἐρεῖ καὶ τοῖς ἐξ εὐωνύμων Πορεύεσθε ἀπʼ ἐμοῦ κατηραμένοι εἰς τὸ πῦρ τὸ αἰώνιον τὸ ἡτοιμασμένον τῷ διαβόλῳ καὶ τοῖς ἀγγέλοις αὐτοῦ·' '. None
5.2. He opened his mouth and taught them, saying, 5.3. "Blessed are the poor in spirit, For theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. 5.4. Blessed are those who mourn, For they shall be comforted. 5.5. Blessed are the gentle, For they shall inherit the earth. 5.6. Blessed are those who hunger and thirst after righteousness, For they shall be filled. 5.7. Blessed are the merciful, For they shall obtain mercy. 5.8. Blessed are the pure in heart, For they shall see God. 5.9. Blessed are the peacemakers, For they shall be called sons of God. ' "5.10. Blessed are those who have been persecuted for righteousness' sake, For theirs is the Kingdom of Heaven. " '
7.6. "Don\'t give that which is holy to the dogs, neither throw your pearls before the pigs, lest perhaps they trample them under their feet, and turn and tear you to pieces. 7.7. "Ask, and it will be given you. Seek, and you will find. Knock, and it will be opened for you.
7.14. How narrow is the gate, and restricted is the way that leads to life! Few are those who find it.
18.20. For where two or three are gathered together in my name, there I am in the midst of them."
19.11. But he said to them, "Not all men can receive this saying, but those to whom it is given. 19.12. For there are eunuchs who were born that way from their mother\'s womb, and there are eunuchs who were made eunuchs by men; and there are eunuchs who made themselves eunuchs for the Kingdom of Heaven\'s sake. He who is able to receive it, let him receive it."
25.1. "Then the Kingdom of Heaven will be like ten virgins, who took their lamps, and went out to meet the bridegroom. 2
5.2. Five of them were foolish, and five were wise. 25.3. Those who were foolish, when they took their lamps, took no oil with them, 25.4. but the wise took oil in their vessels with their lamps. 25.5. Now while the bridegroom delayed, they all slumbered and slept. ' "25.6. But at midnight there was a cry, 'Behold! The bridegroom is coming! Come out to meet him!' " '25.7. Then all those virgins arose, and trimmed their lamps. ' "25.8. The foolish said to the wise, 'Give us some of your oil, for our lamps are going out.' " "25.9. But the wise answered, saying, 'What if there isn't enough for us and you? You go rather to those who sell, and buy for yourselves.' " '
25.10. While they went away to buy, the bridegroom came, and those who were ready went in with him to the marriage feast, and the door was shut. ' "
25.11. Afterward the other virgins also came, saying, 'Lord, Lord, open to us.' " "
25.12. But he answered, 'Most assuredly I tell you, I don't know you.' " "
25.13. Watch therefore, for you don't know the day nor the hour in which the Son of Man is coming. " '
25.33. He will set the sheep on his right hand, but the goats on the left. ' "
25.41. Then he will say also to those on the left hand, 'Depart from me, you cursed, into the eternal fire which is prepared for the devil and his angels; " '. None
80. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 7.6, 8.6.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Paul and Pauline Epistles, allegorical interpretation in • allegory see also typology, Tertullian’s use of • allegory see also typology, in Pauline Epistles • allegory, • allegory, as Biblical way of speaking • figurative language, allegory as • hermeneutic, allegorical

 Found in books: Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 180; Bowie (2021) 756; James (2021) 85; Yates and Dupont (2020) 92

8.6.44. \xa0Allegory, which is translated in Latin by inversio, either presents one thing in words and another in meaning, or else something absolutely opposed to the meaning of the words. The first type is generally produced by a series of metaphors. Take as an example: "O\xa0ship, new waves will bear thee back to sea. What dost thou? Make the haven, come what may," and the rest of the ode, in which Horace represents the state under the semblance of a ship, the civil wars as tempests, and peace and good-will as the haven.' '. None
81. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Paul and Pauline Epistles, allegorical interpretation in • allegory see also typology, Tertullian’s use of • allegory see also typology, in Pauline Epistles • hermeneutic, allegorical

 Found in books: Boustan Janssen and Roetzel (2010) 180; Yates and Dupont (2020) 92

82. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Solomon, in aggadic tradition, as allegorical representation of God in the Song of Songs • Song of Songs, allegorical interpretation of • allegorical

 Found in books: Lieber (2014) 28, 30, 31; Poorthuis Schwartz and Turner (2009) 75

83. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • allegorical dream • allegory, allegorical • dreams, allegorical • dreams, allegorical dreams

 Found in books: Roskovec and Hušek (2021) 5, 17; Russell and Nesselrath (2014) 83; Thonemann (2020) 152, 153, 154, 182

84. None, None, nan (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Alexandria, school of, allegorical hermeneutic of • Allegory • Allegory, Alexandrian • Allegory, Origens • Allegory, and typology • Language, allegorical conception of • Origen of Alexandria, allegorical reading of • Paul, the apostle, and Alexandrian allegory • Typology, and allegory • allegory, and the Maxim of Quality

 Found in books: Dawson (2001) 29, 36, 227; James (2021) 144; Rowland (2009) 150, 354

85. Apuleius, The Golden Ass, 11.23 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • Allegory, allegorical exegesis • allegorical and symbolic uses of mountains

 Found in books: Alvar Ezquerra (2008) 337; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 346; Konig (2022) 176

11.23. This done, I gave charge to certain of my companions to buy liberally whatever was necessary and appropriate. Then the priest brought me to the baths nearby, accompanied with all the religious sort. He, demanding pardon of the goddess, washed me and purified my body according to custom. After this, when no one approached, he brought me back again to the temple and presented me before the face of the goddess. He told me of certain secret things that it was unlawful to utter, and he commanded me, and generally all the rest, to fast for the space of ten continual days. I was not allowed to eat any beast or drink any wine. These strictures I observed with marvelous continence. Then behold, the day approached when the sacrifice was to be made. And when night came there arrived on every coast a great multitude of priests who, according to their order, offered me many presents and gifts. Then all the laity and profane people were commanded to depart. When they had put on my back a linen robe, they brought me to the most secret and sacred place of all the temple. You will perhaps ask (o studious reader) what was said and done there. Verily I would tell you if it were lawful for me to tell. You would know if it were appropriate for you to hear. But both your ears and my tongue shall incur similar punishment for rash curiosity. However, I will content your mind for this present time, since it is perhaps somewhat religious and given to devotion. Listen therefore and believe it to be true. You shall understand that I approached near to Hell, and even to the gates of Proserpina. After I was brought through all the elements, I returned to my proper place. About midnight I saw the sun shine, and I saw likewise the celestial and infernal gods. Before them I presented myself and worshipped them. Behold, now have I told you something which, although you have heard it, it is necessary for you to conceal. This much have I declared without offence for the understanding of the profane.''. None
86. Irenaeus, Refutation of All Heresies, 1.3.1, 1.3.6, 1.6.1, 1.8.1, 1.9.4, 1.20.1, 3.11.9 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • Exegesis, allegorical

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022) 231, 239, 240, 243, 244, 255, 425; Iricinschi et al. (2013) 142, 143, 157

1.3.1. Such, then, is the account they give of what took place within the Pleroma; such the calamities that flowed from the passion which seized upon the AEon who has been named, and who was within a little of perishing by being absorbed in the universal substance, through her inquisitive searching after the Father; such the consolidation of that AEon from her condition of agony by Horos, and Stauros, and Lytrotes, and Carpistes, and Horothetes, and Metagoges. Such also is the account of the generation of the later AEons, namely of the first Christ and of the Holy Spirit, both of whom were produced by the Father after the repentance of Sophia, and of the second Christ (whom they also style Saviour), who owed his being to the joint contributions of the AEons. They tell us, however, that this knowledge has not been openly divulged, because all are not capable of receiving it, but has been mystically revealed by the Saviour through means of parables to those qualified for understanding it. This has been done as follows. The thirty AEons are indicated (as we have already remarked) by the thirty years during which they say the Saviour performed no public act, and by the parable of the labourers in the vineyard. Paul also, they affirm, very clearly and frequently names these AEons, and even goes so far as to preserve their order, when he says, "To all the generations of the AEons of the AEon." Nay, we ourselves, when at the giving of thanks we pronounce the words, "To AEons of AEons" (for ever and ever), do set forth these AEons. And, in fine, wherever the words AEon or AEons occur, they at once refer them to these beings.
1.3.6. Such, then, is the account which they all give of their Pleroma, and of the formation of the universe, striving, as they do, to adapt the good words of revelation to their own wicked inventions. And it is not only from the writings of the evangelists and the apostles that they endeavour to derive proofs for their opinions by means of perverse interpretations and deceitful expositions: they deal in the same way with the law and the prophets, which contain many parables and allegories that can frequently be drawn into various senses, according to the kind of exegesis to which they are subjected. And others of them, with great craftiness, adapted such parts of Scripture to their own figments, lead away captive from the truth those who do not retain a stedfast faith in one God, the Father Almighty, and in one Lord Jesus Christ, the Son of God.
1.6.1. There being thus three kinds of substances, they declare of all that is material (which they also describe as being "on the left hand") that it must of necessity perish, inasmuch as it is incapable of receiving any afflatus of incorruption. As to every animal existence (which they also denominate "on the right hand"), they hold that, inasmuch as it is a mean between the spiritual and the material, it passes to the side to which inclination draws it. Spiritual substance, again, they describe as having been sent forth for this end, that, being here united with that which is animal, it might assume shape, the two elements being simultaneously subjected to the same discipline. And this they declare to be "the salt" and "the light of the world." For the animal substance had need of training by means of the outward senses; and on this account they affirm that the world was created, as well as that the Saviour came to the animal substance (which was possessed of free-will), that He might secure for it salvation. For they affirm that He received the first-fruits of those whom He was to save as follows, from Achamoth that which was spiritual, while He was invested by the Demiurge with the animal Christ, but was begirt by a special dispensation with a body endowed with an animal nature, yet constructed with unspeakable skill, so that it might be visible and tangible, and capable of enduring suffering. At the same time, they deny that He assumed anything material into His nature, since indeed matter is incapable of salvation. They further hold that the consummation of all things will take place when all that is spiritual has been formed and perfected by Gnosis (knowledge); and by this they mean spiritual men who have attained to the perfect knowledge of God, and been initiated into these mysteries by Achamoth. And they represent themselves to be these persons.' "
1.8.1. Such, then, is their system, which neither the prophets announced, nor the Lord taught, nor the apostles delivered, but of which they boast that beyond all others they have a perfect knowledge. They gather their views from other sources than the Scriptures; and, to use a common proverb, they strive to weave ropes of sand, while they endeavour to adapt with an air of probability to their own peculiar assertions the parables of the Lord, the sayings of the prophets, and the words of the apostles, in order that their scheme may not seem altogether without support. In doing so, however, they disregard the order and the connection of the Scriptures, and so far as in them lies, dismember and destroy the truth. By transferring passages, and dressing them up anew, and making one thing out of another, they succeed in deluding many through their wicked art in adapting the oracles of the Lord to their opinions. Their manner of acting is just as if one, when a beautiful image of a king has been constructed by some skilful artist out of precious jewels, should then take this likeness of the man all to pieces, should rearrange the gems, and so fit them together as to make them into the form of a dog or of a fox, and even that but poorly executed; and should then maintain and declare that this was the beautiful image of the king which the skilful artist constructed, pointing to the jewels which had been admirably fitted together by the first artist to form the image of the king, but have been with bad effect transferred by the latter one to the shape of a dog, and by thus exhibiting the jewels, should deceive the ignorant who had no conception what a king's form was like, and persuade them that that miserable likeness of the fox was, in fact, the beautiful image of the king. In like manner do these persons patch together old wives' fables, and then endeavour, by violently drawing away from their proper connection, words, expressions, and parables whenever found, to adapt the oracles of God to their baseless fictions. We have already stated how far they proceed in this way with respect to the interior of the Pleroma." '
1.9.4. Then, again, collecting a set of expressions and names scattered here and there in Scripture, they twist them, as we have already said, from a natural to a non-natural sense. In so doing, they act like those who bring forward any kind of hypothesis they fancy, and then endeavour to support them out of the poems of Homer, so that the ignorant imagine that Homer actually composed the verses bearing upon that hypothesis, which has, in fact, been but newly constructed; and many others are led so far by the regularly-formed sequence of the verses, as to doubt whether Homer may not have composed them. of this kind is the following passage, where one, describing Hercules as having been sent by Eurystheus to the dog in the infernal regions, does so by means of these Homeric verses,-- for there can be no objection to our citing these by way of illustration, since the same sort of attempt appears in both:-- "Thus saying, there sent forth from his house deeply groaning."-- Od., x. 76. "The hero Hercules conversant with mighty deeds."--Od., xxi. 26. Eurystheus, the son of Sthenelus, descended from Perseus."--Il., 19. 123. "That he might bring from Erebus the dog of gloomy Pluto."--Il., viii. 368. "And he advanced like a mountain-bred lion confident of strength."--Od., vi. 130. "Rapidly through the city, while all his friends followed."--Il., x14. 327. "Both maidens, and youths, and much-enduring old men."--Od., xi. 38. "Mourning for him bitterly as one going forward to death."--Il., x14. 328. "But Mercury and the blue-eyed Minerva conducted him."--Od., xi. 626. "For she knew the mind of her brother, how it laboured with grief."--Il., ii. 409. Now, what simple-minded man, I ask, would not be led away by such verses as these to think that Homer actually framed them so with reference to the subject indicated? But he who is acquainted with the Homeric writings will recognise the verses indeed, but not the subject to which they are applied, as knowing that some of them were spoken of Ulysses, others of Hercules himself, others still of Priam, and others again of Menelaus and Agamemnon. But if he takes them and restores each of them to its proper position, he at once destroys the narrative in question. In like manner he also who retains unchangeable in his heart the rule of the truth which he received by means of baptism, will doubtless recognise the names, the expressions, and the parables taken from the Scriptures, but will by no means acknowledge the blasphemous use which these men make of them. For, though he will acknowledge the gems, he will certainly not receive the fox instead of the likeness of the king. But when he has restored every one of the expressions quoted to its proper position, and has fitted it to the body of the truth, he will lay bare, and prove to be without any foundation, the figment of these heretics.
1.20.1. Besides the above misrepresentations, they adduce an unspeakable number of apocryphal and spurious writings, which they themselves have forged, to bewilder the minds of foolish men, and of such as are ignorant of the Scriptures of truth. Among other things, they bring forward that false and wicked story which relates that our Lord, when He was a boy learning His letters, on the teacher saying to Him, as is usual, "Pronounce Alpha," replied as He was bid, "Alpha." But when, again, the teacher bade Him say, "Beta," the Lord replied, "Do thou first tell me what Alpha is, and then I will tell thee what Beta is." This they expound as meaning that He alone knew the Unknown, which He revealed under its type Alpha.
3.11.9. These things being so, all who destroy the form of the Gospel are vain, unlearned, and also audacious; those, I mean, who represent the aspects of the Gospel as being either more in number than as aforesaid, or, on the other hand, fewer. The former class do so, that they may seem to have discovered more than is of the truth; the latter, that they may set the dispensations of God aside. For Marcion, rejecting the entire Gospel, yea rather, cutting himself off from the Gospel, boasts that he has part in the blessings of the Gospel. Others, again (the Montanists), that they may set at nought the gift of the Spirit, which in the latter times has been, by the good pleasure of the Father, poured out upon the human race, do not admit that aspect of the evangelical dispensation presented by John\'s Gospel, in which the Lord promised that He would send the Paraclete; but set aside at once both the Gospel and the prophetic Spirit. Wretched men indeed! who wish to be pseudo- prophets, forsooth, but who set aside the gift of prophecy from the Church; acting like those (the Encratitae) who, on account of such as come in hypocrisy, hold themselves aloof from the communion of the brethren. We must conclude, moreover, that these men (the Montanists) can not admit the Apostle Paul either. For, in his Epistle to the Corinthians, he speaks expressly of prophetical gifts, and recognises men and women prophesying in the Church. Sinning, therefore, in all these particulars, against the Spirit of God, they fall into the irremissible sin. But those who are from Valentinus, being, on the other hand, altogether reckless, while they put forth their own compositions, boast that they possess more Gospels than there really are. Indeed, they have arrived at such a pitch of audacity, as to entitle their comparatively recent writing "the Gospel of Truth," though it agrees in nothing with the Gospels of the Apostles, so that they have really no Gospel which is not full of blasphemy. For if what they have published is the Gospel of truth, and yet is totally unlike those which have been handed down to us from the apostles, any who please may learn, as is shown from the Scriptures themselves, that that which has been handed down from the apostles can no longer be reckoned the Gospel of truth. But that these Gospels alone are true and reliable, and admit neither an increase nor diminution of the aforesaid number, I have proved by so many and such arguments. For, since God made all things in due proportion and adaptation, it was fit also that the outward aspect of the Gospel should be well arranged and harmonized. The opinion of those men, therefore, who handed the Gospel down to us, having been investigated, from their very fountainheads, let us proceed also to the remaining apostles, and inquire into their doctrine with regard to God; then, in due course we shall listen to the very words of the Lord.''. None
87. Justin, Dialogue With Trypho, 30.1 (2nd cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • Exegesis, allegorical • allegory • allegory / allegoresis

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022) 202; Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 195; Lieu (2015) 412; Rosenblum (2016) 145, 151; de Jáuregui (2010) 249, 354

14. Justin: By reason, therefore, of this laver of repentance and knowledge of God, which has been ordained on account of the transgression of God's people, as Isaiah cries, we have believed, and testify that that very baptism which he announced is alone able to purify those who have repented; and this is the water of life. But the cisterns which you have dug for yourselves are broken and profitless to you. For what is the use of that baptism which cleanses the flesh and body alone? Baptize the soul from wrath and from covetousness, from envy, and from hatred; and, lo! The body is pure. For this is the symbolic significance of unleavened bread, that you do not commit the old deeds of wicked leaven. But you have understood all things in a carnal sense, and you suppose it to be piety if you do such things, while your souls are filled with deceit, and, in short, with every wickedness. Accordingly, also, after the seven days of eating unleavened bread, God commanded them to mingle new leaven, that is, the performance of other works, and not the imitation of the old and evil works. And because this is what this new Lawgiver demands of you, I shall again refer to the words which have been quoted by me, and to others also which have been passed over. They are related by Isaiah to the following effect: Hearken to me, and your soul shall live; and I will make with you an everlasting covet, even the sure mercies of David. Behold, I have given Him for a witness to the people, a leader and commander to the nations. Nations which know not You shall call on You; and peoples who know not You shall escape unto You, because of Your God, the Holy One of Israel, for He has glorified You. Seek God; and when you find Him, call on Him, so long as He may be near you. Let the wicked forsake his ways, and the unrighteous man his thoughts; and let him return unto the Lord, and he will obtain mercy, because He will abundantly pardon your sins. For my thoughts are not as your thoughts, neither are my ways as your ways; but as far removed as the heavens are from the earth, so far is my way removed from your way, and your thoughts from my thoughts. For as the snow or the rain descends from heaven, and shall not return till it waters the earth, and makes it bring forth and bud, and gives seed to the sower and bread for food, so shall My word be that goes forth out of My mouth: it shall not return until it shall have accomplished all that I desired, and I shall make My commandments prosperous. For you shall go out with joy, and be taught with gladness. For the mountains and the hills shall leap while they expect you, and all the trees of the fields shall applaud with their branches: and instead of the thorn shall come up the cypress, and instead of the brier shall come up the myrtle. And the Lord shall be for a name, and for an everlasting sign, and He shall not fail! of these and such like words written by the prophets, O Trypho, some have reference to the first advent of Christ, in which He is preached as inglorious, obscure, and of mortal appearance: but others had reference to His second advent, when He shall appear in glory and above the clouds; and your nation shall see and know Him whom they have pierced, as Hosea, one of the twelve prophets, and Daniel, foretold. "20. Justin: Moreover, you were commanded to abstain from certain kinds of food, in order that you might keep God before your eyes while you ate and drank, seeing that you were prone and very ready to depart from His knowledge, as Moses also affirms: 'The people ate and drank, and rose up to play.' Exodus 32:6 And again: 'Jacob ate, and was satisfied, and grew fat; and he who was beloved kicked: he grew fat, he grew thick, he was enlarged, and he forsook God who had made him.' Deuteronomy 32:15 For it was told you by Moses in the book of Genesis, that God granted to Noah, being a just man, to eat of every animal, but not of flesh with the blood, which is dead. And as he was ready to say, as the green herbs, I anticipated him: Why do you not receive this statement, 'as the green herbs,' in the sense in which it was given by God, to wit, that just as God has granted the herbs for sustece to man, even so has He given the animals for the diet of flesh? But, you say, a distinction was laid down thereafter to Noah, because we do not eat certain herbs. As you interpret it, the thing is incredible. And first I shall not occupy myself with this, though able to say and to hold that every vegetable is food, and fit to be eaten. But although we discriminate between green herbs, not eating all, we refrain from eating some, not because they are common or unclean, but because they are bitter, or deadly, or thorny. But we lay hands on and take of all herbs which are sweet, very nourishing and good, whether they are marine or land plants. Thus also God by the mouth of Moses commanded you to abstain from unclean and improper and violent animals: when, moreover, though you were eating manna in the desert, and were seeing all those wondrous acts wrought for you by God, you made and worshipped the golden calf. Hence he cries continually, and justly, 'They are foolish children, in whom is no faith.' Deuteronomy 32:6, 20 " "
30.1. Justin: But impute it to your own wickedness, that God even can be accused by those who have no understanding, of not having always instructed all in the same righteous statutes. For such institutions seemed to be unreasonable and unworthy of God to many men, who had not received grace to know that your nation were called to conversion and repentance of spirit, while they were in a sinful condition and labouring under spiritual disease; and that the prophecy which was announced subsequent to the death of Moses is everlasting. And this is mentioned in the Psalm, my friends. And that we, who have been made wise by them, confess that the statutes of the Lord are sweeter than honey and the honey-comb, is manifest from the fact that, though threatened with death, we do not deny His name. Moreover, it is also manifest to all, that we who believe in Him pray to be kept by Him from strange, i.e., from wicked and deceitful, spirits; as the word of prophecy, personating one of those who believe in Him, figuratively declares. For we do continually beseech God by Jesus Christ to preserve us from the demons which are hostile to the worship of God, and whom we of old time served, in order that, after our conversion by Him to God, we may be blameless. For we call Him Helper and Redeemer, the power of whose name even the demons do fear; and at this day, when they are exorcised in the name of Jesus Christ, crucified under Pontius Pilate, governor of Jud a, they are overcome. And thus it is manifest to all, that His Father has given Him so great power, by virtue of which demons are subdued to His name, and to the dispensation of His suffering. < ' "69. The devil, since he emulates the truth, has invented fables about Bacchus, Hercules, and Æsculapius Justin: Be well assured, then, Trypho, that I am established in the knowledge of and faith in the Scriptures by those counterfeits which he who is called the devil is said to have performed among the Greeks; just as some were wrought by the Magi in Egypt, and others by the false prophets in Elijah's days. For when they tell that Bacchus, son of Jupiter, was begotten by Jupiter's intercourse with Semele, and that he was the discoverer of the vine; and when they relate, that being torn in pieces, and having died, he rose again, and ascended to heaven; and when they introduce wine into his mysteries, do I not perceive that the devil has imitated the prophecy announced by the patriarch Jacob, and recorded by Moses? And when they tell that Hercules was strong, and travelled over all the world, and was begotten by Jove of Alcmene, and ascended to heaven when he died, do I not perceive that the Scripture which speaks of Christ, 'strong as a giant to run his race,' has been in like manner imitated? And when he the devil brings forward Æsculapius as the raiser of the dead and healer of all diseases, may I not say that in this matter likewise he has imitated the prophecies about Christ? But since I have not quoted to you such Scripture as tells that Christ will do these things, I must necessarily remind you of one such: from which you can understand, how that to those destitute of a knowledge of God, I mean the Gentiles, who, 'having eyes, saw not, and having a heart, understood not,' worshipping the images of wood, how even to them Scripture prophesied that they would renounce these vanities, and hope in this Christ. It is thus written: Rejoice, thirsty wilderness: let the wilderness be glad, and blossom as the lily: the deserts of the Jordan shall both blossom and be glad: and the glory of Lebanon was given to it, and the honour of Carmel. And my people shall see the exaltation of the Lord, and the glory of God. Be strong, you careless hands and enfeebled knees. Be comforted, you faint in soul: be strong, fear not. Behold, our God gives, and will give, retributive judgment. He shall come and save us. Then the eyes of the blind shall be opened, and the ears of the deaf shall hear. Then the lame shall leap as an hart, and the tongue of the stammerers shall be distinct: for water has broken forth in the wilderness, and a valley in the thirsty land; and the parched ground shall become pools, and a spring of water shall rise up in the thirsty land. Isaiah 35:1-7 The spring of living water which gushed forth from God in the land destitute of the knowledge of God, namely the land of the Gentiles, was this Christ, who also appeared in your nation, and healed those who were maimed, and deaf, and lame in body from their birth, causing them to leap, to hear, and to see, by His word. And having raised the dead, and causing them to live, by His deeds He compelled the men who lived at that time to recognise Him. But though they saw such works, they asserted it was magical art. For they dared to call Him a magician, and a deceiver of the people. Yet He wrought such works, and persuaded those who were destined to believe in Him; for even if any one be labouring under a defect of body, yet be an observer of the doctrines delivered by Him, He shall raise him up at His second advent perfectly sound, after He has made him immortal, and incorruptible, and free from grief." "'. None
88. Tertullian, Against Marcion, 2.19 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • allegory see also typology, Tertullian’s use of

 Found in books: Lieu (2015) 358; Yates and Dupont (2020) 300

2.19. But even in the common transactions of life, and of human intercourse at home and in public, even to the care of the smallest vessels, He in every possible manner made distinct arrangement; in order that, when they everywhere encountered these legal instructions, they might not be at any moment out of the sight of God. For what could better tend to make a man happy, than having his delight in the law of the Lord? In that law would he meditate day and night. It was not in severity that its Author promulgated this law, but in the interest of the highest benevolence, which rather aimed at subduing the nation's hardness of heart, and by laborious services hewing out a fealty which was (as yet) untried in obedience: for I purposely abstain from touching on the mysterious senses of the law, considered in its spiritual and prophetic relation, and as abounding in types of almost every variety and sort. It is enough at present, that it simply bound a man to God, so that no one ought to find fault with it, except him who does not choose to serve God. To help forward this beneficent, not onerous, purpose of the law, the prophets were also ordained by the self-same goodness of God, teaching precepts worthy of God, how that men should cease to do evil, learn to do well, seek judgment, judge the fatherless, and plead for the widow: Isaiah 1:16-17 be fond of the divine expostulations: avoid contact with the wicked: let the oppressed go free: Isaiah 58:6 dismiss the unjust sentence, deal their bread to the hungry; bring the outcast into their house; cover the naked, when they see him; nor hide themselves from their own flesh and kin: keep their tongue from evil, and their lips from speaking guile: depart from evil, and do good; seek peace, and pursue it: be angry, and sin not; that is, not persevere in anger, or be enraged: walk not in the counsel of the ungodly; nor stand in the way of sinners; nor sit in the seat of the scornful. Where then? Behold, how good and how pleasant it is for brethren to dwell together in unity; meditating (as they do) day and night in the law of the Lord, because it is better to trust in the Lord than to put confidence in man; better to hope in the Lord than in man. For what recompense shall man receive from God? He shall be like a tree planted by the rivers of water, that brings forth his fruit in his season; his leaf also shall not wither, and whatsoever he does shall prosper. He that has clean hands and a pure heart, who has not taken God's name in vain, nor sworn deceitfully to his neighbour, he shall receive blessing from the Lord, and mercy from the God of his salvation. For the eyes of the Lord are upon them that fear Him, upon them that hope in His mercy, to deliver their souls from death, even eternal death, and to nourish them in their hunger, that is, after eternal life. Many are the afflictions of the righteous, but the Lord delivers them out of them all. Precious in the sight of the Lord is the death of His saints. The Lord keeps all their bones; not one of them shall be broken. The Lord will redeem the souls of His servants. We have adduced these few quotations from a mass of the Creator's Scriptures; and no more, I suppose, are wanted to prove Him to be a most good God, for they sufficiently indicate both the precepts of His goodness and the first-fruits thereof. "". None
89. Theophilus, To Autolycus, 3.2 (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Two jars

 Found in books: Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 85; de Jáuregui (2010) 143

3.2. For it was fit that they who wrote should themselves have been eye-witnesses of those things concerning which they made assertions, or should accurately have ascertained them from those who had seen them; for they who write of things unascertained beat the air. For what did it profit Homer to have composed the Trojan War, and to have deceived many; or Hesiod, the register of the theogony of those whom he calls gods; or Orpheus, the three hundred and sixty-five gods, whom in the end of his life he rejects, maintaining in his precepts that there is one God? What profit did the sph rography of the world's circle confer on Aratus, or those who held the same doctrine as he, except glory among men? And not even that did they reap as they deserved. And what truth did they utter? Or what good did their tragedies do to Euripides and Sophocles, or the other tragedians? Or their comedies to Meder and Aristophanes, and the other comedians? Or their histories to Herodotus and Thucydides? Or the shrines and the pillars of Hercules to Pythagoras, or the Cynic philosophy to Diogenes? What good did it do Epicurus to maintain that there is no providence; or Empedocles to teach atheism; or Socrates to swear by the dog, and the goose, and the plane-tree, and Æsculapius struck by lightning, and the demons whom he invoked? And why did he willingly die? What reward, or of what kind, did he expect to receive after death? What did Plato's system of culture profit him? Or what benefit did the rest of the philosophers derive from their doctrines, not to enumerate the whole of them, since they are numerous? But these things we say, for the purpose of exhibiting their useless and godless opinions. "". None
90. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • allegorical interpretation • allegorical interpretation, stoic allegoresis of theological myths • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • exegesis, allegorical • pagan allegory, mysteries/cults

 Found in books: de Jáuregui (2010) 142, 243, 249, 350, 354; Černušková (2016) 80

91. None, None, nan (2nd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory, allegorical exegesis • Exegesis, allegorical • acusmata (Pythagorean), interpretation of ethical allegories • allegoresis (allegorical interpretation) • allegorical exegesis/interpretation • allegorical interpretation • allegorical interpretation, stoic allegoresis of theological myths • allegorists • allegory • allegory/-ies • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • exegesis, allegorical • pagan allegory, mysteries/cults

 Found in books: Boulluec (2022) 293, 393, 408, 409, 425; Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 349; Osborne (2010) 78, 96; Ramelli (2013) 107; Wolfsdorf (2020) 15; Álvarez (2019) 93, 102; Černušková (2016) 11, 12, 13, 21, 27, 65, 70, 86, 87, 89, 96, 106, 138, 145

92. Diogenes Laertius, Lives of The Philosophers, 1.5, 8.33 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • acusmata (Pythagorean), interpretation of ethical allegories • allegoresis (allegorical interpretation), in the Derveni Papyrus • Νοῦς (allegory of Zeus)

 Found in books: Wolfsdorf (2020) 12, 13, 14; de Jáuregui (2010) 232; Álvarez (2019) 116, 138

8.33. Right has the force of an oath, and that is why Zeus is called the God of Oaths. Virtue is harmony, and so are health and all good and God himself; this is why they say that all things are constructed according to the laws of harmony. The love of friends is just concord and equality. We should not pay equal worship to gods and heroes, but to the gods always, with reverent silence, in white robes, and after purification, to the heroes only from midday onwards. Purification is by cleansing, baptism and lustration, and by keeping clean from all deaths and births and all pollution, and abstaining from meat and flesh of animals that have died, mullets, gurnards, eggs and egg-sprung animals, beans, and the other abstinences prescribed by those who perform rites in the sanctuaries.' '. None
93. Eusebius of Caesarea, Ecclesiastical History, 5.10.1-5.10.4, 5.11.2-5.11.5, 6.13.1-6.13.2, 6.19.8 (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • allegorical exegesis/interpretation • allegorical interpretation • allegorical interpretation, stoic allegoresis of theological myths • allegorists • allegory, and Stoicism • allegory/-ies • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • exegesis, allegorical • pagan allegory • pagan allegory, mysteries/cults

 Found in books: James (2021) 35; Ramelli (2013) 107; Černušková (2016) 98, 105, 106, 107, 108, 113

5.10.1. About that time, Pantaenus, a man highly distinguished for his learning, had charge of the school of the faithful in Alexandria. A school of sacred learning, which continues to our day, was established there in ancient times, and as we have been informed, was managed by men of great ability and zeal for divine things. Among these it is reported that Pantaenus was at that time especially conspicuous, as he had been educated in the philosophical system of those called Stoics. 5.10.2. They say that he displayed such zeal for the divine Word, that he was appointed as a herald of the Gospel of Christ to the nations in the East, and was sent as far as India. For indeed there were still many evangelists of the Word who sought earnestly to use their inspired zeal, after the examples of the apostles, for the increase and building up of the Divine Word. 5.10.3. Pantaenus was one of these, and is said to have gone to India. It is reported that among persons there who knew of Christ, he found the Gospel according to Matthew, which had anticipated his own arrival. For Bartholomew, one of the apostles, had preached to them, and left with them the writing of Matthew in the Hebrew language, which they had preserved till that time. 5.10.4. After many good deeds, Pantaenus finally became the head of the school at Alexandria, and expounded the treasures of divine doctrine both orally and in writing.
5.11.2. In his Hypotyposes he speaks of Pantaenus by name as his teacher. It seems to me that he alludes to the same person also in the first book of his Stromata, when, referring to the more conspicuous of the successors of the apostles whom he had met, he says: 5.11.3. This work is not a writing artfully constructed for display; but my notes are stored up for old age, as a remedy against forgetfulness; an image without art, and a rough sketch of those powerful and animated words which it was my privilege to hear, as well as of blessed and truly remarkable men. 5.11.4. of these the one — the Ionian — was in Greece, the other in Magna Graecia; the one of them was from Coele Syria, the other from Egypt. There were others in the East, one of them an Assyrian, the other a Hebrew in Palestine. But when I met with the last, — in ability truly he was first — having hunted him out in his concealment in Egypt, I found rest.' "5.11.5. These men, preserving the true tradition of the blessed doctrine, directly from the holy apostles, Peter and James and John and Paul, the son receiving it from the father (but few were like the fathers), have come by God's will even to us to deposit those ancestral and apostolic seeds." "
6.13.1. All the eight Stromata of Clement are preserved among us, and have been given by him the following title: Titus Flavius Clement's Stromata of Gnostic Notes on the True Philosophy." '6.13.2. The books entitled Hypotyposes are of the same number. In them he mentions Pantaenus by name as his teacher, and gives his opinions and traditions.
6.19.8. For he was continually studying Plato, and he busied himself with the writings of Numenius and Cronius, Apollophanes, Longinus, Moderatus, and Nicomachus, and those famous among the Pythagoreans. And he used the books of Chaeremon the Stoic, and of Cornutus. Becoming acquainted through them with the figurative interpretation of the Grecian mysteries, he applied it to the Jewish Scriptures.''. None
94. Origen, Against Celsus, 1.17, 4.38-4.39, 4.48, 4.51, 4.71-4.73, 6.58-6.59, 6.61, 6.64 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • Allegory, Boyarin on • Allegory, allegorical exegesis • Boyarin, Daniel, on allegory • allegorical exegesis/interpretation • allegorical interpretation • allegorical interpretation, stoic allegoresis of theological myths • allegory • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • biblical interpretation, Celsus’ attack on allegorical interpretation • exegesis, allegorical • interpretation, allegoric • pagan allegory, mysteries/cults

 Found in books: Corrigan and Rasimus (2013) 200; Dawson (2001) 237; Esler (2000) 846; König (2012) 163; Lieu (2015) 364, 365; Pirenne-Delforge and Pironti (2022) 227; Ramelli (2013) 196; de Jáuregui (2010) 231, 243, 359; Černušková (2016) 86

1.17. In what follows, Celsus, assailing the Mosaic history, finds fault with those who give it a tropical and allegorical signification. And here one might say to this great man, who inscribed upon his own work the title of a True Discourse, Why, good sir, do you make it a boast to have it recorded that the gods should engage in such adventures as are described by your learned poets and philosophers, and be guilty of abominable intrigues, and of engaging in wars against their own fathers, and of cutting off their secret parts, and should dare to commit and to suffer such enormities; while Moses, who gives no such accounts respecting God, nor even regarding the holy angels, and who relates deeds of far less atrocity regarding men (for in his writings no one ever ventured to commit such crimes as Kronos did against Uranus, or Zeus against his father, or that of the father of men and gods, who had intercourse with his own daughter), should be considered as having deceived those who were placed under his laws, and to have led them into error? And here Celsus seems to me to act somewhat as Thrasymachus the Platonic philosopher did, when he would not allow Socrates to answer regarding justice, as he wished, but said, Take care not to say that utility is justice, or duty, or anything of that kind. For in like manner Celsus assails (as he thinks) the Mosaic histories, and finds fault with those who understand them allegorically, at the same time bestowing also some praise upon those who do so, to the effect that they are more impartial (than those who do not); and thus, as it were, he prevents by his cavils those who are able to show the true state of the case from offering such a defense as they would wish to offer. ' "
4.38. In the next place, as it is his object to slander our Scriptures, he ridicules the following statement: And God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and He took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof. And the rib, which He had taken from the man, made He a woman, and so on; without quoting the words, which would give the hearer the impression that they are spoken with a figurative meaning. He would not even have it appear that the words were used allegorically, although he says afterwards, that the more modest among Jews and Christians are ashamed of these things, and endeavour to give them somehow an allegorical signification. Now we might say to him, Are the statements of your inspired Hesiod, which he makes regarding the woman in the form of a myth, to be explained allegorically, in the sense that she was given by Jove to men as an evil thing, and as a retribution for the theft of the fire; while that regarding the woman who was taken from the side of the man (after he had been buried in deep slumber), and was formed by God, appears to you to be related without any rational meaning and secret signification? But is it not uncandid, not to ridicule the former as myths, but to admire them as philosophical ideas in a mythical dress, and to treat with contempt the latter, as offending the understanding, and to declare that they are of no account? For if, because of the mere phraseology, we are to find fault with what is intended to have a secret meaning, see whether the following lines of Hesiod, a man, as you say, inspired, are not better fitted to excite laughter:- 'Son of Iapetus!' with wrathful heart Spoke the cloud-gatherer: 'Oh, unmatched in art! Exult in this the flame retrieved, And do you triumph in the god deceived? But you, with the posterity of man, Shall rue the fraud whence mightier ills began; I will send evil for your stealthy fire, While all embrace it, and their bane desire.' The sire, who rules the earth, and sways the pole, Had said, and laughter fill'd his secret soul. He bade the artist-god his hest obey, And mould with tempering waters ductile clay: Infuse, as breathing life and form began, The supple vigour, and the voice of man: Her aspect fair as goddesses above, A virgin's likeness, with the brows of love. He bade Minerva teach the skill that dyes The web with colors, as the shuttle flies; He called the magic of Love's Queen to shed A nameless grace around her courteous head; Instil the wish that longs with restless aim, And cares of dress that feed upon the frame: Bade Hermes last implant the craft refined of artful manners, and a shameless mind. He said; their king th' inferior powers obeyed: The fictile likeness of a bashful maid Rose from the temper'd earth, by Jove's behest, Under the forming god; the zone and vest Were clasp'd and folded by Minerva's hand: The heaven-born graces, and persuasion bland Deck'd her round limbs with chains of gold: the hours of loose locks twined her temples with spring flowers. The whole attire Minerva's curious care Form'd to her shape, and fitted to her air. But in her breast the herald from above, Full of the counsels of deep thundering Jove, Wrought artful manners, wrought perfidious lies, And speech that thrills the blood, and lulls the wise. Her did th' interpreter of gods proclaim, And named the woman with Pandora's name; Since all the gods conferr'd their gifts, to charm, For man's inventive race, this beauteous harm. Moreover, what is said also about the casket is fitted of itself to excite laughter; for example:- Whilome on earth the sons of men abode From ills apart, and labour's irksome load, And sore diseases, bringing age to man; Now the sad life of mortals is a span. The woman's hands a mighty casket bear; She lifts the lid; she scatters griefs in air: Alone, beneath the vessel's rims detained, Hope still within th' unbroken cell remained, Nor fled abroad; so will'd cloud-gatherer Jove: The woman's hand had dropp'd the lid above. Now, to him who would give to these lines a grave allegorical meaning (whether any such meaning be contained in them or not), we would say: Are the Greeks alone at liberty to convey a philosophic meaning in a secret covering? Or perhaps also the Egyptians, and those of the Barbarians who pride themselves upon their mysteries and the truth (which is concealed within them); while the Jews alone, with their lawgiver and historians, appear to you the most unintelligent of men? And is this the only nation which has not received a share of divine power, and which yet was so grandly instructed how to rise upwards to the uncreated nature of God, and to gaze on Him alone, and to expect from Him alone (the fulfilment of) their hopes? " "4.39. But as Celsus makes a jest also of the serpent, as counteracting the injunctions given by God to the man, taking the narrative to be an old wife's fable, and has purposely neither mentioned the paradise of God, nor stated that God is said to have planted it in Eden towards the east, and that there afterwards sprang up from the earth every tree that was beautiful to the sight, and good for food, and the tree of life in the midst of the paradise, and the tree of the knowledge of good and evil, and the other statements which follow, which might of themselves lead a candid reader to see that all these things had not inappropriately an allegorical meaning, let us contrast with this the words of Socrates regarding Eros in the Symposium of Plato, and which are put in the mouth of Socrates as being more appropriate than what was said regarding him by all the others at the Symposium. The words of Plato are as follow: When Aphrodite was born, the gods held a banquet, and there was present, along with the others, Porus the son of Metis. And after they had dined, Penia came to beg for something (seeing there was an entertainment), and she stood at the gate. Porus meantime, having become intoxicated with the nectar (for there was then no wine), went into the garden of Zeus, and, being heavy with liquor, lay down to sleep. Penia accordingly formed a secret plot, with a view of freeing herself from her condition of poverty, to get a child by Porus, and accordingly lay down beside him, and became pregt with Eros. And on this account Eros has become the follower and attendant of Aphrodite, having been begotten on her birthday feast, and being at the same time by nature a lover of the beautiful, because Aphrodite too is beautiful. Seeing, then, that Eros is the son of Porus and Penia, the following is his condition. In the first place, he is always poor, and far from being delicate and beautiful, as most persons imagine; but is withered, and sunburnt, and unshod, and without a home, sleeping always upon the ground, and without a covering; lying in the open air beside gates, and on public roads; possessing the nature of his mother, and dwelling continually with indigence. But, on the other hand, in conformity with the character of his father, he is given to plotting against the beautiful and the good, being courageous, and hasty, and vehement; a keen hunter, perpetually devising contrivances; both much given to forethought, and also fertile in resources; acting like a philosopher throughout the whole of his life; a terrible sorcerer, and dealer in drugs, and a sophist as well; neither immortal by nature nor yet mortal, but on the same day, at one time he flourishes and lives when he has plenty, and again at another time dies, and once more is recalled to life through possessing the nature of his father. But the supplies furnished to him are always gradually disappearing, so that he is never at any time in want, nor yet rich; and, on the other hand, he occupies an intermediate position between wisdom and ignorance. Now, if those who read these words were to imitate the malignity of Celsus - which be it far from Christians to do!- they would ridicule the myth, and would turn this great Plato into a subject of jest; but if, on investigating in a philosophic spirit what is conveyed in the dress of a myth, they should be able to discover the meaning of Plato, (they will admire) the manner in which he was able to conceal, on account of the multitude, in the form of this myth, the great ideas which presented themselves to him, and to speak in a befitting manner to those who know how to ascertain from the myths the true meaning of him who wove them together. Now I have brought forward this myth occurring in the writings of Plato, because of the mention in it of the garden of Zeus, which appears to bear some resemblance to the paradise of God, and of the comparison between Penia and the serpent, and the plot against Porus by Penia, which may be compared with the plot of the serpent against the man. It is not very clear, indeed, whether Plato fell in with these stories by chance, or whether, as some think, meeting during his visit to Egypt with certain individuals who philosophized on the Jewish mysteries, and learning some things from them, he may have preserved a few of their ideas, and thrown others aside, being careful not to offend the Greeks by a complete adoption of all the points of the philosophy of the Jews, who were in bad repute with the multitude, on account of the foreign character of their laws and their peculiar polity. The present, however, is not the proper time for explaining either the myth of Plato, or the story of the serpent and the paradise of God, and all that is related to have taken place in it, as in our exposition of the book of Genesis we have especially occupied ourselves as we best could with these matters. " '
4.48. In the next place, as if he had devoted himself solely to the manifestation of his hatred and dislike of the Jewish and Christian doctrine, he says: The more modest of Jewish and Christian writers give all these things an allegorical meaning; and, Because they are ashamed of these things, they take refuge in allegory. Now one might say to him, that if we must admit fables and fictions, whether written with a concealed meaning or with any other object, to be shameful narratives when taken in their literal acceptation, of what histories can this be said more truly than of the Grecian? In these histories, gods who are sons castrate the gods who are their fathers, and gods who are parents devour their own children, and a goddess-mother gives to the father of gods and men a stone to swallow instead of his own son, and a father has intercourse with his daughter, and a wife binds her own husband, having as her allies in the work the brother of the fettered god and his own daughter! But why should I enumerate these absurd stories of the Greeks regarding their gods, which are most shameful in themselves, even though invested with an allegorical meaning? (Take the instance) where Chrysippus of Soli, who is considered to be an ornament of the Stoic sect, on account of his numerous and learned treatises, explains a picture at Samos, in which Juno was represented as committing unspeakable abominations with Jupiter. This reverend philosopher says in his treatises, that matter receives the spermatic words of the god, and retains them within herself, in order to ornament the universe. For in the picture at Samos Juno represents matter, and Jupiter god. Now it is on account of these, and of countless other similar fables, that we would not even in word call the God of all things Jupiter, or the sun Apollo, or the moon Diana. But we offer to the Creator a worship which is pure, and speak with religious respect of His noble works of creation, not contaminating even in word the things of God; approving of the language of Plato in the Philebus, who would not admit that pleasure was a goddess, so great is my reverence, Protarchus, he says, for the very names of the gods. We verily entertain such reverence for the name of God, and for His noble works of creation, that we would not, even under pretext of an allegorical meaning, admit any fable which might do injury to the young.
4.51. Celsus appears to me to have heard that there are treatises in existence which contain allegorical explanations of the law of Moses. These however, he could not have read; for if he had he would not have said: The allegorical explanations, however, which have been devised are much more shameful and absurd than the fables themselves, inasmuch as they endeavour to unite with marvellous and altogether insensate folly things which cannot at all be made to harmonize. He seems to refer in these words to the works of Philo, or to those of still older writers, such as Aristobulus. But I conjecture that Celsus has not read their books, since it appears to me that in many passages they have so successfully hit the meaning (of the sacred writers), that even Grecian philosophers would have been captivated by their explanations; for in their writings we find not only a polished style, but exquisite thoughts and doctrines, and a rational use of what Celsus imagines to be fables in the sacred writings. I know, moreover, that Numenius the Pythagorean- a surpassingly excellent expounder of Plato, and who held a foremost place as a teacher of the doctrines of Pythagoras - in many of his works quotes from the writings of Moses and the prophets, and applies to the passages in question a not improbable allegorical meaning, as in his work called Epops, and in those which treat of Numbers and of Place. And in the third book of his dissertation on The Good, he quotes also a narrative regarding Jesus - without, however, mentioning His name - and gives it an allegorical signification, whether successfully or the reverse I may state on another occasion. He relates also the account respecting Moses, and Jannes, and Jambres. But we are not elated on account of this instance, though we express our approval of Numenius, rather than of Celsus and other Greeks, because he was willing to investigate our histories from a desire to acquire knowledge, and was (duly) affected by them as narratives which were to be allegorically understood, and which did not belong to the category of foolish compositions.
4.71. But as, in what follows, Celsus, not understanding that the language of Scripture regarding God is adapted to an anthropopathic point of view, ridicules those passages which speak of words of anger addressed to the ungodly, and of threatenings directed against sinners, we have to say that, as we ourselves, when talking with very young children, do not aim at exerting our own power of eloquence, but, adapting ourselves to the weakness of our charge, both say and do those things which may appear to us useful for the correction and improvement of the children as children, so the word of God appears to have dealt with the history, making the capacity of the hearers, and the benefit which they were to receive, the standard of the appropriateness of its announcements (regarding Him). And, generally, with regard to such a style of speaking about God, we find in the book of Deuteronomy the following: The Lord your God bare with your manners, as a man would bear with the manners of his son. It is, as it were, assuming the manners of a man in order to secure the advantage of men that the Scripture makes use of such expressions; for it would not have been suitable to the condition of the multitude, that what God had to say to them should be spoken by Him in a manner more befitting the majesty of His own person. And yet he who is anxious to attain a true understanding of holy Scripture, will discover the spiritual truths which are spoken by it to those who are called spiritual, by comparing the meaning of what is addressed to those of weaker mind with what is announced to such as are of acuter understanding, both meanings being frequently found in the same passage by him who is capable of comprehending it. ' "4.72. We speak, indeed, of the wrath of God. We do not, however, assert that it indicates any passion on His part, but that it is something which is assumed in order to discipline by stern means those sinners who have committed many and grievous sins. For that which is called God's wrath, and anger, is a means of discipline; and that such a view is agreeable to Scripture, is evident from what is said in the sixth Psalm, O Lord, rebuke me not in Your anger, neither chasten me in Your hot displeasure; and also in Jeremiah. O Lord, correct me, but with judgment: not in Your anger, lest You bring me to nothing. Any one, moreover, who reads in the second book of Kings of the wrath of God, inducing David to number the people, and finds from the first book of Chronicles that it was the devil who suggested this measure, will, on comparing together the two statements, easily see for what purpose the wrath is mentioned, of which wrath, as the Apostle Paul declares, all men are children: We were by nature children of wrath, even as others. Moreover, that wrath is no passion on the part of God, but that each one brings it upon himself by his sins, will be clear from the further statement of Paul: Or do you despise the riches of His goodness, and forbearance, and long-suffering, not knowing that the goodness of God leads you to repentance? But after your hardness and impenitent heart, treasure up unto yourself wrath against the day of wrath, and revelation of the righteous judgment of God. How, then, can any one treasure up for himself wrath against a day of wrath, if wrath be understood in the sense of passion? or how can the passion of wrath be a help to discipline? Besides, the Scripture, which tells us not to be angry at all, and which says in the thirty-seventh Psalm, Cease from anger, and forsake wrath, and which commands us by the mouth of Paul to put off all these, anger, wrath, malice, blasphemy, filthy communication, would not involve God in the same passion from which it would have us to be altogether free. It is manifest, further, that the language used regarding the wrath of God is to be understood figuratively from what is related of His sleep, from which, as if awaking Him, the prophet says: Awake, why do You sleep, Lord? and again: Then the Lord awoke as one out of sleep, and like a mighty man that shouts by reason of wine. If, then, sleep must mean something else, and not what the first acceptation of the word conveys, why should not wrath also be understood in a similar way? The threatenings, again, are intimations of the (punishments) which are to befall the wicked: for it is as if one were to call the words of a physician threats, when he tells his patients, I will have to use the knife, and apply cauteries, if you do not obey my prescriptions, and regulate your diet and mode of life in such a way as I direct you. It is no human passions, then, which we ascribe to God, nor impious opinions which we entertain of Him; nor do we err when we present the various narratives concerning Him, drawn from the Scriptures themselves, after careful comparison one with another. For those who are wise ambassadors of the word have no other object in view than to free as far as they can their hearers from weak opinions, and to endue them with intelligence. " '4.73. And as a sequel to his non-understanding of the statements regarding the wrath of God, he continues: Is it not ridiculous to suppose that, whereas a man, who became angry with the Jews, slew them all from the youth upwards, and burned their city (so powerless were they to resist him), the mighty God, as they say, being angry, and indigt, and uttering threats, should, (instead of punishing them) send His own Son, who endured the sufferings which He did? If the Jews, then, after the treatment which they dared to inflict upon Jesus, perished with all their youth, and had their city consumed by fire, they suffered this punishment in consequence of no other wrath than that which they treasured up for themselves; for the judgment of God against them, which was determined by the divine appointment, is termed wrath agreeably to a traditional usage of the Hebrews. And what the Son of the mighty God suffered, He suffered voluntarily for the salvation of men, as has been stated to the best of my ability in the preceding pages. He then continues: But that I may speak not of the Jews alone (for that is not my object), but of the whole of nature, as I promised, I will bring out more clearly what has been already stated. Now what modest man, on reading these words, and knowing the weakness of humanity, would not be indigt at the offensive nature of the promise to give an account of the whole of nature, and at an arrogance like that which prompted him to inscribe upon his book the title which he ventured to give it (of a True Discourse)? But let us see what he has to say regarding the whole of nature, and what he is to place in a clearer light.
6.58. There is next to be answered the following query: And how is it that he repents when men become ungrateful and wicked; and finds fault with his own handwork, and hates, and threatens, and destroys his own offspring? Now Celsus here calumniates and falsities what is written in the book of Genesis to the following effect: And the Lord God, seeing that the wickedness of men upon the earth was increasing, and that every one in his heart carefully meditated to do evil continually, was grieved He had made man upon the earth. And God meditated in His heart, and said, I will destroy man, whom I have made, from the face of the earth, both man and beast, and creeping thing, and fowl of the air, because I am grieved that I made them; quoting words which are not written in Scripture, as if they conveyed the meaning of what was actually written. For there is no mention in these words of the repentance of God, nor of His blaming and hating His own handwork. And if there is the appearance of God threatening the catastrophe of the deluge, and thus destroying His own children in it, we have to answer that, as the soul of man is immortal, the supposed threatening has for its object the conversion of the hearers, while the destruction of men by the flood is a purification of the earth, as certain among the Greek philosophers of no mean repute have indicated by the expression: When the gods purify the earth. And with respect to the transference to God of those anthropopathic phrases, some remarks have been already made by us in the preceding pages. ' "6.59. Celsus, in the next place, suspecting, or perhaps seeing clearly enough, the answer which might be returned by those who defend the destruction of men by the deluge, continues: But if he does not destroy his own offspring, whither does he convey them out of this world which he himself created? To this we reply, that God by no means removes out of the whole world, consisting of heaven and earth, those who suffered death by the deluge, but removes them from a life in the flesh, and, having set them free from their bodies, liberates them at the same time from an existence upon earth, which in many parts of Scripture it is usual to call the world. In the Gospel according to John especially, we may frequently find the regions of earth termed world, as in the passage, He was the true Light, which lightens every man that comes into the 'world;' as also in this, In the world you shall have tribulation; but be of good cheer, I have overcome the world. If, then, we understand by removing out of the world a transference from regions on earth, there is nothing absurd in the expression. If, on the contrary, the system of things which consists of heaven and earth be termed world, then those who perished in the deluge are by no means removed out of the so-called world. And yet, indeed, if we have regard to the words, Looking not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen; and also to these, For the invisible things of Him from the creation of the world are clearly seen, being understood by the things that are made, - we might say that he who dwells amid the invisible things, and what are called generally things not seen, is gone out of the world, the Word having removed him hence, and transported him to the heavenly regions, in order to behold all beautiful things. " "
6.61. Again, not understanding the meaning of the words, And God ended on the sixth day His works which He had made, and ceased on the seventh day from all His works which He had made: and God blessed the seventh day, and hallowed it, because on it He had ceased from all His works which He had begun to make; and imagining the expression, He ceased on the seventh day, to be the same as this, He rested on the seventh day, he makes the remark: After this, indeed, he is weary, like a very bad workman, who stands in need of rest to refresh himself! For he knows nothing of the day of the Sabbath and rest of God, which follows the completion of the world's creation, and which lasts during the duration of the world, and in which all those will keep festival with God who have done all their works in their six days, and who, because they have omitted none of their duties, will ascend to the contemplation (of celestial things), and to the assembly of righteous and blessed beings. In the next place, as if either the Scriptures made such a statement, or as if we ourselves so spoke of God as having rested from fatigue, he continues: It is not in keeping with the fitness of things that the first God should feel fatigue, or work with His hands, or give forth commands. Celsus says, that it is not in keeping with the fitness of things that the first God should feel fatigue. Now we would say that neither does God the Word feel fatigue, nor any of those beings who belong to a better and diviner order of things, because the sensation of fatigue is peculiar to those who are in the body. You can examine whether this is true of those who possess a body of any kind, or of those who have an earthly body, or one a little better than this. But neither is it consistent with the fitness of things that the first God should work with His own hands. If you understand the words work with His own hands literally, then neither are they applicable to the second God, nor to any other being partaking of divinity. But suppose that they are spoken in an improper and figurative sense, so that we may translate the following expressions, And the firmament shows forth His handywork, and the heavens are the work of Your hands, and any other similar phrases, in a figurative manner, so far as respects the hands and limbs of Deity, where is the absurdity in the words, God thus working with His own hands? And as there is no absurdity in God thus working, so neither is there in His issuing commands; so that what is done at His bidding should be beautiful and praiseworthy, because it was God who commanded it to be performed. " '
6.64. Celsus, again, brings together a number of statements, which he gives as admissions on our part, but which no intelligent Christian would allow. For not one of us asserts that God partakes of form or color. Nor does He even partake of motion, because He stands firm, and His nature is permanent, and He invites the righteous man also to do the same, saying: But as for you, stand here by Me. And if certain expressions indicate a kind of motion, as it were, on His part, such as this, They heard the voice of the Lord God walking in the garden in the cool of the day, we must understand them in this way, that it is by sinners that God is understood as moving, or as we understand the sleep of God, which is taken in a figurative sense, or His anger, or any other similar attribute. But God does not partake even of substance. For He is partaken of (by others) rather than that Himself partakes of them, and He is partaken of by those who have the Spirit of God. Our Saviour, also, does not partake of righteousness; but being Himself righteousness, He is partaken of by the righteous. A discussion about substance would be protracted and difficult, and especially if it were a question whether that which is permanent and immaterial be substance properly so called, so that it would be found that God is beyond substance, communicating of His substance, by means of office and power, to those to whom He communicates Himself by His Word, as He does to the Word Himself; or even if He is substance, yet He is said be in His nature invisible, in these words respecting our Saviour, who is said to be the image of the invisible God, while from the term invisible it is indicated that He is immaterial. It is also a question for investigation, whether the only-begotten and first-born of every creature is to be called substance of substances, and idea of ideas, and the principle of all things, while above all there is His Father and God. ''. None
95. Origen, On First Principles, 3.6.5, 4.2.4, 4.2.9, 4.3.5 (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical readers • Allegorical readers, spiritual progress of • Allegory, Boyarin on • Allegory, Origens • Allegory, dualism of • Boyarin, Daniel, on allegory • Dualism, of allegory • Origen of Alexandria, allegorical reading of • Philo of Alexandria, allegorical interpretation • Scripture, allegory for • allegorical exegesis/interpretation • allegory • allegory, Christianization of • allegory/allegoresis • biblical interpretation, allegorical/Alexandrian

 Found in books: Azar (2016) 60, 79, 99; Dawson (2001) 58, 59, 60, 61, 76, 237; Esler (2000) 676; Fowler (2014) 217; Ramelli (2013) 150, 599

3.6.5. The last enemy, moreover, who is called death, is said on this account to be destroyed, that there may not be anything left of a mournful kind when death does not exist, nor anything that is adverse when there is no enemy. The destruction of the last enemy, indeed, is to be understood, not as if its substance, which was formed by God, is to perish, but because its mind and hostile will, which came not from God, but from itself, are to be destroyed. Its destruction, therefore, will not be its non-existence, but its ceasing to be an enemy, and (to be) death. For nothing is impossible to the Omnipotent, nor is anything incapable of restoration to its Creator: for He made all things that they might exist, and those things which were made for existence cannot cease to be. For this reason also will they admit of change and variety, so as to be placed, according to their merits, either in a better or worse position; but no destruction of substance can befall those things which were created by God for the purpose of permanent existence. For those things which agreeably to the common opinion are believed to perish, the nature either of our faith or of the truth will not permit us to suppose to be destroyed. Finally, our flesh is supposed by ignorant men and unbelievers to be destroyed after death, in such a degree that it retains no relic at all of its former substance. We, however, who believe in its resurrection, understand that a change only has been produced by death, but that its substance certainly remains; and that by the will of its Creator, and at the time appointed, it will be restored to life; and that a second time a change will take place in it, so that what at first was flesh (formed) out of earthly soil, and was afterwards dissolved by death, and again reduced to dust and ashes (For dust you are, it is said, and to dust shall you return), will be again raised from the earth, and shall after this, according to the merits of the indwelling soul, advance to the glory of a spiritual body.' '. None
96. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Kingly Power, allegorical interpretation of • Sodom, allegorical interpretation of • allegory • the three visitors, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 260, 277, 301; Rosenblum (2016) 143, 153

97. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • Egypt, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 242; Bloch (2022) 104, 161

98. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • allegory / allegorisation • allegory, allegorical

 Found in books: Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 363; de Jáuregui et al. (2011) 408

99. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegorical method • Egypt, allegorical interpretation of • allegorical exegesis/interpretation

 Found in books: Birnbaum and Dillon (2020) 249; Grypeou and Spurling (2009) 194, 246; Ramelli (2013) 689

100. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • allegorical exegesis/interpretation • allegory/-ies

 Found in books: Ramelli (2013) 196; Černušková (2016) 118

101. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • (allegorical) interpretation of Homer • Allegory • allegorical interpretation • allegory/allegorizing

 Found in books: d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 39; de Jáuregui (2010) 85

102. None, None, nan (3rd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • allegory / allegoresis • allegory / allegorisation

 Found in books: Hirsch-Luipold (2022) 195; Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 316

103. Augustine, On Christian Doctrine, 2.10, 3.9.13 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustine of Hippo, on allegory of Scripture • Christianity, allegorical interpretation of Scripture • allegorical interpretation • allegorical interpretation, literal interpretation) • allegorical reading of biblical law (Leviticus Rabba), Hellenistic/Christian approach to text • allegory see also typology, Augustine’s understanding and use of • church fathers, allegorical interpretation of Scripture

 Found in books: Hayes (2022) 146; Nisula (2012) 143; Pollmann and Vessey (2007) 224; Yates and Dupont (2020) 337

2.10. 15. Now there are two causes which prevent what is written from being understood: its being vailed either under unknown, or under ambiguous signs. Signs are either proper or figurative. They are called proper when they are used to point out the objects they were designed to point out, as we say bos when we mean an ox, because all men who with us use the Latin tongue call it by this name. Signs are figurative when the things themselves which we indicate by the proper names are used to signify something else, as we say bos, and understand by that syllable the ox, which is ordinarily called by that name; but then further by that ox understand a preacher of the gospel, as Scripture signifies, according to the apostle's explanation, when it says: You shall not muzzle the ox that treads out the grain. " '
3.9.13. 13. Now he is in bondage to a sign who uses, or pays homage to, any significant object without knowing what it signifies: he, on the other hand, who either uses or honors a useful sign divinely appointed, whose force and significance he understands, does not honor the sign which is seen and temporal, but that to which all such signs refer. Now such a man is spiritual and free even at the time of his bondage, when it is not yet expedient to reveal to carnal minds those signs by subjection to which their carnality is to be overcome. To this class of spiritual persons belonged the patriarchs and the prophets, and all those among the people of Israel through whose instrumentality the Holy Spirit ministered unto us the aids and consolations of the Scriptures. But at the present time, after that the proof of our liberty has shone forth so clearly in the resurrection of our Lord, we are not oppressed with the heavy burden of attending even to those signs which we now understand, but our Lord Himself, and apostolic practice, have handed down to us a few rites in place of many, and these at once very easy to perform, most majestic in their significance, and most sacred in the observance; such, for example, as the sacrament of baptism, and the celebration of the body and blood of the Lord. And as soon as any one looks upon these observances he knows to what they refer, and so reveres them not in carnal bondage, but in spiritual freedom. Now, as to follow the letter, and to take signs for the things that are signified by them, is a mark of weakness and bondage; so to interpret signs wrongly is the result of being misled by error. He, however, who does not understand what a sign signifies, but yet knows that it is a sign, is not in bondage. And it is better even to be in bondage to unknown but useful signs than, by interpreting them wrongly, to draw the neck from under the yoke of bondage only to insert it in the coils of error. '". None
104. Augustine, The City of God, 2.26 (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • allegorical interpretation • allegorical interpretation, stoic allegoresis of theological myths • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • exegesis, allegorical • pagan allegory, mysteries/cults

 Found in books: de Jáuregui (2010) 334; Černušková (2016) 81

2.26. Seeing that this is so - seeing that the filthy and cruel deeds, the disgraceful and criminal actions of the gods, whether real or feigned, were at their own request published, and were consecrated, and dedicated in their honor as sacred and stated solemnities; seeing they vowed vengeance on those who refused to exhibit them to the eyes of all, that they might be proposed as deeds worthy of imitation, why is it that these same demons, who by taking pleasure in such obscenities, acknowledge themselves to be unclean spirits, and by delighting in their own villanies and iniquities, real or imaginary, and by requesting from the immodest, and extorting from the modest, the celebration of these licentious acts, proclaim themselves instigators to a criminal and lewd life - why, I ask, are they represented as giving some good moral precepts to a few of their own elect, initiated in the secrecy of their shrines? If it be so, this very thing only serves further to demonstrate the malicious craft of these pestilent spirits. For so great is the influence of probity and chastity, that all men, or almost all men, are moved by the praise of these virtues; nor is any man so depraved by vice, but he has some feeling of honor left in him. So that, unless the devil sometimes transformed himself, as Scripture says, into an angel of light, 2 Corinthians 11:14 he could not compass his deceitful purpose. Accordingly, in public, a bold impurity fills the ear of the people with noisy clamor; in private, a feigned chastity speaks in scarce audible whispers to a few: an open stage is provided for shameful things, but on the praiseworthy the curtain falls: grace hides disgrace flaunts: a wicked deed draws an overflowing house, a virtuous speech finds scarce a hearer, as though purity were to be blushed at, impurity boasted of. Where else can such confusion reign, but in devils' temples? Where, but in the haunts of deceit? For the secret precepts are given as a sop to the virtuous, who are few in number; the wicked examples are exhibited to encourage the vicious, who are countless. Where and when those initiated in the mysteries of Cœlestis received any good instructions, we know not. What we do know is, that before her shrine, in which her image is set, and amidst a vast crowd gathering from all quarters, and standing closely packed together, we were intensely interested spectators of the games which were going on, and saw, as we pleased to turn the eye, on this side a grand display of harlots, on the other the virgin goddess; we saw this virgin worshipped with prayer and with obscene rites. There we saw no shame-faced mimes, no actress over-burdened with modesty; all that the obscene rites demanded was fully complied with. We were plainly shown what was pleasing to the virgin deity, and the matron who witnessed the spectacle returned home from the temple a wiser woman. Some, indeed, of the more prudent women turned their faces from the immodest movements of the players, and learned the art of wickedness by a furtive regard. For they were restrained, by the modest demeanor due to men, from looking boldly at the immodest gestures; but much more were they restrained from condemning with chaste heart the sacred rites of her whom they adored. And yet this licentiousness - which, if practised in one's home, could only be done there in secret - was practised as a public lesson in the temple; and if any modesty remained in men, it was occupied in marvelling that wickedness which men could not unrestrainedly commit should be part of the religious teaching of the gods, and that to omit its exhibition should incur the anger of the gods. What spirit can that be, which by a hidden inspiration stirs men's corruption, and goads them to adultery, and feeds on the full-fledged iniquity, unless it be the same that finds pleasure in such religious ceremonies, sets in the temples images of devils, and loves to see in play the images of vices; that whispers in secret some righteous sayings to deceive the few who are good, and scatters in public invitations to profligacy, to gain possession of the millions who are wicked? "". None
105. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Augustine of Hippo, on allegory of Scripture • allegorical interpretation, literal interpretation) • allegory see also typology, Augustine’s understanding and use of

 Found in books: Nisula (2012) 86; Yates and Dupont (2020) 276

106. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • allegorical interpretation • allegorical interpretation, stoic allegoresis of theological myths • allegorists • allegory • allegory/-ies • allēgoria, allegorical exegesis of Scripture • exegesis, allegorical • pagan allegory • pagan allegory, mysteries/cults

 Found in books: Goldhill (2022) 315; Černušková (2016) 105

107. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • allegorical interpretation • allegory / allegorisation • allegory/allegorizing on mathematics

 Found in books: Tanaseanu-Döbler and von Alvensleben (2020) 28, 408; d, Hoine and Martijn (2017) 170, 221; de Jáuregui (2010) 326

108. None, None, nan (4th cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • allegory • narrative, allegorical

 Found in books: Rohmann (2016) 90; Verhelst and Scheijnens (2022) 163

109. Babylonian Talmud, Arakhin, None (6th cent. CE - missingth cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Exegesis,, Allegory • King, Allegory • Myth,, as Allegory • allegory, figurative

 Found in books: Estes (2020) 206; Fishbane (2003) 393

15b. {שמות טז } אל תצאו ויצאו אל תותירו ויותירו,שנים בשליו ראשון ובשליו שני בשליו ראשון {שמות ט״ז:ג׳ } בשבתכם על סיר הבשר,בשליו שני (במדבר יא, ד) והאספסוף אשר בקרבו,בעגל כדאיתיה במדבר פארן כדאיתיה,אמר רבי יוחנן משום רבי יוסי בן זימרא מאי דכתיב (תהלים קכ, ג) מה יתן לך ומה יוסיף לך לשון רמיה אמר לו הקב"ה ללשון כל אבריו של אדם זקופים ואתה מוטל כל אבריו של אדם מבחוץ ואתה מבפנים ולא עוד אלא שהקפתי לך שתי חומות אחת של עצם ואחת של בשר מה יתן לך ומה יוסיף לך לשון רמיה,אמר ר\' יוחנן משום ר\' יוסי בן זימרא כל המספר לשון הרע כאילו כפר בעיקר שנאמר (תהלים יב, ה) אשר אמרו ללשוננו נגביר שפתינו אתנו מי אדון לנו,ואמר ר\' יוסי בן זימרא כל המספר לשון הרע נגעים באים עליו שנאמר (תהלים קא, ה) מלשני בסתר רעהו אותו אצמית וכתיב התם {ויקרא כה } לצמיתות ומתרגמינן לחלוטין,ותנן אין בין מצורע מוסגר למצורע מוחלט אלא פריעה ופרימה,אמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (ויקרא יד, ב) זאת תהיה תורת המצורע זאת תהיה תורתו של מוציא שם רע,ואמר ריש לקיש מאי דכתיב (קהלת י, יא) אם ישוך הנחש בלא לחש ואין יתרון לבעל הלשון לעתיד לבא מתקבצות כל החיות ובאות אצל נחש ואומרות ארי דורס ואוכל זאב טורף ואוכל אתה מה הנאה יש לך אומר להם וכי מה יתרון לבעל הלשון,ואמר ריש לקיש כל המספר לשון הרע מגדיל עונות עד לשמים שנאמר (תהלים עג, ט) שתו בשמים פיהם ולשונם תהלך בארץ,אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא כל המספר לשון הרע ראוי לסוקלו באבן כתיב הכא אותו אצמית וכתיב התם (איכה ג, נג) צמתו בבור חיי וידו אבן בי,ואמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא כל המספר לשון הרע אמר הקב"ה אין אני והוא יכולין לדור בעולם שנאמר תהלים קא, ה) מלשני בסתר רעהו אותו אצמית גבה עינים ורחב לבב אותו לא אוכל אל תיקרי אותו לא אוכל אלא אתו לא אוכל ואיכא דמתני לה על גסי הרוח,אמר רב חסדא אמר מר עוקבא כל המספר לשון הרע אומר הקב"ה לשר של גיהנם אני עליו מלמעלה ואתה עליו מלמטה נדוננו שנאמר (תהלים קכ, ד) חצי גבור שנונים עם גחלי רתמים אין חץ אלא לשון שנאמר (ירמיהו ט, ז) חץ שחוט לשונם מרמה דבר,ואין גבור אלא הקב"ה שנאמר (ישעיהו מב, יג) ה\' כגבור יצא גחלי רתמים היינו גיהנם,אמר רבי חמא בר\' חנינא מה תקנתו של מספרי לשון הרע אם תלמיד חכם הוא יעסוק בתורה שנא\' (משלי טו, ד) מרפא לשון עץ חיים ואין לשון אלא לשון הרע שנאמר חץ שחוט לשונם ואין עץ אלא תורה שנאמר (משלי ג, יח) עץ חיים היא למחזיקים בה ואם עם הארץ הוא ישפיל דעתו שנאמר (משלי טו, ד) וסלף בה שבר רוח,רבי אחא ברבי חנינא אומר סיפר אין לו תקנה שכבר כרתו דוד ברוח הקדש שנאמר (תהלים יב, ד) יכרת ה\' כל שפתי חלקות לשון מדברת גדולות אלא מה תקנתו שלא יבא לידי לשון הרע אם תלמיד חכם הוא יעסוק בתורה ואם ע"ה הוא ישפיל דעתו שנאמר וסלף בה שבר רוח,תנא דבי רבי ישמעאל כל המספר לשון הרע מגדיל עונות כנגד שלש עבירות עבודת כוכבים וגילוי עריות ושפיכות דמים כתיב הכא לשון מדברת גדולות וכתיב בעבודת כוכבים (שמות לב, לא) אנא חטא העם הזה חטאה גדולה,בגילוי עריות כתיב (בראשית לט, ט) ואיך אעשה הרעה הגדולה הזאת בשפיכות דמים כתיב (בראשית ד, יג) גדול עוני מנשוא,גדולות אימא תרתי הי מינייהו מפקא,במערבא אמרי לשון תליתאי קטיל תליתאי הורג למספרו ולמקבלו ולאומרו,א"ר חמא ברבי חנינא מאי דכתיב (משלי יח, כא) מות וחיים ביד לשון וכי יש יד ללשון לומר לך מה יד ממיתה אף לשון ממיתה אי מה יד אינה ממיתה אלא בסמוך לה אף לשון אינה ממיתה אלא בסמוך לה ת"ל חץ שחוט לשונם,אי מה חץ עד ארבעים וחמשים אמה אף לשון עד ארבעים וחמשים אמה תלמוד לומר שתו בשמים פיהם ולשונם תהלך בארץ,וכי מאחר דכתיב שתו בשמים פיהם חץ שחוט לשונם למה לי הא קמשמע לן דקטיל כחץ,וכי מאחר דכתיב חץ שחוט לשונם מות וחיים ביד לשון למה לי לכדרבא דאמר רבא בעי חיים בלישניה דבעי מיתה בלישניה,היכי דמי לישנא בישא (רבא אמר) כגון דאמר איכא נורא בי פלניא אמר ליה אביי מאי קא עביד גלויי מילתא בעלמא הוא אלא דמפיק בלישנא בישא דאמר היכא משתכח נורא אלא בי פלניא דאיכא בשרא וכוורי,אמר רבה כל מילתא דמיתאמרא באפי מרה לית בה משום לישנא בישא אמר ליה כל שכן חוצפא ולישנא בישא אמר ליה אנא כרבי יוסי סבירא לי דאמר רבי יוסי מימי לא אמרתי דבר וחזרתי לאחורי אמר''. None
15b. >Do not go out, as indicated in the verse: “And Moses said: Eat that today; for today is a Sabbath for the Lord; today you will not find it in the field” (Exodus 16:25). >But nevertheless there were people who >went out to look for manna, as it is written: “And it came to pass on the seventh day that some of the people went out to gather, and they found none” (Exodus 16:27). The verse also states: “And Moses said to them: Let >no man >leave any of it until the morning” (Exodus 16:19), >and there were people who >left it until morning, as it states: “But they did not listen to Moses; and some of them left of it until the morning, and it bred worms, and rotted; and Moses was angry with them” (Exodus 16:20).,The Gemara continues its elucidation of the baraita: There were >two trials relating to the quail, one was >on the first occasion when the >quail appeared, >and the other >on the second occasion the >quail appeared. The Gemara clarifies: The trial >of the first quail is described in the verse: “And the children of Israel said to them: Would that we had died by the hand of the Lord in the land of Egypt, >when we sat by the meat pots, when we ate bread to the full; for you have brought us into this wilderness, to kill this whole assembly with hunger” (Exodus 16:3). Immediately afterward the quail arrived, as the verse states: “And it came to pass in the evening, that the quail came up, and covered the camp; and in the morning there was a layer of dew round about the camp” (Exodus 16:13).,The >second trial of the >quail is described in the verse: >“And the mixed multitude that was among them desired; and the children of Israel also wept on their part, and said: Would that we were given meat to eat” (Numbers 11:4). Later the verse states: “And there went forth a wind from the Lord, and brought across quails from the sea and let them fall by the camp, about a day’s journey on this side and a day’s journey on the other side, round about the camp, and about two cubits above the face of the earth” (Numbers 11:31).,The Gemara concludes its detailing of the Jewish people’s ten trials of God: The trial of >the golden >calf is >as it is described in the Torah (Exodus, chapter 32), and the trial in >the wilderness of Paran is >as it is described in the Torah (Numbers, chapter 13).,§ The Gemara returns to the topic of malicious speech. >Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra: What is the meaning of that >which is written: “What shall be given to you, and what more shall be done for you, you deceitful tongue” (Psalms 120:3)? >The Holy One, Blessed be He said to the tongue: All the other >limbs of a person are upright, but you are lying horizontally. >All the other >limbs of a person are external, but you are internal. And moreover, I have surrounded you with two walls, one of bone, i.e., the teeth, >and one of flesh, the lips. >What shall be given to you and what more shall be done for you, to prevent >you from speaking in >a deceitful manner, >tongue?,Furthermore, >Rabbi Yoḥa says in the name of Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra: Anyone who speaks malicious speech is considered >as though he denied the fundamental belief in God. >As it is stated: “Who have said: We will make our tongue mighty; our lips are with us: Who is lord over us” (Psalms 12:5).,>And Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra says: Anyone who speaks malicious speech will be afflicted by >leprous marks coming upon him, as it is stated: “Whoever defames his neighbor in secret, I will destroy him atzmit; whoever is haughty of eye and proud of heart, I will not suffer him” (Psalms 101:5). >And it is written there: “And the land shall not be sold >in perpetuity letzmitut; for the land is Mine; for you are strangers and settlers with Me” (Leviticus 25:23). >And we translate this term letzmitut as >laḥalutin, in perpetuity or confirmed.,Rabbi Yosei ben Zimra continues: >And we learned in a mishna (Megilla 8b): >The difference between a quarantined leper, i.e., one examined by a priest who found his symptoms inconclusive, and who must therefore remain in isolation for a period of up to two weeks to see if conclusive symptoms develop, >and a confirmed muḥlat leper, one whose symptoms were conclusive and the priest declared him a definite leper, >is only with regard to >letting the hair on one’s head grow >wild and rending one’s garments. A confirmed leper is obligated to let the hair on his head grow wild and rend his garments; a quarantined leper is not. The similarity in the terms teaches that one who speaks malicious speech will be afflicted with leprous marks.,>Reish Lakish says: What is the meaning of that >which is written: “This shall be the law of the leper metzora in the day of his cleansing: He shall be brought to the priest” (Leviticus 14:2)? This means that >this shall be the law of a defamer motzi shem ra.,>And Reish Lakish says: What is the meaning of that >which is written: “If the serpent bites before it is charmed, then what advantage is there to the master of the tongue” (Ecclesiastes 10:11). What is the connection between the serpent and the master of the tongue? >In the future, all the animals will >gather and come to the serpent and will >say to it: >A lion tramples with its paws to kill its prey >and eats; a wolf tears with its teeth to kill its prey >and eats. But >you, what benefit do you have when you bite, as you cannot eat every animal that you kill? The serpent will >say to them: And what is the benefit to the master of the tongue that speaks malicious speech?,>And Reish Lakish says: Anyone who speaks malicious speech increases his >sins until the heavens, as it is stated: “They have set their mouth against the heavens, and their tongue walks through the earth” (Psalms 73:9). In other words, while his tongue walks on the earth, his sin reaches the heavens.,>Rav Ḥisda says that >Mar Ukva says: Anyone who speaks malicious speech, it is >appropriate to stone him with stones. It is written here: “Whoever defames his neighbor in secret, >I will destroy him atzmit (Psalms 101:5), >and it is written there: “They have destroyed tzamtu my life in the dungeon, and have cast stones upon me” (Lamentations 3:53).,>And Rav Ḥisda says that >Mar Ukva says: With regard to >anyone who speaks malicious speech, the Holy One, Blessed be He says about him: >He and I cannot dwell together >in the world. As it is stated in the verse: >“Whoever slanders his neighbor in secret, I will destroy him; whoever is haughty of eye and proud of heart, I will not suffer him” (Psalms 101:5). >Do not read the phrase as: >“I will not suffer him oto>,” but as: >With him ito I cannot bear to dwell. God is saying that He cannot bear having this person in the world with Him. >And there are those >who teach this notion of God’s not being able to tolerate a certain type of person in reference >to the arrogant, i.e., they apply it to the last part of the verse: Proud of heart.,>Rav Ḥisda further >says that >Mar Ukva says: With regard to >anyone who speaks malicious speech, the Holy One Blessed be He says about him >to Gehenna: I will be >on him from above, and you will be >on him from below, and together >we will judge him and punish him. >As it is stated: “Sharp arrows of the mighty, with coals of broom” (Psalms 120:4), >and the word >“arrow” means >nothing other than the tongue, as it is stated: “Their tongue is a sharpened arrow; it speaks deceit. One speaks peaceably to his neighbor with his mouth, but in his heart he lies in wait for him” (Jeremiah 9:7).,Mar Ukva continued: >And the word >“mighty” in Psalms 120:4 means >nothing other than the Holy One, Blessed be He, as it is stated: “The Lord will go forth as a mighty man, He will stir up jealousy like a man of war; He will cry; He will shout aloud, He will prove Himself mighty against His enemies” (Isaiah 42:13). And as for the >coals of the >broom tree >gaḥalei retamim that burn for a long time, >this is an allusion to >Gehenna.,>Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina says: What is the remedy for those who speak malicious speech? If he is a Torah scholar, let him >study Torah, as it is stated: “A soothing tongue is a tree of life, but its perverseness is a broken spirit” (Proverbs 15:4). >And the word >“tongue” means >nothing other than malicious speech, as it is stated: “Their tongue is a sharpened arrow; it speaks deceit” (Jeremiah 9:7). >And the word >“tree” means >nothing other than Torah, as it is stated: “It is a tree of life to them that lay hold of it” (Proverbs 3:18). >And if he is an ignoramus, let him >humble his mind, as it is stated: “Its perverseness is a broken spirit” (Proverbs 15:4). In other words, one who perverts his tongue with malicious speech should remedy his behavior by cultivating a broken and humble spirit.,>Rabbi Aḥa, son of Rabbi Ḥanina says: If one has already >spoken malicious speech, >he has no remedy, as King >David, inspired >by Divine Spirit, has already cut him off with the punishment of >karet, as it is stated: “May the Lord cut off yakhret all flattering lips, the tongue that speaks great things” (Psalms 12:4). >Rather, what is his remedy beforehand, >so that he does not come to speak >malicious speech? If he is a Torah scholar, let him >study Torah; and if he is an ignoramus let him >humble his mind, as it is stated: “A soothing tongue is a tree of life, >but its perverseness is a broken spirit” (Proverbs 15:4). One who is humble will not come to speak badly about another.,>The school of Rabbi Yishmael taught: Anyone who speaks malicious speech increases his >sins to the degree that they >correspond to the >three cardinal >transgressions: Idol worship, and forbidden sexual relations, and bloodshed. This can be derived from a verbal analogy based on the word “great.” >It is written here: “May the Lord cut off all flattering lips, >the tongue that speaks great things” (Psalms 12:4). >And it is written with regard to idol worship: “And Moses returned to the Lord, and said: >Oh, this people have sinned a great sin, and have made for themselves a god of gold” (Exodus 32:31).,>With regard to forbidden sexual relations it is written that when Potiphar’s wife attempted to seduce Joseph he responded: >“How can I do this great wickedness, and sin against God” (Genesis 39:9). >With regard to bloodshed it is written, after Cain murdered his brother: “And Cain said to the Lord: >My punishment is greater than I can bear” (Genesis 4:13). The Torah describes each of these three cardinal sins with the word “great” in the singular, whereas malicious speech is described with the plural term “great things,” indicating that it is equivalent to all three of the other transgressions together.,The Gemara asks: Granted that with regard to malicious speech the verse uses the plural: >“Great things,” but the plural indicates a minimum of two. If so, one can only >say that malicious speech is equivalent to >two of the cardinal transgressions. The Gemara responds: >Which of them could be >taken out as less than the other two? All three are equal. Therefore malicious speech must be equivalent to all three.,>In the West, Eretz Yisrael, >they say: Third speech, i.e., malicious speech about a third party, >kills three people. >It kills the one who speaks malicious speech, >and the one who accepts the malicious speech when he hears it, >and the one >about whom the malicious speech is >said.,>Rabbi Ḥama, son of Rabbi Ḥanina, says: What is the meaning of that >which is written: “Death and life are in the hand of the >tongue” (Proverbs 18:21). >Does the tongue have a hand? Rather the verse comes >to tell you that >just as a hand can kill, so too a tongue can kill. If you were to claim that >just as the hand kills only from close by, so too the tongue kills only from close by, therefore >the verse states: “Their tongue is a sharpened arrow” (Jeremiah 9:7). The tongue kills like an arrow that is fired from a bow, at a great distance.,>If you say that >just as an arrow can kill only within the distance it can be shot, which is >up to about >forty or fifty cubits, so too a tongue can kill only from >up to forty or fifty cubits, therefore >the verse teaches: “They have set their mouth against the heavens, and their tongue walks through the earth” (Psalms 73:9). This teaches that malicious speech can reach great distances, even the distance between heaven and earth.,The Gemara asks: >But since it is written: “They have set their mouth against the heavens, and their tongue walks through the earth” (Psalms 73:9), which teaches that malicious speech reaches between heaven and earth, >why do I need that which we derived from the verse: >“Their tongue is a sharpened arrow” (Jeremiah 9:7), i.e. that a tongue can kill from the distance an arrow flies? The Gemara answers: >This teaches us that a tongue >kills in the >same manner that >an arrow kills.,The Gemara further asks: >But since it is written: “Their tongue is a sharpened arrow” (Jeremiah 9:7), >why do I need the verse: >“Death and life are in the hand of the tongue” (Proverbs 18:21), which merely teaches that a tongue can kill? The Gemara answers: This verse is necessary >for a statement >of Rava, as Rava says: One who wants life can attain it >by means of >his tongue, which he can use for speaking appropriately and studying Torah. >One who wants death can also attain it >by means of >his tongue, by using it for inappropriate and malicious speech.,The Gemara asks: >What is considered malicious speech? In other words, how is malicious speech defined and what are the limits of the prohibition? >Rava said: For example, if one says: There is always >fire at so-and-so’s home, indicating that they are always cooking food there. >Abaye said to Rava: >What did this person >do wrong by saying that there is always fire in that home? His statement >is merely revealing the true >facts, and is not malicious speech. >Rather, it is considered malicious speech if he >expressed this >in a slanderous manner. For example, >if he says: Where else can one >find fire except at so-and-so’s home, because they are always cooking food there.,>Rabba says: Any statement that is said in the presence of its master, i.e., if the subject of the statement was there, >does not have any prohibition >due to malicious speech. Abaye >said to him: All the more so it is proscribed speech, as it is both >impudence and malicious speech. Rabba >said to Abaye: >I hold in accordance with the opinion of >Rabbi Yosei, as Rabbi Yosei says: In all my days I never said something and then turned around to see if the person I was speaking about was standing behind me listening, as I would say it even to the person involved. He >says,''. None
110. None, None, nan (6th cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)
 Tagged with subjects: • Exegesis, allegorical • exegesis, allegorical

 Found in books: Erler et al (2021) 240; Joosse (2021) 199

111. Anon., Letter of Aristeas, 122, 135-137, 144-167
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Aristobulus • Allegory, Allegorical interpretation, Letter of Aristeas • Aristeas, Letter of, Allegorical interpretation • Aristeas, Letter of, Ethical allegory • Hellenistic Judaism, allegorists

 Found in books: Bar Kochba (1997) 173, 174; Lieu (2015) 358; Potter Suh and Holladay (2021) 46, 47, 48, 51

122. carefully that of the Greeks as well. They were specially qualified therefore for serving on embassies and they undertook this duty whenever it was necessary. They possessed a great facility for conferences and the discussion of problems connected with the law. They espoused the middle course - and this is always the best course to pursue. They abjured the rough and uncouth manner, but they were altogether above pride and never assumed an air of superiority over others, and in conversation they were ready to listen and give an appropriate answer to every question. And all of them carefully observed this rule and were anxious above everything else to excel each other in'
135. Beginning from this starting point he went on to show that all mankind except ourselves believe in the existence of many gods, though they themselves are much more powerful than the beings whom they vainly worship. For when they have made statues of stone and wood, they say that they are the images of those who have invented something useful for life and they worship them, though 136. they have clear proof that they possess no feeling. For it would be utterly foolish to suppose that any one became a god in virtue of his inventions. For the inventors simply took certain objects already created and by combining them together, showed that they possessed a fresh utility: they 137. did not themselves create the substance of the thing, and so it is a vain and foolish thing for people to make gods of men like themselves. For in our times there are many who are much more inventive and much more learned than the men of former days who have been deified, and yet they would never come to worship them. The makers and authors of these myths think that they are
144. points and explain them to you. For you must not fall into the degrading idea that it was out of regard to mice and weasels and other such things that Moses drew up his laws with such exceeding care. All these ordices were made for the sake of righteousness to aid the quest for virtue and 145. the perfecting of character. For all the birds that we use are tame and distinguished by their cleanliness, feeding on various kinds of grain and pulse, such as for instance pigeons, turtle-doves, 146. locusts, partridges, geese also, and all other birds of this class. But the birds which are forbidden you will find to be wild and carnivorous, tyrannizing over the others by the strength which they possess, and cruelly obtaining food by preying on the tame birds enumerated above and not only so, but 147. they seize lambs and kids, and injure human beings too, whether dead or alive, and so by naming them unclean, he gave a sign by means of them that those, for whom the legislation was ordained, must practice righteousness in their hearts and not tyrannize over any one in reliance upon their own strength nor rob them of anything, but steer their course of life in accordance with justice, just as the tame birds, already mentioned, consume the different kinds of pulse that grow upon the earth 148. and do not tyrannize to the destruction of their own kindred. Our legislator taught us therefore that it is by such methods as these that indications are given to the wise, that they must be just and effect nothing by violence, and refrain from tyrannizing over others in reliance upon their own 149. trength. For since it is considered unseemly even to touch such unclean animals, as have been mentioned, on account of their particular habits, ought we not to take every precaution lest our own 150. characters should be destroyed to the same extent? Wherefore all the rules which he has laid down with regard to what is permitted in the case of these birds and other animals, he has enacted with the object of teaching us a moral lesson. For the division of the hoof and the separation of the claws are intended to teach us that we must discriminate between our individual actions with a view 151. to the practice of virtue. For the strength of our whole body and its activity depend upon our shoulders and limbs. Therefore he compels us to recognize that we must perform all our actions with discrimination according to the standard of righteousness - more especially because we have 152. been distinctly separated from the rest of mankind. For most other men defile themselves by promiscuous intercourse, thereby working great iniquity, and whole countries and cities pride themselves upon such vices. For they not only have intercourse with men but they defile their own' "153. mothers and even their daughters. But we have been kept separate from such sins. And the people who have been separated in the aforementioned way are also characterized by the Lawgiver as possessing the gift of memory. For all animals' which are cloven-footed and chew the cud'" '154. represent to the initiated the symbol of memory. For the act of chewing the cud is nothing else than the reminiscence of life and existence. For life is wont to be sustained by means of food' "155. wherefore he exhorts us in the Scripture also in these words: 'Thou shalt surely remember the Lord that wrought in thee those great and wonderful things'. For when they are properly conceived, they are manifestly great and glorious; first the construction of the body and the disposition of the" '156. food and the separation of each individual limb and, far more, the organization of the senses, the operation and invisible movement of the mind, the rapidity of its particular actions and its discovery of the 157. arts, display an infinite resourcefulness. Wherefore he exhorts us to remember that the aforesaid parts are kept together by the divine power with consummate skill. For he has marked out every 158. time and place that we may continually remember the God who rules and preserves (us). For in the matter of meats and drinks he bids us first of all offer part as a sacrifice and then forthwith enjoy our meal. Moreover, upon our garments he has given us a symbol of remembrance, and in like manner he has ordered us to put the divine oracles upon our gates and doors as a remembrance of 159. God. And upon our hands, too, he expressly orders the symbol to be fastened, clearly showing that we ought to perform every act in righteousness, remembering (our own creation), and above all the 160. fear of God. He bids men also, when lying down to sleep and rising up again, to meditate upon the works of God, not only in word, but by observing distinctly the change and impression produced upon them, when they are going to sleep, and also their waking, how divine and incomprehensible' "161. the change from one of these states to the other is. The excellency of the analogy in regard to discrimination and memory has now been pointed out to you, according to our interpretation of' the cloven hoof and the chewing of the cud'. For our laws have not been drawn up at random or in accordance with the first casual thought that occurred to the mind, but with a view to truth and the" '162. indication of right reason. For by means of the directions which he gives with regard to meats and drinks and particular cases of touching, he bids us neither to do nor listen to anything, thoughtlessly 163. nor to resort to injustice by the abuse of the power of reason. In the case of the wild animals, too, the same principle may be discovered. For the character of the weasel and of mice and such 164. animals as these, which are expressly mentioned, is destructive. Mice defile and damage everything, not only for their own food but even to the extent of rendering absolutely useless to man whatever 165. it falls in their way to damage. The weasel class, too, is peculiar: for besides what has been said, it has a characteristic which is defiling: It conceives through the ears and brings forth through the' "166. mouth. And it is for this reason that a like practice is declared unclean in men. For by embodying in speech all that they receive through the ears, they involve others in evils and work no ordinary impurity, being themselves altogether defiled by the pollution of impiety. And your king, as we are informed, does quite right in destroying such men.'" "167. Then I said 'I suppose you mean the informers, for he constantly exposes them to tortures and to" ''. None
112. Vergil, Aeneis, 5.252-5.253, 6.886-6.887, 7.98-7.99, 7.785-7.786, 8.730
 Tagged with subjects: • allegorical and symbolic uses of mountains • allegory • allegory (cf. integumentum) • allegory (cf. integumentum), in Virgil interpretation

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 208, 212; Farrell (2021) 165, 242; Gale (2000) 126; Gee (2020) 100, 101; Konig (2022) 150, 152

5.252. intextusque puer frondosa regius Ida 5.253. veloces iaculo cervos cursuque fatigat,
6.886. munere—Sic tota passim regione vagantur 6.887. aëris in campis latis, atque omnia lustrant.' '
7.785. Cui triplici crinita iuba galea alta Chimaeram 7.786. sustinet, Aetnaeos efflantem faucibus ignis:
8.730. miratur rerumque ignarus imagine gaudet,''. None
5.252. Sergestus' ship shoots forth; and to the rock " '5.253. runs boldly nigh; but not his whole long keel ' "
6.886. o'er the green slope, and, lifting both his hands " '6.887. In eager welcome, spread them swiftly forth.
7.98. of jewels rare: then, wrapt in flaming cloud, ' "7.99. from hall to hall the fire-god's gift she flung. " '
7.785. my bark away! O wretches, your own blood 7.786. hall pay the forfeit for your impious crime.
8.730. the Trojan company made sacrifice '". None
113. Vergil, Georgics, 1.39, 4.560-4.562
 Tagged with subjects: • allegory

 Found in books: Edmondson (2008) 211, 212; Gale (2000) 124

1.39. nec repetita sequi curet Proserpina matrem—
4.560. et super arboribus, Caesar dum magnus ad altum 4.561. fulminat Euphraten bello victorque volentes 4.562. per populos dat iura viamque adfectat Olympo.''. None
1.39. Sole dread of seamen, till far 4.560. Forestalled him with the fetters; he nathless, 4.561. All unforgetful of his ancient craft, 4.562. Transforms himself to every wondrous thing,''. None
114. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Arete (mountain) allegory • allegory • allegory, Mountain of Arete

 Found in books: Greensmith (2021) 264, 265; Maciver (2012) 67, 68, 79, 80, 81, 82, 83; Verhelst and Scheijnens (2022) 171

115. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • allegoresis (allegorical interpretation), by Stoics • allegoresis (allegorical interpretation), in the Derveni Papyrus • allegoresis (allegorical interpretation), of poetic texts • allegoresis (general), vs. allegory • allegory • Νοῦς (allegory of Zeus)

 Found in books: Iribarren and Koning (2022) 331; Wolfsdorf (2020) 363; Álvarez (2019) 30, 82, 84, 109, 112, 117, 122, 143

116. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Heraclitus the Allegorist • Heraclitus, allegorist • Heraclitus, the Allegorist • allegory • gods, allegorical interpretations

 Found in books: Brouwer (2013) 111; Geljon and Runia (2019) 215; Hunter (2018) 76; Ward (2022) 45, 46; Wolfsdorf (2020) 367, 368

117. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • Solomon, in aggadic tradition, as allegorical representation of God in the Song of Songs • Song of Songs, allegorical interpretation of

 Found in books: Lieber (2014) 31; Rowland (2009) 543

118. None, None, nan
 Tagged with subjects: • Allegory • allegoresis (allegorical interpretation), by Stoics • allegoresis (allegorical interpretation), in the Derveni Papyrus • allegoresis (allegorical interpretation), of gods • allegoresis (allegorical interpretation), of poetic texts • allegory • Νοῦς (allegory of Zeus)

 Found in books: Iribarren and Koning (2022) 314; de Jáuregui (2010) 230, 231, 243, 327; Álvarez (2019) 2, 104, 118, 119, 143

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