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42 results for "abraham"
1. Hebrew Bible, Exodus, 15.22, 15.25-15.26, 16.4, 16.11, 16.15, 16.21-16.22, 16.29, 16.31-16.32, 17.8, 19.18, 20.19, 33.18, 33.20, 33.23 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 105, 106, 107, 108, 111, 112, 113
15.22. "וַיַּסַּע מֹשֶׁה אֶת־יִשְׂרָאֵל מִיַּם־סוּף וַיֵּצְאוּ אֶל־מִדְבַּר־שׁוּר וַיֵּלְכוּ שְׁלֹשֶׁת־יָמִים בַּמִּדְבָּר וְלֹא־מָצְאוּ מָיִם׃", 15.25. "וַיִּצְעַק אֶל־יְהוָה וַיּוֹרֵהוּ יְהוָה עֵץ וַיַּשְׁלֵךְ אֶל־הַמַּיִם וַיִּמְתְּקוּ הַמָּיִם שָׁם שָׂם לוֹ חֹק וּמִשְׁפָּט וְשָׁם נִסָּהוּ׃", 15.26. "וַיֹּאמֶר אִם־שָׁמוֹעַ תִּשְׁמַע לְקוֹל יְהוָה אֱלֹהֶיךָ וְהַיָּשָׁר בְּעֵינָיו תַּעֲשֶׂה וְהַאֲזַנְתָּ לְמִצְוֺתָיו וְשָׁמַרְתָּ כָּל־חֻקָּיו כָּל־הַמַּחֲלָה אֲשֶׁר־שַׂמְתִּי בְמִצְרַיִם לֹא־אָשִׂים עָלֶיךָ כִּי אֲנִי יְהוָה רֹפְאֶךָ׃", 16.4. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה הִנְנִי מַמְטִיר לָכֶם לֶחֶם מִן־הַשָּׁמָיִם וְיָצָא הָעָם וְלָקְטוּ דְּבַר־יוֹם בְּיוֹמוֹ לְמַעַן אֲנַסֶּנּוּ הֲיֵלֵךְ בְּתוֹרָתִי אִם־לֹא׃", 16.11. "וַיְדַבֵּר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה לֵּאמֹר׃", 16.15. "וַיִּרְאוּ בְנֵי־יִשְׂרָאֵל וַיֹּאמְרוּ אִישׁ אֶל־אָחִיו מָן הוּא כִּי לֹא יָדְעוּ מַה־הוּא וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה אֲלֵהֶם הוּא הַלֶּחֶם אֲשֶׁר נָתַן יְהוָה לָכֶם לְאָכְלָה׃", 16.21. "וַיִּלְקְטוּ אֹתוֹ בַּבֹּקֶר בַּבֹּקֶר אִישׁ כְּפִי אָכְלוֹ וְחַם הַשֶּׁמֶשׁ וְנָמָס׃", 16.22. "וַיְהִי בַּיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי לָקְטוּ לֶחֶם מִשְׁנֶה שְׁנֵי הָעֹמֶר לָאֶחָד וַיָּבֹאוּ כָּל־נְשִׂיאֵי הָעֵדָה וַיַּגִּידוּ לְמֹשֶׁה׃", 16.29. "רְאוּ כִּי־יְהוָה נָתַן לָכֶם הַשַּׁבָּת עַל־כֵּן הוּא נֹתֵן לָכֶם בַּיּוֹם הַשִּׁשִּׁי לֶחֶם יוֹמָיִם שְׁבוּ אִישׁ תַּחְתָּיו אַל־יֵצֵא אִישׁ מִמְּקֹמוֹ בַּיּוֹם הַשְּׁבִיעִי׃", 16.31. "וַיִּקְרְאוּ בֵית־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־שְׁמוֹ מָן וְהוּא כְּזֶרַע גַּד לָבָן וְטַעְמוֹ כְּצַפִּיחִת בִּדְבָשׁ׃", 16.32. "וַיֹּאמֶר מֹשֶׁה זֶה הַדָּבָר אֲשֶׁר צִוָּה יְהוָה מְלֹא הָעֹמֶר מִמֶּנּוּ לְמִשְׁמֶרֶת לְדֹרֹתֵיכֶם לְמַעַן יִרְאוּ אֶת־הַלֶּחֶם אֲשֶׁר הֶאֱכַלְתִּי אֶתְכֶם בַּמִּדְבָּר בְּהוֹצִיאִי אֶתְכֶם מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם׃", 17.8. "וַיָּבֹא עֲמָלֵק וַיִּלָּחֶם עִם־יִשְׂרָאֵל בִּרְפִידִם׃", 19.18. "וְהַר סִינַי עָשַׁן כֻּלּוֹ מִפְּנֵי אֲשֶׁר יָרַד עָלָיו יְהוָה בָּאֵשׁ וַיַּעַל עֲשָׁנוֹ כְּעֶשֶׁן הַכִּבְשָׁן וַיֶּחֱרַד כָּל־הָהָר מְאֹד׃", 20.19. "וַיֹּאמֶר יְהוָה אֶל־מֹשֶׁה כֹּה תֹאמַר אֶל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל אַתֶּם רְאִיתֶם כִּי מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם דִּבַּרְתִּי עִמָּכֶם׃", 33.18. "וַיֹּאמַר הַרְאֵנִי נָא אֶת־כְּבֹדֶךָ׃", 33.23. "וַהֲסִרֹתִי אֶת־כַּפִּי וְרָאִיתָ אֶת־אֲחֹרָי וּפָנַי לֹא יֵרָאוּ׃", 15.22. "And Moses led Israel onward from the Red Sea, and they went out into the wilderness of Shur; and they went three days in the wilderness, and found no water.", 15.25. "And he cried unto the LORD; and the LORD showed him a tree, and he cast it into the waters, and the waters were made sweet. There He made for them a statute and an ordice, and there He proved them;", 15.26. "and He said: ‘If thou wilt diligently hearken to the voice of the LORD thy God, and wilt do that which is right in His eyes, and wilt give ear to His commandments, and keep all His statutes, I will put none of the diseases upon thee, which I have put upon the Egyptians; for I am the LORD that healeth thee.’", 16.4. "Then said the LORD unto Moses: ‘Behold, I will cause to rain bread from heaven for you; and the people shall go out and gather a day’s portion every day, that I may prove them, whether they will walk in My law, or not.", 16.11. "And the LORD spoke unto Moses, saying:", 16.15. "And when the children of Israel saw it, they said one to another: a‘What is it?’—for they knew not what it was. And Moses said unto them: ‘It is the bread which the LORD hath given you to eat.", 16.21. "And they gathered it morning by morning, every man according to his eating; and as the sun waxed hot, it melted.", 16.22. "And it came to pass that on the sixth day they gathered twice as much bread, two omers for each one; and all the rulers of the congregation came and told Moses.", 16.29. "See that the LORD hath given you the sabbath; therefore He giveth you on the sixth day the bread of two days; abide ye every man in his place, let no man go out of his place on the seventh day.’", 16.31. "And the house of Israel called the name thereof Manna; and it was like coriander seed, white; and the taste of it was like wafers made with honey.", 16.32. "And Moses said: ‘This is the thing which the LORD hath commanded: Let an omerful of it be kept throughout your generations; that they may see the bread wherewith I fed you in the wilderness, when I brought you forth from the land of Egypt.’", 17.8. "Then came Amalek, and fought with Israel in Rephidim.", 19.18. "Now mount Sinai was altogether on smoke, because the LORD descended upon it in fire; and the smoke thereof ascended as the smoke of a furnace, and the whole mount quaked greatly.", 20.19. "And the LORD said unto Moses: Thus thou shalt say unto the children of Israel: Ye yourselves have seen that I have talked with you from heaven.", 33.18. "And he said: ‘Show me, I pray Thee, Thy glory.’", 33.20. "And He said: ‘Thou canst not see My face, for man shall not see Me and live.’", 33.23. "And I will take away My hand, and thou shalt see My back; but My face shall not be seen.’",
2. Hebrew Bible, Proverbs, 1.8, 3.18, 3.27, 4.11 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 80, 93, 105
1.8. "שְׁמַע בְּנִי מוּסַר אָבִיךָ וְאַל־תִּטֹּשׁ תּוֹרַת אִמֶּךָ׃", 3.18. "עֵץ־חַיִּים הִיא לַמַּחֲזִיקִים בָּהּ וְתֹמְכֶיהָ מְאֻשָּׁר׃", 3.27. "אַל־תִּמְנַע־טוֹב מִבְּעָלָיו בִּהְיוֹת לְאֵל ידיך [יָדְךָ] לַעֲשׂוֹת׃" 4.11. "בְּדֶרֶךְ חָכְמָה הֹרֵתִיךָ הִדְרַכְתִּיךָ בְּמַעְגְּלֵי־יֹשֶׁר׃", 1.8. "Hear, my son, the instruction of thy father, And forsake not the teaching of thy mother;", 3.18. "She is a tree of life to them that lay hold upon her, And happy is every one that holdest her fast.", 3.27. "Withhold not good from him to whom it is due, When it is in the power of thy hand to do it." 4.11. "I have taught thee in the way of wisdom; I have led thee in paths of uprightness.",
3. Hebrew Bible, Numbers, 21.17-21.20, 25.7-25.8, 25.12-25.13 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 109, 110, 119, 120
21.17. "אָז יָשִׁיר יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶת־הַשִּׁירָה הַזֹּאת עֲלִי בְאֵר עֱנוּ־לָהּ׃", 21.18. "בְּאֵר חֲפָרוּהָ שָׂרִים כָּרוּהָ נְדִיבֵי הָעָם בִּמְחֹקֵק בְּמִשְׁעֲנֹתָם וּמִמִּדְבָּר מַתָּנָה׃", 21.19. "וּמִמַּתָּנָה נַחֲלִיאֵל וּמִנַּחֲלִיאֵל בָּמוֹת׃", 25.7. "וַיַּרְא פִּינְחָס בֶּן־אֶלְעָזָר בֶּן־אַהֲרֹן הַכֹּהֵן וַיָּקָם מִתּוֹךְ הָעֵדָה וַיִּקַּח רֹמַח בְּיָדוֹ׃", 25.8. "וַיָּבֹא אַחַר אִישׁ־יִשְׂרָאֵל אֶל־הַקֻּבָּה וַיִּדְקֹר אֶת־שְׁנֵיהֶם אֵת אִישׁ יִשְׂרָאֵל וְאֶת־הָאִשָּׁה אֶל־קֳבָתָהּ וַתֵּעָצַר הַמַּגֵּפָה מֵעַל בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 25.12. "לָכֵן אֱמֹר הִנְנִי נֹתֵן לוֹ אֶת־בְּרִיתִי שָׁלוֹם׃", 25.13. "וְהָיְתָה לּוֹ וּלְזַרְעוֹ אַחֲרָיו בְּרִית כְּהֻנַּת עוֹלָם תַּחַת אֲשֶׁר קִנֵּא לֵאלֹהָיו וַיְכַפֵּר עַל־בְּנֵי יִשְׂרָאֵל׃", 21.17. "Then sang Israel this song: Spring up, O well—sing ye unto it—", 21.18. "The well, which the princes digged, Which the nobles of the people delved, With the sceptre, and with their staves. And from the wilderness to Mattanah;", 21.19. "and from Mattanah to Nahaliel; and from Nahaliel to Bamoth;", 21.20. "and from Bamoth to the valley that is in the field of Moab, by the top of Pisgah, which looketh down upon the desert.", 25.7. "And when Phinehas, the son of Eleazar, the son of Aaron the priest, saw it, he rose up from the midst of the congregation, and took a spear in his hand.", 25.8. "And he went after the man of Israel into the chamber, and thrust both of them through, the man of Israel, and the woman through her belly. So the plague was stayed from the children of Israel.", 25.12. "Wherefore say: Behold, I give unto him My covet of peace;", 25.13. "and it shall be unto him, and to his seed after him, the covet of an everlasting priesthood; because he was jealous for his God, and made atonement for the children of Israel.’",
4. Hebrew Bible, Nahum, None (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 116, 117, 118
5. Hebrew Bible, Genesis, 4.7, 6.9-11.32, 16, 17.19, 21, 21.12 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 80, 122
21.12. "וַיֹּאמֶר אֱלֹהִים אֶל־אַבְרָהָם אַל־יֵרַע בְּעֵינֶיךָ עַל־הַנַּעַר וְעַל־אֲמָתֶךָ כֹּל אֲשֶׁר תֹּאמַר אֵלֶיךָ שָׂרָה שְׁמַע בְּקֹלָהּ כִּי בְיִצְחָק יִקָּרֵא לְךָ זָרַע׃", 21.12. "And God said unto Abraham: ‘Let it not be grievous in thy sight because of the lad, and because of thy bondwoman; in all that Sarah saith unto thee, hearken unto her voice; for in Isaac shall seed be called to thee.",
6. Hebrew Bible, Deuteronomy, 11.18, 18.3, 33.2, 34.10 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 109, 111, 113, 114
11.18. "וְשַׂמְתֶּם אֶת־דְּבָרַי אֵלֶּה עַל־לְבַבְכֶם וְעַל־נַפְשְׁכֶם וּקְשַׁרְתֶּם אֹתָם לְאוֹת עַל־יֶדְכֶם וְהָיוּ לְטוֹטָפֹת בֵּין עֵינֵיכֶם׃", 18.3. "וְזֶה יִהְיֶה מִשְׁפַּט הַכֹּהֲנִים מֵאֵת הָעָם מֵאֵת זֹבְחֵי הַזֶּבַח אִם־שׁוֹר אִם־שֶׂה וְנָתַן לַכֹּהֵן הַזְּרֹעַ וְהַלְּחָיַיִם וְהַקֵּבָה׃", 33.2. "וַיֹּאמַר יְהוָה מִסִּינַי בָּא וְזָרַח מִשֵּׂעִיר לָמוֹ הוֹפִיעַ מֵהַר פָּארָן וְאָתָה מֵרִבְבֹת קֹדֶשׁ מִימִינוֹ אשדת [אֵשׁ] [דָּת] לָמוֹ׃", 33.2. "וּלְגָד אָמַר בָּרוּךְ מַרְחִיב גָּד כְּלָבִיא שָׁכֵן וְטָרַף זְרוֹעַ אַף־קָדְקֹד׃", 11.18. "Therefore shall ye lay up these My words in your heart and in your soul; and ye shall bind them for a sign upon your hand, and they shall be for frontlets between your eyes.", 18.3. "And this shall be the priests’due from the people, from them that offer a sacrifice, whether it be ox or sheep, that they shall give unto the priest the shoulder, and the two cheeks, and the maw.", 33.2. "And he said: The LORD came from Sinai, And rose from Seir unto them; He shined forth from mount Paran, And He came from the myriads holy, At His right hand was a fiery law unto them.", 34.10. "And there hath not arisen a prophet since in Israel like unto Moses, whom the LORD knew face to face;",
7. Hebrew Bible, Psalms, 37.12, 106.30, 139.5 (9th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 110, 113, 115
37.12. "זֹמֵם רָשָׁע לַצַּדִּיק וְחֹרֵק עָלָיו שִׁנָּיו׃", 139.5. "אָחוֹר וָקֶדֶם צַרְתָּנִי וַתָּשֶׁת עָלַי כַּפֶּכָה׃", 37.12. "The wicked plotteth against the righteous, and gnasheth at him with his teeth.", 106.30. "Then stood up Phinehas, and wrought judgment, And so the plague was stayed.", 139.5. "Thou hast hemmed me in behind and before, And laid Thy hand upon me.",
8. Hebrew Bible, Isaiah, 5.11-5.18, 33.15, 54.1-54.2, 54.16, 55.1-55.2, 63.13 (8th cent. BCE - 5th cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 92, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 105, 106, 112, 115, 120, 125
5.11. "הוֹי מַשְׁכִּימֵי בַבֹּקֶר שֵׁכָר יִרְדֹּפוּ מְאַחֲרֵי בַנֶּשֶׁף יַיִן יַדְלִיקֵם׃", 5.12. "וְהָיָה כִנּוֹר וָנֶבֶל תֹּף וְחָלִיל וָיַיִן מִשְׁתֵּיהֶם וְאֵת פֹּעַל יְהוָה לֹא יַבִּיטוּ וּמַעֲשֵׂה יָדָיו לֹא רָאוּ׃", 5.13. "לָכֵן גָּלָה עַמִּי מִבְּלִי־דָעַת וּכְבוֹדוֹ מְתֵי רָעָב וַהֲמוֹנוֹ צִחֵה צָמָא׃", 5.14. "לָכֵן הִרְחִיבָה שְּׁאוֹל נַפְשָׁהּ וּפָעֲרָה פִיהָ לִבְלִי־חֹק וְיָרַד הֲדָרָהּ וַהֲמוֹנָהּ וּשְׁאוֹנָהּ וְעָלֵז בָּהּ׃", 5.15. "וַיִּשַּׁח אָדָם וַיִּשְׁפַּל־אִישׁ וְעֵינֵי גְבֹהִים תִּשְׁפַּלְנָה׃", 5.16. "וַיִּגְבַּה יְהוָה צְבָאוֹת בַּמִּשְׁפָּט וְהָאֵל הַקָּדוֹשׁ נִקְדָּשׁ בִּצְדָקָה׃", 5.17. "וְרָעוּ כְבָשִׂים כְּדָבְרָם וְחָרְבוֹת מֵחִים גָּרִים יֹאכֵלוּ׃", 5.18. "הוֹי מֹשְׁכֵי הֶעָוֺן בְּחַבְלֵי הַשָּׁוְא וְכַעֲבוֹת הָעֲגָלָה חַטָּאָה׃", 33.15. "הֹלֵךְ צְדָקוֹת וְדֹבֵר מֵישָׁרִים מֹאֵס בְּבֶצַע מַעֲשַׁקּוֹת נֹעֵר כַּפָּיו מִתְּמֹךְ בַּשֹּׁחַד אֹטֵם אָזְנוֹ מִשְּׁמֹעַ דָּמִים וְעֹצֵם עֵינָיו מֵרְאוֹת בְּרָע׃", 54.1. "רָנִּי עֲקָרָה לֹא יָלָדָה פִּצְחִי רִנָּה וְצַהֲלִי לֹא־חָלָה כִּי־רַבִּים בְּנֵי־שׁוֹמֵמָה מִבְּנֵי בְעוּלָה אָמַר יְהוָה׃", 54.1. "כִּי הֶהָרִים יָמוּשׁוּ וְהַגְּבָעוֹת תְּמוּטֶנָה וְחַסְדִּי מֵאִתֵּךְ לֹא־יָמוּשׁ וּבְרִית שְׁלוֹמִי לֹא תָמוּט אָמַר מְרַחֲמֵךְ יְהוָה׃", 54.2. "הַרְחִיבִי מְקוֹם אָהֳלֵךְ וִירִיעוֹת מִשְׁכְּנוֹתַיִךְ יַטּוּ אַל־תַּחְשֹׂכִי הַאֲרִיכִי מֵיתָרַיִךְ וִיתֵדֹתַיִךְ חַזֵּקִי׃", 54.16. "הן [הִנֵּה] אָנֹכִי בָּרָאתִי חָרָשׁ נֹפֵחַ בְּאֵשׁ פֶּחָם וּמוֹצִיא כְלִי לְמַעֲשֵׂהוּ וְאָנֹכִי בָּרָאתִי מַשְׁחִית לְחַבֵּל׃", 55.1. "כִּי כַּאֲשֶׁר יֵרֵד הַגֶּשֶׁם וְהַשֶּׁלֶג מִן־הַשָּׁמַיִם וְשָׁמָּה לֹא יָשׁוּב כִּי אִם־הִרְוָה אֶת־הָאָרֶץ וְהוֹלִידָהּ וְהִצְמִיחָהּ וְנָתַן זֶרַע לַזֹּרֵעַ וְלֶחֶם לָאֹכֵל׃", 55.1. "הוֹי כָּל־צָמֵא לְכוּ לַמַּיִם וַאֲשֶׁר אֵין־לוֹ כָּסֶף לְכוּ שִׁבְרוּ וֶאֱכֹלוּ וּלְכוּ שִׁבְרוּ בְּלוֹא־כֶסֶף וּבְלוֹא מְחִיר יַיִן וְחָלָב׃", 55.2. "לָמָּה תִשְׁקְלוּ־כֶסֶף בְּלוֹא־לֶחֶם וִיגִיעֲכֶם בְּלוֹא לְשָׂבְעָה שִׁמְעוּ שָׁמוֹעַ אֵלַי וְאִכְלוּ־טוֹב וְתִתְעַנַּג בַּדֶּשֶׁן נַפְשְׁכֶם׃", 63.13. "מוֹלִיכָם בַּתְּהֹמוֹת כַּסּוּס בַּמִּדְבָּר לֹא יִכָּשֵׁלוּ׃", 5.11. "Woe unto them that rise up early in the morning, That they may follow strong drink; That tarry late into the night, Till wine inflame them!", 5.12. "And the harp and the psaltery, the tabret and the pipe, And wine, are in their feasts; But they regard not the work of the LORD, Neither have they considered the operation of His hands.", 5.13. "Therefore My people are gone into captivity, For want of knowledge; And their honourable men are famished, And their multitude are parched with thirst.", 5.14. "Therefore the nether-world hath enlarged her desire, And opened her mouth without measure; And down goeth their glory, and their tumult, and their uproar, And he that rejoiceth among them.", 5.15. "And man is bowed down, And man is humbled, And the eyes of the lofty are humbled; .", 5.16. "But the LORD of hosts is exalted through justice, And God the Holy One is sanctified through righteousness.", 5.17. "Then shall the lambs feed as in their pasture, And the waste places of the fat ones shall wanderers eat.", 5.18. "Woe unto them that draw iniquity with cords of vanity, And sin as it were with a cart rope,", 33.15. "He that walketh righteously, and speaketh uprightly; He that despiseth the gain of oppressions, That shaketh his hands from holding of bribes, That stoppeth his ears from hearing of blood, And shutteth his eyes from looking upon evil;", 54.1. "Sing, O barren, thou that didst not bear, Break forth into singing, and cry aloud, thou that didst not travail; For more are the children of the desolate Than the children of the married wife, saith the LORD.", 54.2. "Enlarge the place of thy tent, And let them stretch forth the curtains of thy habitations, spare not; Lengthen thy cords, and strengthen thy stakes.", 54.16. "Behold, I have created the smith That bloweth the fire of coals, And bringeth forth a weapon for his work; And I have created the waster to destroy.", 55.1. "Ho, every one that thirsteth, come ye for water, And he that hath no money; Come ye, buy, and eat; Yea, come, buy wine and milk Without money and without price.", 55.2. "Wherefore do ye spend money for that which is not bread? And your gain for that which satisfieth not? Hearken diligently unto Me, and eat ye that which is good, And let your soul delight itself in fatness.", 63.13. "That led them through the deep, as a horse in the wilderness, without stumbling?",
9. Hebrew Bible, 2 Chronicles, 12.1-12.2 (5th cent. BCE - 3rd cent. BCE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 106
12.1. "וַיַּעַשׂ הַמֶּלֶךְ רְחַבְעָם תַּחְתֵּיהֶם מָגִנֵּי נְחֹשֶׁת וְהִפְקִיד עַל־יַד שָׂרֵי הָרָצִים הַשֹּׁמְרִים פֶּתַח בֵּית הַמֶּלֶךְ׃", 12.1. "וַיְהִי כְּהָכִין מַלְכוּת רְחַבְעָם וּכְחֶזְקָתוֹ עָזַב אֶת־תּוֹרַת יְהוָה וְכָל־יִשְׂרָאֵל עִמּוֹ׃", 12.2. "וַיְהִי בַּשָּׁנָה הַחֲמִישִׁית לַמֶּלֶךְ רְחַבְעָם עָלָה שִׁישַׁק מֶלֶךְ־מִצְרַיִם עַל־יְרוּשָׁלִָם כִּי מָעֲלוּ בַּיהוָה׃", 12.1. "And it came to pass, when the kingdom of Rehoboam was established, and he was strong, that he forsook the law of the LORD, and all Israel with him.", 12.2. "And it came to pass in the fifth year of king Rehoboam, that Shishak king of Egypt came up against Jerusalem, because they had dealt treacherously with the LORD,",
10. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q169, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 116, 117
11. Dead Sea Scrolls, Pesher On Psalms, None (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 116
12. Dead Sea Scrolls, Damascus Covenant, 1.21, 3.16, 6.2-6.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 114, 119, 120
13. Dead Sea Scrolls, (Cairo Damascus Covenant) Cd-A, 1.21, 3.16, 6.2-6.11 (2nd cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 114, 119, 120
14. Philo of Alexandria, On The Preliminary Studies, 10, 151-152, 158-159, 20, 36, 9 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 122
15. Philo of Alexandria, On The Migration of Abraham, 86-91, 93, 92 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 129
92. Nor does it follow, because the feast is the symbol of the joy of the soul and of its gratitude towards God, that we are to repudiate the assemblies ordained at the periodical seasons of the year; nor because the rite of circumcision is an emblem of the excision of pleasures and of all the passions, and of the destruction of that impious opinion, according to which the mind has imagined itself to be by itself competent to produce offspring, does it follow that we are to annul the law which has been enacted about circumcision. Since we shall neglect the laws about the due observance of the ceremonies in the temple, and numbers of others too, if we exclude all figurative interpretation and attend only to those things which are expressly ordained in plain words.
16. Philo of Alexandria, On Sobriety, 9 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 122
17. Philo of Alexandria, Allegorical Interpretation, 3.244-3.245 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 122
18. Philo of Alexandria, Questions On Genesis, 1.10 (1st cent. BCE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 89
19. New Testament, Galatians, 1.6, 1.8, 3.7, 3.15, 3.16, 3.17, 3.24, 3.25, 4, 4.1, 4.2, 4.6, 4.21-5.1, 4.21, 4.22, 4.23, 4.24, 4.25, 4.26, 4.27, 4.28, 4.29, 4.30, 4.31 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 80, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 98, 99, 100, 101, 102, 103, 104, 123, 124, 129, 130
20. New Testament, Acts, 13.14-13.15, 13.27 (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 99
13.14. Αὐτοὶ δὲ διελθόντες ἀπὸ τῆς Πέργης παρεγένοντο εἰς Ἀντιόχειαν τὴν Πισιδίαν, καὶ ἐλθόντες εἰς τὴν συναγωγὴν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῶν σαββάτων ἐκάθισαν. 13.15. μετὰ δὲ τὴν ἀνάγνωσιν τοῦ νόμου καὶ τῶν προφητῶν ἀπέστειλαν οἱ ἀρχισυνάγωγοι πρὸς αὐτοὺς λέγοντες Ἄνδρες ἀδελφοί, εἴ τις ἔστιν ἐν ὑμῖν λόγος παρακλήσεως πρὸς τὸν λαόν, λέγετε. 13.27. οἱ γὰρ κατοικουlt*gtντες ἐν Ἰερουσαλὴμ καὶ οἱ ἄρχοντες αὐτῶν τοῦτον ἀγνοήσαντες καὶ τὰς φωνὰς τῶν προφητῶν τὰς κατὰ πᾶν σάββατον ἀναγινωσκομένας κρίναντες ἐπλήρωσαν, 13.14. But they, passing through from Perga, came to Antioch of Pisidia. They went into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and sat down. 13.15. After the reading of the law and the prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Brothers, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, speak." 13.27. For those who dwell in Jerusalem, and their rulers, because they didn't know him, nor the voices of the prophets which are read every Sabbath, fulfilled them by condemning him.
21. Quintilian, Institutes of Oratory, 8.6.44 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 89
8.6.44.  Allegory, which is translated in Latin by inversio, either presents one thing in words and another in meaning, or else something absolutely opposed to the meaning of the words. The first type is generally produced by a series of metaphors. Take as an example: "O ship, new waves will bear thee back to sea. What dost thou? Make the haven, come what may," and the rest of the ode, in which Horace represents the state under the semblance of a ship, the civil wars as tempests, and peace and good-will as the haven.
22. New Testament, 2 Corinthians, 3.6-3.7 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 93, 134
3.6. ὃς καὶ ἱκάνωσεν ἡμᾶς διακόνους καινῆς διαθήκης, οὐ γράμματος ἀλλὰ πνεύματος, τὸ γὰρ γράμμα ἀποκτείνει, τὸ δὲ πνεῦμα ζωοποιεῖ. 3.7. Εἰ δὲ ἡ διακονία τοῦ θανάτου ἐν γράμμασιν ἐντετυπωμένη λίθοις ἐγενήθη ἐν δόξῃ, ὥστε μὴ δύνασθαι ἀτενίσαι τοὺς υἱοὺς Ἰσραὴλ εἰς τὸ πρόσωπον Μωυσέως διὰ τὴν δόξαν τοῦ προσώπου αὐτοῦ τὴν καταργουμένην,
23. New Testament, Luke, 4.16-4.22 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 99
4.16. Καὶ ἦλθεν εἰς Ναζαρά, οὗ ἦν τεθραμμένος, καὶ εἰσῆλθεν κατὰ τὸ εἰωθὸς αὐτῷ ἐν τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῶν σαββάτων εἰς τὴν συναγωγήν, καὶ ἀνέστη ἀναγνῶναι. 4.17. καὶ ἐπεδόθη αὐτῷ βιβλίον τοῦ προφήτου Ἠσαίου, καὶ ἀνοίξας τὸ βιβλίον εὗρεν [τὸν] τόπον οὗ ἦν γεγραμμένον 4.18. Πνεῦμα Κυρίου ἐπʼ ἐμέ, οὗ εἵνεκεν ἔχρισέν με εὐαγγελίσασθαι πτωχοῖς, ἀπέσταλκέν με κηρύξαι αἰχμαλώτοις ἄφεσιν καὶ τυφλοῖς ἀνάβλεψιν, ἀποστεῖλαι τεθραυσμένους ἐν ἀφέσει, 4.19. κηρύξαι ἐνιαυτὸν Κυρίου δεκτόν. 4.20. καὶ πτύξας τὸ βιβλίον ἀποδοὺς τῷ ὑπηρέτῃ ἐκάθισεν· καὶ πάντων οἱ ὀφθαλμοὶ ἐν τῇ συναγωγῇ ἦσαν ἀτενίζοντες αὐτῷ. 4.21. ἤρξατο δὲ λέγειν πρὸς αὐτοὺς ὅτι Σήμερον πεπλήρωται ἡ γραφὴ αὕτη ἐν τοῖς ὠσὶν ὑμῶν. 4.22. καὶ πάντες ἐμαρτύρουν αὐτῷ καὶ ἐθαύμαζον ἐπὶ τοῖς λόγοις τῆς χάριτος τοῖς ἐκπορευομένοις ἐκ τοῦ στόματος αὐτοῦ, καὶ ἔλεγον Οὐχὶ υἱός ἐστιν Ἰωσὴφ οὗτος; 4.16. He came to Nazareth, where he had been brought up. He entered, as was his custom, into the synagogue on the Sabbath day, and stood up to read. 4.17. The book of the prophet Isaiah was handed to him. He opened the book, and found the place where it was written, 4.18. "The Spirit of the Lord is on me, Because he has anointed me to preach good news to the poor. He has sent me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim release to the captives, Recovering of sight to the blind, To deliver those who are crushed, 4.19. And to proclaim the acceptable year of the Lord." 4.20. He closed the book, gave it back to the attendant, and sat down. The eyes of all in the synagogue were fastened on him. 4.21. He began to tell them, "Today, this Scripture has been fulfilled in your hearing." 4.22. All testified about him, and wondered at the gracious words which proceeded out of his mouth, and they said, "Isn't this Joseph's son?"
24. New Testament, Romans, 5.14, 6.15-6.23, 13.8-13.10 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 90, 96, 125
5.14. ἀλλὰ ἐβασίλευσεν ὁ θάνατος ἀπὸ Ἀδὰμ μέχρι Μωυσέως καὶ ἐπὶ τοὺς μὴ ἁμαρτήσαντας ἐπὶ τῷ ὁμοιώματι τῆς παραβάσεως Ἀδάμ, ὅς ἐστιν τύπος τοῦ μέλλοντος. 6.15. Τί οὖν; ἁμαρτήσωμεν ὅτι οὐκ ἐσμὲν ὑπὸ νόμον ἀλλὰ ὑπὸ χάριν; μὴ γένοιτο· 6.16. οὐκ οἴδατε ὅτι ᾧ παριστάνετε ἑαυτοὺς δούλους εἰς ὑπακοήν, δοῦλοί ἐστε ᾧ ὑπακούετε, ἤτοι ἁμαρτίας εἰς θάνατον ἢ ὑπακοῆς εἰς δικαιοσύνην; 6.17. χάρις δὲ τῷ θεῷ ὅτι ἦτε δοῦλοι τῆς ἁμαρτίας ὑπηκούσατε δὲ ἐκ καρδίας εἰς ὃν παρεδόθητε τύπον διδαχῆς, 6.18. ἐλευθερωθέντες δὲ ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας ἐδουλώθητε τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ· 6.19. ἀνθρώπινον λέγω διὰ τὴν ἀσθένειαν τῆς σαρκὸς ὑμῶν· ὥσπερ γὰρ παρεστήσατε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν δοῦλα τῇ ἀκαθαρσίᾳ καὶ τῇ ἀνομίᾳ [εἰς τὴν ἀνομίαν], οὕτω νῦν παραστήσατε τὰ μέλη ὑμῶν δοῦλα τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ εἰς ἁγιασμόν· 6.20. ὅτε γὰρ δοῦλοι ἦτε τῆς ἁμαρτίας, ἐλεύθεροι ἦτε τῇ δικαιοσύνῃ. 6.21. τίνα οὖν καρπὸν εἴχετε τότε ἐφʼ οἷς νῦν ἐπαισχύνεσθε; τὸ γὰρ τέλος ἐκείνων θάνατος· 6.22. νυνὶ δέ, ἐλευθερωθέντες ἀπὸ τῆς ἁμαρτίας δουλωθέντες δὲ τῷ θεῷ, ἔχετε τὸν καρπὸν ὑμῶν εἰς ἁγιασμόν, τὸ δὲ τέλος ζωὴν αἰώνιον. 6.23. τὰ γὰρ ὀψώνια τῆς ἁμαρτίας θάνατος, τὸ δὲ χάρισμα τοῦ θεοῦ ζωὴ αἰώνιος ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τῷ κυρίῳ ἡμῶν. 13.8. Μηδενὶ μηδὲν ὀφείλετε, εἰ μὴ τὸ ἀλλήλους ἀγαπᾷν· ὁ γὰρ ἀγαπῶν τὸν ἕτερον νόμον πεπλήρωκεν. 13.9. τὸ γάρΟὐ μοιχεύσεις, Οὐ φονεύσεις, Οὐ κλέψεις, Οὐκ ἐπιθυμήσεις,καὶ εἴ τις ἑτέρα ἐντολή, ἐν τῷ λόγῳ τούτῳ ἀνακεφαλαιοῦται, [ἐν τῷ]Ἀγαπήσεις τὸν πλησίον σου ὡς σεαυτόν. 13.10. ἡ ἀγάπη τῷ πλησίον κακὸν οὐκ ἐργάζεται· πλήρωμα οὖν νόμου ἡ ἀγάπη. 5.14. Nevertheless death reigned from Adam until Moses, even over those whose sins weren't like Adam's disobedience, who is a foreshadowing of him who was to come. 6.15. What then? Shall we sin, because we are not under law, but under grace? May it never be! 6.16. Don't you know that to whom you present yourselves as servants to obedience, his servants you are whom you obey; whether of sin to death, or of obedience to righteousness? 6.17. But thanks be to God, that, whereas you were bondservants of sin, you became obedient from the heart to that form of teaching whereunto you were delivered. 6.18. Being made free from sin, you became bondservants of righteousness. 6.19. I speak in human terms because of the weakness of your flesh, for as you presented your members as servants to uncleanness and to wickedness upon wickedness, even so now present your members as servants to righteousness for sanctification. 6.20. For when you were servants of sin, you were free in regard to righteousness. 6.21. What fruit then did you have at that time in the things of which you are now ashamed? For the end of those things is death. 6.22. But now, being made free from sin, and having become servants of God, you have your fruit of sanctification, and the result of eternal life. 6.23. For the wages of sin is death, but the free gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord. 13.8. Owe no one anything, except to love one another; for he who loves his neighbor has fulfilled the law. 13.9. For the commandments, "You shall not commit adultery," "You shall not murder," "You shall not steal," "You shall not give false testimony," "You shall not covet," and whatever other commandments there are, are all summed up in this saying, namely, "You shall love your neighbor as yourself." 13.10. Love doesn't harm a neighbor. Love therefore is the fulfillment of the law.
25. New Testament, 1 Corinthians, 9.10, 10.11, 11.25 (1st cent. CE - 1st cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 94, 130
9.10. διʼ ἡμᾶς γὰρ ἐγράφη, ὅτι ὀφείλει ἐπʼ ἐλπίδι ὁ ἀροτριῶν ἀροτριᾷν, καὶ ὁ ἀλοῶν ἐπʼ ἐλπίδι τοῦ μετέχειν. 10.11. ταῦτα δὲ τυπικῶς συνέβαινεν ἐκείνοις, ἐγράφη δὲ πρὸς νουθεσίαν ἡμῶν, εἰς οὓς τὰ τέλη τῶν αἰώνων κατήντηκεν. 11.25. Τοῦτο τὸ ποτήριον ἡ καινὴδιαθήκηἐστὶν ἐντῷἐμῷαἵματι·τοῦτο ποιεῖτε, ὁσάκις ἐὰν πίνητε, εἰς τὴν ἐμὴν ἀνάμνησιν. 9.10. or does he say it assuredly for oursake? Yes, it was written for our sake, because he who plows ought toplow in hope, and he who threshes in hope should partake of his hope. 10.11. Now all these thingshappened to them by way of example, and they were written for ouradmonition, on whom the ends of the ages have come. 11.25. In the same way he also took the cup, after supper,saying, "This cup is the new covet in my blood. Do this, as often asyou drink, in memory of me."
26. Plutarch, On Hearing, None (1st cent. CE - 2nd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 90, 109
27. Mishnah, Avot, 3.5 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 112
3.5. "רַבִּי נְחוּנְיָא בֶּן הַקָּנָה אוֹמֵר, כָּל הַמְקַבֵּל עָלָיו עֹל תּוֹרָה, מַעֲבִירִין מִמֶּנּוּ עֹל מַלְכוּת וְעֹל דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ. וְכָל הַפּוֹרֵק מִמֶּנּוּ עֹל תּוֹרָה, נוֹתְנִין עָלָיו עֹל מַלְכוּת וְעֹל דֶּרֶךְ אֶרֶץ:", 3.5. "Rabbi Nehunia ben Hakkanah said: whoever takes upon himself the yoke of the Torah, they remove from him the yoke of government and the yoke of worldly concerns, and whoever breaks off from himself the yoke of the Torah, they place upon him the yoke of government and the yoke of worldly concerns.",
28. Mishnah, Ketuvot, 1.6 (1st cent. CE - 3rd cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 100
1.6. "הַנּוֹשֵׂא אֶת הָאִשָּׁה וְלֹא מָצָא לָהּ בְּתוּלִים, הִיא אוֹמֶרֶת, מִשֶּׁאֵרַסְתַּנִי נֶאֱנַסְתִּי, וְנִסְתַּחֲפָה שָׂדֶךָ. וְהַלָּה אוֹמֵר, לֹא כִי, אֶלָּא עַד שֶׁלֹּא אֵרַסְתִּיךְ, וְהָיָה מִקָּחִי מֶקַּח טָעוּת. רַבָּן גַּמְלִיאֵל וְרַבִּי אֱלִיעֶזֶר אוֹמְרִים, נֶאֱמֶנֶת. רַבִּי יְהוֹשֻׁעַ אוֹמֵר, לֹא מִפִּיהָ אָנוּ חַיִּין, אֶלָּא הֲרֵי זוֹ בְחֶזְקַת בְּעוּלָה עַד שֶׁלֹּא תִתְאָרֵס, וְהִטְעַתּוּ, עַד שֶׁתָּבִיא רְאָיָה לִדְבָרֶיהָ: \n", 1.6. "If a man marries a woman and does not find her to be a virgin: She says, “After you betrothed me I was raped, and so your field has been washed away” And he says, “No, rather [it occurred] before I betrothed you and my acquisition was a mistaken acquisition” Rabban Gamaliel and Rabbi Eliezer say: she is believed. Rabbi Joshua says: We do not live by her mouth, rather she is in the presumption of having had intercourse before she was betrothed and having deceived him, until she brings proof for her statement.",
29. Anon., Sifre Numbers, 154, 160, 115 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 80
30. Anon., Sifre Deuteronomy, 343, 357, 45, 165 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 109
31. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Yishmael, None (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 80
32. Palestinian Talmud, Megillah, None (2nd cent. CE - 5th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 93
33. Anon., Mekhilta Derabbi Shimeon Ben Yohai, 17.8 (2nd cent. CE - 4th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 106, 107
34. Babylonian Talmud, Qiddushin, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 93
33b. אין תלמיד חכם רשאי לעמוד מפני רבו אלא שחרית וערבית כדי שלא יהיה כבודו מרובה מכבוד שמים מיתיבי ר' שמעון בן אלעזר אומר מנין לזקן שלא יטריח ת"ל זקן ויראת,ואי אמרת שחרית וערבית בלבד אמאי לא ניטרח חיובא הוא אלא לאו כולי יומא לא לעולם שחרית וערבית בלבד ואפ"ה כמה דאפשר ליה לא ניטרח,אמר ר' אלעזר כל ת"ח שאין עומד מפני רבו נקרא רשע ואינו מאריך ימים ותלמודו משתכח שנאמר (קהלת ח, יג) וטוב לא יהיה לרשע ולא יאריך ימים כצל אשר איננו ירא מלפני האלהים מורא זו איני יודע מהו כשהוא אומר (ויקרא יט, יד) ויראת מאלהיך הרי מורא זו קימה,ואימא מוראת רבית ומוראת משקלות ר' אלעזר פני פני גמר,איבעיא להו בנו והוא רבו מהו לעמוד מפני אביו ת"ש דאמר ליה שמואל לרב יהודה שיננא קום מקמי אבוך שאני רב יחזקאל דבעל מעשים הוה דאפילו מר שמואל נמי קאים מקמיה,אלא מאי קאמר ליה הכי קאמר ליה זימנין דאתי מאחורי קום את מקמיה ולא תיחוש ליקרא דידי,איבעיא להו בנו והוא רבו מהו שיעמוד אביו מפניו ת"ש דאמר ר' יהושע בן לוי אני איני כדי לעמוד מפני בני אלא משום כבוד בית נשיא,טעמא דאנא רביה הא איהו רבאי קאימנא מקמיה ה"ק אני איני כדי לעמוד מפני בני ואפילו הוא רבאי דהא אנא אבוה אלא משום כבוד בית נשיא,איבעיא להו רכוב כמהלך דמי או לא אמר אביי ת"ש טמא יושב תחת האילן וטהור עומד טמא,טמא עומד תחת האילן וטהור יושב טהור ואם ישב הטמא הטהור טמא,וכן באבן המנוגעת ואמר רב נחמן בר כהן זאת אומרת רכוב כמהלך דמי ש"מ,איבעיא להו מהו לעמוד מפני ספר תורה ר' חלקיה ור' סימון ור' אלעזר אמרי קל וחומר מפני לומדיה עומדים מפניה לא כל שכן,ר' אלעי ור' יעקב בר זבדי הוו יתבי חליף ואזיל ר' שמעון בר אבא וקמו מקמיה אמר להו חדא דאתון חכימי ואנא חבר ועוד כלום תורה עומדת מפני לומדיה,סבר לה כר' אלעזר דאמר ר' אלעזר אין ת"ח רשאי לעמוד מפני רבו בשעה שעוסק בתורה לייט עלה אביי,(שמות לג, ח) והביטו אחרי משה עד בואו האהלה ר' אמי ור' יצחק נפחא חד אמר לגנאי וחד אמר לשבח מאן דאמר לגנאי כדאיתא מ"ד לשבח אמר חזקיה,אמר לי ר' חנינא בריה דר' אבהו א"ר אבהו א"ר אבדימי דמן חיפא חכם עובר עומד מלפניו ד' אמות וכיון שעבר ד' אמות יושב אב ב"ד עובר עומד מלפניו מלא עיניו וכיון שעבר ד' אמות יושב נשיא עובר עומד מלפניו מלא עיניו ואינו יושב עד שישב במקומו שנאמר והביטו אחרי משה עד בואו האהלה,כל מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא וכו': ת"ר איזוהי מצות עשה שהזמן גרמא סוכה ולולב שופר וציצית 33b. b A Torah scholar is permitted to stand before his teacher only /b once b in the morning and /b once in the b evening, so that /b the teacher’s b honor should not be greater than the honor of Heaven, /b as one recites the i Shema /i , which is tantamount to greeting God, once in the morning and once in the evening. The Gemara b raises an objection /b from an aforementioned opinion. b Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: From where /b is it derived that b an elder should not trouble /b others to honor him? b The verse states: “An elder, and you shall fear” /b (Leviticus 19:32). The collocation of these words comes to teach that the elder, too, must fear God.,The Gemara explains the objection: b And if you say /b one may stand b only /b in the b morning and evening, why /b does the i baraita /i say an elder b should not trouble /b others? Standing for an elder only twice a day b is an obligation /b for the people, not an imposition. b Rather, /b is it b not /b correct to say b that /b one is obligated to stand before one’s teacher at b any /b point b during the day? /b The Gemara answers: b No; actually /b one is obligated to stand b only /b in b the morning and evening, and even so, as much as it is possible for /b the elder, b he should not trouble /b the people to stand.,§ b Rabbi Elazar said: Any Torah scholar who does not stand before his teacher is called wicked, and he will not live a long life, and his studies will be forgotten, as it is stated: “But it shall not be well for the wicked, neither shall he prolong his days, which are as a shadow, because he does not fear before [ i millifnei /i ] God” /b (Ecclesiastes 8:13). b This fear /b mentioned in the verse, b I do not know what it is. When /b the verse b states: /b “And you shall revere the face [ i penei /i ] of an elder, b and you shall fear your God” /b (Leviticus 19:32), one can deduce b that this fear /b mentioned in the verse b is /b referring to b standing. /b Consequently, this verse teaches with regard to one who does not stand that he is called wicked, he will not live a long life, and his studies will be forgotten, as indicated by the phrase: “It shall not be well.”,The Gemara asks: b But /b why not b say /b that this is referring to b fear of /b God stated with regard to b interest /b (Leviticus 25:36), b or /b the b fear of /b God stated with regard to b weights /b (Deuteronomy 25:13–16), as the fear of God is mentioned with regard to these prohibitions as well. The Gemara answers: b Rabbi Elazar derives /b this i halakha /i through a verbal analogy of b “ i penei /i ” and “ i penei /i ,” /b as explained previously, not from a verbal analogy of the term “fear.”, b A dilemma was raised before them: /b With regard to one who is both a man’s b son and his teacher, what is /b the i halakha /i as to whether that son must b stand before his father? /b The Gemara answers: b Come /b and b hear, as Shmuel said to Rav Yehuda: Big-toothed /b one, b stand before your father. /b Although Rav Yehuda was a great Torah scholar and taught his father, he was still required to stand before him. The Gemara answers: b Rav Yeḥezkel, /b Rav Yehuda’s father, b is different, as he was a man of /b good b deeds, /b and b even Mar Shmuel /b himself b would stand before him. /b ,The Gemara asks: b Rather, what is /b Shmuel b saying /b to Rav Yehuda? If he is not teaching him that one who is his father’s teacher must stand before his father, why did Shmuel say this to Rav Yehuda? The Gemara answers that b this is what /b Shmuel b said to him: Sometimes /b your father b comes from behind me /b and I do not see him or stand before him. Nevertheless, b you should stand before him and do not be concerned about my honor. /b ,Another b dilemma was raised before them, /b with regard to one who is both a man’s b son and his teacher, what is /b the i halakha /i as b to /b whether b the father /b must b stand before /b his son? The Gemara answers: b Come /b and b hear, as Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi says: It is not appropriate for me to stand before my son /b solely due to his greatness in Torah, as I am greater than him. b But due to the honor of the household of the i Nasi /i /b I do stand before him, as his son was a son-in-law of the i Nasi /i .,It may be inferred from here that if his son were not in the household of the i Nasi /i he would not stand for him, and b the reason /b was b that /b he could claim: b I am his teacher /b and therefore I am not obligated to stand before him. Accordingly, Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi is indicating that if b he were my teacher I would stand before him. /b The Gemara rejects this proof: b This is what /b Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi b is saying: It is not appropriate for me to stand before my son, even /b if b he /b were b my teacher, as I am his father. But due to the honor of the household of the i Nasi /i /b I do stand before him., b A dilemma was raised before them: /b If one’s teacher is b riding /b on an animal, is that considered b like walking, /b and therefore one must stand before him, b or /b is he b not /b obligated to stand before him, since he is stationary relative to the animal? b Abaye said: Come /b and b hear /b a resolution from a different issue ( i Nega’im /i 13:7): If a leper, who is b ritually impure /b and transfers impurity through a tent, i.e., anyone who enters the location of the leper is rendered impure, b is sitting under /b the branches of b a tree, /b which form a tent over him, b and a pure /b person b is standing /b under that tree, the pure person is rendered b impure. /b ,If the b impure /b person b is standing under the tree and the pure /b person b is sitting /b there, he remains b pure. /b In this case, as the impure person is not settled there, he does not impart ritual impurity in a tent. b But if the impure /b person b sat /b and established his place there, b the pure /b individual is rendered b impure. /b ,That mishna adds: b And the same /b i halakha /i applies b with regard to a stone afflicted /b with a leprous b sore /b (see Leviticus, chapter 14), which also imparts impurity of a tent. If one carrying a stone of this kind sits under a tree, a pure person standing under the tree is rendered impure, whereas if the person carrying the stone stands, he does not render the other individual impure. b And Rav Naḥman bar Kohen says: That is to say /b that b riding is /b considered b like walking, /b as although the stone is stationary relative to the person, it is considered to be moving. b Conclude from it /b that in all cases riding is like walking., b A dilemma was raised before them: What is /b the i halakha /i as b to /b whether one should b stand before a Torah scroll? Rabbi Ḥilkiya and Rabbi Simon and Rabbi Elazar say /b that this dilemma can be resolved by b an i a fortiori /i /b inference: If b one stands before those who study /b the Torah, is it b not all the more so /b true that one should stand b before /b the Torah itself?,The Gemara relates: b Rabbi Elai and Rabbi Ya’akov bar Zavdi were sitting /b and studying Torah. b Rabbi Shimon bar Abba passed before them and they stood before him. /b Rabbi Shimon bar Abba b said to them: /b You are not obligated to do this, for two reasons. b One /b reason is b that that you are /b ordained b scholars and I /b am only b an associate, /b i.e., he had not been ordained. b And furthermore, does the Torah stand before those who study it? /b Since you are engaged in Torah study at the present moment you are not required to stand before a Torah scholar.,The Gemara comments: Rabbi Shimon bar Abba b holds in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Elazar, as Rabbi Elazar says: A Torah scholar may not stand before his teacher when he is studying Torah, /b because he is engaged in honoring the Torah itself. The Gemara adds: Even so, b Abaye cursed /b anyone who acted in accordance with this ruling, as he would give the appearance of one who disrespected his teacher.,§ The Gemara continues to discuss the mitzva of standing before a Torah scholar. With regard to the verse: b “And they looked after Moses until he was gone into the tent” /b (Exodus 33:8), b Rabbi Ami and Rabbi Yitzḥak Nappaḥa /b disputed its correct interpretation. b One said /b that this is stated b unfavorably, and one said /b that it is meant b favorably. The one who said /b it was stated b unfavorably /b explains the verse b as it is /b interpreted in the midrash. b The one who said /b it was stated b favorably /b interprets the verse in accordance with that which b Ḥizkiyya says. /b ,As Ḥizkiyya says: b Rabbi Ḥanina, son of Rabbi Abbahu, said to me /b that b Rabbi Abbahu says /b that b Rabbi Avdimi of Haifa says: /b If a Torah b scholar /b is b passing, one stands before him /b if he passes within b four cubits /b of him, b and once he passes four cubits /b from him b he sits. /b If the b president of the court /b is b passing, one stands before him /b as soon as he comes b within his range of vision. And once he passes four cubits /b from him, b he sits. /b If the b i Nasi /i /b is b passing, one stands before him /b as soon as he comes b within his range of vision, and he does not sit until /b the i Nasi /i b sits in his place, as it is stated: “And they looked after Moses until he was gone into the tent,” /b and only afterward did they sit. According to this interpretation, the verse is praising the behavior of the Jews.,§ The mishna teaches that women are exempt from b all positive, time-bound mitzvot. The Sages taught: What is a positive, time-bound mitzva? /b Examples include residing in b a i sukka /i , and /b taking the b i lulav /i , /b and blowing the b shofar /b on Rosh HaShana, all of which can be performed only at specific times of the year. b And /b another example is donning b ritual fringes, /b as the mitzva applies only during the daytime due to the verse which states: “Fringes, that you may look upon them” (Numbers 15:39), indicating that the fringes should be seen.
35. Babylonian Talmud, Ketuvot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 102
36. Babylonian Talmud, Berachot, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 80
30a. לישתף איניש נפשיה בהדי צבורא היכי נימא יהי רצון מלפניך ה' אלהינו שתוליכנו לשלום וכו',אימת מצלי אמר רבי יעקב אמר רב חסדא משעה שמהלך בדרך עד כמה אמר רבי יעקב אמר רב חסדא עד פרסה והיכי מצלי לה רב חסדא אמר מעומד רב ששת אמר אפילו מהלך,רב חסדא ורב ששת הוו קאזלי באורחא קם רב חסדא וקא מצלי א"ל רב ששת לשמעיה מאי קא עביד רב חסדא אמר ליה קאי ומצלי א"ל אוקמן נמי לדידי ואצלי מהיות טוב אל תקרא רע.,מאי איכא בין הביננו לתפלה קצרה הביננו בעי לצלויי ג' קמייתא וג' בתרייתא וכי מטי לביתיה לא בעי למהדר לצלויי בתפלה קצרה לא בעי לצלויי לא ג' קמייתא ולא ג' בתרייתא וכי מטי לביתיה בעי למהדר לצלויי,והלכתא הביננו מעומד תפלה קצרה בין מעומד בין מהלך:,היה רוכב על החמור וכו': ת"ר היה רוכב על החמור והגיע זמן תפלה אם יש לו מי שיאחז את חמורו ירד למטה ויתפלל ואם לאו ישב במקומו ויתפלל רבי אומר בין כך ובין כך ישב במקומו ויתפלל לפי שאין דעתו מיושבת עליו,אמר רבא ואיתימא רבי יהושע בן לוי הלכה כרבי:,ת"ר סומא ומי שאינו יכול לכוין את הרוחות יכוין לבו כנגד אביו שבשמים שנא' (מלכים א ח, לה) והתפללו אל ה',היה עומד בח"ל יכוין את לבו כנגד ארץ ישראל שנא' (מלכים א ח, מח) והתפללו אליך דרך ארצם היה עומד בארץ ישראל יכוין את לבו כנגד ירושלים שנאמר (מלכים א ח, מד) והתפללו אל ה' דרך העיר אשר בחרת היה עומד בירושלים יכוין את לבו כנגד בית המקדש שנאמר (דברי הימים ב ו, לב) והתפללו אל הבית הזה היה עומד בבית המקדש יכוין את לבו כנגד בית קדשי הקדשים שנאמר (מלכים א ח, לה) והתפללו אל המקום הזה היה עומד בבית קדשי הקדשים יכוין את לבו כנגד בית הכפורת היה עומד אחורי בית הכפורת יראה עצמו כאילו לפני הכפורת נמצא עומד במזרח מחזיר פניו למערב במערב מחזיר פניו למזרח בדרום מחזיר פניו לצפון בצפון מחזיר פניו לדרום נמצאו כל ישראל מכוונין את לבם למקום אחד,א"ר אבין ואיתימא ר' אבינא מאי קראה (שיר השירים ד, ד) כמגדל דויד צוארך בנוי לתלפיות תל שכל פיות פונים בו:,אבוה דשמואל ולוי כי הוו בעו למיפק לאורחא הוו מקדמי ומצלי וכי הוה מטי זמן ק"ש קרו,כמאן כי האי תנא דתניא השכים לצאת לדרך מביאין לו שופר ותוקע לולב ומנענע מגילה וקורא בה וכשיגיע זמן ק"ש קורא השכים לישב בקרון או בספינה מתפלל וכשיגיע זמן ק"ש קורא,רשב"א אומר בין כך ובין כך קורא ק"ש ומתפלל כדי שיסמוך גאולה לתפלה,במאי קמיפלגי מר סבר תפלה מעומד עדיף ומר סבר מסמך גאולה לתפלה עדיף,מרימר ומר זוטרא הוו מכנפי בי עשרה בשבתא דרגלא ומצלו והדר נפקא לפרקא,רב אשי מצלי בהדי צבורא ביחיד מיושב כי הוה אתי לביתיה הדר ומצלי מעומד אמרי ליה רבנן ולעביד מר כמרימר ומר זוטרא אמר להו טריחא לי מלתא ולעביד מר כאבוה דשמואל ולוי אמר להו לא חזינא להו לרבנן קשישי מינן דעבדי הכי:, big strongמתני׳ /strong /big ר' אלעזר בן עזריה אומר אין תפלת המוספין אלא בחבר עיר וחכ"א בחבר עיר ושלא בחבר עיר ר' יהודה אומר משמו כל מקום שיש שם חבר עיר יחיד פטור מתפלת המוספין:, big strongגמ׳ /strong /big ר' יהודה היינו ת"ק איכא בינייהו יחיד שלא בחבר עיר ת"ק סבר פטור ור' יהודה סבר חייב,א"ר הונא בר חיננא אמר ר' חייא בר רב הלכה כר' יהודה שאמר משום ראב"ע א"ל רב חייא בר אבין שפיר קאמרת דאמר שמואל מימי לא מצלינא צלותא דמוספין ביחיד 30a. b a person should associate himself with the congregation /b and should not pray for himself alone. b How should he say /b it? b May it be Your will, Lord our God, that You lead us to peace, etc., /b in the plural.,The Gemara discusses specific details pertaining to this prayer. b When does one pray? Rabbi Ya’akov said /b that b Rav Ḥisda said: From when one sets out on his journey, /b and not before. b How long /b must one’s planned journey be in order to require him to recite this prayer ( i Ba’al Halakhot Gedolot /i )? b Rabbi Ya’akov said /b that b Rav Ḥisda said: At least a parasang. How does he recite /b this prayer? b Rav Ḥisda said: /b Only while b standing /b in one place. b Rav Sheshet said: Even walking /b or sitting.,The Gemara relates: b Rav Ḥisda and Rav Sheshet were walking along the path, Rav Ḥisda stood and recited /b the traveler’s prayer. Since he was blind and did not see his colleague, b Rav Sheshet asked his servant: What is Rav Ḥisda doing /b now? His servant b said to him: He is standing and praying. /b Rav Sheshet b said to /b his servant: b Stand me up as well and I will pray. /b Even though Rav Sheshet held that there is no need to stand during this prayer, nevertheless: b From being good, do not be called wicked. /b In other words, one should do better if he is able. Rav Sheshet said that one is not required to stop and stand. He did not say that it is preferable to walk or sit. Since standing in this case required no special effort on his part, as Rav Ḥisda had stopped to stand and pray anyway, why insist on sitting?,The mishna mentioned both a brief prayer recited in times of danger and an abridged prayer, with regard to which there was a dispute between the i tanna’im /i . The Gemara asks: b What is /b the practical halakhic difference between the abridged prayer: b Grant us understanding and the brief prayer /b recited in times of danger? The Gemara answers: One who recites: b Grant us understanding is required to recite the first three /b blessings b and the last three /b blessings of the i Amida /i prayer, b and when he reaches his home, he need not pray again. /b One who recites b the brief prayer, /b however, b need recite neither the first three /b blessings b nor the last three /b blessings of the i Amida /i prayer. b However, when he reaches his home, he must pray again. /b Grant us understanding has the legal status of the i Amida /i prayer, despite its brevity, while the brief prayer is merely recited in place of the i Amida /i prayer in exigent circumstances., b The i halakha /i is: Grant us understanding, /b as mentioned above, has the legal status of the i Amida /i prayer, and must therefore be recited while b standing. The brief prayer, /b since it does not have that status, may be recited b whether /b one is b standing or whether /b one is b walking. /b ,We learned in the mishna: b One who was riding on a donkey /b should dismount and pray. Only in exigent circumstances may he pray while riding, focusing his heart toward Jerusalem and the Holy of Holies. b The Sages taught /b in a i Tosefta /i : b One who was riding on a donkey and the time for prayer arrived, if he has someone to hold /b onto b the donkey, he should dismount and pray. If not, he should sit in his place /b atop the donkey b and pray. Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b says: In any case, /b whether or not there is someone to hold onto the donkey, b he should sit in his place /b atop the donkey b and pray, as his mind will not be calm. /b Since he is hurrying to arrive at his destination, the need to dismount the donkey, stand in prayer, and remount the donkey would delay his journey, and the delay is likely to interfere with his concentration during prayer., b Rava, and some say Rabbi Yehoshua ben Levi, said: /b The b i halakha /i /b here b is in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi., b The Sages taught /b in a i Tosefta /i : b A blind person and one who is unable to approximate the directions /b and, therefore, is unable to face Jerusalem in order to pray, b may focus his heart towards his Father in Heaven, as it is stated: “And they shall pray to the Lord” /b (I Kings 8:44)., b One who was standing /b in prayer b in the Diaspora, should focus his heart toward Eretz Yisrael, as it is stated: “And they shall pray to You by way of their land /b which You have given to their fathers” (I Kings 8:48). br b One who was standing in Eretz Yisrael, should focus his heart toward Jerusalem, as it is stated: “And they shall pray to the Lord by way of the city that You have chosen” /b (I Kings 8:44). br b One who was standing in Jerusalem, should focus his heart toward the Temple, as it is stated: “And they shall pray toward this house” /b (II Chronicles 6:32). br b One who was standing in the Temple, should focus his heart toward the Holy of Holies, as it is stated: “And they shall pray toward this place” /b (I Kings 8:35). br b One who was standing in the Holy of Holies, should focus his heart toward the seat of the ark-cover [ i kapporet /i ], /b atop the ark, the dwelling place of God’s glory. br b One who was standing behind the seat of the ark-cover, should visualize himself as if standing before the ark-cover /b and turn toward it. br b Consequently, /b one b standing /b in prayer b in the East turns to face west, /b and one standing b in the West, turns to face east. /b One standing b in the South, turns to face north, /b and one standing b in the North, turns to face south; all of /b the people of b Israel find /b themselves b focusing their hearts toward one place, /b the Holy of Holies in the Temple.,An allusion to this is found in what b Rabbi Avin, and some say Rabbi Avina, said: What verse /b alludes to b this? “Your neck is like the Tower of David, built with turrets [ i talpiyyot /i ], /b one thousand shields hang from it, all of the armor of the mighty” (Song of Songs 4:4). He interprets the word i talpiyyot /i as the b hill /b [ b i tel /i ] toward which all mouths /b [ b i piyyot /i ] turn, /b i.e., the Temple Mount.,With regard to prayer while traveling, the Gemara relates: b When Shmuel’s father and Levi wanted to set out on a journey /b in the morning, b they would pray early /b before sunrise. b When, /b during their journey, b the time to recite i Shema /i would arrive, they recited it. /b ,The Gemara asks: b In accordance with whose /b opinion did they do this? b In accordance with this i tanna /i , as it was taught /b in the i Tosefta /i : b One who rose early to set out on /b his b path /b before the time to recite i Shema /i arrives, b they bring him a i shofar /i and he sounds /b it, if it was Rosh HaShana; b a i lulav /i and he takes it /b on i Sukkot /i ; b a megilla, /b the Scroll of Esther, b and he reads it /b on Purim; b and when the time comes to recite i Shema /i , he recites /b it. So too, b one who rose early to sit in a wagon or in a boat prays, and when the time comes to recite i Shema /i , he recites it. /b , b Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar, says: In either case, /b it is preferable to b recite i Shema /i and /b then b pray /b the i Amida /i prayer in the wagon b so that he will juxtapose redemption and prayer. /b ,The Gemara explains: b Regarding what do they disagree? /b The Gemara answers: b This Sage, /b the first i tanna /i , b holds /b that b prayer /b while b standing is preferable. /b Therefore, one should pray earlier, at home, while standing. b This Sage, /b Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar, b holds /b that the b juxtaposition of redemption and prayer is preferable, /b even if in doing so one is unable to stand while praying.,On a similar note, the Gemara cites additional circumstances where Sages were forced to make exceptional arrangements to pray. b Mareimar and Mar Zutra would gather ten /b people b on /b the b Shabbat of the festival and pray, and set out to deliver their lecture [ i pirka /i ]. /b Due to the crowds that gathered to hear the lectures of the Sages on the festival, they were unable to pray at the proper time, so they were forced to pray earlier.,In similar circumstances, b Rav Ashi would pray with the congregation individually /b while b seated, /b so that they would not notice that he was praying. Afterwards, b when he would come to his house, he would pray again /b while b standing /b in order to pray without distraction. b The Sages said to him: The Master should do as Mareimar and Mar Zutra /b do, i.e., gather a prayer quorum at home to pray before the lecture. b He said to them: It is burdensome to me /b to delay the lecture so much. The Sages b said to him: The Master should do as Shmuel’s father and Levi /b did and pray before sunrise. b He said to them: I have not seen Sages older than us do that, /b indicating that this is not the accepted i halakha /i ., strong MISHNA: /strong b Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya says: The additional prayer is only /b recited b in a city where there is a quorum of ten [ i ḥever ir /i ]. The Rabbis say: /b One may recite the additional prayer b with a i ḥever ir /i or without a i ḥever ir. /i Rabbi Yehuda says /b another opinion b in his name, /b the name of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya: b Any place where there is a i ḥever ir /i , an individual is /b completely b exempt from /b reciting b the additional prayer. /b , strong GEMARA: /strong There is no apparent difference between the opinion of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya and the opinion cited in his name by Rabbi Yehuda. The Gemara asks: b Rabbi Yehuda’s /b opinion b is /b identical to the opinion of Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya cited by b the first i tanna /i . /b The Gemara answers: b There is /b a practical halakhic difference b between them: /b The case of b an individual who is not in /b a place where there is b a i ḥever ir. /i /b In other words, in a place where there is not a prayer quorum of ten people, the b first i tanna /i holds /b that Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya’s opinion is that the b individual is exempt /b from reciting the additional prayer, as it was only instituted to be recited with a quorum. b And Rabbi Yehuda holds /b that Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya’s opinion is that the individual is b obligated /b to recite the additional prayer, as he is only exempt in a place where there is a prayer quorum, and, therefore, a communal prayer leader fulfills his obligation., b Rav Huna bar Ḥina said /b that b Ḥiyya bar Rav said: The i halakha /i is in accordance with /b the opinion of b Rabbi Yehuda, who said /b it b in the name of /b his mentor, b Rabbi Elazar ben Azarya. Rav Ḥiyya bar Avin said to him: You have spoken well, as /b proven by what b Shmuel said: In all my days I have never prayed the additional prayer as an individual /b
37. Babylonian Talmud, Bava Qamma, None (3rd cent. CE - 6th cent. CE)  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 80
81b. ולא ממקום שהוא רואה את החמה שנאמר (דברים לג, יד) וממגד תבואות שמש:,ומעין היוצא תחילה בני העיר מסתפקין ממנו אמר רבה בר רב הונא ונותן לו דמים ולית הלכתא כוותיה:,ומחכין בימה של טבריא ובלבד שלא יפרוס קלע ויעמיד את הספינה אבל צד הוא ברשתות ובמכמרות ת"ר בראשונה התנו שבטים זה עם זה שלא יפרוס קליעה ויעמיד את הספינה אבל צד הוא ברשתות ובמכמרות,תנו רבנן ימה של טבריא בחלקו של נפתלי היתה ולא עוד אלא שנטל מלא חבל חרם בדרומה לקיים מה שנאמר (דברים לג, כג) ים ודרום ירשה,תניא רבי שמעון בן אלעזר אומר תלושין שבהרים בחזקת כל השבטים הן עומדים ומחוברים בחזקת אותו השבט,ואין לך כל שבט ושבט מישראל שאין לו בהר ובשפלה ובנגב ובעמק שנאמר (דברים א, ז) פנו וסעו לכם ובאו הר האמורי ואל כל שכניו בערבה בהר בשפלה ובנגב ובחוף הים וגו' וכן אתה מוצא בכנענים ובפריזים ובאמוריים שלפניהם שנאמר ואל כל שכניו אלמא שכניו הכי הוו:,ונפנין לאחורי הגדר ואפילו בשדה שהיא מלאה כרכום אמר רב אחא בר יעקב לא נצרכה אלא ליטול הימנו צרור אמר רב חסדא ואפילו בשבת מר זוטרא חסידא שקיל ומהדר וא"ל לשמעיה (למחר) זיל שירקיה:,ומהלכין בשבילי הרשות עד שתרד רביעה שניה אמר רב פפא והאי דידן אפילו טל קשי לה:,ומסלקין לצידי הדרכים מפני יתידות הדרכים שמואל ורב יהודה הוו שקלי ואזלי באורחא הוה מסתלק שמואל לצידי הדרכים א"ל רב יהודה תנאין שהתנה יהושע אפילו בבבל א"ל שאני אומר אפילו בחוצה לארץ,רבי ורבי חייא הוו שקלי ואזלי באורחא אסתלקו לצידי הדרכים הוה קא מפסיע ואזיל ר' יהודה בן קנוסא קמייהו א"ל רבי לרבי חייא מי הוא זה שמראה גדולה בפנינו,א"ל ר' חייא שמא ר' יהודה בן קנוסא תלמידי הוא וכל מעשיו לשם שמים כי מטו לגביה חזייה א"ל אי לאו יהודה בן קנוסא את גזרתינהו לשקך בגיזרא דפרזלא:,התועה בין הכרמים מפסיג ויורד מפסיג ועולה: ת"ר הרואה חבירו תועה בין הכרמים מפסיג ועולה מפסיג ויורד עד שמעלהו לעיר או לדרך וכן הוא שתועה בין הכרמים מפסיג ועולה מפסיג ויורד עד שיעלה לעיר או לדרך,מאי וכן מהו דתימא חבירו הוא דידע להיכא מסלק דניפסוג אבל הוא דלא ידע להיכא קא סליק לא ניפסוג נהדריה נהדר בי מיצרי קמ"ל,הא דאורייתא הוא דתניא השבת גופו מניין ת"ל (דברים כב, ב) והשבותו,דאורייתא הוא דקאי בי מיצרי אתא הוא תקין דמפסיג ועולה מפסיג ויורד:,ומת מצוה קנה מקומו: ורמינהי המוצא מת מוטל באיסרטיא מפנהו לימין איסרטיא או לשמאל איסרטיא שדה בור ושדה ניר מפנהו לשדה בור,שדה ניר ושדה זרע מפנהו לשדה ניר היו שתיהן בורות שתיהן נירות שתיהן זרועות מפנהו למקום שירצה,אמר רב ביבי במוטל על המיצר מתוך שניתן לפנותו מפנהו לכל מקום שירצה,אמרי עשרה הני חד סרי הויין מהלכין בשבילי הרשות שלמה אמרה,כדתניא הרי שכלו פירותיו מן השדה ואינו מניח בני אדם ליכנס בתוך שדהו מה הבריות אומרות עליו מה הנאה יש לפלוני ומה הבריות מזיקות לו עליו הכתוב אומר מהיות טוב אל תקרי רע ומי כתיב מהיות טוב אל תקרי רע אין כתיב כי האי גוונא (משלי ג, כז) אל תמנע טוב מבעליו בהיות לאל ידך לעשות,ותו ליכא והא איכא דרבי יהודה דתניא רבי יהודה אומר בשעת הוצאת זבלים אדם מוציא זבלו לרה"ר וצוברו כל שלשים כדי שיהא נישוף ברגלי אדם וברגלי בהמה שעל מנת כן הנחיל יהושע לישראל את הארץ,והא איכא דר' ישמעאל בנו של ר' יוחנן בן ברוקה דתניא רבי ישמעאל בנו של ר' יוחנן בן ברוקה אומר תנאי ב"ד הוא שיהא זה יורד לתוך שדה חבירו וקוצץ שוכו של חבירו להציל נחיל שלו ונותן לו דמי שוכו של חבירו,ותנאי ב"ד הוא שיהא זה שופך יינו ומציל דובשנו של חבירו ונוטל דמי יינו מתוך דובשנו של חבירו ותנאי ב"ד הוא שיהא זה מפרק את עציו וטוען פשתנו של חבירו ונוטל דמי עציו מתוך פשתנו של חבירו שעל מנת כן הנחיל יהושע לישראל את הארץ,ביחידאי לא קאמרינן 81b. b but not from a place that faces the sun, /b where the fruits grow copiously, b as it is stated: “And for the precious things of the fruits of the sun” /b (Deuteronomy 33:14).,The i baraita /i further states: b And the people of the city /b shall have the right to b take supplies /b of water from a spring on private property, even b from a spring that emerges for the first time. Rabba bar Rav Huna says: And /b although one may draw water from that spring, b he /b must b give money to /b reimburse the owner of the property. The Gemara concludes: b But the i halakha /i is not in accordance with his /b opinion, as the water may be taken without payment.,The next of Joshua’s conditions is: b And /b that b they /b shall have the right to b fish in the Sea of Tiberias, provided that /b the fisherman b does not build an /b underwater b fence /b to catch fish, thereby b causing an impediment to boats. /b The Gemara comments: b But one may fish with nets and with traps. The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Initially, the tribes stipulated with each other that one may not build /b an underwater b fence /b to catch fish, thereby b causing an impediment to boats, but one may fish with nets and with traps. /b , b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i : b The Sea of Tiberias was /b located b in the portion of /b the tribe of b Naphtali. Moreover, /b the tribe of Naphtali b received /b in addition a small stretch of land equal to b the full /b length of the b rope of /b a fish b trap. /b This stretch of land was located b to the south /b of the sea, where the members of this tribe could spread out their fishing nets, b to fulfill that which is stated: /b “And of Naphtali he said: O Naphtali, satisfied with favor, and full with the blessing of the Lord; b possess the sea and the south” /b (Deuteronomy 33:23)., b It is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Shimon ben Elazar says: Detached /b items b that are /b found b in the mountains /b at the time of conquest b are /b considered to be b in the possession of all the tribes /b equally, as spoils of war; b but /b that which is b attached, /b e.g., trees, b are /b considered to be b in the /b sole b possession of that tribe /b that would receive the land where the tree was found.,The i baraita /i adds: b And you do not have a single tribe of Israel that did not have /b in its portion at least some land b in the mountains, and /b some b in the lowland, and /b some b in the countryside, and /b some b in the valley, as it is stated: “Turn and take your journey, and go to the hill-country of the Amorites and to all their neighbors, in the Arabah, in the hill-country, and in the lowland, and in the countryside, and by the seashore” /b (Deuteronomy 1:7). b And you find similarly with regard to the Canaanites and Perizzites and Amorites who /b inhabited the land b before /b the Jews, b as it stated /b in the above verse: “The Amorites b and to all their neighbors.” Apparently, /b the Amorites and b their neighbors /b all b had this /b variety of types of land in their respective territories.,§ The Gemara discusses the next of Joshua’s conditions: b And /b people shall have the right to b relieve themselves /b outdoors b behind a fence, even in a field /b that is b full of saffron. Rav Aḥa bar Ya’akov said: /b It goes without saying that one may relieve himself when necessary; this stipulation b is necessary only /b to permit the one relieving himself b to take a stone out of /b a wall in the field with which to clean himself. b Rav Ḥisda said: And /b it is permitted to remove a stone from a wall for this purpose b even on Shabbat. Mar Zutra the Pious would take /b a stone in this manner on Shabbat b and replace /b it in the wall, b and say to his attendant /b after Shabbat: b Go and plaster it over, /b so that it would fit securely back in the wall.,The i baraita /i further states: b And they /b shall have the right to b walk in permitted paths, /b i.e., those paths that cut through a private field, throughout the summer b until the second rainfall, /b when crops begin to sprout. b Rav Pappa said: And /b with regard to b these /b fields that we have in Babylonia, b even dew /b that settled the previous night b is bad for them. /b Even after a night of dew, the field is sufficiently moistened that trampling on it will cause damage, and therefore this condition does not apply if there was dew the previous night.,The next item on the list of conditions is: b And they /b shall have the right to b veer off to the sides of the roads /b onto private property b because of hard protrusions of the road. /b The Gemara relates: b Shmuel and Rav Yehuda, /b who lived in Babylonia, b were /b once b walking along the road, /b and b Shmuel veered off to the sides of the road /b onto private property. b Rav Yehuda said to him: /b Do the b conditions that Joshua stipulated /b apply b even in Babylonia? /b Shmuel b said to him: /b Indeed so, b as I say /b that they apply b even outside of Eretz /b Yisrael., b Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b and Rabbi Ḥiyya were /b once b walking along the road, /b and b they veered off to the sides of the road. Rabbi Yehuda ben Kanosa was taking broad steps /b on the road, to avoid the protrusions without going off to the side of the road, b while walking in front of them. Rabbi /b Yehuda HaNasi b said to Rabbi Ḥiyya: Who is this /b man b who is showing off /b his supposed b greatness in our presence? /b By acting more stringently than required by i halakha /i , he is displaying insolence., b Rabbi Ḥiyya said to /b Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi: b Perhaps it is my student Rabbi Yehuda ben Kanosa. And /b if so, b all of his actions are /b undertaken b for the sake of Heaven; /b he is not acting out of haughtiness. b When they reached him /b and Rabbi Yehuda HaNasi b saw him, he said to him: If you were not Yehuda ben Kanosa I would have cut off your legs with iron shears, /b i.e., I would have excommunicated you for your impudence.,The i baraita /i further teaches: b And one who becomes lost among the vineyards /b shall have the right to b cut down [ i mefaseig /i ] branches and enter /b an area of the vineyard, or b cut down branches and exit /b an area of the vineyard, until he finds his way back to the road. b The Sages taught /b in a i baraita /i that this stipulation extends further: With regard to b one who sees another /b person b lost among the vineyards, he may cut down branches and enter /b an area of the vineyard, or b cut down branches and exit /b an area of the vineyard b until he /b reaches him and b brings him /b back b up to the city or to the road. And similarly, /b if b he /b himself is the one b who is lost among the vineyards, he may cut down branches and enter /b an area of the vineyard, or b cut down branches and exit /b an area of the vineyard b until he comes /b back b up to the city or to the road. /b ,The Gemara asks a question with regard to this i baraita /i : b What /b is the point of the clause that begins with: b And similarly? /b It is obvious that a lost individual himself has the same right to cut down branches as one who assists him to find his way out. The Gemara answers: That is taught b lest you say /b that it is only b another /b person who is permitted to cut down branches, b as, /b having seen the lost party, b he knows /b exactly b where he is going /b to rescue the other and help him leave the vineyard, and b that /b is why b he may cut down branches; but /b with regard to the lost person himself, b who does not know where he is going, /b one might have said that b he may not cut down branches /b but must b go /b all the way b back to the boundary /b of the vineyard. The i baraita /i therefore b teaches us /b that one who is lost may cut down branches in his quest to find his own way to the nearby town or road.,The Gemara asks a further question: Why was it necessary for Joshua to stipulate that one may find his way out in this manner? After all, b this /b i halakha /i applies b by Torah law. /b When one is lost, whoever can assist in helping him find his way must do so by Torah law, b as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : There is a mitzva to return lost items to their owner. b From where /b is it derived that the requirement applies even to b returning his body, /b i.e., helping a lost person find his way? b The verse states: “And you shall restore it /b to him” (Deuteronomy 22:2), which can also be translated as: And you shall restore himself to him. If this is required by Torah law, why did Joshua stipulate a condition to this effect?,The Gemara answers: b By Torah law /b one is required only to walk in a roundabout path b along the boundaries, /b without damaging another’s vines by cutting off branches. Joshua b came and instituted /b the stipulation b that one may /b go even further and b cut off branches and ascend /b or b cut off branches and descend, /b thereby leaving through the most direct route.,The Gemara addresses the last stipulation in the i baraita /i : b And /b that b a corpse with no one to bury it [ i met mitzva /i ] acquires its place /b and is buried where it was found. The Gemara b raises a contradiction /b from a i baraita /i : b One who finds a corpse laid out on a main street [ i isratya /i ] evacuates it /b for burial either b to the right of the street or to the left of the street, /b but it may not be buried under the main street itself. If one can move the corpse either to b a fallow field or /b to b a plowed field, he evacuates it to the fallow field. /b ,If the choice is between b a plowed field and a sown field, he evacuates it to the plowed field. /b If b both /b fields b were fallow, /b or if b both /b were b plowed, /b or if b both /b were b sown, he evacuates it to any side where he wishes /b to move it. According to this i baraita /i , a i met mitzva /i is not necessarily buried where it is found. It may be moved elsewhere., b Rav Beivai said: /b The ruling of this i baraita /i is stated b with regard to /b a corpse b laid out on the pathway. /b Were the corpse buried there, it would prohibit passage by priests. b Since permission was /b already b granted to evacuate it /b from there, b one may evacuate it to any place he wishes. /b If, however, the corpse was in a field, it would be prohibited to move it.,§ The Gemara returns to the opening statement of the i baraita /i , that Joshua stipulated ten conditions. The Gemara b says: /b Are there really only b ten? These /b conditions enumerated in the i baraita /i b are /b actually b eleven. /b The Gemara answers: The condition that b one may walk in permitted paths /b that cut through a private field in the summer was not instituted by Joshua; rather, King b Solomon said it. /b , b As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : If b one’s produce was completely /b harvested b from the field, but he does not allow people to enter into his field /b to shorten their route, b what do people say about him? /b They say: b What benefit does so-and-so have /b by denying entry into his field? b And what harm are people causing him /b by traversing his field? b Concerning him, the verse says: Do not be called wicked /b by refraining b from being good. /b The Gemara asks: b Is it /b really b written: Do not be called wicked /b by refraining b from being good? /b There is no such verse in the Bible. The Gemara answers: b Yes, /b an idea b like this /b is found in the Bible, albeit in a slightly different form, as b it is written like this: “Withhold not good from him to whom it is due, when it is in the power of your hand to do it” /b (Proverbs 3:27).,The Gemara further questions the statement of the i baraita /i that Joshua instituted ten stipulations: b And is there nothing more /b that Joshua instituted? b But there is /b also the stipulation mentioned b by Rabbi Yehuda. As it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Yehuda says: During the time of manure removal, a person may remove his manure /b from his property b into the public thoroughfare and pile it up /b there for b a full thirty /b days, b so that it should be trodden by the feet of people and by the feet of animals, /b thereby improving its quality, as it was b on this condition /b that b Joshua apportioned Eretz /b Yisrael b to the Jewish people. /b ,The Gemara continues this line of questioning: b And /b furthermore, b there are /b the stipulations mentioned b by Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka, as it is taught /b in a i baraita /i : b Rabbi Yishmael, son of Rabbi Yoḥa ben Beroka, says: It is a stipulation of the court, /b i.e., it is an automatic right even when not explicitly granted, b that this /b owner of a bee colony b may enter the field of another and chop off the other’s branch /b in order b to save his /b bee b colony, and /b afterward b he gives him /b the b value of the other’s /b severed b branch. /b That is, if a beekeeper finds that one of his colonies has relocated to a tree in a neighboring field, he may bring it back to his own property together with the branch, provided that he later reimburses the owner of the tree.,The i baraita /i continues: b And it is /b also b a stipulation of the court that this /b bearer of wine b pours out his wine /b from his barrel b and /b uses the barrel b to save another’s /b spilling b honey, /b which is more valuable than the wine, b and /b then b he takes /b the b value of his wine from the /b saved b honey of the other, /b as reimbursement. b And it is /b likewise b a stipulation of the court that this /b owner of wood b unloads his wood /b from his donkey b and loads another’s flax, /b which is more valuable than wood, if the load of flax is stranded on the road due to a mishap, b and /b later b he takes /b the b value of his wood from the /b saved b flax of that other /b individual. Once again, the reason is that it was b on this condition /b that b Joshua apportioned Eretz /b Yisrael b to the Jewish people. /b ,The Gemara explains why the stipulations mentioned by Rabbi Yehuda and Rabbi Yishmael are omitted by the earlier i baraita /i : In the i baraita /i , b we are not speaking of individual /b opinions, but only of those that are accepted by all the Sages.
38. Dead Sea Scrolls, 11Q13, None  Tagged with subjects: •nan Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 121
39. John Chrysostom, Hom. Gal., 4.710  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 90
40. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q162, 0  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 115
41. Dead Sea Scrolls, 4Q163, 0  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 115
42. Anon., Tanhuma, None  Tagged with subjects: •abraham, two wives of Found in books: Fisch, (2023), Written for Us: Paul’s Interpretation of Scripture and the History of Midrash, 97