Home About Network of subjects Linked subjects heatmap Book indices included Search by subject Search by reference Browse subjects Browse texts

Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

   Search:  
validated results only / all results

and or

Filtering options: (leave empty for all results)
By author:     
By work:        
By subject:
By additional keyword:       



Results for
Please note: the results are produced through a computerized process which may frequently lead to errors, both in incorrect tagging and in other issues. Please use with caution.
Due to load times, full text fetching is currently attempted for validated results only.
Full texts for Hebrew Bible and rabbinic texts is kindly supplied by Sefaria; for Greek and Latin texts, by Perseus Scaife, for the Quran, by Tanzil.net

For a list of book indices included, see here.





2 results for "adjudication"
1. Babylonian Talmud, Megillah, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 291
26b. למישתא ביה שיכרא שפיר דמי,רבינא הוה ליה ההוא תילא דבי כנישתא אתא לקמיה דרב אשי אמר ליה מהו למיזרעה אמר ליה זיל זבניה משבעה טובי העיר במעמד אנשי העיר וזרעה,רמי בר אבא הוה קא בני בי כנישתא הוה ההיא כנישתא עתיקא הוה בעי למיסתריה ולאתויי ליבני וכשורי מינה ועיולי להתם יתיב וקא מיבעיא ליה הא דרב חסדא דאמר רב חסדא לא ליסתור בי כנישתא עד דבני בי כנישתא אחריתי התם משום פשיעותא כי האי גוונא מאי אתא לקמיה דרב פפא ואסר ליה לקמיה דרב הונא ואסר ליה,אמר רבא האי בי כנישתא חלופה וזבונה שרי אוגורה ומשכונה אסור מאי טעמא בקדושתה קאי,ליבני נמי חלופינהו וזבונינהו שרי אוזופינהו אסור הני מילי בעתיקתא אבל בחדתא לית לן בה,ואפילו למאן דאמר הזמנה מילתא היא ה"מ כגון האורג בגד למת אבל הכא כטווי לאריג דמי וליכא למאן דאמר,מתנה פליגי בה רב אחא ורבינא חד אסר וחד שרי מאן דאסר בהאי תפקע קדושתה ומאן דשרי אי לאו דהוה ליה הנאה מיניה לא הוה יהיב ליה הדר הוה ליה מתנה כזביני,ת"ר תשמישי מצוה נזרקין תשמישי קדושה נגנזין ואלו הן תשמישי מצוה סוכה לולב שופר ציצית ואלו הן תשמישי קדושה דלוסקמי ספרים תפילין ומזוזות ותיק של ס"ת ונרתיק של תפילין ורצועותיהן,אמר רבא מריש הוה אמינא האי כורסיא תשמיש דתשמיש הוא ושרי כיון דחזינא דמותבי עלויה ס"ת אמינא תשמיש קדושה הוא ואסור,ואמר רבא מריש הוה אמינא האי פריסא תשמיש דתשמיש הוא כיון דחזינא דעייפי ליה ומנחי סיפרא עלויה אמינא תשמיש קדושה הוא ואסור,ואמר רבא האי תיבותא דאירפט מיעבדה תיבה זוטרתי שרי כורסייא אסיר ואמר רבא האי פריסא דבלה למיעבדיה פריסא לספרי שרי לחומשין אסיר,ואמר רבא הני זבילי דחומשי וקמטרי דספרי תשמיש קדושה נינהו ונגנזין פשיטא מהו דתימא הני לאו לכבוד עבידן לנטורי בעלמא עבידי קמ"ל,ההוא בי כנישתא דיהודאי רומאי דהוה פתיח לההוא אידרונא דהוה מחית ביה מת והוו בעו כהני למיעל לצלויי התם אתו אמרו ליה לרבא אמר להו דלו תיבותא אותבוה דהוה ליה כלי עץ העשוי לנחת וכלי עץ העשוי לנחת אינו מקבל טומאה וחוצץ בפני הטומאה,אמרו ליה רבנן לרבא והא זמנין דמטלטלי ליה כי מנח ספר תורה עלויה והוה ליה מיטלטלא מלא וריקם אי הכי לא אפשר,אמר מר זוטרא מטפחות ספרים שבלו עושין אותן תכריכין למת מצוה וזו היא גניזתן,ואמר רבא ספר תורה שבלה גונזין אותו אצל תלמיד חכם ואפילו שונה הלכות אמר רב אחא בר יעקב ובכלי חרס שנאמר (ירמיהו לב, יד) ונתתם בכלי חרש למען יעמדו ימים רבים,(ואמר) רב פפי משמיה דר' מבי כנישתא לבי רבנן שרי מבי רבנן לבי כנישתא אסיר ורב פפא משמיה דרבא מתני איפכא אמר רב אחא 26b. b to drink beer with /b the proceeds b seems well /b and is permitted. The seven representatives have the authority to annul the sanctity of the synagogue, and therefore the proceeds of its sale do not retain any sanctity.,The Gemara relates: b Ravina had a certain /b piece of land on which stood b a mound /b of the ruins b of a synagogue. He came before Rav Ashi /b and b said to him: What is /b the i halakha /i with regard b to sowing /b the land? b He said to him: Go, purchase it from the seven representatives of the town in an assembly of the residents of the town, and /b then you may b sow it. /b , b Rami bar Abba was /b once b building a synagogue. There was a certain old synagogue /b that b he wished to demolish, and bring bricks and beams from it, and bring them to there, /b to construct a new synagogue. b He sat and considered that which Rav Ḥisda /b said, b as Rav Ḥisda said: One should not demolish a synagogue until one has built another synagogue. /b Rami bar Abba reasoned that Rav Ḥisda’s ruling b there /b is b due to /b a concern of b negligence, /b as perhaps after the first synagogue is demolished, people will be negligent and a new one will never be built. However, in b a case like this, /b where the new synagogue is to be built directly from the materials of the old one, b what /b is the i halakha /i ? b He came before Rav Pappa /b to ask his opinion, b and he prohibited him /b from doing so. b He /b then came b before Rav Huna, and he /b also b prohibited him /b from doing so., b Rava said: /b With regard to b this synagogue, exchanging it /b for a different building b or selling it /b for money b is permitted, /b but b renting it /b out b or mortgaging it is prohibited. What is the reason /b for this? When a synagogue is rented out or mortgaged, it b remains in its sacred state. /b Therefore, it is prohibited to rent it out or mortgage it, because it will then be used for a non-sacred purpose. However, if it is exchanged or sold, its sanctity is transferred to the other building or to the proceeds of the sale, and therefore the old synagogue building may be used for any purpose.,The same i halakha /i is b also /b true of the b bricks /b of a synagogue; b exchanging them or selling them is permitted, /b but b renting them out is prohibited. /b The Gemara comments: b This applies to old /b bricks that have already been part of a synagogue, b but as for new /b bricks that have only been designated to be used in a synagogue, b we have no /b problem b with it /b if they are rented out for a non-sacred purpose., b And even according to the one who said /b that mere b designation is significant, /b i.e., although a certain object was not yet used for the designated purpose, the halakhic ramifications of using it for that purpose already take hold, b this applies /b only in a case where it was created from the outset for that purpose, b for example, one who weaves a garment /b to be used as shrouds b for a corpse. However, here /b the bricks are b comparable to /b already b spun /b thread that was then designated to be used b to weave /b burial shrouds. Concerning such designation, where nothing was specifically created for the designated purpose, b there is no one who said /b that the designation is significant., b Rav Aḥa and Ravina disagree about /b whether it is permitted to give away a synagogue as b a gift /b to then be used for a non-sacred purpose. b One /b of them b prohibited /b it, b and /b the other b one permitted /b it. b The one who prohibits /b it says: Is it possible that b with this /b act of giving alone b its sanctity is removed? /b This cannot be the case. Since the synagogue was not exchanged for anything else, there is nothing to which the sanctity may be transferred. Consequently, the synagogue remains sacred. b And the one who permitted /b it does so because he reasons that b if /b the donor b did not /b receive any b benefit from /b giving the synagogue, b he would not have given it. /b Therefore, b the gift has reverted to being like a sale, /b and the sanctity is transferred to the benefit received.,§ b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Articles /b used in the performance b of a mitzva may be thrown out /b after use. Although these items were used in the performance of a mitzva, they are not thereby sanctified. However, b articles /b associated with the b sanctity /b of God’s name, i.e. articles on which God’s name is written, and articles that serve an article that has God’s name written on it, even after they are no longer used, b must be interred /b in a respectful manner. b And these /b items b are /b considered b articles of a mitzva: A i sukka /i ; a i lulav /i ; a i shofar /i ; /b and b ritual fringes. And these /b items b are /b considered b articles of sanctity: Cases /b of b scrolls, /b i.e. of Torah scrolls; b phylacteries; and i mezuzot /i ; and a container for a Torah scroll; and a cover for phylacteries; and their straps. /b , b Rava said: Initially, I used to say /b that b this lectern /b in the synagogue upon which the Torah is read b is /b only b an article of an article /b of sanctity, as the Torah scroll does not rest directly upon the lectern but rather upon the cloth that covers it. b And /b the i halakha /i is that once an article of an article of sanctity is no longer used, b it is permitted /b to throw it out. However, b once I saw that the Torah scroll is /b sometimes b placed /b directly b upon /b the lectern without an intervening cloth. b I said /b that b it is an article /b used directly for items b of sanctity, and /b as such b it is prohibited /b to simply discard it after use., b And Rava /b similarly b said: Initially, I used to say /b that b this curtain, /b which is placed at the opening to the ark as a decoration, b is /b only b an article of an article /b of sanctity, as it serves to beautify the ark but is not directly used for the Torah scroll. However, b once I saw that /b sometimes the curtain b is folded over and a Torah scroll is placed upon it. I said /b that b it is an article /b used directly for items b of sanctity and /b as such b it is prohibited /b to simply discard it after use., b And Rava /b further b said: /b With regard to b this ark that has fallen apart, constructing a smaller ark /b from its materials b is permitted, /b as both have the same level of sanctity, but to use the materials to construct b a lectern is prohibited /b because the lectern has a lesser degree of sanctity. b And Rava /b similarly b said: /b With regard to b this curtain /b used to decorate an ark b that has become worn out, to fashion it /b into b a wrapping cloth for /b Torah b scrolls is permitted, /b but to fashion it into a wrapping cloth b for /b a scroll of b one of the five /b books of the Torah b is prohibited. /b , b And Rava /b also b said: /b With regard to b these cases for /b storing scrolls of b one of the five /b books of the Torah b and sacks for /b storing Torah b scrolls, they are /b classified as b articles of sanctity. /b Therefore, b they are to be interred /b when they are no longer in use. The Gemara asks: b Isn’t /b that b obvious? /b The Gemara answers: b Lest you say /b that since b these /b items b are not made for the honor /b of the scrolls but rather b are made merely to /b provide b protection, /b they should not be classified as articles of sanctity, Rava therefore b teaches us /b that although they are indeed made to protect the scrolls, they also provide honor and are therefore to be classified as articles of sanctity.,The Gemara relates: There was b a certain synagogue of the Jews of Rome that opened out into a room in which a corpse was lying, /b thereby spreading the ritual impurity of the corpse throughout the synagogue. b And the priests wished to enter /b the synagogue b in order to pray there. /b However, it was prohibited for them to do so because a priest may not come in contact with ritual impurity of a corpse. b They came and spoke to Rava, /b about what to do. b He said to them: Lift up the ark and put it down /b in the opening between the two rooms, b as it is a wooden utensil that is designated to rest /b in one place and not be moved from there, b and /b the i halakha /i is that b a wooden utensil that is designated to rest is not susceptible to ritual impurity, and /b therefore it b serves as a barrier to /b prevent b ritual impurity /b from spreading., b The Rabbis said to Rava: But isn’t /b the ark b sometimes moved when a Torah scroll is /b still b resting inside it, and /b therefore b it is /b a utensil that b is moved /b both b when it is full and when it is empty; /b such a utensil is susceptible to ritual impurity and cannot prevent ritual impurity from spreading. He said to them: b If so, /b if it is as you claim, then b it is not possible /b to remedy the situation., b Mar Zutra said: /b With regard to b wrapping cloths of /b Torah b scrolls that have become worn out, they may be made into shrouds for a corpse with no one to bury it [ i met mitzva /i ], and this is their /b most appropriate manner for being b interred. /b , b And Rava said: A Torah scroll that became worn out is interred /b and buried b next to a Torah scholar, and /b in this regard, a Torah scholar is defined b even /b as b one who /b only b studies the i halakhot /i /b in the Mishna and the i baraitot /i but is not proficient in their analysis. b Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: And /b when it is buried, it is first placed b in an earthenware vessel, as it is stated: “And put them in an earthenware vessel, that they may last for many days” /b (Jeremiah 32:14).,§ b And Rav Pappi said in the name of Rava: /b To convert a building b from a synagogue into a study hall /b is b permitted, /b but b from a study hall into a synagogue /b is b prohibited, /b as he holds that a study hall has a higher degree of sanctity than a synagogue. b And Rav Pappa in the name of Rava teaches the opposite, /b as he holds that a synagogue has a higher degree of sanctity than a study hall. b Rav Aḥa said: /b
2. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •adjudication, babylonia Found in books: Levine (2005), The Ancient Synagogue, The First Thousand Years, 291
76b. מוקים לה בלויה ובת ישראל אלא מתניתא נימא פליגא לא מאי עוד אחת זוג אחת,אמר רב יהודה א"ר זו דברי ר' מאיר אבל חכמים אומרים כל משפחות בחזקת כשרות הן עומדות איני והאמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב משנתינו כשקורא עליו ערער מאן דמתני הא לא מתני הא,איכא דאמרי אמר רב יהודה אמר רב זו דברי ר' מאיר אבל חכמים אומרים כל משפחות בחזקת כשרות הן עומדות אמר רב חמא בר גוריא אמר רב אם קורא עליו ערער צריך לבדוק אחריה,אין בודקין מן המזבח ולמעלה מאי טעמא אי לאו דבדקוה לא הוו מסקי ליה ולא מן הדוכן ולמעלה מאי טעמא דאמר מר ששם היו יושבים מייחסי כהונה ומייחסי לויה,ולא מסנהדרין ולמעלה מאי טעמא דתני רב יוסף כשם שבית דין מנוקין בצדק כך מנוקין מכל מום אמר מרימר מאי קראה (שיר השירים ד, ז) כולך יפה רעיתי ומום אין בך,אימא מומא ממש אמר רב אחא בר יעקב אמר קרא (במדבר יא, טז) והתיצבו שם עמך עמך בדומים לך,ודלמא משום שכינה אמר רב נחמן אמר קרא (שמות יח, כב) והקל מעליך ונשאו אתך בדומים לך,כל מי שהוחזקו אבותיו משוטרי הרבים למימרא דלא מוקמינן מפסולים ורמינהו הכל כשרים לדון דיני ממונות ואין הכל כשרים לדון דיני נפשות והוינן בה הכל לאיתויי מאי ואמר רב יהודה לאיתויי ממזר אמר אביי בירושלים וכן תני רב שמעון בר זירא בקידושי דבי לוי בירושלים,וגבאי צדקה משיאים מאי טעמא כיון דמנצו בהדי אינשי דאמר מר ממשכנים על הצדקה ואפילו בערב שבת ואם איתא דאיכא אית ליה קלא,אושפזיכניה דרב אדא בר אהבה גיורא הוה והוה קא מנצי איהו ורב ביבי מר אמר אנא עבידנא סררותא דמתא ומר אמר אנא עבידנא סררותא דמתא אתו לקמיה דרב יוסף אמר להו תנינא (דברים יז, טו) שום תשים עליך מלך מקרב אחיך כל משימות שאתה משים לא יהיה אלא מקרב אחיך,אמר ליה רב אדא בר אהבה ואפילו אמו מישראל אמר ליה אמו מישראל מקרב אחיך קרינא ביה הלכך רב ביבי דגברא רבא הוא ליעיין במילי דשמיא ומר ליעיין במילי דמתא אמר אביי הלכך מאן דמשרי צורבא מדרבנן באושפיזיכניה לאשרי כרב אדא בר אהבה דידע למהפיך ליה בזכותיה,רבי זירא מטפל בהו רבה בר אבוה מטפל בהו במערבא אפילו ריש כורי לא מוקמי מינייהו בנהרדעא אפי' ריש גרגותא לא מוקמי מינייהו,רבי יוסי אומר אף מי שהיה וכו' מאי טעמא דייקי ומחתמי,רבי חנינא בן אנטיגנוס וכו' אמר רב יהודה אמר שמואל בחיילות של בית דוד אמר רב יוסף מאי קרא (דברי הימים א ז, מ) והתיחשם בצבא במלחמה וטעמא מאי אמר רב יהודה אמר רב כדי שתהא זכותן וזכות אבותם מסייעתן,והאיכא (שמואל ב כג, לז) צלק העמוני מאי לאו דאתי מעמון לא דיתיב בעמון והאיכא (שמואל ב כג, לט) אוריה החתי מאי לאו דאתי מחת לא דיתיב בחת,והאיכא (שמואל ב טו, יט) אתי הגיתי וכי תימא הכי נמי דיתיב בגת והא אמר רב נחמן אתי הגיתי בא ובטלה,ועוד אמר רב יהודה אמר רב ארבע מאות ילדים היו לו לדוד וכולם בני יפת תואר היו וכולם מסתפרים קומי ומגדלים בלורית היו וכולם יושבים בקרוניות של זהב והיו מהלכים בראשי גייסות והן הן בעלי אגרופים של בית דוד דאזלי לבעותי עלמא 76b. b he interprets /b his statement as referring b to a Levite /b woman b or an Israelite woman, /b about whom the mishna states that one must investigate one additional generation. Therefore, Rav Adda bar Ahava’s ruling accords with that of the mishna. b But /b shall b we say the i baraita /i disputes /b the mishna? The Gemara rejects this: b No, what is /b the meaning of the mishna’s phrase: b One additional? /b It means b one pair, /b i.e., two more mothers on each side., b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: This /b mishna presents b the statement of Rabbi Meir, but the Rabbis say: All families retain a presumptive status of fitness, /b and do not require investigation. The Gemara asks: b Is that so, /b did Rav really say this? b But doesn’t Rav Ḥama bar Gurya say /b that b Rav says: Our mishna /b is referring only to a case b when an objection was registered about /b the family concerning its lineage, but if no objection was registered, everyone agrees that the family retains its presumptive status of fitness. The Gemara answers: b The one who taught this /b statement in the name of Rav b did not teach that /b other statement., b There are /b those b who say /b that this discussion occurred as follows: b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: This /b mishna presents b the statement of Rabbi Meir, but the Rabbis say: All families retain presumptive status of fitness. Rav Ḥama bar Gurya says /b that b Rav says: When an objection is registered about /b a family concerning its lineage, everyone agrees that b he must investigate it. /b According to this version, there is no contradiction between these two complementary statements.,§ The mishna teaches that b one need not investigate from the altar and above. /b The Gemara asks: b What is the reason /b for this? The Gemara answers: b If /b the Sanhedrin b had not examined his /b lineage b they would not have /b allowed b him to ascend /b to the altar and perform the sacrificial rites. The mishna further teaches: b Nor /b must one investigate b from the platform and above. /b The Gemara asks: b What is the reason? /b The Gemara answers: It is b as the Master said /b in his description of the Temple chambers ( i Tosefta /i , i Ḥagiga /i 2:4): b For there /b in the Hewn Chamber those of the b priesthood /b with unflawed b lineage and the Levites of /b unflawed b lineage sat /b and examined the lineage of everyone who came to serve in the Temple.,The mishna also taught: b Nor /b must one investigate b from the Sanhedrin and above. What is the reason /b there is no need to investigate further? The Gemara answers: It is b as Rav Yosef taught /b that b just as the court is clean in justice, so too, it is clean of any blemish, /b i.e., it does not include anyone of flawed lineage. b Mareimar said: What is the verse /b from which it is derived? It states: b “You are all fair, my love; and there is no blemish in you” /b (Song of Songs 4:7).,The Gemara asks: But perhaps you should b say /b that this is referring to b an actual blemish, /b that one who has a physical blemish may not be appointed to the Sanhedrin. b Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: /b It is not necessary to derive the i halakha /i that one who has a physical blemish may not be appointed to the Sanhedrin from this verse, as b the verse states /b with regard to the transfer of the Divine Spirit from Moses to the Elders: b “That they may stand there with you” /b (Numbers 11:16), and the phrase b “with you” /b is explained to mean: b With similarity to you, /b teaching that the members of the Sanhedrin must be whole in body like Moses.,The Gemara rejects this proof: b But perhaps /b those who were with Moses had to be free of any blemish b due to /b the b Divine Presence, /b which rested upon them, but this is not a requirement for judges on the Sanhedrin. b Rav Naḥman said /b that b the verse states: “So shall they make it easier for you and bear the burden with you” /b (Exodus 18:22). The phrase “with you” is explained to mean: b With similarity to you, /b i.e., without blemish. This verse is referring to the appointment of regular judges, upon whom the Divine Presence does not rest, and teaches that all members of the Sanhedrin must be whole in body. The verse from Song of Songs teaches that they must be of unflawed lineage as well.,§ The mishna teaches: b Anyone whose ancestors held public posts /b may marry into the priesthood without investigation. The Gemara asks: b Is this to say that we do not establish /b officers and other public appointees b from /b people with b flawed /b lineage? b And /b the Gemara b raises a contradiction /b from the following statement: b All are fit to judge /b cases of b monetary law, but not all are fit to judge /b cases of b capital law. And we discussed it: What does /b the word: b All, /b serve b to include? And Rav Yehuda says: /b It serves b to include a i mamzer /i , /b that he may judge cases of monetary law. This indicates that even a i mamzer /i may occupy a public position. b Abaye said: /b The mishna is referring to public officials b in Jerusalem, /b where they were particular that all their judges should be of unflawed lineage. b And Rav Shimon bar Zeira similarly taught in /b the i baraita /i of b i Kiddushin /i from /b the b school of Levi: /b It is referring to public officials b in Jerusalem. /b ,The mishna teaches: b And /b anyone whose ancestors were b charity collectors may marry /b into the priesthood without investigation. The Gemara asks: b What is the reason /b for this? The Gemara answers: It is b due to /b the fact that b they quarrel with people, /b as b the Master said: /b Those appointed to collect charity b may /b forcibly b take collateral for charity /b from those who have not fulfilled their obligations b even on the eve of Shabbat, /b when people are preoccupied and rushed, leading to quarrels. b And if it is so that there is /b a flaw in the lineage of the collector’s family, b it /b would generate b publicity /b through the quarrels that are an unavoidable aspect of his job.,The Gemara relates: b Rav Adda bar Ahava’s host was /b the son of b a convert, and he and Rav Beivai were quarreling. One said: I /b will b perform the service of the city, /b i.e., I will be appointed to a position of authority, b and one said: I /b will b perform the service of the city. They came before Rav Yosef /b to decide between them. Rav Yosef b said to them: We learned: “You shall set him king over you, /b whom the Lord your God shall choose; b one from among your brothers” /b (Deuteronomy 17:15). The repetition of the verb “set” in the verse [ i som tasim /i ] indicates: b All appointments that you appoint may be only from among your brothers. /b Therefore, a convert may not serve in any official position., b Rav Adda bar Ahava said to /b Rav Yosef: b And /b does this i halakha /i apply b even /b if the b mother /b of the person in question is born b Jewish? /b In other words, does this apply to one whose father is a convert? Rav Yosef b said to him: /b If b his mother is /b born b Jewish, /b the words: b “From among your brothers” are said about him. Therefore, /b now that it has been determined that this person’s mother was born Jewish and that he is fit to serve a public role, b Rav Beivai, who is a great man /b in Torah learning, b should oversee the matters of Heaven, /b i.e., the public issues that involve the performance of mitzvot; b and the Master, /b Rav Adda bar Ahava’s host, b should oversee the /b other b matters of the city. Abaye said, /b as a moral of the story: b Therefore, /b if b one has a Torah scholar as a guest, let him host /b a person b such as Rav Adda bar Ahava, who knows how to plead in his favor, /b as it was the argument of Rav Adda bar Ahava that led to his host’s appointment.,The Gemara relates: b Rabbi Zeira would deal with /b converts and assign them to positions of authority. Similarly, b Rabba bar Avuh would deal with them. In the West, /b Eretz Yisrael, b they would not establish even an appointee over measurements from them, /b as they extended the prohibition against appointing a convert as a king to include all positions of power. b In Neharde’a, they would not establish even an appointee over irrigation /b of the city fields b from them. /b ,The mishna teaches that b Rabbi Yosei says: Even /b the descendants of b one who /b had signed as a witness in the Old Court of Tzippori does not need to have their lineage investigated. The Gemara explains: b What is the reason /b for this? The Gemara answers: In that city, they would first b examine /b witnesses and only afterward b have them sign. /b Consequently, anyone who signed as a witness in Tzippori must certainly have been of unflawed lineage.,The mishna teaches that b Rabbi Ḥanina ben Antigonus /b says: Even the descendants of one who was written in the army list of the Jewish king does not have their lineage investigated. b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Shmuel says: /b The reference is to one who was written b in /b the list of b the military troops of the House of David, /b who were all of pure lineage. b Rav Yosef said: What is the verse /b from which it is derived? The phrase is: b “Reckoned by lineage for service in war” /b (I Chronicles 7:40). The Gemara asks: b And what is the reason /b for this requirement that they be of unflawed lineage? b Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: /b It is b in order that their merit and the merit of their ancestors will help them /b in battle.,The Gemara asks: b But isn’t there Zelek the Ammonite, /b one of David’s warriors (II Samuel 23:37); b what, is it not /b indicated b that /b he was a convert who b came from Ammon? /b The Gemara rejects this: b No, /b his name indicates only b that he dwelled in Ammon, /b but he was born a Jew. The Gemara asks: b But isn’t there Uriah the Hittite /b (II Samuel 23:39); b what, is it not /b indicated b that /b he b came from Heth? /b The Gemara rejects this: b No, /b his name indicates only b that he dwelled in Heth. /b ,The Gemara further asks: b But isn’t there Ittai the Gittite /b (II Samuel 15:19)? b And if you would say /b that b so too /b his name indicates b that he dwelled in Gath /b but was born a Jew, b but doesn’t Rav Naḥman say, /b to explain how David could make use of the crown of the idol of Ammon in apparent violation of the prohibition against deriving benefit from idolatry: b Ittai the Gittite came and nullified its /b status of an idol. The i halakha /i is that only a gentile can nullify an idol, by doing something degrading to it. This indicates that Ittai the Gittite must have been a gentile.,The Gemara again questions the statement that all of the soldiers in David’s army were of unflawed lineage. b And further, Rav Yehuda says /b that b Rav says: David had four hundred youths /b in his camp, b all sons of beautiful women, /b i.e., born to women captured in war, who were therefore gentiles, b all of /b whom b had their hair cut /b in the b i komei /i /b style b or /b who b grew /b their hair in b a gentile hairstyle [ i belorit /i ] /b on the back of their heads, b and all of them sat in gold carts [ i bikroniyyot /i ] and would march at the head of troops /b in David’s army; b and these very ones were the strong men of the House of David, /b i.e., David would rely on their strength. This states that David’s army included men of flawed lineage. The Gemara answers: These four hundred youths did not fight in the battles, but rather b they would go forth /b in front of the troops b in order to frighten everyone. /b