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Tiresias: The Ancient Mediterranean Religions Source Database

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24 results for "actions"
1. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 66.18, 89.14 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 43, 155
66.18. "אָוֶן אִם־רָאִיתִי בְלִבִּי לֹא יִשְׁמַע אֲדֹנָי׃", 89.14. "לְךָ זְרוֹעַ עִם־גְּבוּרָה תָּעֹז יָדְךָ תָּרוּם יְמִינֶךָ׃", 66.18. "If I had regarded iniquity in my heart, The Lord would not hear;", 89.14. "Thine is an arm with might; Strong is Thy hand, and exalted is Thy right hand.",
2. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.29-1.31, 11.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 43, 155
1.29. "תַּחַת כִּי־שָׂנְאוּ דָעַת וְיִרְאַת יְהֹוָה לֹא בָחָרוּ׃", 1.31. "וְיֹאכְלוּ מִפְּרִי דַרְכָּם וּמִמֹּעֲצֹתֵיהֶם יִשְׂבָּעוּ׃", 1.29. "For that they hated knowledge, and did not choose the fear of the LORD;", 1.30. "They would none of my counsel, they despised all my reproof.", 1.31. "Therefore shall they eat of the fruit of their own way, and be filled with their own devices.", 11.30. "The fruit of the righteous is a tree of life; And he that is wise winneth souls.",
3. Hebrew Bible, Leviticus, 19.9-19.18, 23.22, 27.30 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 31, 35, 44, 152, 177, 184
19.9. "וּבְקֻצְרְכֶם אֶת־קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם לֹא תְכַלֶּה פְּאַת שָׂדְךָ לִקְצֹר וְלֶקֶט קְצִירְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט׃", 19.11. "לֹא תִּגְנֹבוּ וְלֹא־תְכַחֲשׁוּ וְלֹא־תְשַׁקְּרוּ אִישׁ בַּעֲמִיתוֹ׃", 19.12. "וְלֹא־תִשָּׁבְעוּ בִשְׁמִי לַשָּׁקֶר וְחִלַּלְתָּ אֶת־שֵׁם אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃", 19.13. "לֹא־תַעֲשֹׁק אֶת־רֵעֲךָ וְלֹא תִגְזֹל לֹא־תָלִין פְּעֻלַּת שָׂכִיר אִתְּךָ עַד־בֹּקֶר׃", 19.14. "לֹא־תְקַלֵּל חֵרֵשׁ וְלִפְנֵי עִוֵּר לֹא תִתֵּן מִכְשֹׁל וְיָרֵאתָ מֵּאֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃", 19.15. "לֹא־תַעֲשׂוּ עָוֶל בַּמִּשְׁפָּט לֹא־תִשָּׂא פְנֵי־דָל וְלֹא תֶהְדַּר פְּנֵי גָדוֹל בְּצֶדֶק תִּשְׁפֹּט עֲמִיתֶךָ׃", 19.16. "לֹא־תֵלֵךְ רָכִיל בְּעַמֶּיךָ לֹא תַעֲמֹד עַל־דַּם רֵעֶךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃", 19.17. "לֹא־תִשְׂנָא אֶת־אָחִיךָ בִּלְבָבֶךָ הוֹכֵחַ תּוֹכִיחַ אֶת־עֲמִיתֶךָ וְלֹא־תִשָּׂא עָלָיו חֵטְא׃", 19.18. "לֹא־תִקֹּם וְלֹא־תִטֹּר אֶת־בְּנֵי עַמֶּךָ וְאָהַבְתָּ לְרֵעֲךָ כָּמוֹךָ אֲנִי יְהוָה׃", 23.22. "וּבְקֻצְרְכֶם אֶת־קְצִיר אַרְצְכֶם לֹא־תְכַלֶּה פְּאַת שָׂדְךָ בְּקֻצְרֶךָ וְלֶקֶט קְצִירְךָ לֹא תְלַקֵּט לֶעָנִי וְלַגֵּר תַּעֲזֹב אֹתָם אֲנִי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵיכֶם׃", 19.9. "And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corner of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the gleaning of thy harvest.", 19.10. "And thou shalt not glean thy vineyard, neither shalt thou gather the fallen fruit of thy vineyard; thou shalt leave them for the poor and for the stranger: I am the LORD your God.", 19.11. "Ye shall not steal; neither shall ye deal falsely, nor lie one to another.", 19.12. "And ye shall not swear by My name falsely, so that thou profane the name of thy God: I am the LORD.", 19.13. "Thou shalt not oppress thy neighbour, nor rob him; the wages of a hired servant shall not abide with thee all night until the morning.", 19.14. "Thou shalt not curse the deaf, nor put a stumbling-block before the blind, but thou shalt fear thy God: I am the LORD.", 19.15. "Ye shall do no unrighteousness in judgment; thou shalt not respect the person of the poor, nor favour the person of the mighty; but in righteousness shalt thou judge thy neighbour.", 19.16. "Thou shalt not go up and down as a talebearer among thy people; neither shalt thou stand idly by the blood of thy neighbour: I am the LORD.", 19.17. "Thou shalt not hate thy brother in thy heart; thou shalt surely rebuke thy neighbour, and not bear sin because of him.", 19.18. "Thou shalt not take vengeance, nor bear any grudge against the children of thy people, but thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself: I am the LORD.", 23.22. "And when ye reap the harvest of your land, thou shalt not wholly reap the corner of thy field, neither shalt thou gather the gleaning of thy harvest; thou shalt leave them for the poor, and for the stranger: I am the LORD your God.", 27.30. "And all the tithe of the land, whether of the seed of the land, or of the fruit of the tree, is the LORD’S; it is holy unto the LORD.",
4. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 23.8 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 151
23.8. "וְשֹׁחַד לֹא תִקָּח כִּי הַשֹּׁחַד יְעַוֵּר פִּקְחִים וִיסַלֵּף דִּבְרֵי צַדִּיקִים׃", 23.8. "And thou shalt take no gift; for a gift blindeth them that have sight, and perverteth the words of the righteous.",
5. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 18.3-18.24 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 31, 177
18.3. "וְאָמַרְתָּ אֲלֵהֶם בַּהֲרִימְכֶם אֶת־חֶלְבּוֹ מִמֶּנּוּ וְנֶחְשַׁב לַלְוִיִּם כִּתְבוּאַת גֹּרֶן וְכִתְבוּאַת יָקֶב׃", 18.3. "וְשָׁמְרוּ מִשְׁמַרְתְּךָ וּמִשְׁמֶרֶת כָּל־הָאֹהֶל אַךְ אֶל־כְּלֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאֶל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ לֹא יִקְרָבוּ וְלֹא־יָמֻתוּ גַם־הֵם גַּם־אַתֶּם׃", 18.4. "וְנִלְווּ עָלֶיךָ וְשָׁמְרוּ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לְכֹל עֲבֹדַת הָאֹהֶל וְזָר לֹא־יִקְרַב אֲלֵיכֶם׃", 18.5. "וּשְׁמַרְתֶּם אֵת מִשְׁמֶרֶת הַקֹּדֶשׁ וְאֵת מִשְׁמֶרֶת הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְלֹא־יִהְיֶה עוֹד קֶצֶף עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 18.6. "וַאֲנִי הִנֵּה לָקַחְתִּי אֶת־אֲחֵיכֶם הַלְוִיִּם מִתּוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לָכֶם מַתָּנָה נְתֻנִים לַיהוָה לַעֲבֹד אֶת־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃", 18.7. "וְאַתָּה וּבָנֶיךָ אִתְּךָ תִּשְׁמְרוּ אֶת־כְּהֻנַּתְכֶם לְכָל־דְּבַר הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וּלְמִבֵּית לַפָּרֹכֶת וַעֲבַדְתֶּם עֲבֹדַת מַתָּנָה אֶתֵּן אֶת־כְּהֻנַּתְכֶם וְהַזָּר הַקָּרֵב יוּמָת׃", 18.8. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־אַהֲרֹן וַאֲנִי הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי לְךָ אֶת־מִשְׁמֶרֶת תְּרוּמֹתָי לְכָל־קָדְשֵׁי בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ נְתַתִּים לְמָשְׁחָה וּלְבָנֶיךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם׃", 18.9. "זֶה־יִהְיֶה לְךָ מִקֹּדֶשׁ הַקֳּדָשִׁים מִן־הָאֵשׁ כָּל־קָרְבָּנָם לְכָל־מִנְחָתָם וּלְכָל־חַטָּאתָם וּלְכָל־אֲשָׁמָם אֲשֶׁר יָשִׁיבוּ לִי קֹדֶשׁ קָדָשִׁים לְךָ הוּא וּלְבָנֶיךָ׃", 18.11. "וְזֶה־לְּךָ תְּרוּמַת מַתָּנָם לְכָל־תְּנוּפֹת בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ נְתַתִּים וּלְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֹתֶיךָ אִתְּךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם כָּל־טָהוֹר בְּבֵיתְךָ יֹאכַל אֹתוֹ׃", 18.12. "כֹּל חֵלֶב יִצְהָר וְכָל־חֵלֶב תִּירוֹשׁ וְדָגָן רֵאשִׁיתָם אֲשֶׁר־יִתְּנוּ לַיהוָה לְךָ נְתַתִּים׃", 18.13. "בִּכּוּרֵי כָּל־אֲשֶׁר בְּאַרְצָם אֲשֶׁר־יָבִיאוּ לַיהוָה לְךָ יִהְיֶה כָּל־טָהוֹר בְּבֵיתְךָ יֹאכֲלֶנּוּ׃", 18.14. "כָּל־חֵרֶם בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְךָ יִהְיֶה׃", 18.15. "כָּל־פֶּטֶר רֶחֶם לְכָל־בָּשָׂר אֲשֶׁר־יַקְרִיבוּ לַיהוָה בָּאָדָם וּבַבְּהֵמָה יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ אַךְ פָּדֹה תִפְדֶּה אֵת בְּכוֹר הָאָדָם וְאֵת בְּכוֹר־הַבְּהֵמָה הַטְּמֵאָה תִּפְדֶּה׃", 18.16. "וּפְדוּיָו מִבֶּן־חֹדֶשׁ תִּפְדֶּה בְּעֶרְכְּךָ כֶּסֶף חֲמֵשֶׁת שְׁקָלִים בְּשֶׁקֶל הַקֹּדֶשׁ עֶשְׂרִים גֵּרָה הוּא׃", 18.17. "אַךְ בְּכוֹר־שׁוֹר אוֹ־בְכוֹר כֶּשֶׂב אוֹ־בְכוֹר עֵז לֹא תִפְדֶּה קֹדֶשׁ הֵם אֶת־דָּמָם תִּזְרֹק עַל־הַמִּזְבֵּחַ וְאֶת־חֶלְבָּם תַּקְטִיר אִשֶּׁה לְרֵיחַ נִיחֹחַ לַיהוָה׃", 18.18. "וּבְשָׂרָם יִהְיֶה־לָּךְ כַּחֲזֵה הַתְּנוּפָה וּכְשׁוֹק הַיָּמִין לְךָ יִהְיֶה׃", 18.19. "כֹּל תְּרוּמֹת הַקֳּדָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר יָרִימוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל לַיהוָה נָתַתִּי לְךָ וּלְבָנֶיךָ וְלִבְנֹתֶיךָ אִתְּךָ לְחָק־עוֹלָם בְּרִית מֶלַח עוֹלָם הִוא לִפְנֵי יְהוָה לְךָ וּלְזַרְעֲךָ אִתָּךְ׃", 18.21. "וְלִבְנֵי לֵוִי הִנֵּה נָתַתִּי כָּל־מַעֲשֵׂר בְּיִשְׂרָאֵל לְנַחֲלָה חֵלֶף עֲבֹדָתָם אֲשֶׁר־הֵם עֹבְדִים אֶת־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד׃", 18.22. "וְלֹא־יִקְרְבוּ עוֹד בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד לָשֵׂאת חֵטְא לָמוּת׃", 18.23. "וְעָבַד הַלֵּוִי הוּא אֶת־עֲבֹדַת אֹהֶל מוֹעֵד וְהֵם יִשְׂאוּ עֲוֺנָם חֻקַּת עוֹלָם לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם וּבְתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יִנְחֲלוּ נַחֲלָה׃", 18.24. "כִּי אֶת־מַעְשַׂר בְּנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר יָרִימוּ לַיהוָה תְּרוּמָה נָתַתִּי לַלְוִיִּם לְנַחֲלָה עַל־כֵּן אָמַרְתִּי לָהֶם בְּתוֹךְ בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל לֹא יִנְחֲלוּ נַחֲלָה׃", 18.3. "And they shall keep thy charge, and the charge of all the Tent; only they shall not come nigh unto the holy furniture and unto the altar, that they die not, neither they, nor ye.", 18.4. "And they shall be joined unto thee, and keep the charge of the tent of meeting, whatsoever the service of the Tent may be; but a common man shall not draw nigh unto you.", 18.5. "And ye shall keep the charge of the holy things, and the charge of the altar, that there be wrath no more upon the children of Israel.", 18.6. "And I, behold, I have taken your brethren the Levites from among the children of Israel; for you they are given as a gift unto the LORD, to do the service of the tent of meeting.", 18.7. "And thou and thy sons with thee shall keep your priesthood in everything that pertaineth to the altar, and to that within the veil; and ye shall serve; I give you the priesthood as a service of gift; and the common man that draweth nigh shall be put to death.’", 18.8. "And the LORD spoke unto Aaron: ‘And I, behold, I have given thee the charge of My heave-offerings; even of all the hallowed things of the children of Israel unto thee have I given them for a consecrated portion, and to thy sons, as a due for ever.", 18.9. "This shall be thine of the most holy things, reserved from the fire: every offering of theirs, even every meal-offering of theirs, and every sin-offering of theirs, and every guilt-offering of theirs, which they may render unto Me, shall be most holy for thee and for thy sons.", 18.10. "In a most holy place shalt thou eat thereof; every male may eat thereof; it shall be holy unto thee.", 18.11. "And this is thine: the heave-offering of their gift, even all the wave-offerings of the children of Israel; I have given them unto thee, and to thy sons and to thy daughters with thee, as a due for ever; every one that is clean in thy house may eat thereof.", 18.12. "All the best of the oil, and all the best of the wine, and of the corn, the first part of them which they give unto the LORD, to thee have I given them.", 18.13. "The first-ripe fruits of all that is in their land, which they bring unto the LORD, shall be thine; every one that is clean in thy house may eat thereof.", 18.14. "Every thing devoted in Israel shall be thine.", 18.15. "Every thing that openeth the womb, of all flesh which they offer unto the LORD, both of man and beast, shall be thine; howbeit the first-born of man shalt thou surely redeem, and the firstling of unclean beasts shalt thou redeem.", 18.16. "And their redemption-money—from a month old shalt thou redeem them—shall be, according to thy valuation, five shekels of silver, after the shekel of the sanctuary—the same is twenty gerahs.", 18.17. "But the firstling of an ox, or the firstling of a sheep, or the firstling of a goat, thou shalt not redeem; they are holy: thou shalt dash their blood against the altar, and shalt make their fat smoke for an offering made by fire, for a sweet savour unto the LORD.", 18.18. "And the flesh of them shall be thine, as the wave-breast and as the right thigh, it shall be thine.", 18.19. "All the heave-offerings of the holy things, which the children of Israel offer unto the LORD, have I given thee, and thy sons and thy daughters with thee, as a due for ever; it is an everlasting covet of salt before the LORD unto thee and to thy seed with thee.’", 18.20. "And the LORD said unto Aaron: ‘Thou shalt have no inheritance in their land, neither shalt thou have any portion among them; I am thy portion and thine inheritance among the children of Israel.", 18.21. "And unto the children of Levi, behold, I have given all the tithe in Israel for an inheritance, in return for their service which they serve, even the service of the tent of meeting.", 18.22. "And henceforth the children of Israel shall not come nigh the tent of meeting, lest they bear sin, and die.", 18.23. "But the Levites alone shall do the service of the tent of meeting, and they shall bear their iniquity; it shall be a statute for ever throughout your generations, and among the children of Israel they shall have no inheritance.", 18.24. "For the tithe of the children of Israel, which they set apart as a gift unto the LORD, I have given to the Levites for an inheritance; therefore I have said unto them: Among the children of Israel they shall have no inheritance.’",
6. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 13.12-13.15, 15.9, 15.19, 16.16-16.17, 16.20, 17.6, 24.13, 24.19-24.22, 26.1-26.12, 26.19 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 26, 31, 42, 108, 151, 155, 156, 177, 191
13.12. "וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל יִשְׁמְעוּ וְיִרָאוּן וְלֹא־יוֹסִפוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת כַּדָּבָר הָרָע הַזֶּה בְּקִרְבֶּךָ׃", 13.13. "כִּי־תִשְׁמַע בְּאַחַת עָרֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ לָשֶׁבֶת שָׁם לֵאמֹר׃", 13.14. "יָצְאוּ אֲנָשִׁים בְּנֵי־בְלִיַּעַל מִקִּרְבֶּךָ וַיַּדִּיחוּ אֶת־יֹשְׁבֵי עִירָם לֵאמֹר נֵלְכָה וְנַעַבְדָה אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים אֲשֶׁר לֹא־יְדַעְתֶּם׃", 13.15. "וְדָרַשְׁתָּ וְחָקַרְתָּ וְשָׁאַלְתָּ הֵיטֵב וְהִנֵּה אֱמֶת נָכוֹן הַדָּבָר נֶעֶשְׂתָה הַתּוֹעֵבָה הַזֹּאת בְּקִרְבֶּךָ׃", 15.9. "הִשָּׁמֶר לְךָ פֶּן־יִהְיֶה דָבָר עִם־לְבָבְךָ בְלִיַּעַל לֵאמֹר קָרְבָה שְׁנַת־הַשֶּׁבַע שְׁנַת הַשְּׁמִטָּה וְרָעָה עֵינְךָ בְּאָחִיךָ הָאֶבְיוֹן וְלֹא תִתֵּן לוֹ וְקָרָא עָלֶיךָ אֶל־יְהוָה וְהָיָה בְךָ חֵטְא׃", 15.19. "כָּל־הַבְּכוֹר אֲשֶׁר יִוָּלֵד בִּבְקָרְךָ וּבְצֹאנְךָ הַזָּכָר תַּקְדִּישׁ לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לֹא תַעֲבֹד בִּבְכֹר שׁוֹרֶךָ וְלֹא תָגֹז בְּכוֹר צֹאנֶךָ׃", 16.16. "שָׁלוֹשׁ פְּעָמִים בַּשָּׁנָה יֵרָאֶה כָל־זְכוּרְךָ אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בַּמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחָר בְּחַג הַמַּצּוֹת וּבְחַג הַשָּׁבֻעוֹת וּבְחַג הַסֻּכּוֹת וְלֹא יֵרָאֶה אֶת־פְּנֵי יְהוָה רֵיקָם׃", 16.17. "אִישׁ כְּמַתְּנַת יָדוֹ כְּבִרְכַּת יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲשֶׁר נָתַן־לָךְ׃", 17.6. "עַל־פִּי שְׁנַיִם עֵדִים אוֹ שְׁלֹשָׁה עֵדִים יוּמַת הַמֵּת לֹא יוּמַת עַל־פִּי עֵד אֶחָד׃", 24.13. "הָשֵׁב תָּשִׁיב לוֹ אֶת־הַעֲבוֹט כְּבֹא הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְשָׁכַב בְּשַׂלְמָתוֹ וּבֵרֲכֶךָּ וּלְךָ תִּהְיֶה צְדָקָה לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃", 24.19. "כִּי תִקְצֹר קְצִירְךָ בְשָׂדֶךָ וְשָׁכַחְתָּ עֹמֶר בַּשָּׂדֶה לֹא תָשׁוּב לְקַחְתּוֹ לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה לְמַעַן יְבָרֶכְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ בְּכֹל מַעֲשֵׂה יָדֶיךָ׃", 24.21. "כִּי תִבְצֹר כַּרְמְךָ לֹא תְעוֹלֵל אַחֲרֶיךָ לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה יִהְיֶה׃", 24.22. "וְזָכַרְתָּ כִּי־עֶבֶד הָיִיתָ בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם עַל־כֵּן אָנֹכִי מְצַוְּךָ לַעֲשׂוֹת אֶת־הַדָּבָר הַזֶּה׃", 26.1. "וְהָיָה כִּי־תָבוֹא אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לְךָ נַחֲלָה וִירִשְׁתָּהּ וְיָשַׁבְתָּ בָּהּ׃", 26.1. "וְעַתָּה הִנֵּה הֵבֵאתִי אֶת־רֵאשִׁית פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר־נָתַתָּה לִּי יְהוָה וְהִנַּחְתּוֹ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהִשְׁתַּחֲוִיתָ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃", 26.2. "וְלָקַחְתָּ מֵרֵאשִׁית כָּל־פְּרִי הָאֲדָמָה אֲשֶׁר תָּבִיא מֵאַרְצְךָ אֲשֶׁר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ נֹתֵן לָךְ וְשַׂמְתָּ בַטֶּנֶא וְהָלַכְתָּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם אֲשֶׁר יִבְחַר יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ לְשַׁכֵּן שְׁמוֹ שָׁם׃", 26.3. "וּבָאתָ אֶל־הַכֹּהֵן אֲשֶׁר יִהְיֶה בַּיָּמִים הָהֵם וְאָמַרְתָּ אֵלָיו הִגַּדְתִּי הַיּוֹם לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כִּי־בָאתִי אֶל־הָאָרֶץ אֲשֶׁר נִשְׁבַּע יְהוָה לַאֲבֹתֵינוּ לָתֶת לָנוּ׃", 26.4. "וְלָקַח הַכֹּהֵן הַטֶּנֶא מִיָּדֶךָ וְהִנִּיחוֹ לִפְנֵי מִזְבַּח יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ׃", 26.5. "וְעָנִיתָ וְאָמַרְתָּ לִפְנֵי יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ אֲרַמִּי אֹבֵד אָבִי וַיֵּרֶד מִצְרַיְמָה וַיָּגָר שָׁם בִּמְתֵי מְעָט וַיְהִי־שָׁם לְגוֹי גָּדוֹל עָצוּם וָרָב׃", 26.6. "וַיָּרֵעוּ אֹתָנוּ הַמִּצְרִים וַיְעַנּוּנוּ וַיִּתְּנוּ עָלֵינוּ עֲבֹדָה קָשָׁה׃", 26.7. "וַנִּצְעַק אֶל־יְהוָה אֱלֹהֵי אֲבֹתֵינוּ וַיִּשְׁמַע יְהוָה אֶת־קֹלֵנוּ וַיַּרְא אֶת־עָנְיֵנוּ וְאֶת־עֲמָלֵנוּ וְאֶת־לַחֲצֵנוּ׃", 26.8. "וַיּוֹצִאֵנוּ יְהוָה מִמִּצְרַיִם בְּיָד חֲזָקָה וּבִזְרֹעַ נְטוּיָה וּבְמֹרָא גָּדֹל וּבְאֹתוֹת וּבְמֹפְתִים׃", 26.9. "וַיְבִאֵנוּ אֶל־הַמָּקוֹם הַזֶּה וַיִּתֶּן־לָנוּ אֶת־הָאָרֶץ הַזֹּאת אֶרֶץ זָבַת חָלָב וּדְבָשׁ׃", 26.11. "וְשָׂמַחְתָּ בְכָל־הַטּוֹב אֲשֶׁר נָתַן־לְךָ יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וּלְבֵיתֶךָ אַתָּה וְהַלֵּוִי וְהַגֵּר אֲשֶׁר בְּקִרְבֶּךָ׃", 26.12. "כִּי תְכַלֶּה לַעְשֵׂר אֶת־כָּל־מַעְשַׂר תְּבוּאָתְךָ בַּשָּׁנָה הַשְּׁלִישִׁת שְׁנַת הַמַּעֲשֵׂר וְנָתַתָּה לַלֵּוִי לַגֵּר לַיָּתוֹם וְלָאַלְמָנָה וְאָכְלוּ בִשְׁעָרֶיךָ וְשָׂבֵעוּ׃", 26.19. "וּלְתִתְּךָ עֶלְיוֹן עַל כָּל־הַגּוֹיִם אֲשֶׁר עָשָׂה לִתְהִלָּה וּלְשֵׁם וּלְתִפְאָרֶת וְלִהְיֹתְךָ עַם־קָדֹשׁ לַיהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ כַּאֲשֶׁר דִּבֵּר׃", 13.12. "And all Israel shall hear, and fear, and shall do no more any such wickedness as this is in the midst of thee.", 13.13. "If thou shalt hear tell concerning one of thy cities, which the LORD thy God giveth thee to dwell there, saying:", 13.14. "’Certain base fellows are gone out from the midst of thee, and have drawn away the inhabitants of their city, saying: Let us go and serve other gods, which ye have not known’;", 13.15. "then shalt thou inquire, and make search, and ask diligently; and, behold, if it be truth, and the thing certain, that such abomination is wrought in the midst of thee;", 15.9. "Beware that there be not a base thought in thy heart, saying: ‘The seventh year, the year of release, is at hand’; and thine eye be evil against thy needy brother, and thou give him nought; and he cry unto the LORD against thee, and it be sin in thee.", 15.19. "All the firstling males that are born of thy herd and of thy flock thou shalt sanctify unto the LORD thy God; thou shalt do no work with the firstling of thine ox, nor shear the firstling of thy flock.", 16.16. "Three times in a year shall all thy males appear before the LORD thy God in the place which He shall choose; on the feast of unleavened bread, and on the feast of weeks, and on the feast of tabernacles; and they shall not appear before the LORD empty;", 16.17. "every man shall give as he is able, according to the blessing of the LORD thy God which He hath given thee.", 16.20. "Justice, justice shalt thou follow, that thou mayest live, and inherit the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee.", 17.6. "At the mouth of two witnesses, or three witnesses, shall he that is to die be put to death; at the mouth of one witness he shall not be put to death.", 24.13. "thou shalt surely restore to him the pledge when the sun goeth down, that he may sleep in his garment, and bless thee; and it shall be righteousness unto thee before the LORD thy God.", 24.19. "When thou reapest thy harvest in thy field, and hast forgot a sheaf in the field, thou shalt not go back to fetch it; it shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow; that the LORD thy God may bless thee in all the work of thy hands.", 24.20. "When thou beatest thine olive-tree, thou shalt not go over the boughs again; it shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow.", 24.21. "When thou gatherest the grapes of thy vineyard, thou shalt not glean it after thee; it shall be for the stranger, for the fatherless, and for the widow.", 24.22. "And thou shalt remember that thou wast a bondman in the land of Egypt; therefore I command thee to do this thing.", 26.1. "And it shall be, when thou art come in unto the land which the LORD thy God giveth thee for an inheritance, and dost possess it, and dwell therein;", 26.2. "that thou shalt take of the first of all the fruit of the ground, which thou shalt bring in from thy land that the LORD thy God giveth thee; and thou shalt put it in a basket and shalt go unto the place which the LORD thy God shall choose to cause His name to dwell there.", 26.3. "And thou shalt come unto the priest that shall be in those days, and say unto him: ‘I profess this day unto the LORD thy God, that I am come unto the land which the LORD swore unto our fathers to give us.’", 26.4. "And the priest shall take the basket out of thy hand, and set it down before the altar of the LORD thy God.", 26.5. "And thou shalt speak and say before the LORD thy God: ‘A wandering Aramean was my father, and he went down into Egypt, and sojourned there, few in number; and he became there a nation, great, mighty, and populous.", 26.6. "And the Egyptians dealt ill with us, and afflicted us, and laid upon us hard bondage.", 26.7. "And we cried unto the LORD, the God of our fathers, and the LORD heard our voice, and saw our affliction, and our toil, and our oppression.", 26.8. "And the LORD brought us forth out of Egypt with a mighty hand, and with an outstretched arm, and with great terribleness, and with signs, and with wonders.", 26.9. "And He hath brought us into this place, and hath given us this land, a land flowing with milk and honey.", 26.10. "And now, behold, I have brought the first of the fruit of the land, which Thou, O LORD, hast given me.’ And thou shalt set it down before the LORD thy God, and worship before the LORD thy God.", 26.11. "And thou shalt rejoice in all the good which the LORD thy God hath given unto thee, and unto thy house, thou, and the Levite, and the stranger that is in the midst of thee.", 26.12. "When thou hast made an end of tithing all the tithe of thine increase in the third year, which is the year of tithing, and hast given it unto the Levite, to the stranger, to the fatherless, and to the widow, that they may eat within thy gates, and be satisfied,", 26.19. "and to make thee high above all nations that He hath made, in praise, and in name, and in glory; and that thou mayest be a holy people unto the LORD thy God, as He hath spoken.",
7. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 3.10-3.11, 58.8 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 43, 155
3.11. "אוֹי לְרָשָׁע רָע כִּי־גְמוּל יָדָיו יֵעָשֶׂה לּוֹ׃", 58.8. "אָז יִבָּקַע כַּשַּׁחַר אוֹרֶךָ וַאֲרֻכָתְךָ מְהֵרָה תִצְמָח וְהָלַךְ לְפָנֶיךָ צִדְקֶךָ כְּבוֹד יְהוָה יַאַסְפֶךָ׃", 3.10. "Say ye of the righteous, that it shall be well with him; For they shall eat the fruit of their doings.", 3.11. "Woe unto the wicked! it shall be ill with him; For the work of his hands shall be done to him.", 58.8. "Then shall thy light break forth as the morning, And thy healing shall spring forth speedily; And thy righteousness shall go before thee, The glory of the LORD shall be thy rearward.",
8. Hebrew Bible, Jeremiah, 6.19, 16.5, 17.7 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 43, 151, 156
6.19. "שִׁמְעִי הָאָרֶץ הִנֵּה אָנֹכִי מֵבִיא רָעָה אֶל־הָעָם הַזֶּה פְּרִי מַחְשְׁבוֹתָם כִּי עַל־דְּבָרַי לֹא הִקְשִׁיבוּ וְתוֹרָתִי וַיִּמְאֲסוּ־בָהּ׃", 16.5. "כִּי־כֹה אָמַר יְהוָה אַל־תָּבוֹא בֵּית מַרְזֵחַ וְאַל־תֵּלֵךְ לִסְפּוֹד וְאַל־תָּנֹד לָהֶם כִּי־אָסַפְתִּי אֶת־שְׁלוֹמִי מֵאֵת הָעָם־הַזֶּה נְאֻם־יְהוָה אֶת־הַחֶסֶד וְאֶת־הָרַחֲמִים׃", 17.7. "בָּרוּךְ הַגֶּבֶר אֲשֶׁר יִבְטַח בַּיהוָה וְהָיָה יְהוָה מִבְטַחוֹ׃", 6.19. "Hear, O earth: Behold, I will bring evil upon this people, Even the fruit of their thoughts, Because they have not attended unto My words, And as for My teaching, they have rejected it.", 16.5. "For thus saith the LORD: Enter not into the house of mourning, neither go to lament, neither bemoan them; for I have taken away My peace from this people, saith the LORD, even mercy and compassion.", 17.7. "Blessed is the man that trusteth in the LORD, And whose trust the LORD is.",
9. Hebrew Bible, Joshua, 7.16-7.18 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 177
7.16. "וַיַּשְׁכֵּם יְהוֹשֻׁעַ בַּבֹּקֶר וַיַּקְרֵב אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל לִשְׁבָטָיו וַיִּלָּכֵד שֵׁבֶט יְהוּדָה׃", 7.17. "וַיַּקְרֵב אֶת־מִשְׁפַּחַת יְהוּדָה וַיִּלְכֹּד אֵת מִשְׁפַּחַת הַזַּרְחִי וַיַּקְרֵב אֶת־מִשְׁפַּחַת הַזַּרְחִי לַגְּבָרִים וַיִּלָּכֵד זַבְדִּי׃", 7.18. "וַיַּקְרֵב אֶת־בֵּיתוֹ לַגְּבָרִים וַיִּלָּכֵד עָכָן בֶּן־כַּרְמִי בֶן־זַבְדִּי בֶּן־זֶרַח לְמַטֵּה יְהוּדָה׃", 7.16. "So Joshua rose up early in the morning, and brought Israel near by their tribes; and the tribe of Judah was taken.", 7.17. "And he brought near the family of Judah; and he took the family of the Zerahites. And he brought near the family of the Zerahites man by man; and Zabdi was taken.", 7.18. "And he brought near his household man by man; and Achan, the son of Carmi, the son of Zabdi, the son of Zerah, of the tribe of Judah, was taken.",
10. Mishnah, Terumot, 2.4, 4.3 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 182, 184
2.4. "אֵין תּוֹרְמִין מִמִּין עַל שֶׁאֵינוֹ מִינוֹ. וְאִם תָּרַם, אֵין תְּרוּמָתוֹ תְרוּמָה. כָּל מִין חִטִּים, אֶחָד. כָּל מִין תְּאֵנִים וּגְרוֹגָרוֹת וּדְבֵלָה, אֶחָד. וְתוֹרֵם מִזֶּה עַל זֶה. כָּל מָקוֹם שֶׁיֵּשׁ כֹּהֵן, תּוֹרֵם מִן הַיָּפֶה. וְכָל מָקוֹם שֶׁאֵין כֹּהֵן, תּוֹרֵם מִן הַמִּתְקַיֵּם. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לְעוֹלָם הוּא תוֹרֵם מִן הַיָּפֶה: \n", 4.3. "שִׁעוּר תְּרוּמָה, עַיִן יָפָה, אֶחָד מֵאַרְבָּעִים. בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, מִשְּׁלֹשִׁים. וְהַבֵּינוֹנִית, מֵחֲמִשִּׁים. וְהָרָעָה, מִשִּׁשִּׁים. תָּרַם וְעָלָה בְיָדוֹ אֶחָד מִשִּׁשִּׁים, תְּרוּמָה, וְאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִתְרֹם. חָזַר וְהוֹסִיף, חַיָּב בְּמַעַשְׂרוֹת. עָלָה בְיָדוֹ מִשִּׁשִּׁים וְאֶחָד, תְּרוּמָה, וְיַחֲזֹר וְיִתְרֹם כְּמוֹת שֶׁהוּא לָמוּד, בְּמִדָּה וּבְמִשְׁקָל וּבְמִנְיָן. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אַף שֶׁלֹּא מִן הַמֻּקָּף:", 2.4. "They may not give terumah from one kind for another kind, and if he did give, the terumah is not terumah. All kinds of wheat count as one. All kinds of fresh figs, dried figs and fig cakes count as one, and he may take terumah from one for the other. Wherever there is a priest, one must give terumah from the very best, and where there is no priest, one must give terumah from that which lasts longest. Rabbi Judah says: he should always give only from the very best.", 4.3. "The amount of terumah: A generous amount: one fortieth. Beth Shammai say: one thirtieth. The average amount: one fiftieth. A stingy amount: one sixtieth. If he gave terumah and discovered that it was only one sixtieth, his terumah is valid and he need not give again. If he does go back and add to it, [the extra amount] is liable to tithes. If he found that it was only one sixty-first it is valid, but he must give terumah again according to his established practice, in measure, weight or number. Rabbi Judah says: even if it be not from produce close by.",
11. Mishnah, Menachot, 10.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 184
10.8. "קוֹצְרִים בֵּית הַשְּׁלָחִים שֶׁבָּעֲמָקִים, אֲבָל לֹא גוֹדְשִׁין. אַנְשֵׁי יְרִיחוֹ קוֹצְרִין בִּרְצוֹן חֲכָמִים, וְגוֹדְשִׁין שֶׁלֹּא בִרְצוֹן חֲכָמִים, וְלֹא מִחוּ בְיָדָם חֲכָמִים. קוֹצֵר לַשַּׁחַת, וּמַאֲכִיל לַבְּהֵמָה. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁהִתְחִיל עַד שֶׁלֹּא הֵבִיאָה שְׁלִישׁ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אַף יִקְצֹר וְיַאֲכִיל אַף מִשֶּׁהֵבִיאָה שְׁלִישׁ: \n", 10.8. "[Before the omer] one may reap [grain] in irrigated fields in the valley, but one may not stack it. The people of Jericho used to reap [before the omer] with the approval of the sages, and used to stack it without the approval of the sages, but the sages did not protest. One may reap the unripe grain for cattle feed. Rabbi Judah said: When is this so? If one had begun to reap it before it had reached a third of its growth. Rabbi Shimon says: one may reap it and feed [his cattle with it] even after it has reached a third of its growth.",
12. Mishnah, Sheviit, 10.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 192
10.9. "הַמַּחֲזִיר חוֹב בַּשְּׁבִיעִית, רוּחַ חֲכָמִים נוֹחָה מִמֶּנּוּ. הַלֹּוֶה מִן הַגֵּר שֶׁנִּתְגַּיְּרוּ בָנָיו עִמּוֹ, לֹא יַחֲזִיר לְבָנָיו. וְאִם הֶחֱזִיר, רוּחַ חֲכָמִים נוֹחָה מִמֶּנּוּ. כָּל הַמִּטַּלְטְלִין, נִקְנִין בִּמְשִׁיכָה. וְכָל הַמְקַיֵּם אֶת דְּבָרוֹ, רוּחַ חֲכָמִים נוֹחָה מִמֶּנּוּ: \n", 10.9. "One who repays his debts after the seventh year, the sages are pleased with him. One who borrows from a convert whose sons had converted with him, the debt need not be repaid to his sons, but if he returns it the sages are pleased with him. All movable property can be acquired [only] by the act of drawing, but whoever fulfills his word, the sages are well pleased with him.",
13. Mishnah, Shabbat, 17.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 193
17.6. "הָאֶבֶן שֶׁבְּקֵרוּיָה, אִם מְמַלְּאִין בָּהּ וְאֵינָהּ נוֹפֶלֶת, מְמַלְּאִין בָּהּ. וְאִם לָאו, אֵין מְמַלְּאִין בָּהּ. זְמוֹרָה שֶׁהִיא קְשׁוּרָה בְטָפִיחַ, מְמַלְּאִין בָּהּ בְּשַׁבָּת: \n", 17.6. "A stone in a dried-out pumpkin: If one can draw [water] in it and it [the stone] does not fall out, one may draw [water] in it; if not, one may not draw water in it. A vine-branch tied to a pitcher: one may draw [water] with it on Shabbat.",
14. Mishnah, Bava Batra, 9.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 182
9.6. שְׁכִיב מְרַע שֶׁכָּתַב כָּל נְכָסָיו לַאֲחֵרִים וְשִׁיֵּר קַרְקַע כָּל שֶׁהוּא, מַתְּנָתוֹ קַיֶּמֶת. לֹא שִׁיֵּר קַרְקַע כָּל שֶׁהוּא, אֵין מַתְּנָתוֹ קַיֶּמֶת. לֹא כָתַב בָּהּ שְׁכִיב מְרַע, הוּא אוֹמֵר שְׁכִיב מְרַע הָיָה וְהֵן אוֹמְרִים בָּרִיא הָיָה, צָרִיךְ לְהָבִיא רְאָיָה שֶׁהָיָה שְׁכִיב מְרַע, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, הַמּוֹצִיא מֵחֲבֵרוֹ עָלָיו הָרְאָיָה. 9.6. "If a man who lies dying wrote over his property to others [as a gift] and kept back any land whatsoever, his gift remains valid [even should he not die]. If he did not keep back any land whatsoever, his gift does not remain valid [if he should not die]. If it was not written in the document, “who lies dying”, but he said that [he had written the document] while he lay dying and they (those who received the gift) said that he was healthy [when he wrote the document], he must bring proof that he had been dying, according to Rabbi Meir. But the sages say: “He who makes a claim against his fellow bears the burden of proof.”",
15. Mishnah, Bava Metzia, 2.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 192
2.5. "אַף הַשִּׂמְלָה הָיְתָה בִכְלָל כָּל אֵלֶּה. לָמָּה יָצָאת. לְהָקִּישׁ אֵלֶיהָ, לוֹמַר לְךָ, מַה שִּׂמְלָה מְיֻחֶדֶת שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהּ סִימָנִים וְיֶשׁ לָהּ תּוֹבְעִים, אַף כָּל דָּבָר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ סִימָנִים וְיֶשׁ לוֹ תוֹבְעִים, חַיָּב לְהַכְרִיז:", 2.5. "A garment was also included amongst all these things (which one must proclaim, listed in Deut. 22:3). Why was it mentioned separately? To compare [other things] to it: to teach you just as a garment is distinct in that it has special marks and it has those who claim it, so too everything that has special marks and those who claim it must be proclaimed.",
16. Mishnah, Berachot, 5.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 188
5.5. "הַמִּתְפַּלֵּל וְטָעָה, סִימָן רַע לוֹ. וְאִם שְׁלִיחַ צִבּוּר הוּא, סִימָן רַע לְשׁוֹלְחָיו, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁשְּׁלוּחוֹ שֶׁל אָדָם כְּמוֹתוֹ. אָמְרוּ עָלָיו עַל רַבִּי חֲנִינָא בֶן דּוֹסָא, כְּשֶׁהָיָה מִתְפַּלֵּל עַל הַחוֹלִים וְאוֹמֵר, זֶה חַי וְזֶה מֵת. אָמְרוּ לוֹ, מִנַּיִן אַתָּה יוֹדֵעַ. אָמַר לָהֶם, אִם שְׁגוּרָה תְפִלָּתִי בְּפִי, יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁהוּא מְקֻבָּל. וְאִם לָאו, יוֹדֵעַ אֲנִי שֶׁהוּא מְטֹרָף: \n", 5.5. "One who is praying and makes a mistake, it is a bad sign for him. And if he is the messenger of the congregation (the prayer leader) it is a bad sign for those who have sent him, because one’s messenger is equivalent to one’s self. They said about Rabbi Hanina ben Dosa that he used to pray for the sick and say, “This one will die, this one will live.” They said to him: “How do you know?” He replied: “If my prayer comes out fluently, I know that he is accepted, but if not, then I know that he is rejected.”",
17. Mishnah, Hagigah, 1.1-1.2 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 181
1.1. "הַכֹּל חַיָּבִין בָּרְאִיָּה, חוּץ מֵחֵרֵשׁ, שׁוֹטֶה וְקָטָן, וְטֻמְטוּם, וְאַנְדְּרוֹגִינוֹס, וְנָשִׁים, וַעֲבָדִים שֶׁאֵינָם מְשֻׁחְרָרִים, הַחִגֵּר, וְהַסּוּמָא, וְהַחוֹלֶה, וְהַזָּקֵן, וּמִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לַעֲלוֹת בְּרַגְלָיו. אֵיזֶהוּ קָטָן, כֹּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לִרְכּוֹב עַל כְּתֵפָיו שֶׁל אָבִיו וְלַעֲלוֹת מִירוּשָׁלַיִם לְהַר הַבַּיִת, דִּבְרֵי בֵית שַׁמַּאי. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, כֹּל שֶׁאֵינוֹ יָכוֹל לֶאֱחֹז בְּיָדוֹ שֶׁל אָבִיו וְלַעֲלוֹת מִירוּשָׁלַיִם לְהַר הַבַּיִת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג) שָׁלֹשׁ רְגָלִים: \n", 1.2. "בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, הָרְאִיָּה שְׁתֵּי כֶסֶף, וַחֲגִיגָה מָעָה כֶסֶף. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, הָרְאִיָּה מָעָה כֶסֶף, וַחֲגִיגָה שְׁתֵּי כָסֶף: \n", 1.1. "All are obligated to appear [at the Temple], except a deaf person, an imbecile and a minor, a person of unknown sex [tumtum], a hermaphrodite, women, unfreed slaves, a lame person, a blind person, a sick person, an aged person, and one who is unable to go up on foot. Who is a minor? Whoever is unable to ride on his father’s shoulders and go up from Jerusalem to the Temple Mount, the words of Bet Shammai. But Bet Hillel say: whoever is unable to hold his father’s hand and go up from Jerusalem to the Temple Mount, as it is said: “Three regalim” (Exodus 23:14).", 1.2. "Bet Shammai say: the pilgrimage-offering (re’eyah) must be worth [at least] two pieces of silver and the hagigah one piece (ma’ah) of silver. But Bet Hillel say: the pilgrimage-offering must be worth [at least] one ma'ah of silver and the hagigah two pieces of silver.",
18. Mishnah, Maasrot, 1.1, 1.5-1.8 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 76, 188, 192
1.1. "כְּלָל אָמְרוּ בַּמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, כָּל שֶׁהוּא אֹכֶל, וְנִשְׁמָר, וְגִדּוּלָיו מִן הָאָרֶץ, חַיָּב בַּמַּעַשְׂרוֹת. וְעוֹד כְּלָל אַחֵר אָמְרוּ, כָּל שֶׁתְּחִלָּתוֹ אֹכֶל וְסוֹפוֹ אֹכֶל, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא שׁוֹמְרוֹ לְהוֹסִיף אֹכֶל, חַיָּב קָטָן וְגָדוֹל. וְכָל שֶׁאֵין תְּחִלָּתוֹ אֹכֶל אֲבָל סוֹפוֹ אֹכֶל, אֵינוֹ חַיָּב עַד שֶׁיֵּעָשֶׂה אֹכֶל: \n", 1.5. "אֵיזֶהוּ גָּרְנָן לַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת. הַקִּשּׁוּאִים וְהַדְּלוּעִים, מִשֶּׁיְּפַקְסוּ. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְפַקֵּס, מִשֶּׁיַּעֲמִיד עֲרֵמָה. אֲבַטִּיחַ, מִשֶּׁיְּשַׁלֵּק. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְשַׁלֵּק, עַד שֶׁיַּעֲשֶׂה מֻקְצֶה. יָרָק הַנֶּאֱגָד, מִשֶּׁיֹּאגַד. אִם אֵינוֹ אוֹגֵד, עַד שֶׁיְּמַלֵּא אֶת הַכְּלִי. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְמַלֵּא אֶת הַכְּלִי, עַד שֶׁיְּלַקֵּט כָּל צָרְכּוֹ. כַּלְכָּלָה, עַד שֶׁיְּחַפֶּה. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְחַפֶּה, עַד שֶׁיְמַלֵּא אֶת הַכְּלִי. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְמַלֵּא אֶת הַכְּלִי, עַד שֶׁיְּלַקֵּט כָּל צָרְכּוֹ. בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בְּמוֹלִיךְ לַשּׁוּק. אֲבָל בְּמוֹלִיךְ לְבֵיתוֹ, אוֹכֵל מֵהֶם עֲרַאי עַד שֶׁהוּא מַגִּיעַ לְבֵיתוֹ: \n", 1.6. "הַפֶּרֶד וְהַצִּמּוּקִין וְהֶחָרוּבִין, מִשֶּׁיַּעֲמִיד עֲרֵמָה. הַבְּצָלִים, מִשֶּׁיְּפַקֵּל. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְפַקֵּל, מִשֶּׁיַּעֲמִיד עֲרֵמָה. הַתְּבוּאָה, מִשֶּׁיְּמָרֵחַ. וְאִם אֵינוֹ מְמָרֵחַ, עַד שֶׁיַּעֲמִיד עֲרֵמָה. הַקִּטְנִיּוֹת, מִשֶּׁיִּכְבֹּר. וְאִם אֵינוֹ כוֹבֵר, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁמֵּרַח, נוֹטֵל מִן הַקֻּטָּעִים וּמִן הַצְּדָדִים וּמִמַּה שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַתֶּבֶן, וְאוֹכֵל: \n", 1.7. "הַיַּיִן, מִשֶּׁיְּקַפֶּה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁקִּפָּה, קוֹלֵט מִן הַגַּת הָעֶלְיוֹנָה וּמִן הַצִּנּוֹר, וְשׁוֹתֶה. הַשֶּׁמֶן, מִשֶּׁיֵּרֵד לָעוּקָה. אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁיָּרַד, נוֹטֵל מִן הֶעָקָל וּמִבֵּין הַמָּמָל וּמִבֵּין הַפַּצִּים, וְנוֹתֵן לַחֲמִטָּה וְלַתַּמְחוּי, אֲבָל לֹא יִתֵּן לַקְּדֵרָה וְלַלְּפָס כְּשֶׁהֵן רוֹתְחִין. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, לַכֹּל הוּא נוֹתֵן, חוּץ מִדָּבָר שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ חֹמֶץ וְצִיר: \n", 1.8. "הָעִגּוּל, מִשֶּׁיַּחֲלִיקֶנּוּ. מַחֲלִיקִים בִּתְאֵנִים וּבַעֲנָבִים שֶׁל טֶבֶל. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹסֵר. הַמַּחֲלִיק בַּעֲנָבִים, לֹא הֻכְשָׁר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, הֻכְשָׁר. הַגְּרוֹגָרוֹת, מִשֶּׁיָּדוּשׁ. וּמְגוּרָה מִשֶּׁיְּעַגֵּל. הָיָה דָשׁ בֶּחָבִית וּמְעַגֵּל בַּמְּגוּרָה, נִשְׁבְּרָה הֶחָבִית וְנִפְתְּחָה הַמְּגוּרָה, לֹא יֹאכַל מֵהֶם עֲרָאי. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי מַתִּיר: \n", 1.1. "They said a general principle concerning tithes: whatever is food, and is looked after, and grows from the land, is liable for tithes. And they have further stated another general principle [concerning tithes]: whatever is considered food both at the beginning and at the conclusion [of its growth] even though he holds on to it in order to increase the quantity of food, is liable [to tithe] whether [it is harvested] in its earlier or later stages. But whatever is not considered food in the earlier stages [of its growth] but only in its later stages, is not liable [to tithe] until it can be considered food.", 1.5. "What is considered a “threshing floor” for tithes [i.e. when does produce become liable for tithes]?Cucumbers and gourds [are liable for tithes] once he removes their fuzz. And if he doesn’t remove it, once he makes a pile. Melons once he removes the fuzz with hot water. And if they he does not remove the fuzz, once he stores them in the muktzeh. Vegetables which are tied in bundles, from the time he ties them up in bundles. If he does not tie them up in bundles, until he fills the vessel with them. And if he does not fill the vessel, after he has gathered all that he wishes to gather. [Produce which is packed in] a basket [is liable for tithes] after he has covered it. If he is not going to cover it, until he fills the vessel with them. And if he does not fill the vessel, after he has gathered all that he wishes to gather. When does this apply? When one brings [the produce] to the market. But when he brings it to his own house, he may make a chance meal of it, until he reaches his house.", 1.6. "Dried pomegranate seeds, raisins and carobs, [are liable for tithes] after he has made a pile. Onions, once he removes the onion seeds. If he does not remove the onion seeds, after he makes a pile. Grain, once he smoothes out the pile. If he does not smooth the pile, after he makes a pile. Pulse, after he has sifted it. If he does not sift, after he smoothes out a pile. Even after he has smoothed out the pile, he may [without tithing] take from the broken ears, from the sides of the piles, and from that which is mixed in with the chaff, and eat.", 1.7. "Wine [is liable for tithes] after it has been skimmed [in the lower part of the winepress]. Even though it has been skimmed, he may take from the upper winepress, or from the duct, and drink [without taking out tithe]. Oil [is liable for tithes] after it has gone down into the trough. But even after it has gone down into the trough he may still take oil from the pressing bale, or from the press beam, or from the boards between the press [without tithing,] And he may put such oil on a cake, or large plate. But he should not put the oil in a dish or stewpot, while they are boiling. Rabbi Judah says: he may put it into anything except that which contains vinegar or brine.", 1.8. "A cake of pressed figs [is liable for tithes] from the moment it has been smoothed out [with fruit juice]. They may smooth them out with [the juice of] untithed figs or grapes. Rabbi Judah forbids this. If one smoothed with grapes, it is not susceptible to uncleanness. Rabbi Judah says it is susceptible. Dried figs [are liable to tithe] after they have been pressed [into a jar]. And [figs] stored in a bin [are liable to tithe] after they have been pressed. If one was pressing [the figs] into a jar, or pressing them in a storage bin, and the jar was broken or the storage bin opened, he may not make a chance meal of them. Rabbi Yose permits this.",
19. Mishnah, Peah, 1.1-1.6, 1.8-1.11, 2.1-2.8, 3.1-3.8, 3.11, 4.1-4.5, 4.10-4.11, 4.14, 4.17-4.21, 5.1-5.3, 5.6-5.8, 6.1-6.5, 6.7-6.11, 7.1-7.2, 7.4, 8.8-8.9 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 26, 42, 43, 44, 45, 53, 54, 58, 61, 63, 64, 75, 76, 90, 99, 103, 104, 108, 127, 151, 152, 155, 156, 177, 181, 182, 184, 188, 191, 192, 193
1.1. "אֵלּוּ דְבָרִים שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם שִׁעוּר. הַפֵּאָה, וְהַבִּכּוּרִים, וְהָרֵאָיוֹן, וּגְמִילוּת חֲסָדִים, וְתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה. אֵלּוּ דְבָרִים שֶׁאָדָם אוֹכֵל פֵּרוֹתֵיהֶן בָּעוֹלָם הַזֶּה וְהַקֶּרֶן קַיֶּמֶת לוֹ לָעוֹלָם הַבָּא. כִּבּוּד אָב וָאֵם, וּגְמִילוּת חֲסָדִים, וַהֲבָאַת שָׁלוֹם בֵּין אָדָם לַחֲבֵרוֹ, וְתַלְמוּד תּוֹרָה כְּנֶגֶד כֻּלָּם:", 1.2. "אֵין פּוֹחֲתִין לַפֵּאָה מִשִּׁשִּׁים, וְאַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאָמְרוּ אֵין לַפֵּאָה שִׁעוּר. הַכֹּל לְפִי גֹדֶל הַשָּׂדֶה, וּלְפִי רֹב הָעֲנִיִּים, וּלְפִי רֹב הָעֲנָוָה:", 1.3. "נוֹתְנִין פֵּאָה מִתְּחִלַּת הַשָּׂדֶה וּמֵאֶמְצָעָהּ. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, וּבִלְבַד שֶׁיִּתֵּן בַּסּוֹף כַּשִּׁעוּר. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אִם שִׁיֵּר קֶלַח אֶחָד, סוֹמֵךְ לוֹ מִשּׁוּם פֵּאָה. וְאִם לָאו, אֵינוֹ נוֹתֵן אֶלָּא מִשּׁוּם הֶפְקֵר:", 1.4. "כְּלָל אָמְרוּ בַּפֵּאָה. כָּל שֶׁהוּא אֹכֶל, וְנִשְׁמָר, וְגִדּוּלָיו מִן הָאָרֶץ, וּלְקִיטָתוֹ כְאַחַת, וּמַכְנִיסוֹ לְקִיּוּם, חַיָּב בַּפֵּאָה. וְהַתְּבוּאָה וְהַקִּטְנִיּוֹת בַּכְּלָל הַזֶּה:", 1.5. "וּבָאִילָן, הָאוֹג וְהֶחָרוּבִין וְהָאֱגוֹזִים וְהַשְּׁקֵדִים וְהַגְּפָנִים וְהָרִמּוֹנִים וְהַזֵּיתִים וְהַתְּמָרִים, חַיָּבִין בַּפֵּאָה:", 1.6. "לְעוֹלָם הוּא נוֹתֵן מִשּׁוּם פֵּאָה וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. וְנוֹתֵן מִשּׁוּם הֶפְקֵר וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. וּמַאֲכִיל לַבְּהֵמָה וְלַחַיָּה וְלָעוֹפוֹת וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. וְנוֹטֵל מִן הַגֹּרֶן וְזוֹרֵעַ וּפָטוּר מִן הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא. כֹּהֵן וְלֵוִי שֶׁלָּקְחוּ אֶת הַגֹּרֶן, הַמַּעַשְׂרוֹת שֶׁלָּהֶם, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ. הַמַּקְדִּישׁ וּפוֹדֶה, חַיָּב בְּמַעַשְׂרוֹת, עַד שֶׁיְּמָרֵחַ הַגִּזְבָּר:", 2.1. "וְאֵלּוּ מַפְסִיקִין לַפֵּאָה. הַנַּחַל, וְהַשְּׁלוּלִית, וְדֶרֶךְ הַיָּחִיד, וְדֶרֶךְ הָרַבִּים, וּשְׁבִיל הָרַבִּים, וּשְׁבִיל הַיָּחִיד הַקָּבוּעַ בִּימוֹת הַחַמָּה וּבִימוֹת הַגְּשָׁמִים, וְהַבּוּר, וְהַנִּיר, וְזֶרַע אַחֵר. וְהַקּוֹצֵר לְשַׁחַת מַפְסִיק, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ מַפְסִיק, אֶלָּא אִם כֵּן חָרָשׁ: \n", 2.2. "אַמַּת הַמַּיִם שֶׁאֵינָהּ יְכוֹלָה לְהִקָּצֵר כְּאַחַת, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, מַפְסֶקֶת. וְכֹל הֶהָרִים אֲשֶׁר בַּמַּעְדֵּר יֵעָדֵרוּן, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁאֵין הַבָּקָר יָכוֹל לַעֲבֹר בְּכֵלָיו, הוּא נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה לַכֹּל: \n", 2.3. "הַכֹּל מַפְסִיק לַזְּרָעִים, וְאֵינוֹ מַפְסִיק לָאִילָן אֶלָּא גָדֵר. וְאִם הָיָה שֵׂעָר כּוֹתֵשׁ, אֵינוֹ מַפְסִיק, אֶלָּא נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה לַכֹּל: \n" 2.4. "וְלֶחָרוּבִין, כָּל הָרוֹאִין זֶה אֶת זֶה. אָמַר רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, נוֹהֲגִין הָיוּ בֵּית אַבָּא, נוֹתְנִין פֵּאָה אַחַת לַזֵּיתִים שֶׁהָיוּ לָהֶם בְּכָל רוּחַ, וְלֶחָרוּבִין, כָּל הָרוֹאִין זֶה אֶת זֶה. רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר בְּרַבִּי צָדוֹק אוֹמֵר מִשְּׁמוֹ, אַף לֶחָרוּבִין שֶׁהָיוּ לָהֶם בְּכָל הָעִיר: \n", 2.5. "הַזּוֹרֵעַ אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ מִין אֶחָד, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֵׂהוּ שְׁתֵּי גְרָנוֹת, נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה אַחַת. זְרָעָהּ שְׁנֵי מִינִין, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁעֲשָׂאָן גֹּרֶן אַחַת, נוֹתֵן שְׁתֵּי פֵאוֹת. הַזּוֹרֵעַ אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ שְׁנֵי מִינֵי חִטִּין, עֲשָׂאָן גֹּרֶן אַחַת, נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה אַחַת. שְׁתֵּי גְרָנוֹת, נוֹתֵן שְׁתֵּי פֵאוֹת: \n", 2.6. "מַעֲשֶׂה שֶׁזָּרַע רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אִישׁ הַמִּצְפָּה לִפְנֵי רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל, וְעָלוּ לְלִשְׁכַּת הַגָּזִית וְשָׁאָלוּ. אָמַר נַחוּם הַלַּבְלָר, מְקֻבָּל אֲנִי מֵרַבִּי מְיָאשָׁא, שֶׁקִּבֵּל מֵאַבָּא, שֶׁקִּבֵּל מִן הַזּוּגוֹת, שֶׁקִּבְּלוּ מִן הַנְּבִיאִים, הֲלָכָה לְמשֶׁה מִסִּינַי, בְּזוֹרֵעַ אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ שְׁנֵי מִינֵי חִטִּין, אִם עֲשָׂאָן גֹּרֶן אַחַת, נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה אַחַת. שְׁתֵּי גְרָנוֹת, נוֹתֵן שְׁתֵּי פֵאוֹת: \n", 2.7. "שָׂדֶה שֶׁקְּצָרוּהָ כּוּתִים, קְצָרוּהָ לִסְטִים, קִרְסְמוּהָ נְמָלִים, שְׁבָרַתָּהּ הָרוּחַ אוֹ בְהֵמָה, פְּטוּרָה. קָצַר חֶצְיָהּ וְקָצְרוּ לִסְטִים חֶצְיָהּ, פְּטוּרָה, שֶׁחוֹבַת הַפֵּאָה בַּקָּמָה: \n", 2.8. "קְצָרוּהָ לִסְטִים חֶצְיָהּ וְקָצַר הוּא חֶצְיָהּ, נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה מִמַּה שֶּׁקָּצָר. קָצַר חֶצְיָהּ וּמָכַר חֶצְיָהּ, הַלּוֹקֵחַ נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה לַכֹּל. קָצַר חֶצְיָהּ וְהִקְדִּישׁ חֶצְיָהּ, הַפּוֹדֶה מִיַּד הַגִּזְבָּר, הוּא נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה לַכֹּל: \n", 3.1. "מַלְבְּנוֹת הַתְּבוּאָה שֶׁבֵּין הַזֵּיתִים, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, פֵּאָה מִכָּל אַחַת וְאֶחָת. בֵּית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, מֵאֶחָד עַל הַכֹּל. וּמוֹדִים, שֶׁאִם הָיוּ רָאשֵׁי שׁוּרוֹת מְעֹרָבִין, שֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה מֵאֶחָד עַל הַכֹּל: \n", 3.2. "הַמְנַמֵּר אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ וְשִׁיֵּר קְלָחִים לַחִים, רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה מִכָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, מֵאֶחָד עַל הַכֹּל. וּמוֹדִים חֲכָמִים לְרַבִּי עֲקִיבָא בְּזוֹרֵעַ שֶׁבֶת אוֹ חַרְדָּל בִּשְׁלשָׁה מְקוֹמוֹת, שֶׁהוּא נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה מִכָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד: \n", 3.3. "הַמַּחֲלִיק בְּצָלִים לַחִים לַשּׁוּק וּמְקַיֵּם יְבֵשִׁים לַגֹּרֶן, נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה לָאֵלּוּ לְעַצְמָן וְלָאֵלּוּ לְעַצְמָן. וְכֵן בַּאֲפוּנִין, וְכֵן בַּכֶּרֶם. הַמֵּדֵל, נוֹתֵן מִן הַמְשֹׁאָר עַל מַה שֶּׁשִּׁיֵּר. וְהַמַּחֲלִיק מֵאַחַת יַד, נוֹתֵן מִן הַמְשֹׁאָר עַל הַכֹּל: \n", 3.4. "הָאִמָּהוֹת שֶׁל בְּצָלִים חַיָּבוֹת בְּפֵאָה, וְרַבִּי יוֹסֵי פּוֹטֵר. מַלְבְּנוֹת הַבְּצָלִים שֶׁבֵּין הַיָּרָק, רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, פֵּאָה מִכָּל אַחַת וְאֶחָת. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, מֵאַחַת עַל הַכֹּל: \n", 3.5. "הָאַחִין שֶׁחָלְקוּ, נוֹתְנִין שְׁתֵּי פֵאוֹת. חָזְרוּ וְנִשְׁתַּתְּפוּ, נוֹתְנִין פֵּאָה אַחַת. שְׁנַיִם שֶׁלָּקְחוּ אֶת הָאִילָן, נוֹתְנִין פֵּאָה אַחַת. לָקַח זֶה צְפוֹנוֹ וְזֶה דְרוֹמוֹ, זֶה נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה לְעַצְמוֹ, וְזֶה נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה לְעַצְמוֹ. הַמּוֹכֵר קִלְחֵי אִילָן בְּתוֹךְ שָׂדֵהוּ, נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה מִכָּל אֶחָד וְאֶחָד. אָמַר רַבִּי יְהוּדָה, אֵימָתַי, בִּזְמַן שֶׁלֹּא שִׁיֵּר בַּעַל הַשָּׂדֶה. אֲבָל אִם שִׁיֵּר בַּעַל הַשָּׂדֶה, הוּא נוֹתֵן פֵּאָה לַכֹּל: \n", 3.6. "רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמֵר, קַרְקַע בֵּית רֹבַע, חַיֶּבֶת בַּפֵּאָה. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, הָעוֹשָׂה סָאתַיִם. רַבִּי טַרְפוֹן אוֹמֵר, שִׁשָּׁה עַל שִׁשָּׁה טְפָחִים. רַבִּי יְהוּדָה בֶן בְּתֵירָה אוֹמֵר, כְּדֵי לִקְצֹר וְלִשְׁנוֹת. וַהֲלָכָה כִּדְבָרָיו. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, קַרְקַע כָּל שֶׁהוּא, חַיֶּבֶת בַּפֵּאָה, וּבַבִּכּוּרִים, וְלִכְתֹּב עָלָיו פְּרוֹזְבּוּל, וְלִקְנוֹת עִמּוֹ נְכָסִים שֶׁאֵין לָהֶם אַחֲרָיוּת בְּכֶסֶף וּבִשְׁטָר וּבַחֲזָקָה: \n", 3.7. "הַכּוֹתֵב נְכָסָיו שְׁכִיב מְרַע, שִׁיֵּר קַרְקַע כָּל שֶׁהוּא, מַתְּנָתוֹ מַתָּנָה. לֹא שִׁיֵּר קַרְקַע כָּל שֶׁהוּא, אֵין מַתְּנָתוֹ מַתָּנָה. הַכּוֹתֵב נְכָסָיו לְבָנָיו, וְכָתַב לְאִשְׁתּוֹ קַרְקַע כָּל שֶׁהוּא, אִבְּדָה כְתֻבָּתָהּ. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אִם קִבְּלָה עָלֶיהָ, אַף עַל פִּי שֶׁלֹּא כָתַב לָהּ, אִבְּדָה כְתֻבָּתָהּ: \n", 3.8. "הַכּוֹתֵב נְכָסָיו לְעַבְדּוֹ, יָצָא בֶן חוֹרִין. שִׁיֵּר קַרְקַע כָּל שֶׁהוּא, לֹא יָצָא בֶן חוֹרִין. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, לְעוֹלָם הוּא בֶן חוֹרִין, עַד שֶׁיֹּאמַר הֲרֵי כָל נְכָסַי נְתוּנִין לְאִישׁ פְּלוֹנִי עַבְדִּי חוּץ מֵאֶחָד מֵרִבּוֹא שֶׁבָּהֶן: \n", 4.1. "הַפֵּאָה נִתֶּנֶת בִּמְחֻבָּר לַקַּרְקָע. בְּדָלִית וּבְדֶקֶל, בַּעַל הַבַּיִת מוֹרִיד וּמְחַלֵּק לָעֲנִיִּים. רַבִּי שִׁמְעוֹן אוֹמֵר, אַף בַּחֲלִיקֵי אֱגוֹזִים. אֲפִלּוּ תִשְׁעִים וְתִשְׁעָה אוֹמְרִים לְחַלֵּק וְאֶחָד אוֹמֵר לָבוֹז, לָזֶה שׁוֹמְעִין, שֶׁאָמַר כַּהֲלָכָה: \n", 4.2. "בְּדָלִית וּבְדֶקֶל אֵינוֹ כֵן, אֲפִלּוּ תִשְׁעִים וְתִשְׁעָה אוֹמְרִים לָבוֹז וְאֶחָד אוֹמֵר לְחַלֵּק, לָזֶה שׁוֹמְעִין, שֶׁאָמַר כַּהֲלָכָה: \n", 4.3. "נָטַל מִקְצָת פֵּאָה וּזְרָקָהּ עַל הַשְּׁאָר, אֵין לוֹ בָהּ כְּלוּם. נָפַל לוֹ עָלֶיהָ, וּפֵרֵשׂ טַלִּיתוֹ עָלֶיהָ, מַעֲבִירִין אוֹתָהּ הֵימֶנּוּ. וְכֵן בְּלֶקֶט, וְכֵן בְּעֹמֶר הַשִּׁכְחָה: \n", 4.4. "פֵּאָה אֵין קוֹצְרִין אוֹתָהּ בְּמַגָּלוֹת, וְאֵין עוֹקְרִין אוֹתָהּ בְּקַרְדֻּמּוֹת, כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יַכּוּ אִישׁ אֶת רֵעֵהוּ: \n", 4.5. "שָׁלשׁ אַבְעָיוֹת בַּיּוֹם, בַּשַּׁחַר וּבַחֲצוֹת וּבַמִּנְחָה. רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, לֹא אָמְרוּ אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יִפְחֲתוּ. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, לֹא אָמְרוּ אֶלָּא כְּדֵי שֶׁלֹּא יוֹסִיפוּ. שֶׁל בֵּית נָמֵר הָיוּ מְלַקְּטִין עַל הַחֶבֶל, וְנוֹתְנִים פֵּאָה מִכָּל אֻמָּן וְאֻמָּן: \n", 4.10. "אֵיזֶהוּ לֶקֶט, הַנּוֹשֵׁר בִּשְׁעַת הַקְּצִירָה. הָיָה קוֹצֵר, קָצַר מְלֹא יָדוֹ, תָּלַשׁ מְלֹא קֻמְצוֹ, הִכָּהוּ קוֹץ וְנָפַל מִיָּדוֹ לָאָרֶץ, הֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבָּיִת. תּוֹךְ הַיָּד וְתוֹךְ הַמַּגָּל, לָעֲנִיִּים. אַחַר הַיָּד וְאַחַר הַמַּגָּל, לְבַעַל הַבָּיִת. רֹאשׁ הַיָּד וְרֹאשׁ הַמַּגָּל, רַבִּי יִשְׁמָעֵאל אוֹמֵר, לָעֲנִיִּים. רַבִּי עֲקִיבָא אוֹמֵר, לְבַעַל הַבָּיִת: \n", 4.11. "חוֹרֵי הַנְּמָלִים שֶׁבְּתוֹךְ הַקָּמָה, הֲרֵי הֵן שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבָּיִת. שֶׁלְּאַחַר הַקּוֹצְרִים, הָעֶלְיוֹנִים לָעֲנִיִּים, וְהַתַּחְתּוֹנִים שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבָּיִת. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, הַכֹּל לָעֲנִיִּים, שֶׁסְּפֵק לֶקֶט, לֶקֶט: \n", 5.1. "גָּדִישׁ שֶׁלֹּא לֻקַּט תַּחְתָּיו, כָּל הַנּוֹגֵעַ בָּאָרֶץ הֲרֵי הוּא שֶׁל עֲנִיִּים. הָרוּחַ שֶׁפִּזְּרָה אֶת הָעֳמָרִים, אוֹמְדִים אוֹתָהּ כַּמָּה לֶקֶט הִיא רְאוּיָה לַעֲשׂוֹת, וְנוֹתֵן לָעֲנִיִּים. רַבָּן שִׁמְעוֹן בֶּן גַּמְלִיאֵל אוֹמֵר, נוֹתֵן לָעֲנִיִּים בִּכְדֵי נְפִילָה: \n", 5.2. "שִׁבֹּלֶת שֶׁבַּקָּצִיר וְרֹאשָׁהּ מַגִּיעַ לַקָּמָה, אִם נִקְצְרָה עִם הַקָּמָה, הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, וְאִם לָאו, הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁל עֲנִיִּים. שִׁבֹּלֶת שֶׁל לֶקֶט שֶׁנִּתְעָרְבָה בַגָּדִישׁ, מְעַשֵּׂר שִׁבֹּלֶת אַחַת וְנוֹתֵן לוֹ. אָמַר רַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר, וְכִי הֵיאַךְ הֶעָנִי הַזֶּה מַחֲלִיף דָּבָר שֶׁלֹּא בָא בִרְשׁוּתוֹ. אֶלָּא מְזַכֶּה אֶת הֶעָנִי בְּכָל הַגָּדִישׁ, וּמְעַשֵּׂר שִׁבֹּלֶת אַחַת וְנוֹתֵן לוֹ: \n", 5.3. "אֵין מְגַלְגְּלִין בְּטוֹפֵחַ, דִּבְרֵי רַבִּי מֵאִיר. וַחֲכָמִים מַתִּירִין, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁאֶפְשָׁר: \n", 5.6. "הַמּוֹכֵר אֶת שָׂדֵהוּ, הַמּוֹכֵר מֻתָּר וְהַלּוֹקֵחַ אָסוּר. לֹא יִשְׂכֹּר אָדָם אֶת הַפּוֹעֲלִים עַל מְנָת שֶׁיְּלַקֵּט בְּנוֹ אַחֲרָיו. מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ מַנִּיחַ אֶת הָעֲנִיִּים לִלְקֹט, אוֹ שֶׁהוּא מַנִּיחַ אֶת אֶחָד וְאֶחָד לֹא, אוֹ שֶׁהוּא מְסַיֵּעַ אֶת אֶחָד מֵהֶן, הֲרֵי זֶה גּוֹזֵל אֶת הָעֲנִיִּים. עַל זֶה נֶאֱמַר (משלי כב) אַל תַּסֵּג גְּבוּל עוֹלִים: \n", 5.7. "הָעֹמֶר שֶׁשְּׁכָחוּהוּ פוֹעֲלִים וְלֹא שְׁכָחוֹ בַעַל הַבַּיִת, שְׁכָחוֹ בַעַל הַבַּיִת וְלֹא שְׁכָחוּהוּ פוֹעֲלִים, עָמְדוּ עֲנִיִּים בְּפָנָיו אוֹ שֶׁחִפּוּהוּ בְקַשׁ, הֲרֵי זֶה אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה: \n", 5.8. "הַמְעַמֵּר לְכֹבָעוֹת וּלְכֻמְסָאוֹת, לַחֲרָרָה וְלָעֳמָרִים, אֵין לוֹ שִׁכְחָה. מִמֶּנּוּ וְלַגֹּרֶן, יֶשׁ לוֹ שִׁכְחָה. הַמְעַמֵּר לַגָּדִישׁ, יֶשׁ לוֹ שִׁכְחָה. מִמֶּנּוּ וְלַגֹּרֶן, אֵין לוֹ שִׁכְחָה. זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל הַמְעַמֵּר לְמָקוֹם שֶׁהוּא גְמָר מְלָאכָה, יֶשׁ לוֹ שִׁכְחָה. מִמֶּנּוּ וְלַגֹּרֶן, אֵין לוֹ שִׁכְחָה. לְמָקוֹם שֶׁאֵינוֹ גְמַר מְלָאכָה, אֵין לוֹ שִׁכְחָה. מִמֶּנּוּ וְלַגֹּרֶן, יֶשׁ לוֹ שִׁכְחָה: \n", 6.1. "בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, הֶבְקֵר לָעֲנִיִּים, הֶבְקֵר. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ הֶפְקֵר, עַד שֶׁיֻּפְקַר אַף לָעֲשִׁירִים, כַּשְּׁמִטָּה. כָּל עָמְרֵי הַשָּׂדֶה שֶׁל קַב קַב וְאֶחָד שֶׁל אַרְבַּעַת קַבִּין וּשְׁכָחוֹ, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, שִׁכְחָה: \n", 6.2. "הָעֹמֶר שֶׁהוּא סָמוּךְ לַגָּפָה וְלַגָּדִישׁ, לַבָּקָר וְלַכֵּלִים, וּשְׁכָחוֹ, בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה. וּבֵית הִלֵּל אוֹמְרִים, שִׁכְחָה: \n", 6.3. "רָאשֵׁי שׁוּרוֹת, הָעֹמֶר שֶׁכְּנֶגְדּוֹ מוֹכִיחַ. הָעֹמֶר שֶׁהֶחֱזִיק בּוֹ לְהוֹלִיכוֹ אֶל הָעִיר, וּשְׁכָחוֹ, מוֹדִים שֶׁאֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה: \n", 6.4. "וְאֵלּוּ הֵן רָאשֵׁי שׁוּרוֹת. שְׁנַיִם שֶׁהִתְחִילוּ מֵאֶמְצַע הַשּׁוּרָה, זֶה פָּנָיו לַצָּפוֹן וְזֶה פָּנָיו לַדָּרוֹם, וְשָׁכְחוּ לִפְנֵיהֶם וּלְאַחֲרֵיהֶם, אֶת שֶׁלִּפְנֵיהֶם שִׁכְחָה, וְאֶת שֶׁלְּאַחֲרֵיהֶם אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה. יָחִיד שֶׁהִתְחִיל מֵרֹאשׁ הַשּׁוּרָה, וְשָׁכַח לְפָנָיו וּלְאַחֲרָיו, שֶׁלְּפָנָיו אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה, וְשֶׁלְּאַחֲרָיו שִׁכְחָה, מִפְּנֵי שֶׁהוּא בְּבַל תָּשׁוּב (דברים כד). זֶה הַכְּלָל, כָּל שֶׁהוּא בְּבַל תָּשׁוּב, שִׁכְחָה. וְשֶׁאֵינוֹ בְּבַל תָּשׁוּב, אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה: \n", 6.5. "שְׁנֵי עֳמָרִים, שִׁכְחָה, וּשְׁלשָׁה אֵינָן שִׁכְחָה. שְׁנֵי צִבּוּרֵי זֵיתִים וְחָרוּבִין, שִׁכְחָה, וּשְׁלשָׁה אֵינָן שִׁכְחָה. שְׁנֵי הוּצְנֵי פִשְׁתָּן, שִׁכְחָה, וּשְׁלשָׁה אֵינָן שִׁכְחָה. שְׁנֵי גַרְגְּרִים, פֶּרֶט, וּשְׁלשָׁה אֵינָן פֶּרֶט. שְׁנֵי שִׁבֳּלִים, לֶקֶט, וּשְׁלֹשָׁה אֵינָן לֶקֶט. אֵלּוּ כְּדִבְרֵי בֵית הִלֵּל. וְעַל כֻּלָּן בֵּית שַׁמַּאי אוֹמְרִים, שְׁלשָׁה, לָעֲנִיִּים, וְאַרְבָּעָה, לְבַעַל הַבָּיִת: \n", 6.7. "קָמָה שֶׁיֶּשׁ בָּהּ סָאתַיִם, וּשְׁכָחָהּ, אֵינָהּ שִׁכְחָה. אֵין בָּהּ סָאתַיִם, אֲבָל הִיא רְאוּיָה לַעֲשׂוֹת סָאתַיִם, אֲפִלּוּ הִיא שֶׁל טוֹפֵחַ, רוֹאִין אוֹתָהּ כְּאִלּוּ הִיא עֲנָוָה שֶׁל שְׂעוֹרִים: \n", 6.8. "הַקָּמָה מַצֶּלֶת אֶת הָעֹמֶר וְאֶת הַקָּמָה. הָעֹמֶר אֵינוֹ מַצִּיל לֹא אֶת הָעֹמֶר וְלֹא אֶת הַקָּמָה. אֵיזוֹ הִיא קָמָה שֶׁהִיא מַצֶּלֶת אֶת הָעֹמֶר, כָּל שֶׁאֵינָהּ שִׁכְחָה אֲפִלּוּ קֶלַח אֶחָד: \n", 6.9. "סְאָה תְבוּאָה עֲקוּרָה וּסְאָה שֶׁאֵינָהּ עֲקוּרָה, וְכֵן בָּאִילָן, וְהַשּׁוּם וְהַבְּצָלִים, אֵינָן מִצְטָרְפִין לְסָאתַיִם, אֶלָּא שֶׁל עֲנִיִּים הֵם. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אִם בָּאת רְשׁוּת הֶעָנִי בָּאֶמְצָע, אֵינָן מִצְטָרְפִין, וְאִם לָאו, הֲרֵי אֵלּוּ מִצְטָרְפִין: \n", 6.10. "תְּבוּאָה שֶׁנִּתְּנָה לְשַׁחַת אוֹ לַאֲלֻמָּה, וְכֵן בַּאֲגֻדֵּי הַשּׁוּם, וַאֲגֻדּוֹת הַשּׁוּם וְהַבְּצָלִים, אֵין לָהֶן שִׁכְחָה. וְכָל הַטְּמוּנִים בָּאָרֶץ, כְּגוֹן הַלּוּף וְהַשּׁוּם וְהַבְּצָלִים, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֵין לָהֶם שִׁכְחָה. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, יֵשׁ לָהֶם שִׁכְחָה: \n", 6.11. "הַקּוֹצֵר בַּלַּיְלָה וְהַמְעַמֵּר וְהַסּוּמָא, יֵשׁ לָהֶם שִׁכְחָה. וְאִם הָיָה מִתְכַּוֵּן לִטֹּל אֶת הַגַּס הַגַּס, אֵין לוֹ שִׁכְחָה. אִם אָמַר, הֲרֵי אֲנִי קוֹצֵר עַל מְנָת מַה שֶּׁאֲנִי שׁוֹכֵח אֲנִי אֶטֹּל, יֶשׁ לוֹ שִׁכְחָה: \n", 7.1. "כָּל זַיִת שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ שֵׁם בַּשָּׂדֶה, אֲפִלּוּ כְּזֵית הַנְּטוֹפָה בִּשְׁעָתוֹ, וּשְׁכָחוֹ, אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה. בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בִּשְׁמוֹ וּבְמַעֲשָׂיו וּבִמְקוֹמוֹ. בִּשְׁמוֹ, שֶׁהָיָה שִׁפְכוֹנִי אוֹ בֵישָׁנִי. בְּמַעֲשָׂיו, שֶׁהוּא עוֹשֶׂה הַרְבֵּה. בִּמְקוֹמוֹ, שֶׁהוּא עוֹמֵד בְּצַד הַגַּת אוֹ בְצַד הַפִּרְצָה. וּשְׁאָר כָּל הַזֵּיתִים, שְׁנַיִם שִׁכְחָה, וּשְׁלשָׁה אֵינָן שִׁכְחָה. רַבִּי יוֹסֵי אוֹמֵר, אֵין שִׁכְחָה לַזֵּיתִים: \n", 7.2. "זַיִת שֶׁנִּמְצָא עוֹמֵד בֵּין שָׁלשׁ שׁוּרוֹת שֶׁל שְׁנֵי מַלְבְּנִים וּשְׁכָחוֹ, אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה. זַיִת שֶׁיֶּשׁ בּוֹ סָאתַיִם, וּשְׁכָחוֹ, אֵינוֹ שִׁכְחָה. בַּמֶּה דְבָרִים אֲמוּרִים, בִּזְמַן שֶׁלֹּא הִתְחִיל בּוֹ. אֲבָל אִם הִתְחִיל בּוֹ, אֲפִלּוּ כְּזֵית הַנְּטוֹפָה בִּשְׁעָתוֹ, וּשְׁכָחוֹ, יֶשׁ לוֹ שִׁכְחָה. כָּל זְמַן שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ תַחְתָּיו, יֶשׁ לוֹ בְרֹאשׁוֹ. רַבִּי מֵאִיר אוֹמֵר, מִשֶּׁתֵּלֵךְ הַמַּחֲבֵא: \n", 7.4. "אֵיזוֹהִי עוֹלֶלֶת. כָּל שֶׁאֵין לָהּ לֹא כָתֵף וְלֹא נָטֵף. אִם יֶשׁ לָהּ כָּתֵף אוֹ נָטֵף, שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, אִם סָפֵק, לָעֲנִיִּים. עוֹלֶלֶת שֶׁבָּאַרְכֻּבָּה, אִם נִקְרֶצֶת עִם הָאֶשְׁכּוֹל, הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁל בַּעַל הַבַּיִת, וְאִם לָאו, הֲרֵי הִיא שֶׁל עֲנִיִּים. גַּרְגֵּר יְחִידִי, רַבִּי יְהוּדָה אוֹמֵר, אֶשְׁכּוֹל. וַחֲכָמִים אוֹמְרִים, עוֹלֶלֶת: \n", 8.8. "מִי שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ מָאתַיִם זוּז, לֹא יִטֹּל לֶקֶט שִׁכְחָה וּפֵאָה וּמַעְשַׂר עָנִי. הָיוּ לוֹ מָאתַיִם חָסֵר דִּינָר, אֲפִלּוּ אֶלֶף נוֹתְנִין לוֹ כְאַחַת, הֲרֵי זֶה יִטֹּל. הָיוּ מְמֻשְׁכָּנִים לְבַעַל חוֹבוֹ אוֹ לִכְתֻבַּת אִשְׁתּוֹ, הֲרֵי זֶה יִטֹּל. אֵין מְחַיְּבִין אוֹתוֹ לִמְכֹּר אֶת בֵּיתוֹ וְאֶת כְּלֵי תַשְׁמִישׁוֹ:", 8.9. "מִי שֶׁיֶּשׁ לוֹ חֲמִשִּׁים זוּז וְהוּא נוֹשֵׂא וְנוֹתֵן בָּהֶם, הֲרֵי זֶה לֹא יִטֹּל. וְכָל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ צָרִיךְ לִטֹּל וְנוֹטֵל, אֵינוֹ נִפְטָר מִן הָעוֹלָם עַד שֶׁיִּצְטָרֵךְ לַבְּרִיּוֹת. וְכָל מִי שֶׁצָּרִיךְ לִטֹּל וְאֵינוֹ נוֹטֵל, אֵינוֹ מֵת מִן הַזִּקְנָה עַד שֶׁיְּפַרְנֵס אֲחֵרִים מִשֶּׁלּוֹ, וְעָלָיו הַכָּתוּב אוֹמֵר בָּרוּךְ הַגֶּבֶר אֲשֶׁר יִבְטַח בַּה' וְהָיָה ה' מִבְטַחוֹ (ירמיה יז). וְכֵן דַּיָּן שֶׁדָּן דִּין אֱמֶת לַאֲמִתּוֹ. וְכָל מִי שֶׁאֵינוֹ לֹא חִגֵּר, וְלֹא סוּמָא, וְלֹא פִסֵּחַ, וְעוֹשֶׂה עַצְמוֹ כְּאַחַד מֵהֶם, אֵינוֹ מֵת מִן הַזִּקְנָה עַד שֶׁיִּהְיֶה כְּאֶחָד מֵהֶם, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (דברים טז) צֶדֶק צֶדֶק תִּרְדֹּף. וְכָל דַּיָּן שֶׁלּוֹקֵחַ שֹׁחַד וּמַטֶּה אֶת הַדִּין, אֵינוֹ מֵת מִן הַזִּקְנָה עַד שֶׁעֵינָיו כֵּהוֹת, שֶׁנֶּאֱמַר (שמות כג) וְשֹׁחַד לֹא תִקָּח כִּי הַשֹּׁחַד יְעַוֵּר פִּקְחִים וְגוֹ': br סְלִיק מַסֶּכֶת פֵּאָה", 1.1. "These are the things that have no definite quantity: The corners [of the field]. First-fruits; [The offerings brought] on appearing [at the Temple on the three pilgrimage festivals]. The performance of righteous deeds; And the study of the torah. The following are the things for which a man enjoys the fruits in this world while the principal remains for him in the world to come: Honoring one’s father and mother; The performance of righteous deeds; And the making of peace between a person and his friend; And the study of the torah is equal to them all.", 1.2. "They should not leave peah of less than one-sixtieth [of the field]. But even though they said, “there is no measure for peah,” everything depends upon the size of the field, the number of poor people, and the extent of the yield.", 1.3. "They may give peah at either at the beginning of the [reaping of the] field or at the middle of it. Rabbi Shimon says: as long as he gives at the end according to the set amount. Rabbi Judah says: if he leave, one stalk, he can rely on this as [fulfilling the law of] peah; and if he did not, then he only gives as ownerless property.", 1.4. "They said a general principle concerning peah: whatever is food, and is looked after, and grows from the land, and is harvested all at the same time, and is brought in for storage, is subject to the law of pe'ah. Grain and beans are in this category.", 1.5. "Among trees: the sumac, the carob, the nut, the almond, the grapevine, the pomegranate, the olive and the palm are subject to peah.", 1.6. "He may always give peah and be exempt from giving tithes until he makes a stack. One who gives [to the poor] as ownerless [produce] and be exempt from giving tithes until he makes a stack. He may feed cattle, wild animals and birds and be exempt from giving tithes until he makes a stack. He may take from the threshing floor and use it as seed and be exempt from giving tithes until he makes a stack, the words of Rabbi Akiva. A priest or Levite who purchase [grain of] a threshing floor, the tithes are theirs unless [the owner] has already made a stack. One who dedicated [his crop] and redeems it [afterwards] is obligated to give tithes until the Temple treasurer has made a stack.", 2.1. "The following divide a field for peah: a stream, a pool, a private road, a public road, a public path, a private path in constant use in summer and the rainy season, fallow land, a plowed field and a different seed. One who harvested for animal fodder, [the plot] serves divides, the words of Rabbi Meir. But the sages say: it does not stop for peah unless it is plowed.", 2.2. "A water channel that makes harvesting [on one side] impossible [while standing on the other side], Rabbi Judah says: it divides. But all of the hills that can be tilled with a hoe, even though cattle cannot pass over it in with their equipment, [is regarded as part of the field] he gives one peah from it all.", 2.3. "All of these divide in the case of a field [planted] with seeds, but in the case of trees nothing divides except a fence. Should the branches intertwine [on top of the fence], then it does not divide and he gives one peah for the whole field." 2.4. "As for carob trees, [they are not divided] as long as they see one another. Rabban Gamaliel said: we had this custom in the house of my father. We would give separate peah from the olive trees in each direction and [one peah] for all the carob trees that saw one another. Rabbi Elazar bar Zadok said in his name: also for the carob trees they had in the whole city [they only gave one peah].", 2.5. "He who plants his field with one kind of seed, even though he makes up of it two threshing-floors, he gives only one peah [for the lot]. If he plants it of two kinds, even though he makes up of it one threshing-floor, he must give two peahs. One who plants his field with two species of wheat: If he makes up of it one threshing-floor, he gives only one peah; But if two threshing-floors, he gives two peahs.", 2.6. "It happened that Rabbi Shimon of Mitzpah planted his field [with two different kinds] and came before Rabban Gamaliel. They both went up to the Chamber of Hewn Stone and asked [about the law]. Nahum the scribe said: I have a tradition from Rabbi Meyasha, who received it from Abba, who received it from the pairs [of sage], who received it from the prophets, a halakhah of Moses from Sinai, that one who plants his field with two species of wheat, if he makes up of it one threshing-floor, he gives only one peah, but if two threshing-floors, he gives two peahs.", 2.7. "A field harvested by gentiles, or harvested by robbers, or which ants have bitten [the stalks at the roots], or which wind and cattle have broken down, is exempt from peah. If [the owner] harvested half of it and robbers harvested half, it is exempt from peah, for the obligation of peah is in the standing grain.", 2.8. "If robbers harvested half and the owner the other half, he gives peah from what he has harvested. If he harvested half and sold the other half, then the purchaser must give peah for the whole. If he harvested half and dedicated the other half, then he who redeems it from the Temple treasurer must give peah for the whole.", 3.1. "Plots of grain between olive trees: Bet Shammai say: peah from each and every plot. But Bet Hillel says: one peah for them all. And they agree that if the ends of the rows enter one into the other, he gives one peah for them all.", 3.2. "One who gives his field a striped appearance and leaves behind moist stalks: Rabbi Akiva says: he gives peah from each and every stripe. But the sages say: from one stripe for the whole field. The sages agree with Rabbi Akiba that one who sows dill or mustard in three places must give peah from each place.", 3.3. "One who clears [his field] of fresh onions for the market and leaves the dry ones [in the ground] for the [time of the] threshing floor, must give peah from these on their own and these on their own. The same applies to beans and to a vineyard. If he, however, he only thins it out, then he gives [peah] from the remainder according to the quantity of that which he left. But if he clears [three from one place] at one time, he gives from the remainder according to the entire quantity.", 3.4. "Onions grown for their seed are liable for peah. But Rabbi Yose exempts them. Plots of onions [growing] between vegetables: Rabbi Yose says: peah must be given from each [plot]. But the sages say: from one [plot] for all.", 3.5. "[Two] brothers who divided [an inheritance] must give [two] peahs. If they afterwards again become partners they give one peah. Two who purchase a tree, they give one peah. If one buys the northern section [of the tree] and the other the southern section, each must give peah separately. One who sells young saplings in his field, [the one who purchases] must give peah from each sapling. Rabbi Judah said: When is this so? When the owner of the field left nothing [for himself]. But if he did leave something [for himself], he gives one peah for the whole.", 3.6. "Rabbi Eliezer says: a piece of ground [large enough to plant] one fourth of a kav is liable for peah. Rabbi Joshua says: it must [be large enough] to grow two seahs. Rabbi Tarfon says: it must be six by six handbreadths. R. Judah ben Batera says: [it must be large enough] for a sickle to cut at least two handfuls and the halakhah is according to his words. Rabbi Akiva says: any size of land is liable for peah and for first-fruits, and [is sufficient] for the writing of the prozbul, and also to acquire through it movable property by money, by deed, or by a claim based on undisturbed possession.", 3.7. "One who is about to die who assigns his property in writing [to another]: If he retains any land [for himself] however small, he renders his gift valid. But if he retains no land whatsoever, his gift is not valid. One who assigns in writing his property to his children, and he assigns to his wife in writing any plot of land, however small, she lost her ketubah. Rabbi Yose says: if she accepted [such an assignment] even though he did not assign it to her in writing she lost her ketubah.", 3.8. "One who assigns in writing his possessions to his slave, [the slave] thereby goes free. If he reserved for himself any land, however small, he does not become free. Rabbi Shimon says: he always becomes free, unless [the master] says: “Behold, all my goods are given to so-and-so my slave, with the exception of one ten-thousandth part of them.”", 4.1. "Peah is given from [the crop] while it is still connected with the soil. But in the case of hanging vine-branches and the date-palm, the owner brings down [the fruit] and distributes it among the poor. Rabbi Shimon says: the same applies to smooth nut trees. Even if ninety-nine [of the poor] say [to the owner] to distribute it and one says to leave it in the field, this latter is listened to, since he spoke in accordance with the halakhah.", 4.2. "With hanging vine-branches and date-palm trees it is not so; even if ninety-nine [of the poor] say [to the owner] to leave it in the field and one says to distribute it, this latter is listened to, since he spoke in accordance with the halakhah.", 4.3. "If [a poor man] took some of the peah [already collected] and threw it onto the remainder [not yet collected], he gets none of it. If he fell down upon it, or spread his cloak over it, they take the peah away from him. The same applies to gleanings and the forgotten sheaf.", 4.4. "[The poor] may not harvest peah with scythes or tear it out [of the ground] with spades, so that they might not strike one another [with these implements].", 4.5. "There are three times a day [the poor] make a search [in the field for peah]: morning, noon, and sunset. Rabban Gamaliel says: these [times] were only set lest they reduce them. Rabbi Akiva says: these were set lest they add to them. [The men] of Bet Namer used to have the poor harvest [the peah] with the aid of a rope, and they left peah at the end of each furrow.", 4.10. "What are gleanings? That which falls down at the time of harvesting. If while he was harvesting, he harvested a handful, or plucked a fistful, and then a thorn pricked him, and what he had in his hand fell to the ground, it still belongs to the owner. [That which drops from] inside the hand or the sickle [belongs] to the poor, but [that which falls from] the back of the hand or the sickle [belongs] to the owner. [That which falls from] the top of the hand or sickle: Rabbi Ishmael says: to the poor; But Rabbi Akiva says: to the owner.", 4.11. "[Grain found in] ant holes where the stalks are still standing, behold it still belongs to the owner. After the harvesters [had passed over them], those found in the top parts [of the ant holes belong] to the poor, but [those found] on the bottom parts [belong] to the owner. Rabbi Meir says: it all belongs to the poor, for gleanings about which there is any doubt are regarded as gleanings.", 5.1. "If a pile of grain was stacked [on part of a field] from which gleanings had not yet been collected, whatever touches the ground belongs to the poor. If the wind scattered the sheaves, they estimate the amount of gleanings the field would have yielded and they give that to the poor. Rabban Shimon ben Gamaliel says: he must give to the poor the amount that would fall.", 5.2. "The top of a single ear of grain [that remained] after the harvesting and its top touches the standing stalk: If it can be cut with the stalk, it belongs to the owner; But if not, it belongs to the poor. If an ear of grain of gleanings that became mixed up with a stack of grain, [the owner] must tithe one ear of grain and give it to him [the poor]. Rabbi Eliezer says: how can this poor man give in exchange something that had not yet become his? Rather, [the owner] must transfer to the poor man the ownership of the whole stack and then tithe one ear of grain and give it to him.", 5.3. "They should not [irrigate a field] with a water wheel, the words of Rabbi Meir. The sages permit it, because it is still possible [for the poor to get their gleanings].", 5.6. "One who sells, the seller is permitted [to take the agricultural gifts] and the purchaser is forbidden. One may not hire a worker on the condition that the son [of the worker] should gather the gleanings after him. One who does not allow the poor to gather, or one who allows one but not another, or one who helps one of them [to gather] behold he is a robber of the poor. Concerning him it is said: “Do not remove the landmark of those that come up (olim)” (Proverbs 22:28).", 5.7. "A sheaf which the workers forgot but not the land owner, or which the land owner forgot but not the workers; or [a sheaf] which the poor stood in front of [and blocked its view], or they covered it up with stubble, it is not considered a forgotten sheaf.", 5.8. "One who binds sheaves into stack covers, stack bases, round stacks or regular stacks, he is not subject to the law of the forgotten sheaf [while binding]. [When bringing them afterwards] to the threshing-floor, he is subject to the law of the forgotten sheaf. One who piles up the sheaves to make a stack, he is subject to the law of the forgotten sheaf. [When bringing them afterwards] to the threshing-floor, he is not subject to the law of the forgotten sheaf. This is the general rule: whoever makes the sheaves at the place which is the end of the work is subject to the law of the forgotten sheaf, [and afterwards when he takes] them to the threshing-floor, he is not subject to the law of the forgotten sheaf. However, [one who piles up the sheaves] at a place which is not the end of the work, is not subject to the law of the forgotten sheaf; [and afterwards when he takes] them to the threshing-floor, he is subject to the law of the forgotten sheaf.", 6.1. "Bet Shammai says: [That which is] made ownerless only in regard to the poor is indeed ownerless. But Bet Hillel says: it is not ownerless unless ownership is renounced even for the rich, as in the case of the sabbatical year. [If] all of the sheaves in a field are a kav each, and one is four kavs and that one is forgotten: Bet Shammai says: it is not considered forgotten. But Bet Hillel says: it is considered forgotten.", 6.2. "A sheaf left near a stone fence, or near a stack [of grain] or near oxen, or near equipment: Bet Shammai says: it is not considered “forgotten”; Bet Hillel says: it is considered “forgotten.”", 6.3. "[With regard to sheaves forgotten] at the end of the row, the sheaf lying across from it proves [that the first sheaf has not been forgotten.] [As for] a sheaf that [the owner] took to bring it to the city and forgot it, all agree that it is not considered a “forgotten sheaf.”", 6.4. "These are to be considered ends of the rows:If two men begin [to gather] from the middle of the row, one facing north and the other south and they forget [some sheaves] in front of them and behind them, those left in front of them are “forgotten,” but those left behind them are not “forgotten.” If an individual begins from the end of the row and he forgets [some sheaves] in front of him and behind him, those in front of him are not “forgotten”, whereas those behind him are “forgotten,” for this comes under the category of “you shall not go back [to retrieve it].” This is the general rule: anything that can be said to fall under the law “you shall not go back” is considered “forgotten,” but that to which the principle of “you shall not go back” cannot be applied is not considered “forgotten.”", 6.5. "Two sheaves [left lying together] are “forgotten,” but three are not “forgotten.” Two bundles of olives or carobs are “forgotten” but three are not “forgotten.” Two flax-stalks are “forgotten”, but three are not “forgotten”. Two grapes are considered “grape gleanings,” but three are not “grape gleanings.” Two ears of grain are deemed “gleanings,” but three are not gleanings.” All these [rulings] are according to Bet Hillel. And concerning them all Bet Shammai says that three [that are left] belong to the poor, and four belong to the owner.", 6.7. "A standing stalk of grain that contains two seahs and he forgot it, it is not considered “forgotten.” If it does not contain two seahs now, but is fit to yield two seahs, even if it was of an inferior kind of barley, it is regarded as full barley [grains].", 6.8. "A standing stalk of grain can save a sheaf and another standing stalk [from being regarded as “forgotten”]. A sheaf cannot save either another sheaf or a standing stalk. What is the standing stalk of grain that can save at sheaf? Anything which has not been forgotten, even though it is a single stalk.", 6.9. "A seah of plucked grain and a seah of unplucked grain, and also trees; and garlic and to onions do not combine to count as two seahs, but rather they must be left to the poor. Rabbi Yose says: if anything that belongs to the poor comes in between them, the two are not combined together; otherwise, they do combine.", 6.10. "Grain used for fodder or [stalks] used for binding sheaves, and also garlic-stalks used for tying other bunches, or tied bunches of garlic and onions they [all are not subject to the laws of] forgotten. Anything stored in the ground like arum, garlic and onions: Rabbi Judah says: they do not subject to the laws of “forgotten”; But the sages say: they are subject to the laws of “forgotten.”", 6.11. "One who harvests by night and binds sheaves [by night] or one who is blind [that which he leaves] is subject to the law of the “forgotten.” If he intends to remove large leaves first, then the law of “forgotten” does not apply. If he said: “Behold, I am reaping on the condition that I take afterwards that which I have forgotten,” the law of “forgotten” still applies.", 7.1. "An olive tree that has a name in the field, such as the olive tree of Netofah in its time, and he forgot it, it is not deemed “forgotten.” To what does this apply? [Only to a tree distinguished] by its name, produce, or position. “By its name:” if it were a shifkhoni or beshani. “By its produce:” if it yields large quantities. “By its position:” if it stands at the side of the winepress or near the gap in the fence. Other kinds of olive trees: two are deemed “forgotten”, but three are not deemed “forgotten.” Rabbi Yose says: there is no law of “forgotten” for olive trees.", 7.2. "An olive tree found standing between three rows [of olive trees] which have two plots separating them, and he forgot it, it is deemed, “forgotten.” An olive tree containing two seahs and he forgot it, it is not deemed forgotten. To what does this apply? Only when he [the owner] had not yet begun [to harvest the tree], but if he had begun, even if it were like the olive tree of Netofah in its time, and he forgot it, it is deemed forgotten. As long as the owner has some of the olives belonging to him at the foot of the tree, he has [possession] of those on top of the tree. Rabbi Meir says: [forgotten applies only] after [those with] the beating-rod have gone.", 7.4. "What constitutes a defective cluster (olelet) of grapes? Any [cluster] which has neither a shoulder [a wide upper part] nor a pendant [a cone-shaped lower part]. If it has a shoulder or a pendant, it belongs to the owner. If there is a doubt, it belongs to the poor. A defective cluster on the joint of a vine [where a normal cluster hangs from the vine], if it can be cut off with the cluster, it belongs to the owner; but if it can not, it belongs to the poor. A single grape: Rabbi Judah says: It is deemed a whole cluster, But the sages say: It is deemed a defective cluster.", 8.8. "One who possesses two hundred zuz, may not take gleanings” the forgotten sheaf, peah or the poor man’s tithe. If he possesses two hundred minus one denar, then even if a thousand [men] each give him at the same time, he may accept. If he had [two hundred zuz] mortgaged to a creditor or to his wife’s ketubah, he may take. They do not force him to sell his house or his tools.", 8.9. "One who has fifty zuz and he is using them for his business, he must not take. And anyone who does not need to take [charity] and yet takes, will not depart from this world before he actually needs [charity] from others. And anyone who needs to take and does not take, will not die of old age until he supports others with his own money. Concerning him the verse says: “Blessed is the man who trusts in the Lord and whose hope is the Lord” (Jeremiah 17:7). And so too a judge who judges in truth according to its truth. And anyone who is not lame or blind but pretends to be as one of these, he will not die of old age before he actually becomes one of these, as it is said, “He who searches for evil, it shall come upon him” (Proverbs 11:27) and it is also said: “Righteousness, righteousness shall you pursue.” And any judge who accepts a bribe or who perverts justice will not die in old age before his eyes have become dim, as it is said: “And you shall not accept a bribe, for a bribe blinds the eyes of those who have sight.” Congratulations! We have finished Peah! It is a tradition at this point to thank God for helping us finish learning the tractate and to commit ourselves to going back and relearning it, so that we may not forget it and so that its lessons will stay with us for all of our lives. You have now finished an entire tractate that is about a subject you probably knew almost nothing about before you began. The tractates of Seder Zeraim are much less learned than those of Moed, Nashim and Nezikin, the seders that we have learned up until now. Neverthless, I, and I hope you, found the tractate to be a fascinating attempt by the rabbis to work out the meaning of many biblical verses, as well as important issues such as fair ownership over property and how to take care of the poor. Along the way we have begun to learn a little about how agriculture worked in the Mishnaic period. This is a topic we will continue to address throughout the seder. Tomorrow we begin Tractate Demai.",
20. Palestinian Talmud, Peah, 1.1, 5.7, 6.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 181, 191, 192
21. Palestinian Talmud, Sanhedrin, 6.3 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 177
22. Palestinian Talmud, Sukkah, 4.2 (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 188
23. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 181
40a. נושאי קיסר שמרוני כל הלילה אמרו ליה שמא דבר ערוה בא לידך וניצלת הימנו דתנינא כל הבא דבר ערוה לידו וניצל הימנו עושין לו נס (תהלים קג, כ) גבורי כח עושי דברו לשמוע בקול דברו כגון רבי צדוק וחביריו,ר' צדוק תבעתיה ההיא מטרוניתא אמר לה חלש לי ליבאי ולא מצינא איכא מידי למיכל אמרה ליה איכא דבר טמא אמר לה מאי נפקא מינה דעביד הא אכול הא שגרת תנורא קא מנחא ליה סליק ויתיב בגויה אמרה ליה מאי האי אמר לה דעביד הא נפיל בהא אמרה ליה אי ידעי כולי האי לא צערתיך,רב כהנא הוה קמזבין דיקולי תבעתיה ההיא מטרוניתא אמר לה איזיל איקשיט נפשאי סליק וקנפיל מאיגרא לארעא אתא אליהו קבליה אמר ליה אטרחתן ארבע מאה פרסי א"ל מי גרם לי לאו עניותא יהב ליה שיפא דדינרי,רמי ליה רבא לרב נחמן תנן אלו דברים שאדם עושה אותן ואוכל פירותיהן בעולם הזה והקרן קיימת לו לעולם הבא אלו הן כיבוד אב ואם וגמילות חסדים והבאת שלום שבין אדם לחבירו ותלמוד תורה כנגד כולם,בכיבוד אב ואם כתיב (דברים ה, טו) למען יאריכון ימיך ולמען ייטב לך בגמילות חסדים כתיב (משלי כא, כא) רודף צדקה וחסד ימצא חיים צדקה וכבוד,ובהבאת שלום כתיב (תהלים לד, טו) בקש שלום ורדפהו וא"ר אבהו אתיא רדיפה רדיפה כתיב הכא בקש שלום ורדפהו וכתיב התם רודף צדקה וחסד בתלמוד תורה כתיב (דברים ל, כ) כי הוא חייך ואורך ימיך,בשילוח הקן נמי כתיב (דברים כב, ז) למען ייטב לך והארכת ימים ליתני נמי הא תנא ושייר תני תנא אלו דברים ואת אמרת תנא ושייר,אמר רבא רב אידי אסברא לי (ישעיהו ג, י) אמרו צדיק כי טוב כי פרי מעלליהם יאכלו וכי יש צדיק טוב ויש צדיק שאינו טוב אלא טוב לשמים ולבריות זהו צדיק טוב טוב לשמים ורע לבריות זהו צדיק שאינו טוב,כיוצא בדבר אתה אומר (ישעיהו ג, יא) אוי לרשע רע כי גמול ידיו יעשה לו וכי יש רשע רע ויש שאינו רע אלא רע לשמים ורע לבריות הוא רשע רע רע לשמים ואינו רע לבריות זהו רשע שאינו רע,הזכות יש לה קרן ויש לה פירות שנאמר אמרו צדיק כי טוב וגו' עבירה יש לה קרן ואין לה פירות שנאמר אוי לרשע רע וגו',ואלא מה אני מקיים (משלי א, לא) ויאכלו מפרי דרכם וממועצותיהם ישבעו עבירה שעושה פירות יש לה פירות ושאין עושה פירות אין לה פירות,מחשבה טובה מצרפה למעשה שנאמר (מלאכי ג, טז) אז נדברו יראי ה' איש אל רעהו ויקשב ה' וישמע ויכתב ספר זכרון לפניו ליראי ה' ולחושבי שמו מאי ולחושבי שמו אמר רב אסי אפילו חשב אדם לעשות מצוה ונאנס ולא עשאה מעלה עליו הכתוב כאילו עשאה,מחשבה רעה אין הקדוש ברוך הוא מצרפה למעשה שנאמר (תהלים סו, יח) און אם ראיתי בלבי לא ישמע ה' ואלא מה אני מקים (ירמיהו ו, יט) הנני מביא אל העם הזה רעה פרי מחשבותם מחשבה שעושה פרי הקב"ה מצרפה למעשה מחשבה שאין בה פרי אין הקב"ה מצרפה למעשה,ואלא הא דכתיב (יחזקאל יד, ה) למען תפוש את [בית] ישראל בלבם אמר רב אחא בר יעקב ההוא בעבודת כוכבים הוא דכתיב דאמר מר חמורה עבודת כוכבים שכל הכופר בה כמודה בכל התורה כולה,עולא אמר כדרב הונא דאמר רב הונא כיון שעבר אדם עבירה ושנה בה הותרה לו הותרה לו סלקא דעתך אלא נעשית לו כהיתר,אמר רבי אבהו משום רבי חנינא נוח לו לאדם שיעבור עבירה בסתר ואל יחלל שם שמים בפרהסיא שנאמר (יחזקאל כ, לט) ואתם בית ישראל כה אמר ה' איש גילוליו לכו עבדו [ואחר] אם אינכם שומעים אלי ואת שם קדשי לא תחללו,אמר רבי אלעאי הזקן אם רואה אדם שיצרו מתגבר עליו ילך למקום שאין מכירין אותו וילבש שחורים ויתכסה שחורים ויעשה כמו שלבו חפץ ואל יחלל שם שמים בפרהסיא,איני והתניא כל שלא חס על כבוד קונו ראוי לו שלא בא לעולם מה היא רבה אומר זה המסתכל בקשת רב יוסף אומר זה העובר עבירה בסתר,לא קשיא הא דמצי כייף ליצריה והא דלא מצי כייף ליצריה,תנן התם אין מקיפין בחילול השם אחד שוגג ואחד מזיד מאי אין מקיפין אמר מר זוטרא שאין עושים כחנווני מר בריה דרבנא אמר לומר שאם היתה שקולה מכרעת,ת"ר לעולם 40a. b soldiers [ i nosei keisar /i ] /b who b guarded me all night. They said to him: Perhaps a matter of forbidden intercourse presented itself to you and you were saved from it, /b which is why a miracle occurred for you. b As we learned: /b With regard to b anyone /b to b whom a matter of forbidden intercourse presented itself to him and he was saved from it, a miracle is performed for him. /b As it says: b “Mighty in strength who fulfill His word, hearkening to the voice of His word” /b (Psalms 103:20). This is referring to one b such as Rabbi Tzadok and his colleagues. /b ,To what is this referring? b Rabbi Tzadok was enticed by a certain noblewoman /b to engage in sexual intercourse with her. b He said to her: My heart is weak and I am incapable /b at present; is b there something to eat /b that can strengthen me? b She said to him: There is something non-kosher. He said to her: What difference is there? /b One b who performs such /b an act b eats such /b food as well. b She lit the oven /b and b placed /b the non-kosher food b in it /b to roast. b He climbed and sat in /b the oven. b She said to him: What /b is the meaning of b this? He said to her: /b One who b performs this /b act b falls into this, /b i.e., the fires of Gehenna. b She said to him: If I had known /b that the matter was b so /b serious for you, b I would not have /b caused b you /b such b anguish. /b ,The Gemara further relates: b Rav Kahana would sell /b baskets woven from b palm leaves /b to women. b He was enticed by a certain noblewoman /b to engage in intercourse with her. b He said to her: /b Let me b go and adorn myself /b beforehand. b He ascended /b to the roof b and fell from the roof toward the ground. Elijah /b the prophet b came /b and b caught him. /b Elijah the prophet b said to /b Rav Kahana: b You have troubled me /b to travel b four hundred parasangs [ i parsei /i ] /b to save you. Rav Kahana b said to him: What caused me /b to be in this situation of temptation? Was it b not poverty, /b as I am forced to engage in a trade that leads me to come into contact with women? Elijah b gave him a basket [ i shifa /i ] /b full b of dinars, /b to spare him from having to work as a salesman.,§ b Rava raises a contradiction to Rav Naḥman /b and asks: b We learned /b in a mishna ( i Pe’a /i 1:1): b These /b are the b matters that a person engages in and enjoys their profits in this world, and the principal /b reward b remains for him for the World-to-Come, /b and b they are: Honoring one’s father and mother, acts of loving kindness, and bringing peace between one person and another; and Torah study is equal to all of them. /b ,Rava cites the source for each of these assertions. b With regard to honoring one’s father and mother, it is written: “That your days may be long, and that it may go well with you” /b (Deuteronomy 5:16), which indicates that one is rewarded in this world. b With regard to acts of loving kindness it is written: “He who pursues righteousness and kindness shall find life, prosperity, and honor” /b (Proverbs 21:21), all of which apply in this world., b And with regard to bringing peace it is written: “Seek peace and pursue it” /b (Psalms 34:15). b And Rabbi Abbahu says: /b This b is derived /b through a verbal analogy between the term b pursuing /b written with regard to pursuing peace and the term b pursuing /b written in another verse. b It is written here: “Seek peace and pursue it,” and it is written there, /b with regard to acts of kindness: b “Pursues righteousness and kindness.” /b This teaches that one who pursues peace will also merit life, prosperity, and honor. b With regard to Torah study it is written: “For that is your life and the length of your days” /b (Deuteronomy 30:20).,Rava asked: b With regard to /b the b dispatch /b of the mother bird from b the nest it is also written: “That it may be well with you, and that you may prolong your days” /b (Deuteronomy 22:7), so b let him also teach this /b mitzva. Rav Naḥman answered: He b taught /b some cases b and omitted /b others, i.e., the i tanna /i did not list everything. Rava said to him: b The i tanna /i taught: These /b are the b matters, /b which indicates that only these mitzvot are included, b and /b yet b you say /b that b he taught /b some b and omitted /b others?,Rather, b Rava said: Rav Idi explained /b the matter b to me. /b The verse states: b “Say you of the righteous who is good, that they shall eat the fruit of their actions” /b (Isaiah 3:10). b And /b this verse is difficult, as b is there a righteous person who is good and is there a righteous person who is not good? Rather, /b this verse should be understood as follows: One who is b good /b both b toward Heaven and toward people is a good righteous person; /b one who is b good toward Heaven but bad toward people is a righteous person who is not good. /b ,Rava continues: b On a similar note, /b it is written: b “Woe to the evil wicked one, for the work of his hands shall be done to him” /b (Isaiah 3:11). b And is there a wicked man /b who is b evil and is there /b one b who is not evil? Rather, /b one who is b evil toward Heaven and evil toward people is an evil wicked person; /b and one who is b evil toward Heaven and not evil toward people is a wicked person who is not evil. /b With regard to the issue at hand, only one who performs mitzvot that benefit others receives the profits of his mitzvot in this world. This does not apply to dispatching the mother bird, which is an act that does not benefit other people.,§ With regard to the mishna in i Pe’a /i , the Gemara states: An act of b merit has a principal /b reward b and it has profits, /b i.e., one receives additional reward beyond that which is granted for the mitzva itself, parallel to a principal sum and profits, b as it is stated: “Say you of the righteous who is good, /b that they shall eat the fruit of their actions” (Isaiah 3:10). b A sin has a principal /b penalty b but it has no profits, /b i.e., no punishment beyond that, b as it is stated: “Woe to the evil wicked one, /b for the work of his hands shall be done to him” (Isaiah 3:11), but no more than the work of his hands., b But how do I realize /b the meaning of the following verse that deals with sinners: b “Therefore they shall eat of the fruit of their own way, and be filled with their own devices” /b (Proverbs 1:31)? This verse indicates that the penalty for sin goes beyond its principal, and the wicked receive additional punishments. The Gemara answers that this applies to b a sin that produces profits, /b i.e., a case where there are practical consequences to one’s sin. For example, if others learn to act in a similar manner, one’s actions b have profits /b with regard to punishment as well. Conversely, a sin b that does not produce profits does not have profits /b as a punishment either.,The Gemara further teaches: The Holy One, Blessed be He, b links a good thought to an action, as it is stated: “Then they that feared the Lord spoke one with the other, and the Lord listened, and heard, and a book of remembrance was written before Him, for them that fear the Lord, and that think upon His name” /b (Malachi 3:16). The Gemara explains: b What /b is the meaning of the phrase b “and that think upon His name”? Rav Asi said: Even /b if b a person intended to perform a mitzva but due to /b circumstances b beyond /b his b control he did not perform it, the verse ascribes him /b credit b as if he performed /b the mitzva, as he is among those that think upon His name.,But b the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not link an evil thought to an action, as it is stated: “If I had regarded iniquity in my heart, the Lord would not hear” /b (Psalms 66:18). b But how do I realize /b the meaning of the verse: b “Behold I will bring upon these people evil, even the fruit of their thoughts” /b (Jeremiah 6:19)? In the case of an evil b thought that produces fruit, /b i.e., that leads to an action, b the Holy One, Blessed be He, links it to /b the b action /b and one is punished for the thought as well. If it is b a thought that does not produce fruit, the Holy One, Blessed be He, does not link it to /b the b action. /b ,The Gemara asks: b But /b with regard to b that which is written: “So I may take the house of Israel in their own heart” /b (Ezekiel 14:5), which indicates that one can be punished for thoughts alone, to what is this verse referring? b Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: That is written with regard to idol worship, as the Master says: Idol worship is /b very b severe, as anyone who denies it is like one who admits /b the truth of b the entire Torah. /b Conversely, one who embraces idolatry is considered to have rejected the entire Torah. Due to the severity of idol worship, one is punished even for contemplating this transgression., b Ulla said: /b This should be explained b in accordance with /b a statement b of Rav Huna, as Rav Huna says: When a person transgresses and repeats /b his transgression, b it is permitted to him. /b The Gemara questions this statement: b Can it enter your mind that /b the transgression b is permitted to him /b because he has sinned twice? b Rather, it becomes as if /b it were b permitted to him, /b as he becomes accustomed to this behavior and no longer senses that it is a sin., b Rabbi Abbahu says in the name of Rabbi Ḥanina: It is preferable for a person to transgress in secret and not to desecrate the name of Heaven in public [ i befarhesya /i ], as it is stated: “As for you, house of Israel, so says the Lord /b God: b Go you, serve everyone his idols, even because you will not hearken to Me, but My sacred name you shall not profane” /b (Ezekiel 20:39)., b Rabbi Ilai the Elder says: If a person sees that his /b evil b inclination is overcoming him, he should go to a place where he is not known, and wear black /b clothes, b and he should cover himself in /b simple b black /b garments, b and he should do as his heart desires, but he should not desecrate the name of Heaven in public. /b ,The Gemara asks: b Is that so? But isn’t it taught /b in a i baraita /i : With regard to b anyone who does not care about his Creator’s honor, it is fitting for him not to have come into the world. What is this? /b Who is considered to be one who does not care about his Creator’s honor? b Rabba says: This is one who gazes at a rainbow, /b which is described as: “The likeness of the glory of the Lord” (Ezekiel 1:28). b Rav Yosef says: This is one who transgresses in secret, /b which shows that he fears other people but does not care about the honor of his Creator.,The Gemara answers: This is b not difficult, /b as b this /b source, which says that one who transgresses in secret does not care about his Creator’s honor, is referring b to one who can overcome his /b evil b inclination /b but nevertheless chooses to transgress in secret. b And that /b source, which states that it is preferable for him to transgress in secret, is referring b to one who cannot overcome his /b evil b inclination. /b , b We learned /b in a mishna b there /b (see i Avot /i 4:5): b Credit is not given with regard to the desecration of /b God’s b name, whether /b one sinned b unintentionally or intentionally. /b The Gemara asks: b What /b is the meaning of the phrase: b Credit is not given [ i makkifin /i ]? Mar Zutra says: /b This means b that /b God b does not act like a storekeeper /b and provide credit. Rather, one is punished without delay. b Mar, son of Rabbana, says: /b This means b to say that if /b one’s merit and sins b were equal, /b the sin of the desecration of God’s name b tilts /b the balance of the scales toward the side of his sins. In other words, if his sins include the transgression of desecrating God’s name, God does not wait for this individual to perform a mitzva to balance out the sin., b The Sages taught: Always /b
24. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, 506 (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •actions of israelite farmer Found in books: Brooks (1983), Support for the Poor in the Mishnaic Law of Agriculture: Tractate Peah, 181